NEWS
author blanchet
Fri May 29 17:56:43 2015 +0200 (2015-05-29)
changeset 60310 932221b62e89
parent 60306 6b7c64ab8bd2
child 60331 f215fd466e30
permissions -rw-r--r--
removed model checks from Nitpick
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 New in this Isabelle version
     7 ----------------------------
     8 
     9 *** HOL ***
    10 
    11 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Sledgehammer:
    14   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
    15     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
    16   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
    17 
    18 * Nitpick:
    19   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
    20 
    21 
    22 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
    23 ------------------------------
    24 
    25 *** General ***
    26 
    27 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
    28 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
    29 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
    30 
    31   context
    32   begin
    33 
    34   private definition ...
    35   private lemma ...
    36 
    37   qualified definition ...
    38   qualified lemma ...
    39 
    40   lemma ...
    41   theorem ...
    42 
    43   end
    44 
    45 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
    46 naming policy.
    47 
    48 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    49 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    51 
    52 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    53 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    54 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
    55 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    56 
    57 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    58 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    59 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    60 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    61 
    62 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    63 theory context.
    64 
    65 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    66 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    67 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    68 
    69 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
    70 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
    71 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
    72 sources.
    73 
    74 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    75 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    76 
    77 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
    78 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
    79 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
    80 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
    81 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
    82 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
    83 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
    84 
    85 
    86 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    87 
    88 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    89 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    90 
    91 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    92 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    93 in the buffer.
    94 
    95 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    96 marker, SideKick parser.
    97 
    98 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    99 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
   100 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
   101 
   102 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
   103 Options / Text Area).
   104 
   105 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
   106 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
   107 
   108 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
   109 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
   110 
   111 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
   112 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
   113 
   114 
   115 *** Document preparation ***
   116 
   117 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   118 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   119 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   120 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   121 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   122 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   123 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   124 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   127 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   128 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   129 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   130 
   131 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   132 style.
   133 
   134 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   135 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   136 
   137 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   138 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   139 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   140 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   141 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   142 
   143 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   144 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   145 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   146 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   147 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   148 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   149 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
   152 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
   153 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 
   157 *** Pure ***
   158 
   159 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   160 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   161 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   162 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   163 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   164 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   165 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   166 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   167 
   168 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   169 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   170 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   171 
   172 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   173 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   174 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   175 different index.
   176 
   177 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   178 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   179 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   180 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   181 
   182 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   183 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   184 token category instead.
   185 
   186 
   187 *** HOL ***
   188 
   189 * New (co)datatype package:
   190   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   191     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   192     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   193     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   194     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195   - Renamed theorems:
   196       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   197       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   198       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   199       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   200       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   201       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   202       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   203       sel_map ~> map_sel
   204       sel_set ~> set_sel
   205       sel_split ~> split_sel
   206       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   207       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   208       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   209     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   211     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   212     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   214     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   215     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   217     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   218     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   219     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   220     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   221     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   222     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223   - Renamed theories:
   224       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   225       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   226       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   227       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   228       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   229       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   230     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   232     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   233     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   234     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   235     rel_sum (using inductive).
   236     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   237     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   238     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   239     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   240   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
   241     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
   242     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
   243     rules.
   244 
   245 * Old datatype package:
   246   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   247     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   248     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   249     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   250     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251   - Renamed theorems:
   252       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254   - Renamed theory:
   255       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   257 
   258 * Nitpick:
   259   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   260     operations.
   261 
   262 * Sledgehammer:
   263   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   264     default.
   265   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   266     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   267   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   268     Removed sub-command:
   269       min
   270   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   271     dramatically improved.
   272   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   273 
   274 * Old and new SMT modules:
   275   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   276     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   277     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   278     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   279     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   280     point to it.
   281     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   282   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   283     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   284   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   285     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   286   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   287     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   288 
   289 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
   290 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
   291 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
   292 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
   293 
   294 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   295 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   296 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   299 
   300 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   301 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   302 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   303 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
   306 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307 
   308 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   312 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   313 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
   316 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
   319 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
   320 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
   321 
   322 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
   323 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   324 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   325 needed.
   326 
   327 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   328 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   329 
   330 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   331 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   332 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   333 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   334 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   335 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   336 
   337 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   338 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   339 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   340 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   341 
   342 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   343 type class hierarchy:
   344   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   345   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   346   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   347   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   348 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349 
   350 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   351   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   352   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   353 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   354 
   355 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   356 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   357 
   358 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   359   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   360   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   361   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   362 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   365 and part of theory Main.
   366   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   373 Fact rename:
   374     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376 
   377 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   378 
   379 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
   380 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   381 
   382 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   383 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   384 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   385 
   386 * Library/Multiset:
   387   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   388   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   389     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   390   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   391       <# ~> #<#
   392       <=# ~> #<=#
   393       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   394       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   395     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   396   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
   397       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
   398       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
   399     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   400   - Renamed
   401       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   402       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
   403       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
   404     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   405   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   406   - Added attributes:
   407       image_mset.id [simp]
   408       image_mset_id [simp]
   409       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   410       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   411       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   412       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   413       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   414       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   415     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   418 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   419 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   420 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   421 
   422 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
   423 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
   424 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
   425 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
   426 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   427 examples.
   428 
   429 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   430   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
   431   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   432   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   433     projection
   434 
   435 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   436 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   437 
   438 
   439 *** ML ***
   440 
   441 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   442 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   443 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   444 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   445 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   446 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   448 
   449 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
   450 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
   451 
   452 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   453 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   454 
   455 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   459 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   460 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   461 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   462 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   463 nested.
   464 
   465 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
   466 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   469 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   470 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   474 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   475 Thm.term_of etc.
   476 
   477 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   478 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   479 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   482 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   483 
   484 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   485 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   486 
   487 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   488 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   489 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   492 Input.source (with formal position information).
   493 
   494 
   495 *** System ***
   496 
   497 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   498 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   499 
   500 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
   501 
   502 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   503 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   504 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   505 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   507 
   508 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   509 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   510 
   511 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   512 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   513 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   514 
   515 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   516 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
   517 
   518 
   519 
   520 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   521 ---------------------------------
   522 
   523 *** General ***
   524 
   525 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   526 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   527 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   528 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   529 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   530 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   531 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   532 some examples.
   533 
   534 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   535 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   536 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   537 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   538 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   539 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   540 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   541 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   542 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   543 
   544 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   545 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   546 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   547 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   548 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   549 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   550 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   551 proof tools.
   552 
   553 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   554 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   555 supports input via ` (backquote).
   556 
   557 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   558 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   559 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   560 
   561 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   562 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   563 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   564 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   565 
   566 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   567 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   568 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   570 
   571 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   572 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   573 
   574 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   575 not check existence within the file-system.
   576 
   577 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   578 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   579 
   580 
   581 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   582 
   583 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   584 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   585 buffer.
   586 
   587 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   588 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   589 
   590 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   591 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   592 
   593 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   594 auxiliary ML files.
   595 
   596 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   597 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   598 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   599 
   600 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   601 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   602 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   603 
   604 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   605 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   606 
   607 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   608 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   609 caret".
   610 
   611 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   612 completion popup and context-menu.
   613 
   614 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   615 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   616 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   617 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   618 
   619 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   620 to highlight text via regular expression.
   621 
   622 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   623 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   624 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   625 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   626 
   627 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   628 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   629 
   630 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   631 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   632 
   633 * Improved monitor panel.
   634 
   635 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   636 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   637 
   638 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   639 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   640 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   641 
   642 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   643 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   644 within the context.
   645 
   646 
   647 *** Pure ***
   648 
   649 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   650 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   651 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   652 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   653 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   654 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   655 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   656 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   657 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   658 
   659 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   660 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   661 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   662 renaming needs to be applied:
   663 
   664   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   665   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   666   all            ~>  Pure.all
   667   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   668   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   669 
   670 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   671 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   672 old constants:
   673 
   674 setup {*
   675   fn thy => thy
   676     |> Sign.root_path
   677     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   678     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   679     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   680     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   681 *}
   682 
   683 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   684 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   685 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   686 
   687 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   688 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   689 instantiated theorem.
   690 
   691 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   692 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   693 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   694 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   695 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   696 
   697   attribute_setup standard =
   698     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   699 
   700 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   701 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   702 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   703 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   704 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   705 
   706 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   707 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   708 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   709 
   710 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   711 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   712 
   713 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   714 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   715 
   716 
   717 *** HOL ***
   718 
   719 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   720 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   724 
   725 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   727 
   728 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   729 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   730 
   731 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   733 
   734 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   735 with the given constants.
   736 
   737 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   738 operations on records.
   739 
   740 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   741 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   742 
   743 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   744 
   745 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   746 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   747 
   748 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   751 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   752 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   753 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   754 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   757 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   760   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   761   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   762   part of theory "Main".
   763 
   764   Theory renamings:
   765     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   766     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   767     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   768     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   769     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   770     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   771     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   772     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   773     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   774     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   775     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   776     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   777     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   778     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   779     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   780     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   781     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   782     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   783     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   784     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   785     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   786     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   787 
   788   New theories:
   789     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   790     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   791     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   792     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   793     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   794 
   795   Discontinued theories:
   796     BNF/BNF.thy
   797     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   798 
   799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * New (co)datatype package:
   802   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   803   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   804     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   805   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   806     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   807   - Renamed commands:
   808       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   809       primrec_new ~> primrec
   810       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   811     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   813     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   814     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   815   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   816     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   817     using "prim(co)rec".
   818     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   820     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   821     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   822   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   823     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   824     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   825     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 * Old datatype package:
   828   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   829     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   830     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   832     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   833     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   834 
   835 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   836   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   837   BNF-based datatype package.
   838 
   839   Renamed constants:
   840     Option.set ~> set_option
   841     Option.map ~> map_option
   842     option_rel ~> rel_option
   843 
   844   Renamed theorems:
   845     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   846     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   847     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   848     option.recs ~> option.rec
   849     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   850     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   851     map.simps ~> list.map
   852     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   853     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   854     the.simps ~> option.sel
   855 
   856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   859     sum_map ~> map_sum
   860     map_pair ~> map_prod
   861     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   862     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   863     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   864     set_rel ~> rel_set
   865     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   866     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   867     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   868     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   869 
   870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   871 
   872 * Lifting and Transfer:
   873   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   874   - stronger reflexivity prover
   875   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   876   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   877     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   878     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   879       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   880       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   881       automatically
   882     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   883     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   884       automatically for datatypes
   885   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   886     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   887       more
   888       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   890       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   891       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   893       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   894       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895   - registration of code equations is more robust
   896     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   898     form
   899     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   900   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   901     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   903     Code_Numeral.natural
   904     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   905   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   906     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   907 
   908 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   909 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   910 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   911 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   912 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   913 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   914 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   917 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   918 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   919 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   920 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   921 
   922 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   923 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   924 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   925 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   926 
   927 * Sledgehammer:
   928   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   929   - MaSh overhaul:
   930     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   931       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   932     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   933       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   934       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   935       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   936   - New option:
   937       smt_proofs
   938   - Renamed options:
   939       isar_compress ~> compress
   940       isar_try0 ~> try0
   941 
   942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   943 
   944 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   945 
   946 * Nitpick:
   947   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   948     take infinite values.
   949   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   950     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   951   - Removed "std" option.
   952   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   953     "hide_types".
   954 
   955 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   956 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957 
   958 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   959 
   960 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   961   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   962   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   963     SUP instead uniformly.
   964   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   965     or SUP and Sup.
   966   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   967   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   968   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   969     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   970     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   971 
   972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   973 
   974 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   975 
   976 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   977 
   978   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   979   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   980   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   981   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   982 
   983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   984 
   985 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   986 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   987 
   988 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   989 
   990     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   991     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   992     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   993     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   994     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   995     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   996     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   997     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   998     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   999     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  1000     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  1001     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  1002     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  1003     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  1004     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1005     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1006     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  1007     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  1008     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  1009     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  1010     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  1011     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  1012     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  1013     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  1014     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  1015     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  1016     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  1017     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  1018     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  1019     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  1020     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  1021     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  1022     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  1023     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  1024     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  1025     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  1026     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  1027     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  1028     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  1029     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1030     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1031     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1032     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1033     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1034     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1035     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1036     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1037     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1038     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1039     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1040     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1041     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1042     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1043     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1044     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1045     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1046     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1047     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1048     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1049 
  1050   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1051   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1052   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1053     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1054 
  1055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1056 
  1057 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1058 
  1059   Fact consolidations:
  1060     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1061     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1062     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1063     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1064     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1065     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1066     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1067     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1068     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1069     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1070     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1071     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1072     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1073     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1074     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1075     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1076     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1077     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1078     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1079     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1080     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1081     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1082     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1083     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1084     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1085     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1086     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1087     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1088     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1089     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1090     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1091     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1092     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1093     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1094     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1095     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1096     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1097     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1098     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1099     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1100 
  1101 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1102 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1103 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1104 
  1105 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1106 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1107 
  1108 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1109 
  1110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1113 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1119     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1120 
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1124   consolidation:
  1125     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1126     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1127 
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1131   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1132   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1133   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1134     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1135   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1136     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1137   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1138 
  1139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1142 
  1143     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1144     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1145     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1146     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1147     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1148     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1149     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1150     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1151     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1152     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1153     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1154     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1155     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1156 
  1157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1158 
  1159 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1160 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1161 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1162 
  1163 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1164     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1165     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1166     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1167     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1168 
  1169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1170 
  1171 * Fact name consolidation:
  1172     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1173     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1174     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1175     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1176     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1177 
  1178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1179 
  1180 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1181 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1182 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1183 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1184 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1185 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1186 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1188 
  1189 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1190 
  1191 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1192 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1193 
  1194 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1195 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1196 
  1197 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1198 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1199 or the brute way with
  1200 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1201 
  1202 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1203 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1204 stating boundedness of sets.
  1205 
  1206 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1207 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1208 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1211   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1212   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1213   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1214   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1215   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1216   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1217   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1218   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1219   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1220   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1221   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1222 
  1223   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1224 
  1225   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1226 
  1227     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1228     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1229     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1230     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1231     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1232 
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1236   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1237 
  1238   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1239 
  1240   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1241 
  1242   - removed constant isDiff
  1243 
  1244   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1245     input syntax.
  1246 
  1247   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1248 
  1249   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1250 
  1251   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1252 
  1253   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1254 
  1255   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1256     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1257     has_vector_derivative.
  1258 
  1259   - Other renamings:
  1260     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1261     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1262     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1263     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1264     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1265     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1266     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1267 
  1268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1269 
  1270 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1271 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1272 in continuous_intros.
  1273 
  1274 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1275 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1276 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1277 
  1278 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1279 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1280 especially removes
  1281 
  1282     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1283 
  1284 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1285     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1286 
  1287 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1288 
  1289   Renamings:
  1290     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1291     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1292     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1293     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1294     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1295     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1296     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1297     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1298     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1299     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1300     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1301     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1302 
  1303     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1304     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1305     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1306 
  1307   Removed theorems:
  1308     complex_zero_def
  1309     complex_add_def
  1310     complex_minus_def
  1311     complex_diff_def
  1312     complex_one_def
  1313     complex_mult_def
  1314     complex_inverse_def
  1315     complex_scaleR_def
  1316 
  1317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1318 
  1319 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1320 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1321 
  1322 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1323 
  1324 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1325 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1326 
  1327 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1328 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1329 
  1330 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1331 
  1332 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1334 
  1335 * HOL-Word:
  1336   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1337     of "word_arith_wis".
  1338   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1339     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1340     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1341 
  1342 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1343   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1344   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1345   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1346     (except the AFP)
  1347 
  1348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349 
  1350 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1351   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1352   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1353     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1354   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1355     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1356     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1357     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1358     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1359     intervals.
  1360   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1361     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1362     - renamed theorems:
  1363         interval ~> box
  1364         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1365         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1366         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1367         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1368         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1369         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1370         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1371         open_interval ~> open_box
  1372         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1373         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1374         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1375         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1376         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1377         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1378         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1379         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1380         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1381         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1382         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1383         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1384         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1385         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1386         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1387         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1388         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1389         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1390         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1391         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1392         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1393         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1394         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1395         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1396 
  1397     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1398         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1399         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1400         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1401         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1402         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1403         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1404         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1405         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1406         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1407         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1408         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1409         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1410         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1411         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1412         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1413         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1414         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1415 
  1416   - renamed theorems:
  1417     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1418     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1419     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1420 
  1421 * HOL-Probability:
  1422   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1423 
  1424     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1425       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1426 
  1427     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1428 
  1429   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1430     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1431 
  1432     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1433     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1434     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1435     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1436     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1437     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1438     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1439     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1440     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1441     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1442     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1443     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1444     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1445     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1446     integral_indicator          ~>
  1447          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1448     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1449     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1450     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1451 
  1452     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1453          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1454 
  1455     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1456          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1457 
  1458     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1459          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1460 
  1461     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1462          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1463          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1464 
  1465     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1466          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1467 
  1468     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1469          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1470 
  1471     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1472          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1473          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1474 
  1475     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1476          nn_integral_real_affine
  1477 
  1478     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1479          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1480 
  1481     The following theorems where removed:
  1482 
  1483     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1484     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1485     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1486     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1487     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1488     integral_cmul_indicator
  1489     integral_real
  1490 
  1491   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1492     distributed random variables.
  1493 
  1494 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1495 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 
  1499 *** Scala ***
  1500 
  1501 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1502 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1503 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1504 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1505 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1508 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 
  1511 *** ML ***
  1512 
  1513 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1514 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1515 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1516 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1517 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1518 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1519 
  1520 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1521 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1522 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1523 actually belongs to it).
  1524 
  1525 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1526 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1527 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1528 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1529 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1530 of schematic variables.
  1531 
  1532 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1533 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534 
  1535 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1536 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1537 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1543 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1544 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1548 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1549 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1550 formal context.
  1551 
  1552 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1553 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1556 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1557 
  1558 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1559 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1560 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1561 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1562 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1563 
  1564 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1565 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1566 purposes.
  1567 
  1568 
  1569 *** System ***
  1570 
  1571 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1572 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1573 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1574 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1575 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1576 
  1577 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1578 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1579 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1580 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1581 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1582 settings variable.
  1583 
  1584 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1585 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1586 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1587 
  1588 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1589 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1590 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1591 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1592 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1593 
  1594 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1595 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1596 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1597 
  1598 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1599 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1600 
  1601 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1602 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1603 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1604 
  1605 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1606 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1607 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1608 processing is started.
  1609 
  1610 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1611 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1612 
  1613 
  1614 
  1615 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1616 -------------------------------------
  1617 
  1618 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1619 
  1620 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1621 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1622 
  1623 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1624 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1625 
  1626 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1627 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1628 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1629 
  1630 
  1631 *** System ***
  1632 
  1633 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1634 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1635 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1636 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1637 
  1638 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1639 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1640 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1641 
  1642 
  1643 
  1644 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1645 -------------------------------------
  1646 
  1647 *** General ***
  1648 
  1649 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1650 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1651 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1654 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1655 
  1656 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1657 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1658 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1659 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1660 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1661 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1662 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1663 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1664 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1665 syntax.
  1666 
  1667 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1668 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1669 
  1670 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1671 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1672 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1673 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1674 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1675 
  1676 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1678 
  1679 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1680 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1681 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1682 
  1683 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1684 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1685 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1686 
  1687 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1688 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1689 
  1690 
  1691 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1692 
  1693 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1694 Documentation panel.
  1695 
  1696 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1697 documentation.
  1698 
  1699 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1700 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1701 
  1702 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1703 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1704 normal editing and checking process.
  1705 
  1706 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1707 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1708 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1709 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1710 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1711 
  1712 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1713 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1714 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1715 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1716 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1717 
  1718 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1719 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1720 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1721 
  1722 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1723 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1724 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1725 to resolve conflict.
  1726 
  1727 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1728 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1729 
  1730 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1731 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1732 such command executions while editing.
  1733 
  1734 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1735 document content.
  1736 
  1737 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1738 toplevel theorem statements.
  1739 
  1740 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1741 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1742 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1743 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1744 
  1745 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1746 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1747 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1748 
  1749 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1750 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1751 
  1752 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1753 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1754 
  1755 
  1756 *** Pure ***
  1757 
  1758 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1759 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1760 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1761 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1762 details.
  1763 
  1764 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1765 
  1766 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1767 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1768 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1769 
  1770 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1774 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1775 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1776 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1779 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1780 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1783 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1784 
  1785 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1786 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1787 situations.
  1788 
  1789 
  1790 *** HOL ***
  1791 
  1792 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1793 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1795 
  1796 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1797 
  1798 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1799 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1800 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1801 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1802 
  1803   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1804 
  1805 * Code generator:
  1806   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1807     'code_instance'.
  1808   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1809     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1810 
  1811 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1812 examples.
  1813 
  1814 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1815 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1816 to distinguish both when desired.
  1817 
  1818 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1819 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1820 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1821 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1822 
  1823 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1824 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1825 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1826 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1827 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1828 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1831 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1832 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1833 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1834 
  1835 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1836 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1837 
  1838 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1839 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1840 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1841 
  1842 * Lifting:
  1843   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1844     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1845       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1846       transfer rules
  1847     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1848       correspondence relation can be generated
  1849     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1850       parametricity
  1851     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1852   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1853   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1854     copies
  1855   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1856     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1857     anonymous context)
  1858   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1859     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1860   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1861     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1862   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1863     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1864 
  1865 * Transfer:
  1866   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1867     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1868   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1869   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1870     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1871   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1872 
  1873 * Reification and reflection:
  1874   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1875     "Reification".
  1876   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1877   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1879 
  1880 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1881   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1882     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1883     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1884   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1885     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1886   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1887     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1888     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1889     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1890     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1891     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1892     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1893     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1894   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1895     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1896   - Fact renames:
  1897       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1898       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1902 
  1903 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1904 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1905 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1909 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1910 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1911 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1912 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1913 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1914 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1915 lemmas.
  1916 
  1917 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1918 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1919 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920 
  1921 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1922 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1923 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1924 
  1925 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1926 top and bottom elements.
  1927 
  1928 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1929 
  1930 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1931 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1932 
  1933  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1934    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1935    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1936 
  1937  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1938    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1939    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1940 
  1941    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1942    arbitrary filter.
  1943 
  1944  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1945    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1946    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1947    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1948    on a compact set.
  1949 
  1950  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1951    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1952    linear_continuum_topology).
  1953 
  1954  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1955    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1956    on all sequences converging to x.
  1957 
  1958  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1959    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1960    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1961    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1962    left or right.
  1963 
  1964  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1965 
  1966      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1967 
  1968  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1969    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1970 
  1971  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1972    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1973    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1974    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1975    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1976    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1977 
  1978  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1979 
  1980    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1981 
  1982    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1983      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1984 
  1985    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1986 
  1987    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1988      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1989 
  1990    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1991 
  1992    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1993 
  1994  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1995 
  1996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997 
  1998 * Nitpick:
  1999   - Added option "spy".
  2000   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  2001 
  2002 * Sledgehammer:
  2003   - Renamed option:
  2004       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  2005     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2006   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  2007   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  2008   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  2009 
  2010 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  2011 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  2012 
  2013 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  2014   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  2015   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  2016     generated code.
  2017   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  2018   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  2019   - Fact renames:
  2020     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  2021     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  2022     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  2023 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  2026 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  2027 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  2028 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  2029 
  2030 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2031 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2032 
  2033 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2034 
  2035 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2036 
  2037     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2038     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2039 
  2040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2043 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2044 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2045 
  2046 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2047 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2048 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2049 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050 
  2051 * HOL-BNF:
  2052   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2053     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2054     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2055     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2056   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2057     coinduct).
  2058   - Renamed keywords:
  2059     data ~> datatype_new
  2060     codata ~> codatatype
  2061     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2062   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2063     discs ~> disc
  2064     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2065     map_id' ~> map_id
  2066     sels ~> sel
  2067     set_map' ~> set_map
  2068     sets ~> set
  2069 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 
  2072 *** ML ***
  2073 
  2074 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2075 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2076 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2077 Examples.thy in particular.
  2078 
  2079 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2080 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2081 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2082 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2083 
  2084 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2085 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2086 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2087 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2089 
  2090 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2091 
  2092     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2093     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2094 
  2095 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2096 
  2097 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2098 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2099 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2100 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2101 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2102 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2103 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2104 
  2105 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2106 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2107 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2108 clasets separately from the context.
  2109 
  2110 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2111 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2112 
  2113 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2114 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2115 
  2116 
  2117 *** System ***
  2118 
  2119 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2120 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2123 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2124 
  2125 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2126 settings variable.
  2127 
  2128 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2129 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2130 always pdf.
  2131 
  2132 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2133 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2134 
  2135 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2136 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2137 
  2138 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2139 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2140 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2141 
  2142 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2143 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2144 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2145 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2146 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2147 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2148 
  2149 
  2150 
  2151 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2152 -----------------------------------
  2153 
  2154 *** General ***
  2155 
  2156 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2157 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2158 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2159 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2160 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2161 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2162 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2163 
  2164 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2165 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2166 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2167 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2168 
  2169 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2170 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2171 
  2172 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2173 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2174 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2175 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2176 dependencies properly.
  2177 
  2178 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2179 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2180 
  2181 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2182 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2183 
  2184 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2185 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2186 and "class ... context ...".
  2187 
  2188 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2189 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2190 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2191 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2192 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2193 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2194 
  2195 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2196 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2197 
  2198 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2199 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2200 
  2201 
  2202 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2203 
  2204 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2205 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2206 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2207 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2208 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2209 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2210 
  2211 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2212 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2213 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2214 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2215 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2216 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2217 
  2218 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2219 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2220 browser on demand.
  2221 
  2222 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2223 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2224 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2225 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2226 
  2227 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2228 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2229 
  2230 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2231 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2232 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2233 potentially infinite message streams.
  2234 
  2235 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2236 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2237 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2238 schemes.
  2239 
  2240 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2241 symbols.
  2242 
  2243 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2244 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2245 
  2246 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2247 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2248 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2249 
  2250 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2251 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2252 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2253 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2254 
  2255 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2256 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2257 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2258 
  2259 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2260 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2261 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2262 Isabelle distribution.
  2263 
  2264 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2265 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2266 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2267 
  2268 
  2269 *** Pure ***
  2270 
  2271 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2272 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2273 
  2274 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2275 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2276 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2279 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2280 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2281 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2282 with some care where this is really required.
  2283 
  2284 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2285 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2286 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2287 
  2288   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2289 
  2290 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2291 a Hasse diagram.
  2292 
  2293 
  2294 *** HOL ***
  2295 
  2296 * Sledgehammer:
  2297 
  2298   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2299     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2300   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2301   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2302   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2303   - Renamed options:
  2304       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2305       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2306       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2307       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2308 
  2309 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2310 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2311 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2312 
  2313 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316 * Lifting:
  2317   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2318   - quot_del attribute
  2319   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2320 
  2321 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2322 expressions.
  2323 
  2324 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2325 pointfree expressions.
  2326 
  2327 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2328 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2329 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2330 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2334 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2335 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2336 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2337 accordingly.
  2338 
  2339 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2340 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2343 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2346 
  2347 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2348 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2349 
  2350 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2351 
  2352 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2353 
  2354   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2355   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2356 
  2357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2360 
  2361   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2362   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2363 
  2364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2367 
  2368   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2369     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2370     output f x converges to G.
  2371 
  2372   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2373     infinity (at_bot).
  2374 
  2375   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2376     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2377 
  2378   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2379     at_top".
  2380 
  2381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2384 lattice type classes.
  2385 
  2386 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2387 
  2388     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2389     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2390 
  2391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2394 changes as follows.
  2395 
  2396   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2397 
  2398       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2399       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2400 
  2401   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2402     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2403     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2404     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2405 
  2406   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2407     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2408     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2409 
  2410   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2411     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2412     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2413     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2414 
  2415   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2416     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2417 
  2418       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2419       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2420       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2421       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2422       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2423       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2424       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2425       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2426       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2427       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2428       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2429       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2430       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2431       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2432       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2433       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2434 
  2435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2436 
  2437 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2438 
  2439 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2440 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2441 
  2442 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2443 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2444 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2445 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2446 
  2447   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2448   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2449   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2450   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2451   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2452   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2453   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2454   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2455   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2456   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2457 
  2458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2461 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2462 Data").
  2463 
  2464 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2465 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2466 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2467 code.
  2468 
  2469 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2470 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2471 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473 
  2474 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2475 
  2476 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2477 
  2478 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2479 
  2480   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2481   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2482 
  2483 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2484 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2485 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2486 
  2487   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2488 
  2489     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2490     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2491     cart_base i  removed
  2492     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2493 
  2494   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2495 
  2496   Renamed lemmas:
  2497 
  2498     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2499     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2500     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2501     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2502     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2503     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2504     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2505     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2506     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2507     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2508 
  2509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 * HOL/Probability:
  2512 
  2513   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2514 
  2515   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2516     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2517     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2518 
  2519   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2520     projective family).
  2521 
  2522 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2523 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2524 
  2525 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2526 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2527 datatypes.
  2528 
  2529 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2530 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2531 
  2532 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2533 trees for the code generator.
  2534 
  2535 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2536 Lifting/Transfer.
  2537 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 
  2543 *** Document preparation ***
  2544 
  2545 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2546 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2547 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2548 
  2549 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2550 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2551 
  2552 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2553 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2554 document/root.tex.
  2555 
  2556 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2557 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 
  2560 *** ML ***
  2561 
  2562 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2563 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2564 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2565 
  2566 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2567 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2568 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2569 
  2570 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2571 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2572 necessarily printing visible text.
  2573 
  2574 
  2575 *** System ***
  2576 
  2577 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2578 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2579 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2580 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2581 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2582 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2583 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2584 
  2585 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2586 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2587 
  2588   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2589 
  2590 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2591 
  2592 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2593 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2594 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2595 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2596 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2597 
  2598 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2599 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2600 
  2601 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2602 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2603 
  2604 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2608 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2609 version of Isabelle.
  2610 
  2611 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2612 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2613 
  2614 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2615 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2616 for home-made settings.
  2617 
  2618 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2619 
  2620 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2621 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2622 configuration.
  2623 
  2624 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2625 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2627 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2628 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2629 
  2630 
  2631 
  2632 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2633 ------------------------------
  2634 
  2635 *** General ***
  2636 
  2637 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2638 
  2639   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2640     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2641   - markup for bound variables
  2642   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2643   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2644   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2645     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2646 
  2647 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2648 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2649 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2650 
  2651 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2652 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2653 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2654 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2655 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2656 
  2657   context
  2658     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2659     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2660   begin
  2661 
  2662   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2663 
  2664   end
  2665 
  2666   thm my_trans
  2667 
  2668 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2669 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2670 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2671 
  2672 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2673 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2674 
  2675 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2676 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2677 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2678 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2679 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2680 
  2681 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2682 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2683 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2684 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2685 indices of schematic variables.
  2686 
  2687 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2688 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2689 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2690 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2691 etc. was exploited.
  2692 
  2693 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2694 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2695 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2696 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2697 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2698 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2699 
  2700 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2701 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2702 manual.
  2703 
  2704 
  2705 *** Pure ***
  2706 
  2707 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2708 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2709 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2710 
  2711 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2712 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2713 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2714 undocumented feature.)
  2715 
  2716 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2717 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2718 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2719 
  2720   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2721 
  2722   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2723     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2724 
  2725 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2726 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2727 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2728 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2729 
  2730 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2731 
  2732     num ~> num_token
  2733     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2734     xstr ~> str_token
  2735 
  2736 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2737 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2738 position information via constraints).
  2739 
  2740 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2741 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2742 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2745 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2746 
  2747 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2748 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2749 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2752 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2755 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2756 
  2757   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2758 
  2759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2762 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763 
  2764 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2765 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2766 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2767 
  2768 
  2769 *** HOL ***
  2770 
  2771 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2772 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2773 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2774 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2775 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2776 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2777 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2778 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2779 possible.
  2780 
  2781 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2782 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2783 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2784 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2785 
  2786 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2787 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2790 
  2791 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2792 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2793 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2794 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2795 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2796 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2797 
  2798   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2799     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2800 
  2801   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2802     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2803     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2804 
  2805   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2806     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2807 
  2808   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2809     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2810     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2811 
  2812   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2813     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2814 
  2815 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2816 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2817 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2818 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2819 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2820 
  2821   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2822     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2823     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2824     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2825     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2826 
  2827     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2828     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2829 
  2830   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2831     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2832     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2833     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2834     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2835     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2836     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2837     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2838 
  2839   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2840     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2841     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2842     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2843 
  2844   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2845     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2846     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2847     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2848 
  2849   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2850     from type nat to type int.
  2851 
  2852 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2853 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2854 
  2855   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2856     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2857     type.  Example syntax:
  2858 
  2859     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2860       is List.insert
  2861 
  2862     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2863     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2864     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2865     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2866     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2867     by the package.
  2868 
  2869   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2870     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2871     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2872     code generation for each constant.
  2873 
  2874   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2875     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2876     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2877     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2878     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2879 
  2880   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2881     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2882     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2883 
  2884 * Quotient package:
  2885 
  2886   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2887     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2888 
  2889   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2890     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2891 
  2892   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2893     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2894     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2897     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2898 
  2899 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2900 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2901 
  2902 * Quickcheck:
  2903 
  2904   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2905     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2906     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2907     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2908     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2909 
  2910     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2911     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2912     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2913 
  2914     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2915     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2916 
  2917     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2918     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2919     show genuine counterexamples.
  2920 
  2921   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2922     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2923 
  2924     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2925     constructors of that type.
  2926 
  2927   - Support for multisets.
  2928 
  2929   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2930 
  2931   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2932     conjectures in a locale context.
  2933 
  2934 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2935 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2936 
  2937 * Sledgehammer:
  2938   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2939     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2940   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2941   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2942     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2943   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2944   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2945   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2946   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2947 
  2948 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2949 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2950 
  2951 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2952 
  2953 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2954 
  2955 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2956 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2957 
  2958   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2959 
  2960 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2961 a list and a nat.
  2962 
  2963 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2964 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2965 
  2966 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2967 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2968 default.
  2969 
  2970 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2971 
  2972   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2973 
  2974 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2975 
  2976 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2977 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2978 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2979 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2980 one_case.
  2981 
  2982 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2983 the result of the fact expression.
  2984 
  2985 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2986 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2987 of some relation theorems:
  2988 
  2989   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2990   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2991   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2992   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2993   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2994   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2995 
  2996 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2997 
  2998 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2999 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  3000 
  3001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  3004 to match the constant's name:
  3005 
  3006   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  3007   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  3008   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  3009   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  3010   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  3011   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  3012   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  3013   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  3014   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  3015   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  3016   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  3017   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  3018   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  3019   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  3020   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  3021   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  3022   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  3023   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  3024   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  3025   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  3026   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  3027   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3028   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3029   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3030 
  3031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3034 and corresponding theorem names:
  3035 
  3036   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3037 
  3038   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3039 
  3040   - Renamed theorems:
  3041 
  3042     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3043     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3044     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3045     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3046     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3047     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3048     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3049     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3050     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3051     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3052     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3053     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3054     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3055     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3056     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3057     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3058     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3059     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3060     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3061     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3062     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3063     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3064     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3065 
  3066     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3067 
  3068     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3069 
  3070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3074 
  3075   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3076   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3077   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3078   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3079   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3080   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3081   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3082   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3083   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3084   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3085   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3086   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3087   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3088   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3089   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3090   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3091   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3092   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3093   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3094   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3095   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3096 
  3097 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3098 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3103 
  3104   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3105   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3106   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3107   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3108   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3109   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3110   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3111   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3112   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3113   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3114   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3115   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3116   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3117   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3118   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3119   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3120   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3121   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3122 
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3126 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3127 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3128 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3129 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3130 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3131 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3132 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3133 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3134 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3135 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3136 
  3137 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3138 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3139 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3140 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3141 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3142 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3143 
  3144 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3145 through option types.
  3146 
  3147 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3148 relations.
  3149 
  3150 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3153 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3154 
  3155   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3156   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3157   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3158   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3159   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3160   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3161   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3162   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3163   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3164   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3165   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3166   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3167   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3168   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3169   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3170   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3171   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3172   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3173   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3174   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3175   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3176   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3177   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3178   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3179   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3180   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3181   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3182   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3183   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3184   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3185   zless_le ~> less_le
  3186   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3187   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3188   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3189 
  3190 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3191 
  3192   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3193 
  3194 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3195 
  3196 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3197 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3198 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3199 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3203 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3204 
  3205 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3206 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3207 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3208 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3209 follows:
  3210 
  3211   Operations:
  3212   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3213   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3214   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3215   del -> rbt_del
  3216   delete -> rbt_delete
  3217   ins -> rbt_ins
  3218   insert -> rbt_insert
  3219   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3220   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3221   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3222   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3223   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3224   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3225   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3226   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3227   union -> rbt_union
  3228   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3229   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3230 
  3231   Lemmas:
  3232   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3233   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3234   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3235   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3236   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3237   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3238   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3239   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3240   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3241   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3242   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3243   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3244   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3245   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3246   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3247   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3248   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3249   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3250   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3251   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3252   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3253   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3254   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3255   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3256   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3257   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3258   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3259   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3260   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3261   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3262   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3263   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3264   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3265   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3266   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3267   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3268   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3269   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3270   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3271   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3272   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3273   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3274   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3275   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3276   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3277   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3278   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3279   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3280   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3281   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3282   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3283   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3284   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3285   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3286   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3287   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3288   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3289   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3290   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3291   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3292   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3293   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3294   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3295   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3296   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3297   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3298   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3299   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3300   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3301   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3302   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3303   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3304   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3305   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3306   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3307   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3308   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3309   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3310   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3311   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3312   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3313   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3314   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3315 
  3316 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3317 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3318 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3319 
  3320   Changed Operations:
  3321   float_abs -> abs
  3322   float_nprt -> nprt
  3323   float_pprt -> pprt
  3324   pow2 -> use powr
  3325   round_down -> float_round_down
  3326   round_up -> float_round_up
  3327   scale -> exponent
  3328 
  3329   Removed Operations:
  3330   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3331 
  3332   Renamed Lemmas:
  3333   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3334   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3335   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3336   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3337   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3338   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3339   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3340   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3341   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3342   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3343   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3344   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3345   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3346   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3347   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3348   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3349   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3350   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3351   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3352   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3353   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3354   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3355   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3356   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3357   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3358   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3359   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3360   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3361   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3362   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3363   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3364   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3365   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3366   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3367   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3368   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3369 
  3370   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3371   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3372   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3373   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3374   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3375   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3376   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3377   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3378   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3379   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3380 
  3381 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3382 association lists with distinct keys.
  3383 
  3384 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3385 annotated commands.
  3386 
  3387 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3388 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3389 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3390 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3391 
  3392 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3393 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3394 instead.
  3395 
  3396   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3397   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3398   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3399   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3400   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3401   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3402   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3403   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3404   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3405   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3406   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3407   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3408   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3409   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3410   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3411   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3412   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3413   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3414   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3415   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3416   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3417   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3418   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3419   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3420   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3421   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3422   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3423   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3424   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3425   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3426   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3427   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3428   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3429   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3430   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3431   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3432   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3433   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3434   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3435   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3436   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3437 
  3438 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3439 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3440 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3441 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3442 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3443 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3444 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3445 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3446 
  3447 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3448 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3449 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3450 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3451 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3452 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3453 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3454 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3455 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3456 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3457 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3458 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460   Renamed constants:
  3461   measure -> emeasure
  3462   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3463   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3464   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3465   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3466 
  3467   Removed locales:
  3468   completeable_measure_space
  3469   finite_measure_space
  3470   finite_prob_space
  3471   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3472   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3473   finite_sigma_algebra
  3474   measure_space
  3475   pair_finite_prob_space
  3476   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3477   pair_finite_space
  3478   pair_sigma_algebra
  3479   product_sigma_algebra
  3480 
  3481   Removed constants:
  3482   conditional_space
  3483   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3484   image_space
  3485   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3486   pair_measure_generator
  3487   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3488   subvimage
  3489 
  3490   Replacement theorems:
  3491   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3492   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3493   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3494   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3495   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3496   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3497   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3498   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3499   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3500   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3501   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3502   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3503   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3504   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3505   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3506   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3507   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3508   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3509   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3510   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3511   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3512   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3513   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3514   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3515   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3516   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3517   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3518   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3519   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3520   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3521   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3522   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3523   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3524   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3525   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3526   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3527   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3528   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3529   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3530   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3531   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3532   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3533   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3534   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3535   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3536   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3537   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3538   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3539   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3540   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3541   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3542   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3543   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3544   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3545   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3546   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3547   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3548   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3549   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3550   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3551   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3552   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3553   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3554   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3555   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3556   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3557   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3558   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3559   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3560   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3561   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3562   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3563   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3564   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3565   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3566   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3567   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3568   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3569   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3570   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3571   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3572   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3573   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3574   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3575   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3576   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3577   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3578   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3579   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3580   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3581   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3582   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3583   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3584   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3585   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3586   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3587   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3588   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3589   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3590   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3591   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3592   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3593   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3594   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3595   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3596   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3597   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3598   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3599   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3600   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3601   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3602   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3603   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3604   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3605   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3606   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3607   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3608   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3609   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3610   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3611   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3612   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3613   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3614   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3615   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3616   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3617   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3618   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3619 
  3620 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3621 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3622 
  3623 
  3624 *** FOL ***
  3625 
  3626 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3627 
  3628 
  3629 *** ZF ***
  3630 
  3631 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3632 analysis.
  3633 
  3634 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3635 
  3636 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 
  3639 *** ML ***
  3640 
  3641 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3642 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3643 
  3644 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3645 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3646 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3647 
  3648 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3649 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3650 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3651 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3652 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3653 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3655 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3656 
  3657 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3658 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3659 
  3660 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3661 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3662 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3663 
  3664 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3665 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3668 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3669 context as well.
  3670 
  3671 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3672 
  3673   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3674   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3675   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3676   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3677   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3678   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3679   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3680   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3681   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3682   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3683   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3684   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3685 
  3686 
  3687 *** System ***
  3688 
  3689 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3690 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3691 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3692 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3693 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3694 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3695 the generic user home was intended.
  3696 
  3697 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3698 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3699 
  3700 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3701 (not just JRE).
  3702 
  3703 
  3704 
  3705 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3706 ------------------------------------
  3707 
  3708 *** General ***
  3709 
  3710 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3711 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3712 
  3713   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3714     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3715     files for checking).
  3716 
  3717   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3718     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3719     positions.
  3720 
  3721   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3722     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3723     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3724 
  3725   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3726     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3727     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3728 
  3729   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3730     cores.
  3731 
  3732   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3733     versions (garbage collection).
  3734 
  3735 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3736 including some remaining limitations.
  3737 
  3738 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3739 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3740 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3741 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3742 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3744 
  3745 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3746 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3747 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3748 
  3749 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3750 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3751 usedir option -Q.
  3752 
  3753 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3754 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3755 
  3756   long_names   ~> names_long
  3757   short_names  ~> names_short
  3758   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3759 
  3760 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3761 
  3762   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3763 
  3764 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3765 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3766 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3767 
  3768 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3769 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3770 
  3771 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3772   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3773   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3774   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3775     "Classical Reasoner".
  3776 
  3777 
  3778 *** HOL ***
  3779 
  3780 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3781 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3784 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3785 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3786 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3787 class complete_linorder.
  3788 
  3789 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3790 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3791 
  3792 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3793 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3794 
  3795   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3796   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3797   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3798   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3799   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3800   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3801   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3802   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3803   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3804   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3805   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3806 
  3807 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3808 
  3809   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3810   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3811   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3812   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3813   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3814   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3815   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3816   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3817   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3818   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3819   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3820   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3821   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3822   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3823   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3824   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3825 
  3826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3832 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3833 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3834 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3837 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3838 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3840 
  3841 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3842 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3843 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3844 
  3845 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3846 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3847 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3850 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3851 
  3852 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3853 
  3854     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3855     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3856 
  3857 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3858 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3861 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3864 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3865 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3866 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3867 
  3868   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3869   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3870   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3871   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3872   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3873   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3874   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3875 
  3876 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3877 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3880   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3881   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3882   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3883   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3884   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3885   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3886   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3887   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3888   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3889   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3890   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3891   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3892   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3893   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3894   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3895   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3896   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3897   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3898   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3899   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3900   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3901   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3902   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3903   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3904   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3905   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3906   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3907   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3908   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3909   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3910   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3911   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3912   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3913   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3914   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3915   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3916   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3917   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3918   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3919   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3920   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3921   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3922   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3923   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3924   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3925   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3926   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3927   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3928   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3929   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3930   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3931   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3932   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3933   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3934   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3935   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3936   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3937   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3938   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3939   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3940   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3941   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3942   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3943   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3944   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3945   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3946   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3947   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3948   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3949   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3950   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3951   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3952   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3953   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3954   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3955   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3956   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3957   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3958   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3959   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3960   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3961 
  3962 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3963 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3964 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3965 
  3966 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3967 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3968 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3969 
  3970 * Code generation:
  3971 
  3972   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3973     characters in the target language.
  3974 
  3975   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3976     instead.
  3977 
  3978   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3979 
  3980   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3981     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3982 
  3983       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3984 
  3985 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3988 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3989 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3990 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3991 syntax.
  3992 
  3993 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3994 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3995 
  3996 * Nitpick:
  3997   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3998   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3999   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  4000     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Sledgehammer:
  4003   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  4004   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  4005     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  4006   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  4007     this can be done within reasonable time.
  4008   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  4009     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  4011     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  4012   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  4013     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014 
  4015 * Metis:
  4016   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  4018     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020 * Command 'try':
  4021   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  4022     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  4024     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  4025 
  4026 * Quickcheck:
  4027   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  4028     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4029   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4030     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4031   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4032     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4033     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4034     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4035   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4036     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4037 
  4038 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4039 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4040 
  4041 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4042 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4043 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4044 
  4045 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4046 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4050 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4053 arithmetic.
  4054 
  4055 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4056 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4057 and lattice type classes.
  4058 
  4059 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4060 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4061 
  4062 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4063 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4064 
  4065 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4066 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4067 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4070   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4071   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4072   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4073 
  4074 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4075 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4076 constants:
  4077 
  4078   type inat   ~> type enat
  4079   Fin         ~> enat
  4080   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4081   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4082   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4083 
  4084 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4085 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4088 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4089 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4090 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4091 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4092 
  4093 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4094 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4095 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4096 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4097 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4098 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4099 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4100 
  4101   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4102   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4103   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4104   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4105 
  4106 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4107 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4108 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4109 
  4110   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4111   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4112   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4113   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4114   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4115   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4116   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4117   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4118   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4119   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4120   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4121   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4122   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4123   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4124   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4125   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4126   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4127   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4128   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4129   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4130   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4131   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4132   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4133   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4134   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4135   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4136   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4137   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4138   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4139   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4140   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4141   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4142   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4143   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4144   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4145   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4146   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4147   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4148   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4149   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4150   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4151   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4152   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4153   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4154   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4155   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4156   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4157   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4158   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4159   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4160   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4161 
  4162 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4163   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4164   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4165   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4166   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4167     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4172   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4173   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4174   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4175   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4176   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4177   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4178   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4179   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4180   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4181   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4182   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4183   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4184   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4185   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4186   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4187   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4188   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4189   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4190   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4191   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4192   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4193   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4194   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4195   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4196 
  4197 
  4198 *** Document preparation ***
  4199 
  4200 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4201 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4202 same.
  4203 
  4204 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4205 result.
  4206 
  4207 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4208 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4209 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4210 
  4211 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4212 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4213 
  4214 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4215 like this:
  4216 
  4217   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4218   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4219 
  4220 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4221 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4222 layouts.
  4223 
  4224 
  4225 *** ML ***
  4226 
  4227 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4228 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4229 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4230 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4231 under external program control.
  4232 
  4233 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4234 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4235 
  4236 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4237 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4238 (better known as Proof General).
  4239 
  4240 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4241 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4242 
  4243 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4244 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4245 
  4246 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4247 (including quotes etc.).
  4248 
  4249 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4250 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4251 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4252 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4253 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4254 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4255 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4256 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4257 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4258 
  4259 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4260 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4261 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4262 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4263 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4264 
  4265 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4266 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4267 
  4268 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4269 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4270 
  4271 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4272 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4273 
  4274 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4275 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4276 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4277 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4278 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4279 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4280 proper Proof.context.
  4281 
  4282 
  4283 *** System ***
  4284 
  4285 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4286 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4287 
  4288 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4289 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4290 
  4291 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4292 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4293 
  4294   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4295   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4296   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4297   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4298   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4299 
  4300 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4301 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302 
  4303 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4304 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4305 example:
  4306 
  4307   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4308 
  4309 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4310 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4311 
  4312 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4313 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4314 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4315 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4316 
  4317 
  4318 
  4319 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4320 ----------------------------------
  4321 
  4322 *** General ***
  4323 
  4324 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4325 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4326 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4327 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4328 like this:
  4329 
  4330   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4331 
  4332 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4333 
  4334 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4335 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4336 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4337 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4338 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4339 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4340 
  4341 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4342 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4343 the following package declarations:
  4344 
  4345   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4346   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4347 
  4348 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4349 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4350 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4351 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4352 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4353 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4354 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4355 
  4356 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4357 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4358 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4359 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4360 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4361 
  4362 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4363 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4364 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4365 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4366 
  4367 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4368 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4369 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4370 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4371 
  4372   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4373 
  4374   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4375   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4376   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4377   show_types                    show_types
  4378   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4379   show_consts                   show_consts
  4380   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4381 
  4382   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4383   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4384   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4385 
  4386   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4387   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4388 
  4389   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4390 
  4391   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4392   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4393   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4394   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4395   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4396 
  4397 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4398 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4399 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4400 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4401 
  4402 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4406   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4407 
  4408 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4409 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4410 float_token.
  4411 
  4412 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4413 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4417 DejaVu Sans.
  4418 
  4419 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4420 
  4421 
  4422 *** Pure ***
  4423 
  4424 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4425 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4426 time.
  4427 
  4428 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4429 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4432 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4433 
  4434 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4435 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4436 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4437 command already provided this functionality.
  4438 
  4439 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4440 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4441 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4442 without interpretations.
  4443 
  4444 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4445 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4446 
  4447 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4448 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4449 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4450 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4451 
  4452 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4453 'definition' instead.
  4454 
  4455 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4456 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4457 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4458 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4459 
  4460 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4461 constructors.
  4462 
  4463 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4464 the local file system.
  4465 
  4466 
  4467 *** HOL ***
  4468 
  4469 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4470 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4471 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4472 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4473 
  4474   declare [[coercion f]]
  4475 
  4476 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4477 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4478 
  4479   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4480 
  4481 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4482 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4483 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4484 other theories like this:
  4485 
  4486   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4487 
  4488 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4489 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4490 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4491 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4492 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4493 for examples.
  4494 
  4495 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4496 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4497 
  4498 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4499 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4500 
  4501 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4502 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4503 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4504 
  4505 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4506 functorial structure of types.
  4507 
  4508 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4509 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4510 
  4511 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4512 languages.
  4513 
  4514 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4515 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4519 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4522 combinators any longer.
  4523 
  4524 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4525 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4526 
  4527 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4528 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4529 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4530 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4531 
  4532   record 'a foo = ...
  4533   ...
  4534   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4535 
  4536 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4537 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4541 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4542 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4543 
  4544 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4545 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4546 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4547 
  4548 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4549 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4552 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4553 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4554 independently.
  4555 
  4556 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4557 counter example search.
  4558 
  4559 * Sledgehammer:
  4560   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4561     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4562     sledgehammer").
  4563   - Renamed commands:
  4564     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4565     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4566     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4567     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568   - Renamed options:
  4569     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4570     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4571     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4572     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4573     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * Nitpick:
  4576   - Renamed options:
  4577     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4578     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4579     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4581   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4582   - Added "whack" option.
  4583   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4584   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4585   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4586   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4587     higher cardinalities.
  4588   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4589 
  4590 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4591 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4592 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4593 
  4594     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4595 
  4596 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4597 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4598 
  4599 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4600 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4601 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4602 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4603 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4604 "smt_solver".
  4605 
  4606 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4607 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4608 
  4609 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4610 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4611 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4612 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4615   - Renamed:
  4616     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4617     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4618     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619   - Added:
  4620     smt_verbose
  4621     smt_random_seed
  4622     smt_datatypes
  4623     smt_infer_triggers
  4624     smt_monomorph_limit
  4625     cvc3_options
  4626     remote_cvc3_options
  4627     remote_z3_options
  4628     yices_options
  4629 
  4630 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4631 header.
  4632 
  4633 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4634 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4635 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4636 
  4637   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4638 
  4639 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4642 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 
  4644 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4645 
  4646 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4647 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4650 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4651 
  4652 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4653 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4654 
  4655 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4656 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4657 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4663 
  4664 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4665 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4668 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4669 for congruent(2)).
  4670 
  4671 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4672 
  4673   types
  4674     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4675     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4676 
  4677   constants
  4678     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4679     True ~> HOL.True
  4680     False ~> HOL.False
  4681     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4682     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4683     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4684     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4685     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4686     The ~> HOL.The
  4687     All ~> HOL.All
  4688     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4689     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4690     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4691     If ~> HOL.If
  4692     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4693     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4694     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4695     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4696     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4697     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4698     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4699     op : ~> Set.member
  4700     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4701 
  4702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4705 
  4706     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4707     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4708     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4709     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4710     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4711     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4712     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4713     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4714 
  4715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * More stylized fact names:
  4718 
  4719   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4720   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4721   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4722   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4723 
  4724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4727 
  4728   constants
  4729     null ~> List.null
  4730 
  4731   facts
  4732     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4733     null_empty ~> null_def
  4734 
  4735 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4736 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4737 generation.
  4738 
  4739 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4740 Haskell code.
  4741 
  4742 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4743 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4744 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4747 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4750 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4751 
  4752 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4753 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4754 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4755 
  4756 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4757 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758 
  4759 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4761 
  4762 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4763 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4764 referred to by its qualified name.
  4765 
  4766   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4767   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4768   product ~>  Enum.product
  4769 
  4770 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4771 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4773 
  4774 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4775 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4776 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4780 sort_key.
  4781 
  4782 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4786 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4787 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4788 
  4789   types
  4790     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4791               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4792               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4793         (depends on your needs)
  4794 
  4795   constants
  4796      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4797      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4798      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4799 
  4800 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4801 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4802 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4803 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4806 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4807 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4808 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4809 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4815 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4816 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4817 
  4818 
  4819 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4820 
  4821 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4822 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4823 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4824 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4825 compatibility.
  4826 
  4827 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4828 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4829 
  4830 
  4831 *** HOLCF ***
  4832 
  4833 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4834 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4835 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4839 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4840 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4841 
  4842   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4843   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4844   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4845 
  4846 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4847 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4848 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4851 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4852 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4853 domain definition now works:
  4854 
  4855   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4856 
  4857 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4858 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4859 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4860 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4861 
  4862   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4863     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4864 
  4865   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4866 
  4867 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4868 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4869 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4872 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4873 
  4874 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4875 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4876 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4877 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4878 
  4879 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4880 
  4881 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4887 
  4888 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4889 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4890 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4891 
  4892 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4893 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4894 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4895 
  4896 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4897 still supported as an input translation.
  4898 
  4899 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4900 
  4901   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4902   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4903   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4904   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4905   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4906   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4907   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4908 
  4909 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4910 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4911 
  4912   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4913   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4914   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4915   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4916   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4917   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4918 
  4919 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4920 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4921 
  4922 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4923 
  4924   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4925   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4926   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4927   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4928 
  4929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4930 
  4931 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4932 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4933 
  4934 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4935 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4936 
  4937   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4938   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4939   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4940   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4941   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4942   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4943   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4944   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4945   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4946   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4947   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4948   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4949   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4950   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4951   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4952   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4953   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4954   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4955   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4956   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4957 
  4958 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4959 
  4960   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4961   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4962   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4963   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4964   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4965   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4966   box_less             ~> box_below
  4967   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4968   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4969   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4970   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4971   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4972   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4973   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4974   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4975   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4976   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4977   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4978   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4979   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4980   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4981   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4982   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4983   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4984   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4985   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4986   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4987   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4988   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4989   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4990   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4991   up_less              ~> up_below
  4992   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4993   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4994   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4995   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4996   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4997   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4998   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4999   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  5000   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  5001   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  5002   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  5003   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  5004   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  5005 
  5006 
  5007 *** FOL and ZF ***
  5008 
  5009 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  5010 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 
  5013 *** ML ***
  5014 
  5015 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  5016 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  5017 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  5018 
  5019 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  5020 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  5021 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  5022 
  5023 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  5024 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  5025 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  5026 
  5027 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  5028 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  5029 
  5030 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5031 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5032 
  5033 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5034 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5035 
  5036 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5037 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5038 
  5039 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5040 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5041 almost all situations.
  5042 
  5043 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5044 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5045 Isabelle/ML.
  5046 
  5047 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5048 meaning.
  5049 
  5050 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5051 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5052 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5053 
  5054 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5055 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5056 
  5057 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5058 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5059 
  5060 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5061 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5062 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5063 
  5064 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5065 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5066 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5067 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5068 configuration options.
  5069 
  5070 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5071 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5072 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5073 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5074 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5075 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5076 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5077 
  5078 
  5079 
  5080 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5081 ---------------------------------
  5082 
  5083 *** General ***
  5084 
  5085 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5086 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5087 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5088 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5089 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5090 their full internal name.
  5091 
  5092 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5093 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5094 Some hints on upgrading:
  5095 
  5096   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5097     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5098     which are independent of this issue.
  5099 
  5100   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5101     provides the following special forms:
  5102 
  5103       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5104       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5105       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5106 
  5107     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5108     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5109     extra variables".
  5110 
  5111     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5112     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5113     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5114     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5115     "logic".
  5116 
  5117   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5118     antiquotations:
  5119 
  5120       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5121       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5122       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5123       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5124 
  5125   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5126     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5127     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5128     antiquotations.
  5129 
  5130 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5131 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5132 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5133 diagnose syntax problems.
  5134 
  5135 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5136 
  5137 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5138 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5139 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5140 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5141 
  5142 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5143 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5144 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5145 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5148 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5149 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5150 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5151 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5152 
  5153 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5154 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5155 
  5156 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5157 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5158 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5159 
  5160   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5161 
  5162 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5163 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5164 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5165 
  5166 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5167 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5169 
  5170 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5171 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5172 
  5173 
  5174 *** Pure ***
  5175 
  5176 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5177 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5178 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5179 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5180 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5181 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5182 inspect proof terms.
  5183 
  5184 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5185 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5186 are added internally.  For example:
  5187 
  5188   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5189 
  5190 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5191 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5194 
  5195 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5196 'class' instead.
  5197 
  5198 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5199 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5201 
  5202 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5203 invariants.
  5204 
  5205 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5206 user space functionality any longer.
  5207 
  5208 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5209 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5211 
  5212 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5213 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5214 
  5215 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5216 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5217 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5218 
  5219 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5220 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5221 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5222 
  5223 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5224 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5225 
  5226 
  5227 *** HOL ***
  5228 
  5229 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5230 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5231 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5232 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5233 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5234 
  5235 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5236 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5237 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5238 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5239 
  5240   fun
  5241     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5242   where
  5243     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5244 
  5245   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5246     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5247 
  5248   quotient_definition
  5249     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5250 
  5251 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5252 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5253 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5254 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5255 
  5256 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5257 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5258 
  5259 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5260 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5261 
  5262 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5264 
  5265 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5266 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5267 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5268 
  5269 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5270 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5271 
  5272 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5274 
  5275 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5277 
  5278 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5279 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5280 
  5281 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5282 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5283 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5284 
  5285   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5286   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5287   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5288   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5289   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5290   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5291   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5292   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5293   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5294   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5295   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5296   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5297   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5298   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5299   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5300   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5301   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5302   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5303   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5304   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5305   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5306   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5307   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5308   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5309   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5310   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5311   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5312   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5313   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5314   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5315 
  5316 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5317 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5318 
  5319 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5320 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5321 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5322 
  5323 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5324 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5325 
  5326 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5327 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5328 
  5329 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5330 
  5331 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5332 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5333 
  5334 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5335 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5336 
  5337 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5338 
  5339 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5340 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5341 
  5342 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5343 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5344 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5345 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5346 
  5347 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5348   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5349   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5350   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5352 
  5353 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5354 lattices):
  5355 
  5356     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5357     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5358 
  5359     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5360 
  5361     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5362     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5363     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5364     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5365     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5366     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5367     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5368     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5369     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5370     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5371     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5372     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5373     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5374 
  5375     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5376     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5377     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5378     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5379     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5380     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5381     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5382     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5383     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5384     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5385     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5386     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5387     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5388     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5389     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5390     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5391     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5392     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5393 
  5394   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5395   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5396 
  5397     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5398     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5399     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5400     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5401     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5402 
  5403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404 
  5405 * Refined field classes:
  5406   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5407     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5408     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5409   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5411 
  5412 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5413   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5414   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5415   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5416     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5417   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5418     equal_neg_zero.
  5419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5420 
  5421 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5422 sets to lattices:
  5423 
  5424   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5425   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5426   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5427   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5428   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5429   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5430   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5431   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5432   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5433   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5434 
  5435 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5436 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5437 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5438 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5439 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5440 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5441 
  5442 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5443 multiset order:
  5444 
  5445   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5446     <= and <;
  5447   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5448     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5449     multiset_order;
  5450   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5451     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5452     generation;
  5453   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5454     if needed.
  5455 
  5456 Renamed:
  5457 
  5458   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5459   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5460   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5461 
  5462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5463 
  5464 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5465 
  5466 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5467 
  5468 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5469 
  5470 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5471 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5472 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5473 
  5474   Constants:
  5475   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5476   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5477   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5478   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5479   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5480   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5481   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5482   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5483   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5484   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5485   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5486   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5487   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5488 
  5489   Lemmas:
  5490   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5491   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5492   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5493   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5494   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5495   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5496   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5497   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5498   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5499   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5500   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5501   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5502   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5503 
  5504 * Sledgehammer:
  5505   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5506     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5507     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5508     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5509     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5510     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5511     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5512   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5513   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5514     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5515   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5516     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5517     is still experimental.)
  5518   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5519     full-typed mode.
  5520   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5521 
  5522 * Nitpick:
  5523   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5524   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5525   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5526     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5527   - Added support for quotient types.
  5528   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5529     constructs.
  5530   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5531     "termination" proofs).
  5532   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5533   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5534   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5535   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5536     record getters.
  5537   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5538   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5539   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5540   - Added "atoms" option.
  5541   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5542     problems.
  5543   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5544     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5545     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5546   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5547     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5549 
  5550 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5551   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5552   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5553   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5554   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5555   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5556   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5557   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5558   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5559   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5560 
  5561 
  5562 *** HOLCF ***
  5563 
  5564 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5565 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5566 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5567 
  5568 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5569 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5570 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5571 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5572 
  5573 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5574 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5575 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5576 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5577 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5578 
  5579 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5580 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5581 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5582 
  5583 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5584 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5587   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5588 
  5589 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5590 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5593   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5594   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5595   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5596   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5597 
  5598 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5599 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5600 
  5601   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5602   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5603   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5604 
  5605 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5606 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5608 
  5609 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5610 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5611 
  5612 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5613 
  5614 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5615 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5616 
  5617 
  5618 *** ML ***
  5619 
  5620 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5621 
  5622     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5623     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5624 
  5625     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5626     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5627     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5628     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5629 
  5630     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5631     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5632     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5633 
  5634 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5635 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5636 
  5637 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5638 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5639 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5640 
  5641 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5642 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5643 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5644 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5645 
  5646 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5647 the context or even global references.
  5648 
  5649 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5650 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5651 
  5652 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5653 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5654 
  5655   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5656   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5657   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5658   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5659   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5660   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5661   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5662   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5663   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5664   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5665 
  5666 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5667 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5668 
  5669 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5670 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5671 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5672 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5673 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5674 
  5675 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5676 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5677 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5678 Theory_Data version.
  5679 
  5680 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5681 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5682 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5683 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5684 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5685 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5686 explicitly in rare situations.
  5687 
  5688 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5689 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5691 
  5692 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5693 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5694 
  5695 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5696 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5697 quite rare).
  5698 
  5699 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5700 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5701 
  5702 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5703 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5704 terms.
  5705 
  5706 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5707 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5708 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5709 
  5710 
  5711 *** System ***
  5712 
  5713 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5714 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5715 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5716 
  5717 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5718 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5719 respectively.
  5720 
  5721 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5722 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5723 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5724 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5725 
  5726   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5727 
  5728 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5729 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5730 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5731 component.
  5732 
  5733 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5734 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5735 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5736 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5737 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5738 the user for manual installation.
  5739 
  5740 
  5741 
  5742 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5743 -------------------------------------
  5744 
  5745 *** General ***
  5746 
  5747 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5748 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5749 
  5750 
  5751 *** Pure ***
  5752 
  5753 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5754 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5755 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5756 
  5757 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5758 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5759 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5760 
  5761 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5762 interpretation.
  5763 
  5764 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5765 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5766 
  5767 
  5768 *** Document preparation ***
  5769 
  5770 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5771 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5772 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5773 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5774 
  5775 
  5776 *** HOL ***
  5777 
  5778 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5779 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5780 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5781 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5782 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5783 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5784 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5785 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5786 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5787 
  5788 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5789 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5790 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5791 
  5792 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5793 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5794 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5795 
  5796 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5797 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5798 
  5799 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5800 
  5801 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5802 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5803 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5804 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5805 
  5806 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5807 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5808 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5809 "mirabelle" utility.
  5810 
  5811 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5812 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5813 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5814 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5815 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5816 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5817 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5818 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5819 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5820 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5821 
  5822 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5823 procedure only.
  5824 
  5825 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5826 
  5827 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5828 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5829 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5830 that fail later.
  5831 
  5832 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5833 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5834 
  5835 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5836 the same method as the approximation method.
  5837 
  5838 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5839 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5840 series expansion.
  5841 
  5842 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5843 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5844 
  5845 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5846 reals.
  5847 
  5848 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5849 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5850 
  5851 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5852 fixpoint theorem.
  5853 
  5854 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5855   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5856     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5857   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5858     accordingly
  5859   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5860     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5861   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5862     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5863 
  5864 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5865 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5866 lattice.
  5867 
  5868 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5869 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5870 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5871 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5872 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5873 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5875 
  5876 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5877   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5878     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5879   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5880     le_inf_iff
  5881   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5882     sup_aci)
  5883   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5884   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5885   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5886     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5887     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5888     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5889     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5890     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5891     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5892     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5893     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5894     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5895     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5896   - authentic syntax for
  5897     Set.Pow
  5898     Set.image
  5899   - mere abbreviations:
  5900     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5901     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5902     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5903     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5904     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5905     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5906     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5907     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5908   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5909 
  5910 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5911 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5912 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5913 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5914 
  5915 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5916 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5917 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5918 
  5919 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5920 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5921 
  5922 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5923 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5924 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5925 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5928 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5929 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5930 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5931 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5932 
  5933 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5934 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5938 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5939 
  5940 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5941 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5942 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5943 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5944 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5945 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5946 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5948 
  5949 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5950     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5951     code_post       replaces    code post
  5952     etc.
  5953   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5954 
  5955 * Renamed methods:
  5956     sizechange -> size_change
  5957     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5958   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5961 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5962 
  5963 * Renamed theorems:
  5964     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5965     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5966     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5967     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5968     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5969   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5970 
  5971 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5973 
  5974 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5976 
  5977 
  5978 *** HOLCF ***
  5979 
  5980 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5981 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5982 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5983 
  5984 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5985 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5986 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5987 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5988 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5989 
  5990 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5991 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5992 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5993 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5994 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5995 
  5996 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5997 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5998 constructor are pre-configured.
  5999 
  6000 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  6001 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  6002 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  6003 
  6004 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  6005 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  6006 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  6007 as well.)
  6008 
  6009 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  6010 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  6011 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  6012 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6013 examples.
  6014 
  6015 
  6016 *** ML ***
  6017 
  6018 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  6019 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  6020 
  6021 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  6022 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  6023 position, logical grouping etc.
  6024 
  6025 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  6026 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  6027 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  6028 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  6029 
  6030 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  6031 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  6032 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  6033 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  6034 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  6035 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  6036 
  6037 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  6038 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  6039 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  6040 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  6041 experiments with references.
  6042 
  6043 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  6044 parallel tactical reasoning.
  6045 
  6046 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  6047 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  6048 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  6049 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  6050 
  6051 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  6052 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  6053 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  6054 
  6055 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  6056 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  6057 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6058 
  6059 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6060 
  6061 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  6062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6063 
  6064 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6065 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6066 
  6067 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6068 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6069 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6070 
  6071 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6072 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6073 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6076 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6077 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6079 
  6080 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6081 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6082 instead of global theory.
  6083 
  6084 
  6085 *** System ***
  6086 
  6087 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6088 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6089 usedir option -q.
  6090 
  6091 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6092 also the system manual.
  6093 
  6094 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6095 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6096 
  6097 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6098 this is always enabled.
  6099 
  6100 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6101 
  6102 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6103 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6104 currently supported on Linux only.
  6105 
  6106 
  6107 
  6108 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6109 --------------------------------
  6110 
  6111 *** General ***
  6112 
  6113 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6114 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6115 
  6116   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6117     "isatool."
  6118 
  6119   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6120     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6121 
  6122   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6123     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6124 
  6125 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6126 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6127 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6128 
  6129 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6130 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6131 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6132 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6133 via "isabelle emacs".
  6134 
  6135 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6136 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6137 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6138 
  6139 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6140 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6141 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6142 
  6143 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6144 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6145 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6146 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6147 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6148 
  6149 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6150 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6151 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6152 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6153 
  6154 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6155 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6156 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6157 
  6158 
  6159 *** Pure ***
  6160 
  6161 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6162 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6163 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6164 
  6165 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6166 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6167 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6168 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6169 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6170 
  6171 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6172 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6173 useful in locale declarations.
  6174 
  6175 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6176 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6177 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6178 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6179 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6180 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6181 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6182 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6183 no longer generated.
  6184 
  6185 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6186 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6187 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6188 
  6189 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6190 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6191 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6192 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6193 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6194 
  6195 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6196 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6197 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6198 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6199 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6200 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6201 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6202 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6203 
  6204 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6205 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6206 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6207 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6208 
  6209 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6210 
  6211 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6212 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6213 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6214 
  6215 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6216 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6217 
  6218 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6219 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6220 in HOL, write
  6221 
  6222     class foo = ...
  6223 
  6224 instead of
  6225 
  6226     class foo = type + ...
  6227 
  6228 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6229 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6230 
  6231 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6232 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6233 
  6234 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6235 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6236 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6237 
  6238 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6239 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6240 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6241 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6242 directly in regular applications.
  6243 
  6244 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6245 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6246 
  6247 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6248 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6249 
  6250 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6251 theory context.
  6252 
  6253 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6254 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6255 
  6256 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6257 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6258 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6259 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6260 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6261 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6262 
  6263   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6264 
  6265 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6266 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6267 normalization.
  6268 
  6269 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
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