NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri May 02 23:31:25 2014 +0200 (2014-05-02)
changeset 56839 94477e9ff063
parent 56826 ba18bd41e510
parent 56838 477cd67f963f
child 56843 b2bfcd8cda80
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    93     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    94     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    95 
    96   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
    97     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    98 
    99 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   100 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   101 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   102 
   103 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   104 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   105 
   106 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   107 auxiliary ML files.
   108 
   109 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   110 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   111 
   112 * Find panel: support for 'find_consts' in addition to
   113 'find_theorems'.
   114 
   115 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   116 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   117 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   118 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   119 
   120 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   121 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   122 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   123 
   124 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   125 
   126 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   127 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   128 
   129 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   130 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   131 
   132 
   133 *** Pure ***
   134 
   135 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   136 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   137 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   138 renaming needs to be applied:
   139 
   140   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   141   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   142   all            ~>  Pure.all
   143   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   144   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   145 
   146 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   147 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   148 old constants:
   149 
   150 setup {*
   151   fn thy => thy
   152     |> Sign.root_path
   153     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   154     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   155     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   156     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   157 *}
   158 
   159 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   160 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   161 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   162 
   163 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   164 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   165 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   166 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   167 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   168 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   169 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   170 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   171 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   172 
   173 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   174 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   175 instantiated theorem.
   176 
   177 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   178 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   179 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   180 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   181 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   182 
   183   attribute_setup standard =
   184     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   185 
   186 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   187 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   188 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   189 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   190 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   191 
   192 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   193 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   194 differently).
   195 
   196 
   197 *** HOL ***
   198 
   199 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   200   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   201   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   202   and SUP instead uniformly.
   203   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   204   or SUP and Sup.
   205   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   206   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   207   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   208   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   209   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   213   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   214   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   215   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   216   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   217   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   220   can now deal with conjunctions.
   221   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   222   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   223   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   224 
   225 * HOL-Word:
   226   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   227   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   228   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   229   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   230   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   231 
   232 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   233 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   239 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240 
   241 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   242 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243 
   244 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   245 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   246 
   247 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   248   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   249   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   250   Theory renamings:
   251     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   252     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   253     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   254     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   255     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   256     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   257     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   258     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   259     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   260     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   261     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   262     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   263     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   264     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   265     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   266     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   267     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   268     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   269     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   270     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   271     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   272     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   273   New theories:
   274     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   275     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   276     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   277     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   278     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   279   Discontinued theories:
   280     BNF/BNF.thy
   281     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   282   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * New (co)datatype package:
   285   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   286   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   287     required by "fun".
   288   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   289     with Transfer.
   290   * Renamed commands:
   291       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   292       primrec_new ~> primrec
   293       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   294     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   296     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   299     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   300     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * Old datatype package:
   303   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   304     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   305     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   307     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309 
   310 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   311   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   312   datatype package.
   313   Renamed constants:
   314     Option.set ~> set_option
   315     Option.map ~> map_option
   316     option_rel ~> rel_option
   317     list_size ~> size_list
   318     option_size ~> size_option
   319   Renamed theorems:
   320     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   321     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   322     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   323     option.recs ~> option.rec
   324     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   325     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   326     map.simps ~> list.map
   327     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   328     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   329     the.simps ~> option.sel
   330   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   333     sum_map ~> map_sum
   334     map_pair ~> map_prod
   335     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   336     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   337     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   338     set_rel ~> rel_set
   339     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   340     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   341     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   342     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   343 
   344 * New theory:
   345     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   346 
   347 * Theory reorganizations:
   348   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   349 
   350 * New internal SAT solver "dpll_p" that produces models and proof traces.
   351 
   352 * SMT module:
   353   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   354     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   355     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   356     elsewhere.
   357 
   358 * Sledgehammer:
   359   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   360   - New option:
   361       smt_proofs
   362   - Renamed options:
   363       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   364       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366 
   367 * Metis:
   368   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   369     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   370 
   371 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   372 
   373 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   376 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   377 
   378 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   379 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   380 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   381 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   382 
   383 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   385 
   386 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   387 with the given constants.
   388 
   389 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   390 
   391 Fact consolidations:
   392     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   393     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   394     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   395     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   396     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   397     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   398     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   399     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   400     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   401     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   402     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   403     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   404     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   405     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   406     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   407     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   408     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   409     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   410     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   411     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   412     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   413     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   414     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   415     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   416     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   417     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   418     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   419     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   420     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   421     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   422     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   423     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   424     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   425     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   426     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   427     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   428     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   429     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   430     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   431     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   432 
   433 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   434 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   435 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   436 
   437 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   438 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   439 
   440 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   441 
   442 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   443 
   444 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   451 operations on records.
   452 
   453 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   457     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   461     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   462     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   466   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   467   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   468   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   469     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   470   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   471     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   472   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   473 INCOMPATBILITY.
   474 
   475 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   476     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   477     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   478     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   479     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   481 
   482 * Fact name consolidation:
   483     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   484     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   485     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   486     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   487     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   491 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   492 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   493 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   494 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   495 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   496 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   497 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   498 
   499 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   500 
   501 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   502 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   503 
   504 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   505 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   506 
   507 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   508 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   509 or the brute way with
   510 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   511 
   512 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   513 
   514 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   515 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   516 
   517 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   518 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   519 
   520 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   521 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   522 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   523 INCOMPATIBILITY
   524 
   525 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   526   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   527   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   528   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   529   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   530   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   531   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   532   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   533   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   534   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   535   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   536   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   537 
   538   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   539 
   540   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   541     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   542     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   543     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   544     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   546 
   547 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   548   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   549 
   550   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   551 
   552   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   553 
   554   - removed constant isDiff
   555 
   556   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   557     syntax.
   558 
   559   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   560 
   561   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   562 
   563   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   564 
   565   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   566 
   567   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   568     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   569 
   570   - Other renamings:
   571     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   572     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   573     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   574     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   575     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   576     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   577     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   579 
   580 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   581   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   582 
   583 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   584 
   585 * Nitpick:
   586   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   587     infinite values.
   588   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   589     "Rep_Integ".
   590   - Removed "std" option.
   591   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   592     "hide_types".
   593 
   594 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   595   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   596   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   597     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   598     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   599     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   600     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   601     intervals.
   602 
   603   - renamed theorems:
   604     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   605     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   606     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   607 
   608 
   609 *** Scala ***
   610 
   611 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   612 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   613 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   614 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   615 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 
   618 *** ML ***
   619 
   620 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   621 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   624 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   625 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   629 
   630 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   631 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   632 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   636 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   637 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   638 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   639 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   640 of schematic variables.
   641 
   642 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   643 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   644 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   645 formal context.
   646 
   647 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   648 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   649 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   650 actually belongs to it).
   651 
   652 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   653 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   654 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   655 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   656 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   657 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   658 
   659 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   660 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   661 
   662 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   663 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   664 
   665 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   666 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   667 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   668 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   669 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   670 
   671 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   672 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   673 purposes.
   674 
   675 
   676 *** System ***
   677 
   678 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   679 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   680 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   681 processing is started.
   682 
   683 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   684 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   685 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   686 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   687 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   688 
   689 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   690 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   691 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   692 
   693 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   694 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   695 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   696 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   697 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   698 settings variable yet.
   699 
   700 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   701 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   702 
   703 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   704 -------------------------------------
   705 
   706 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   707 
   708 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   709 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   710 
   711 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   712 after edits surrounding the command location.
   713 
   714 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   715 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   716 e.g. out-of-memory).
   717 
   718 
   719 *** System ***
   720 
   721 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   722 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   723 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   724 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   725 
   726 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   727 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   728 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   729 
   730 
   731 
   732 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   733 -------------------------------------
   734 
   735 *** General ***
   736 
   737 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   738 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   739 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   740 
   741 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   742 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   745 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   746 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   747 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   748 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   749 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   750 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   751 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   752 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   753 syntax.
   754 
   755 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   756 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   757 
   758 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   759 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   760 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   761 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   762 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   763 
   764 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   766 
   767 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   768 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   769 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   770 
   771 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   772 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   773 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   774 
   775 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   776 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   777 
   778 
   779 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   780 
   781 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   782 Documentation panel.
   783 
   784 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   785 documentation.
   786 
   787 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   788 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   789 
   790 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   791 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   792 normal editing and checking process.
   793 
   794 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   795 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   796 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   797 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   798 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   799 
   800 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   801 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   802 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   803 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   804 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   805 
   806 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   807 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   808 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   809 
   810 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   811 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   812 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   813 to resolve conflict.
   814 
   815 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   816 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   817 
   818 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   819 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   820 such command executions while editing.
   821 
   822 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   823 document content.
   824 
   825 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   826 toplevel theorem statements.
   827 
   828 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   829 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   830 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   831 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   832 
   833 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   834 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   835 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   836 
   837 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   838 / Global Options / Appearance".
   839 
   840 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   841 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   842 
   843 
   844 *** Pure ***
   845 
   846 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   847 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   848 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   849 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   850 details.
   851 
   852 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   853 
   854 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   855 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   856 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   857 
   858 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   862 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   863 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   864 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   867 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   868 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   871 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   872 
   873 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   874 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   875 situations.
   876 
   877 
   878 *** HOL ***
   879 
   880 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   881 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   883 
   884 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   885 
   886 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   887 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   888 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   889 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   890 
   891   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   892 
   893 * Code generator:
   894   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   895     'code_instance'.
   896   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   897     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   898 
   899 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   900 examples.
   901 
   902 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   903 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   904 to distinguish both when desired.
   905 
   906 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   907 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   908 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   909 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   912 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   913 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   914 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   915 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   916 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   919 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   920 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   921 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   922 
   923 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   924 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   925 
   926 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   927 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   928 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   929 
   930 * Lifting:
   931   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   932     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   933       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   934       transfer rules
   935     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   936       correspondence relation can be generated
   937     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   938       parametricity
   939     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   940   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   941   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   942     copies
   943   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   944     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   945     anonymous context)
   946   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   947     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   948   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   949     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   950   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   951     INCOMPATIBILITY
   952 
   953 * Transfer:
   954   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   955     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   956   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   957   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   958     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   959   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   960 
   961 * Reification and reflection:
   962   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   963     "Reification".
   964   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   965   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967 
   968 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   969   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   970     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   971     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   972   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   973     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   974   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   975     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   976     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   977     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   978     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   979     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   980     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   981     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   982   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   983     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   984   - Fact renames:
   985       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   986       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   990 
   991 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   992 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   993 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   995 
   996 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   997 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   998 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   999 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1000 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1001 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1002 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1003 lemmas.
  1004 
  1005 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1006 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1007 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1008 
  1009 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1010 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1011 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1012 
  1013 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1014 top and bottom elements.
  1015 
  1016 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1017 
  1018 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1019 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1020 
  1021  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1022    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1023    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1024 
  1025  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1026    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1027    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1028 
  1029    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1030    arbitrary filter.
  1031 
  1032  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1033    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1034    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1035    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1036    on a compact set.
  1037 
  1038  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1039    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1040    linear_continuum_topology).
  1041 
  1042  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1043    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1044    on all sequences converging to x.
  1045 
  1046  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1047    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1048    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1049    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1050    left or right.
  1051 
  1052  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1053 
  1054      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1055 
  1056  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1057    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1058 
  1059  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1060    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1061    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1062    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1063    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1064    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1065 
  1066  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1067 
  1068    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1069 
  1070    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1071      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1072 
  1073    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1074 
  1075    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1076      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1077 
  1078    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1079 
  1080    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1081 
  1082  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1083 
  1084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1085 
  1086 * Nitpick:
  1087   - Added option "spy".
  1088   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1089 
  1090 * Sledgehammer:
  1091   - Renamed option:
  1092       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1093     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1095   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1096   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1097 
  1098 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1099 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1100 
  1101 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1102   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1103   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1104     generated code.
  1105   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1106   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1107   - Fact renames:
  1108     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1109     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1110     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1111 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1112 
  1113 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1114 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1115 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1116 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1117 
  1118 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1119 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1120 
  1121 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1124 
  1125     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1126     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1127 
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1131 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1132 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1133 
  1134 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1135 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1136 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1137 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 * HOL-BNF:
  1140   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1141     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1142     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1143     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1144   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1145     coinduct).
  1146   - Renamed keywords:
  1147     data ~> datatype_new
  1148     codata ~> codatatype
  1149     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1150   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1151     discs ~> disc
  1152     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1153     map_id' ~> map_id
  1154     sels ~> sel
  1155     set_map' ~> set_map
  1156     sets ~> set
  1157 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1158 
  1159 
  1160 *** ML ***
  1161 
  1162 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1163 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1164 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1165 Examples.thy in particular.
  1166 
  1167 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1168 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1169 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1170 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1171 
  1172 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1173 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1174 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1175 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1179 
  1180     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1181     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1182 
  1183 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1186 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1187 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1188 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1189 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1190 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1191 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1192 
  1193 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1194 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1195 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1196 clasets separately from the context.
  1197 
  1198 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1199 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1200 
  1201 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1202 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1203 
  1204 
  1205 *** System ***
  1206 
  1207 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1208 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1211 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1214 settings variable.
  1215 
  1216 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1217 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1218 always pdf.
  1219 
  1220 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1221 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1222 
  1223 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1224 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1225 
  1226 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1227 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1228 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1229 
  1230 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1231 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1232 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1233 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1234 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1235 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1236 
  1237 
  1238 
  1239 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1240 -----------------------------------
  1241 
  1242 *** General ***
  1243 
  1244 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1245 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1246 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1247 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1248 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1249 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1250 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1251 
  1252 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1253 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1254 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1255 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1256 
  1257 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1258 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1259 
  1260 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1261 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1262 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1263 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1264 dependencies properly.
  1265 
  1266 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1267 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1268 
  1269 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1270 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1271 
  1272 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1273 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1274 and "class ... context ...".
  1275 
  1276 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1277 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1278 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1279 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1280 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1281 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1282 
  1283 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1284 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1285 
  1286 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1287 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1288 
  1289 
  1290 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1291 
  1292 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1293 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1294 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1295 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1296 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1297 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1298 
  1299 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1300 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1301 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1302 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1303 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1304 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1305 
  1306 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1307 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1308 browser on demand.
  1309 
  1310 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1311 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1312 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1313 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1314 
  1315 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1316 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1317 
  1318 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1319 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1320 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1321 potentially infinite message streams.
  1322 
  1323 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1324 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1325 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1326 schemes.
  1327 
  1328 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1329 symbols.
  1330 
  1331 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1332 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1333 
  1334 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1335 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1336 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1337 
  1338 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1339 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1340 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1341 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1342 
  1343 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1344 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1345 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1346 
  1347 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1348 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1349 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1350 Isabelle distribution.
  1351 
  1352 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1353 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1354 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1355 
  1356 
  1357 *** Pure ***
  1358 
  1359 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1360 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1361 
  1362 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1363 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1364 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1365 
  1366 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1367 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1368 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1369 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1370 with some care where this is really required.
  1371 
  1372 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1373 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1374 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1375 
  1376   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1377 
  1378 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1379 a Hasse diagram.
  1380 
  1381 
  1382 *** HOL ***
  1383 
  1384 * Sledgehammer:
  1385 
  1386   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1387     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1388   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1389   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1390   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1391   - Renamed options:
  1392       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1393       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1394       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1395       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1396 
  1397 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1398 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1399 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1400 
  1401 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1403 
  1404 * Lifting:
  1405   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1406   - quot_del attribute
  1407   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1408 
  1409 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1410 expressions.
  1411 
  1412 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1413 pointfree expressions.
  1414 
  1415 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1416 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1417 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1418 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1422 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1423 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1424 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1425 accordingly.
  1426 
  1427 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1428 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1431 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1436 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1437 
  1438 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1439 
  1440 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1441 
  1442   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1443   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1444 
  1445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1448 
  1449   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1450   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1451 
  1452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1453 
  1454 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1455 
  1456   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1457     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1458     output f x converges to G.
  1459 
  1460   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1461     infinity (at_bot).
  1462 
  1463   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1464     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1465 
  1466   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1467     at_top".
  1468 
  1469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470 
  1471 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1472 lattice type classes.
  1473 
  1474 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1475 
  1476     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1477     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1478 
  1479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1482 changes as follows.
  1483 
  1484   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1485 
  1486       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1487       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1488 
  1489   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1490     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1491     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1492     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1493 
  1494   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1495     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1496     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1497 
  1498   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1499     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1500     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1501     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1502 
  1503   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1504     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1505 
  1506       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1507       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1508       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1509       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1510       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1511       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1512       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1513       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1514       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1515       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1516       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1517       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1518       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1519       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1520       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1521       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1522 
  1523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1526 
  1527 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1528 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1529 
  1530 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1531 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1532 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1533 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1534 
  1535   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1536   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1537   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1538   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1539   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1540   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1541   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1542   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1543   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1544   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1545 
  1546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1549 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1550 Data").
  1551 
  1552 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1553 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1554 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1555 code.
  1556 
  1557 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1558 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1559 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1563 
  1564 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1565 
  1566 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1567 
  1568   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1569   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1570 
  1571 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1572 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1573 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1574 
  1575   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1576 
  1577     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1578     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1579     cart_base i  removed
  1580     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1581 
  1582   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1583 
  1584   Renamed lemmas:
  1585 
  1586     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1587     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1588     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1589     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1590     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1591     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1592     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1593     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1594     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1595     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1596 
  1597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * HOL/Probability:
  1600 
  1601   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1602 
  1603   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1604     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1605     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1606 
  1607   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1608     projective family).
  1609 
  1610 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1611 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1612 
  1613 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1614 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1615 datatypes.
  1616 
  1617 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1618 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1619 
  1620 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1621 trees for the code generator.
  1622 
  1623 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1624 Lifting/Transfer.
  1625 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630 
  1631 *** Document preparation ***
  1632 
  1633 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1634 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1635 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1636 
  1637 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1638 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1639 
  1640 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1641 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1642 document/root.tex.
  1643 
  1644 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1645 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1646 
  1647 
  1648 *** ML ***
  1649 
  1650 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1651 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1652 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1653 
  1654 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1655 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1656 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1657 
  1658 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1659 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1660 necessarily printing visible text.
  1661 
  1662 
  1663 *** System ***
  1664 
  1665 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1666 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1667 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1668 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1669 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1670 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1671 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1672 
  1673 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1674 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1675 
  1676   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1677 
  1678 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1679 
  1680 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1681 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1682 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1683 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1684 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1685 
  1686 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1687 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1688 
  1689 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1690 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1691 
  1692 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1696 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1697 version of Isabelle.
  1698 
  1699 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1700 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1701 
  1702 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1703 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1704 for home-made settings.
  1705 
  1706 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1707 
  1708 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1709 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1710 configuration.
  1711 
  1712 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1713 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1714 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1715 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1716 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1717 
  1718 
  1719 
  1720 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1721 ------------------------------
  1722 
  1723 *** General ***
  1724 
  1725 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1726 
  1727   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1728     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1729   - markup for bound variables
  1730   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1731   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1732   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1733     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1734 
  1735 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1736 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1737 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1738 
  1739 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1740 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1741 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1742 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1743 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1744 
  1745   context
  1746     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1747     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1748   begin
  1749 
  1750   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1751 
  1752   end
  1753 
  1754   thm my_trans
  1755 
  1756 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1757 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1758 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1759 
  1760 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1761 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1762 
  1763 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1764 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1765 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1766 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1767 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1768 
  1769 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1770 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1771 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1772 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1773 indices of schematic variables.
  1774 
  1775 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1776 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1777 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1778 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1779 etc. was exploited.
  1780 
  1781 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1782 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1783 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1784 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1785 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1786 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1787 
  1788 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1789 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1790 manual.
  1791 
  1792 
  1793 *** Pure ***
  1794 
  1795 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1796 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1797 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1798 
  1799 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1800 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1801 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1802 undocumented feature.)
  1803 
  1804 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1805 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1806 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1807 
  1808   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1809 
  1810   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1811     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1812 
  1813 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1814 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1815 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1816 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1817 
  1818 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1819 
  1820     num ~> num_token
  1821     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1822     xstr ~> str_token
  1823 
  1824 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1825 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1826 position information via constraints).
  1827 
  1828 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1829 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1830 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831 
  1832 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1833 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1834 
  1835 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1836 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1837 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1840 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1843 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1844 
  1845   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1846 
  1847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1850 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1851 
  1852 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1853 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1854 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1855 
  1856 
  1857 *** HOL ***
  1858 
  1859 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1860 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1861 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1862 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1863 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1864 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1865 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1866 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1867 possible.
  1868 
  1869 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1870 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1871 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1872 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1873 
  1874 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1875 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876 
  1877 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1878 
  1879 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1880 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1881 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1882 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1883 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1884 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1885 
  1886   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1887     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1888 
  1889   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1890     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1891     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1892 
  1893   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1894     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1895 
  1896   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1897     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1898     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1899 
  1900   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1901     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1902 
  1903 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1904 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1905 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1906 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1907 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1908 
  1909   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1910     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1911     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1912     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1913     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1914 
  1915     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1916     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1917 
  1918   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1919     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1920     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1921     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1922     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1923     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1924     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1925     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1926 
  1927   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1928     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1929     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1930     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1931 
  1932   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1933     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1934     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1935     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1936 
  1937   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1938     from type nat to type int.
  1939 
  1940 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1941 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1942 
  1943   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1944     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1945     type.  Example syntax:
  1946 
  1947     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1948       is List.insert
  1949 
  1950     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1951     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1952     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1953     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1954     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1955     by the package.
  1956 
  1957   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1958     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1959     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1960     code generation for each constant.
  1961 
  1962   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1963     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1964     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1965     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1966     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1967 
  1968   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1969     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1970     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1971 
  1972 * Quotient package:
  1973 
  1974   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1975     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1976 
  1977   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1978     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1979 
  1980   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1981     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1982     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1985     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1986 
  1987 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1988 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1989 
  1990 * Quickcheck:
  1991 
  1992   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1993     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1994     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1995     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1996     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1997 
  1998     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1999     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2000     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2001 
  2002     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2003     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2004 
  2005     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2006     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2007     show genuine counterexamples.
  2008 
  2009   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2010     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2011 
  2012     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2013     constructors of that type.
  2014 
  2015   - Support for multisets.
  2016 
  2017   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2018 
  2019   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2020     conjectures in a locale context.
  2021 
  2022 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2023 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2024 
  2025 * Sledgehammer:
  2026   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2027     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2028   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2029   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2030     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2031   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2032   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2033   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2034   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2035 
  2036 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2037 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2038 
  2039 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2040 
  2041 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2044 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2045 
  2046   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2047 
  2048 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2049 a list and a nat.
  2050 
  2051 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2052 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2053 
  2054 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2055 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2056 default.
  2057 
  2058 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2059 
  2060   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2061 
  2062 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2063 
  2064 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2065 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2066 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2067 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2068 one_case.
  2069 
  2070 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2071 the result of the fact expression.
  2072 
  2073 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2074 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2075 of some relation theorems:
  2076 
  2077   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2078   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2079   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2080   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2081   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2082   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2083 
  2084 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2085 
  2086 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2087 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2088 
  2089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2092 to match the constant's name:
  2093 
  2094   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2095   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2096   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2097   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2098   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2099   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2100   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2101   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2102   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2103   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2104   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2105   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2106   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2107   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2108   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2109   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2110   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2111   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2112   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2113   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2114   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2115   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2116   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2117   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2118 
  2119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2120 
  2121 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2122 and corresponding theorem names:
  2123 
  2124   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2125 
  2126   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2127 
  2128   - Renamed theorems:
  2129 
  2130     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2131     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2132     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2133     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2134     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2135     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2136     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2137     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2138     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2139     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2140     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2141     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2142     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2143     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2144     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2145     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2146     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2147     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2148     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2149     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2150     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2151     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2152     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2153 
  2154     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2155 
  2156     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2157 
  2158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2161 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2162 
  2163   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2164   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2165   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2166   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2167   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2168   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2169   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2170   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2171   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2172   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2173   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2174   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2175   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2176   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2177   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2178   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2179   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2180   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2181   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2182   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2183   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2184 
  2185 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2186 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2191 
  2192   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2193   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2194   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2195   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2196   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2197   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2198   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2199   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2200   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2201   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2202   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2203   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2204   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2205   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2206   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2207   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2208   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2209   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2210 
  2211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2214 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2215 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2216 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2217 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2218 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2219 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2220 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2221 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2222 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2223 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2224 
  2225 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2226 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2227 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2228 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2229 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2230 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2231 
  2232 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2233 through option types.
  2234 
  2235 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2236 relations.
  2237 
  2238 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2239 
  2240 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2241 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2242 
  2243   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2244   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2245   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2246   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2247   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2248   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2249   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2250   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2251   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2252   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2253   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2254   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2255   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2256   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2257   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2258   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2259   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2260   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2261   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2262   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2263   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2264   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2265   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2266   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2267   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2268   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2269   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2270   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2271   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2272   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2273   zless_le ~> less_le
  2274   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2275   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2276   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2277 
  2278 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2279 
  2280   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2281 
  2282 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2283 
  2284 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2285 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2286 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2287 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2291 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2292 
  2293 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2294 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2295 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2296 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2297 follows:
  2298 
  2299   Operations:
  2300   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2301   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2302   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2303   del -> rbt_del
  2304   delete -> rbt_delete
  2305   ins -> rbt_ins
  2306   insert -> rbt_insert
  2307   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2308   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2309   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2310   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2311   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2312   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2313   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2314   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2315   union -> rbt_union
  2316   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2317   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2318 
  2319   Lemmas:
  2320   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2321   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2322   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2323   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2324   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2325   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2326   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2327   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2328   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2329   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2330   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2331   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2332   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2333   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2334   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2335   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2336   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2337   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2338   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2339   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2340   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2341   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2342   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2343   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2344   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2345   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2346   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2347   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2348   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2349   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2350   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2351   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2352   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2353   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2354   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2355   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2356   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2357   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2358   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2359   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2360   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2361   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2362   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2363   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2364   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2365   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2366   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2367   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2368   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2369   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2370   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2371   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2372   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2373   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2374   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2375   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2376   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2377   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2378   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2379   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2380   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2381   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2382   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2383   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2384   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2385   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2386   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2387   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2388   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2389   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2390   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2391   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2392   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2393   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2394   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2395   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2396   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2397   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2398   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2399   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2400   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2401   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2402   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2403 
  2404 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2405 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2406 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408   Changed Operations:
  2409   float_abs -> abs
  2410   float_nprt -> nprt
  2411   float_pprt -> pprt
  2412   pow2 -> use powr
  2413   round_down -> float_round_down
  2414   round_up -> float_round_up
  2415   scale -> exponent
  2416 
  2417   Removed Operations:
  2418   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2419 
  2420   Renamed Lemmas:
  2421   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2422   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2423   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2424   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2425   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2426   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2427   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2428   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2429   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2430   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2431   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2432   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2433   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2434   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2435   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2436   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2437   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2438   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2439   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2440   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2441   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2442   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2443   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2444   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2445   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2446   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2447   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2448   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2449   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2450   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2451   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2452   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2453   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2454   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2455   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2456   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2457 
  2458   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2459   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2460   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2461   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2462   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2463   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2464   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2465   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2466   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2467   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2468 
  2469 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2470 association lists with distinct keys.
  2471 
  2472 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2473 annotated commands.
  2474 
  2475 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2476 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2477 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2478 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2481 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2482 instead.
  2483 
  2484   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2485   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2486   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2487   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2488   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2489   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2490   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2491   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2492   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2493   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2494   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2495   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2496   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2497   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2498   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2499   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2500   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2501   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2502   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2503   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2504   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2505   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2506   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2507   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2508   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2509   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2510   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2511   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2512   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2513   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2514   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2515   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2516   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2517   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2518   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2519   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2520   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2521   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2522   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2523   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2524   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2525 
  2526 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2527 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2528 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2529 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2530 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2531 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2532 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2533 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2534 
  2535 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2536 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2537 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2538 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2539 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2540 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2541 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2542 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2543 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2544 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2545 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2546 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547 
  2548   Renamed constants:
  2549   measure -> emeasure
  2550   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2551   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2552   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2553   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2554 
  2555   Removed locales:
  2556   completeable_measure_space
  2557   finite_measure_space
  2558   finite_prob_space
  2559   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2560   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2561   finite_sigma_algebra
  2562   measure_space
  2563   pair_finite_prob_space
  2564   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2565   pair_finite_space
  2566   pair_sigma_algebra
  2567   product_sigma_algebra
  2568 
  2569   Removed constants:
  2570   conditional_space
  2571   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2572   image_space
  2573   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2574   pair_measure_generator
  2575   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2576   subvimage
  2577 
  2578   Replacement theorems:
  2579   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2580   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2581   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2582   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2583   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2584   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2585   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2586   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2587   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2588   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2589   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2590   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2591   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2592   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2593   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2594   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2595   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2596   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2597   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2598   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2599   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2600   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2601   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2602   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2603   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2604   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2605   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2606   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2607   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2608   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2609   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2610   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2611   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2612   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2613   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2614   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2615   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2616   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2617   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2618   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2619   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2620   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2621   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2622   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2623   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2624   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2625   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2626   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2627   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2628   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2629   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2630   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2631   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2632   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2633   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2634   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2635   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2636   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2637   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2638   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2639   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2640   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2641   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2642   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2643   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2644   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2645   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2646   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2647   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2648   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2649   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2650   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2651   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2652   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2653   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2654   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2655   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2656   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2657   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2658   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2659   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2660   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2661   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2662   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2663   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2664   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2665   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2666   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2667   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2668   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2669   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2670   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2671   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2672   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2673   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2674   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2675   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2676   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2677   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2678   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2679   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2680   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2681   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2682   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2683   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2684   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2685   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2686   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2687   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2688   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2689   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2690   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2691   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2692   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2693   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2694   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2695   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2696   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2697   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2698   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2699   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2700   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2701   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2702   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2703   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2704   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2705   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2706   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2707 
  2708 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2709 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2710 
  2711 
  2712 *** FOL ***
  2713 
  2714 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2715 
  2716 
  2717 *** ZF ***
  2718 
  2719 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2720 analysis.
  2721 
  2722 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2723 
  2724 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726 
  2727 *** ML ***
  2728 
  2729 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2730 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2731 
  2732 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2733 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2734 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2735 
  2736 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2737 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2738 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2739 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2740 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2741 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2742 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2743 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2744 
  2745 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2746 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2747 
  2748 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2749 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2750 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2751 
  2752 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2753 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754 
  2755 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2756 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2757 context as well.
  2758 
  2759 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2760 
  2761   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2762   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2763   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2764   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2765   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2766   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2767   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2768   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2769   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2770   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2771   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2772   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2773 
  2774 
  2775 *** System ***
  2776 
  2777 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2778 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2779 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2780 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2781 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2782 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2783 the generic user home was intended.
  2784 
  2785 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2786 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2787 
  2788 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2789 (not just JRE).
  2790 
  2791 
  2792 
  2793 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2794 ------------------------------------
  2795 
  2796 *** General ***
  2797 
  2798 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2799 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2800 
  2801   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2802     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2803     files for checking).
  2804 
  2805   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2806     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2807     positions.
  2808 
  2809   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2810     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2811     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2812 
  2813   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2814     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2815     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2816 
  2817   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2818     cores.
  2819 
  2820   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2821     versions (garbage collection).
  2822 
  2823 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2824 including some remaining limitations.
  2825 
  2826 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2827 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2828 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2829 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2830 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2834 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2835 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2836 
  2837 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2838 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2839 usedir option -Q.
  2840 
  2841 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2842 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2843 
  2844   long_names   ~> names_long
  2845   short_names  ~> names_short
  2846   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2847 
  2848 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2849 
  2850   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2851 
  2852 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2853 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2854 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2855 
  2856 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2857 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2858 
  2859 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2860   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2861   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2862   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2863     "Classical Reasoner".
  2864 
  2865 
  2866 *** HOL ***
  2867 
  2868 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2869 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2872 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2873 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2874 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2875 class complete_linorder.
  2876 
  2877 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2878 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2879 
  2880 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2881 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2882 
  2883   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2884   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2885   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2886   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2887   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2888   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2889   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2890   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2891   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2892   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2893   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2894 
  2895 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2896 
  2897   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2898   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2899   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2900   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2901   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2902   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2903   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2904   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2905   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2906   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2907   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2908   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2909   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2910   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2911   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2912   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2913 
  2914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2920 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2921 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2922 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2925 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2926 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2930 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2931 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2932 
  2933 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2934 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2935 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2938 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2939 
  2940 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2941 
  2942     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2943     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2944 
  2945 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2946 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2949 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2952 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2953 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2954 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2957   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2958   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2959   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2960   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2961   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2962   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2963 
  2964 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2965 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2968   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2969   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2970   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2971   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2972   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2973   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2974   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2975   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2976   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2977   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2978   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2979   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2980   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2981   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2982   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2983   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2984   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2985   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2986   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2987   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2988   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2989   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2990   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2991   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2992   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2993   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2994   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2995   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2996   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2997   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2998   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2999   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3000   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3001   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3002   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3003   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3004   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3005   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3006   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3007   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3008   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3009   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3010   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3011   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3012   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3013   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3014   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3015   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3016   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3017   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3018   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3019   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3020   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3021   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3022   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3023   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3024   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3025   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3026   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3027   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3028   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3029   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3030   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3031   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3032   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3033   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3034   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3035   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3036   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3037   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3038   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3039   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3040   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3041   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3042   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3043   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3044   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3045   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3046   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3047   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3048   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3049 
  3050 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3051 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3052 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3053 
  3054 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3055 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3056 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3057 
  3058 * Code generation:
  3059 
  3060   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3061     characters in the target language.
  3062 
  3063   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3064     instead.
  3065 
  3066   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3067 
  3068   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3069     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3070 
  3071       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3072 
  3073 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3076 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3077 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3078 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3079 syntax.
  3080 
  3081 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3082 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3083 
  3084 * Nitpick:
  3085   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3086   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3087   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3088     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * Sledgehammer:
  3091   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3092   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3093     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3094   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3095     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3096   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3097     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3099     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3100   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3101     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Metis:
  3104   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3106     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3107 
  3108 * Command 'try':
  3109   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3110     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3112     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3113 
  3114 * Quickcheck:
  3115   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3116     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3117   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3118     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3119   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3120     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3121     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3122     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3123   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3124     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3125 
  3126 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3127 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3128 
  3129 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3130 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3131 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3132 
  3133 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3134 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3138 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3141 arithmetic.
  3142 
  3143 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3144 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3145 and lattice type classes.
  3146 
  3147 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3148 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3149 
  3150 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3151 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3152 
  3153 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3154 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3155 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3158   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3159   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3160   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3161 
  3162 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3163 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3164 constants:
  3165 
  3166   type inat   ~> type enat
  3167   Fin         ~> enat
  3168   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3169   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3170   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3171 
  3172 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3173 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3176 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3177 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3178 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3179 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3180 
  3181 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3182 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3183 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3184 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3185 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3186 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3187 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3188 
  3189   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3190   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3191   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3192   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3193 
  3194 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3195 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3196 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3197 
  3198   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3199   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3200   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3201   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3202   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3203   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3204   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3205   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3206   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3207   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3208   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3209   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3210   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3211   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3212   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3213   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3214   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3215   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3216   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3217   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3218   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3219   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3220   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3221   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3222   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3223   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3224   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3225   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3226   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3227   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3228   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3229   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3230   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3231   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3232   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3233   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3234   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3235   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3236   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3237   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3238   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3239   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3240   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3241   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3242   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3243   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3244   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3245   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3246   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3247   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3248   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3249 
  3250 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3251   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3252   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3253   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3254   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3255     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3260   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3261   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3262   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3263   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3264   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3265   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3266   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3267   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3268   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3269   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3270   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3271   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3272   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3273   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3274   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3275   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3276   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3277   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3278   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3279   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3280   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3281   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3282   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3283   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3284 
  3285 
  3286 *** Document preparation ***
  3287 
  3288 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3289 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3290 same.
  3291 
  3292 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3293 result.
  3294 
  3295 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3296 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3297 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3298 
  3299 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3300 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3301 
  3302 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3303 like this:
  3304 
  3305   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3306   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3307 
  3308 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3309 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3310 layouts.
  3311 
  3312 
  3313 *** ML ***
  3314 
  3315 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3316 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3317 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3318 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3319 under external program control.
  3320 
  3321 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3322 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3323 
  3324 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3325 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3326 (better known as Proof General).
  3327 
  3328 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3329 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3330 
  3331 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3332 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3333 
  3334 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3335 (including quotes etc.).
  3336 
  3337 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3338 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3339 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3340 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3341 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3342 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3343 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3344 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3345 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3346 
  3347 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3348 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3349 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3350 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3351 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3352 
  3353 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3354 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3355 
  3356 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3357 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3358 
  3359 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3360 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3361 
  3362 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3363 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3364 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3365 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3366 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3367 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3368 proper Proof.context.
  3369 
  3370 
  3371 *** System ***
  3372 
  3373 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3374 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3375 
  3376 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3377 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3378 
  3379 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3380 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3381 
  3382   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3383   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3384   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3385   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3386   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3387 
  3388 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3389 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3390 
  3391 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3392 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3393 example:
  3394 
  3395   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3396 
  3397 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3398 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3399 
  3400 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3401 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3402 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3403 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3404 
  3405 
  3406 
  3407 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3408 ----------------------------------
  3409 
  3410 *** General ***
  3411 
  3412 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3413 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3414 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3415 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3416 like this:
  3417 
  3418   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3419 
  3420 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3421 
  3422 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3423 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3424 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3425 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3426 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3427 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3428 
  3429 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3430 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3431 the following package declarations:
  3432 
  3433   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3434   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3435 
  3436 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3437 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3438 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3439 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3440 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3441 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3442 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3443 
  3444 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3445 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3446 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3447 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3448 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3449 
  3450 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3451 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3452 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3453 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3454 
  3455 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3456 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3457 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3458 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3459 
  3460   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3461 
  3462   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3463   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3464   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3465   show_types                    show_types
  3466   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3467   show_consts                   show_consts
  3468   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3469 
  3470   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3471   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3472   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3473 
  3474   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3475   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3476 
  3477   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3478 
  3479   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3480   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3481   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3482   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3483   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3484 
  3485 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3486 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3487 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3488 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3489 
  3490 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3494   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3495 
  3496 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3497 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3498 float_token.
  3499 
  3500 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3501 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3505 DejaVu Sans.
  3506 
  3507 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3508 
  3509 
  3510 *** Pure ***
  3511 
  3512 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3513 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3514 time.
  3515 
  3516 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3517 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3520 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3521 
  3522 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3523 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3524 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3525 command already provided this functionality.
  3526 
  3527 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3528 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3529 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3530 without interpretations.
  3531 
  3532 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3533 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3534 
  3535 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3536 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3537 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3538 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3539 
  3540 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3541 'definition' instead.
  3542 
  3543 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3544 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3545 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3546 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3547 
  3548 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3549 constructors.
  3550 
  3551 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3552 the local file system.
  3553 
  3554 
  3555 *** HOL ***
  3556 
  3557 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3558 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3559 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3560 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3561 
  3562   declare [[coercion f]]
  3563 
  3564 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3565 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3566 
  3567   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3568 
  3569 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3570 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3571 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3572 other theories like this:
  3573 
  3574   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3575 
  3576 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3577 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3578 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3579 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3580 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3581 for examples.
  3582 
  3583 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3584 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3587 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3588 
  3589 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3590 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3591 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3592 
  3593 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3594 functorial structure of types.
  3595 
  3596 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3597 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3598 
  3599 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3600 languages.
  3601 
  3602 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3603 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3607 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3610 combinators any longer.
  3611 
  3612 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3613 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3614 
  3615 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3616 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3617 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3618 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3619 
  3620   record 'a foo = ...
  3621   ...
  3622   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3623 
  3624 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3625 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3629 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3630 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3631 
  3632 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3633 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3634 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3635 
  3636 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3637 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3640 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3641 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3642 independently.
  3643 
  3644 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3645 counter example search.
  3646 
  3647 * Sledgehammer:
  3648   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3649     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3650     sledgehammer").
  3651   - Renamed commands:
  3652     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3653     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3654     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3655     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656   - Renamed options:
  3657     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3658     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3659     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3660     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3661     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Nitpick:
  3664   - Renamed options:
  3665     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3666     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3667     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3669   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3670   - Added "whack" option.
  3671   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3672   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3673   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3674   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3675     higher cardinalities.
  3676   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3677 
  3678 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3679 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3680 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3681 
  3682     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3683 
  3684 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3685 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3686 
  3687 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3688 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3689 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3690 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3691 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3692 "smt_solver".
  3693 
  3694 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3695 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3696 
  3697 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3698 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3699 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3700 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3703   - Renamed:
  3704     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3705     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3706     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707   - Added:
  3708     smt_verbose
  3709     smt_random_seed
  3710     smt_datatypes
  3711     smt_infer_triggers
  3712     smt_monomorph_limit
  3713     cvc3_options
  3714     remote_cvc3_options
  3715     remote_z3_options
  3716     yices_options
  3717 
  3718 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3719 header.
  3720 
  3721 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3722 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3723 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3724 
  3725   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3726 
  3727 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3730 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3731 
  3732 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3735 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3738 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3739 
  3740 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3741 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3744 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3745 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3753 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3756 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3757 for congruent(2)).
  3758 
  3759 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3760 
  3761   types
  3762     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3763     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3764 
  3765   constants
  3766     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3767     True ~> HOL.True
  3768     False ~> HOL.False
  3769     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3770     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3771     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3772     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3773     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3774     The ~> HOL.The
  3775     All ~> HOL.All
  3776     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3777     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3778     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3779     If ~> HOL.If
  3780     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3781     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3782     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3783     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3784     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3785     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3786     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3787     op : ~> Set.member
  3788     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3789 
  3790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3793 
  3794     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3795     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3796     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3797     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3798     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3799     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3800     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3801     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3802 
  3803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * More stylized fact names:
  3806 
  3807   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3808   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3809   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3810   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3811 
  3812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3815 
  3816   constants
  3817     null ~> List.null
  3818 
  3819   facts
  3820     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3821     null_empty ~> null_def
  3822 
  3823 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3824 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3825 generation.
  3826 
  3827 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3828 Haskell code.
  3829 
  3830 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3831 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3832 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3835 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3838 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3839 
  3840 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3841 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3842 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3845 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3849 
  3850 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3851 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3852 referred to by its qualified name.
  3853 
  3854   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3855   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3856   product ~>  Enum.product
  3857 
  3858 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3859 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3861 
  3862 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3863 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3864 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3868 sort_key.
  3869 
  3870 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872 
  3873 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3874 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3875 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3876 
  3877   types
  3878     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3879               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3880               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3881         (depends on your needs)
  3882 
  3883   constants
  3884      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3885      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3886      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3887 
  3888 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3889 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3890 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3891 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3894 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3895 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3896 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3897 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3903 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3904 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3905 
  3906 
  3907 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3908 
  3909 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3910 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3911 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3912 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3913 compatibility.
  3914 
  3915 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3916 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3917 
  3918 
  3919 *** HOLCF ***
  3920 
  3921 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3922 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3923 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3927 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3928 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3931   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3932   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3933 
  3934 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3935 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3936 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3939 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3940 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3941 domain definition now works:
  3942 
  3943   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3944 
  3945 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3946 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3947 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3948 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3949 
  3950   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3951     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3952 
  3953   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3954 
  3955 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3956 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3957 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3960 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3963 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3964 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3965 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3966 
  3967 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3968 
  3969 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972 
  3973 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3977 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3978 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3979 
  3980 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3981 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3982 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3985 still supported as an input translation.
  3986 
  3987 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3988 
  3989   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3990   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3991   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3992   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3993   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3994   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3995   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3996 
  3997 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3998 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4001   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4002   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4003   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4004   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4005   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4006 
  4007 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4008 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4011 
  4012   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4013   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4014   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4015   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4016 
  4017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4020 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4023 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024 
  4025   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4026   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4027   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4028   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4029   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4030   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4031   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4032   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4033   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4034   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4035   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4036   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4037   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4038   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4039   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4040   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4041   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4042   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4043   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4044   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4045 
  4046 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047 
  4048   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4049   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4050   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4051   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4052   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4053   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4054   box_less             ~> box_below
  4055   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4056   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4057   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4058   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4059   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4060   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4061   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4062   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4063   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4064   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4065   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4066   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4067   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4068   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4069   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4070   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4071   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4072   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4073   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4074   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4075   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4076   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4077   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4078   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4079   up_less              ~> up_below
  4080   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4081   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4082   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4083   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4084   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4085   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4086   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4087   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4088   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4089   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4090   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4091   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4092   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4093 
  4094 
  4095 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4096 
  4097 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4098 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 
  4101 *** ML ***
  4102 
  4103 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4104 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4105 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4106 
  4107 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4108 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4109 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4110 
  4111 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4112 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4113 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4114 
  4115 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4116 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4117 
  4118 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4119 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4120 
  4121 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4122 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4123 
  4124 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4125 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4126 
  4127 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4128 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4129 almost all situations.
  4130 
  4131 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4132 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4133 Isabelle/ML.
  4134 
  4135 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4136 meaning.
  4137 
  4138 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4139 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4140 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4141 
  4142 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4143 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4144 
  4145 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4146 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4147 
  4148 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4149 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4150 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4151 
  4152 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4153 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4154 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4155 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4156 configuration options.
  4157 
  4158 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4159 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4160 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4161 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4162 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4163 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4164 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4165 
  4166 
  4167 
  4168 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4169 ---------------------------------
  4170 
  4171 *** General ***
  4172 
  4173 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4174 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4175 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4176 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4177 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4178 their full internal name.
  4179 
  4180 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4181 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4182 Some hints on upgrading:
  4183 
  4184   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4185     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4186     which are independent of this issue.
  4187 
  4188   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4189     provides the following special forms:
  4190 
  4191       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4192       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4193       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4194 
  4195     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4196     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4197     extra variables".
  4198 
  4199     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4200     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4201     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4202     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4203     "logic".
  4204 
  4205   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4206     antiquotations:
  4207 
  4208       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4209       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4210       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4211       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4212 
  4213   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4214     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4215     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4216     antiquotations.
  4217 
  4218 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4219 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4220 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4221 diagnose syntax problems.
  4222 
  4223 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4224 
  4225 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4226 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4227 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4228 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4229 
  4230 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4231 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4232 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4233 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4236 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4237 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4238 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4239 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4240 
  4241 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4242 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4243 
  4244 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4245 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4246 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4247 
  4248   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4249 
  4250 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4251 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4252 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4253 
  4254 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4255 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4259 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4260 
  4261 
  4262 *** Pure ***
  4263 
  4264 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4265 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4266 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4267 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4268 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4269 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4270 inspect proof terms.
  4271 
  4272 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4273 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4274 are added internally.  For example:
  4275 
  4276   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4277 
  4278 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4279 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4284 'class' instead.
  4285 
  4286 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4287 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4289 
  4290 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4291 invariants.
  4292 
  4293 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4294 user space functionality any longer.
  4295 
  4296 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4297 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4299 
  4300 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4301 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4302 
  4303 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4304 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4305 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4306 
  4307 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4308 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4309 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4310 
  4311 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4312 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4313 
  4314 
  4315 *** HOL ***
  4316 
  4317 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4318 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4319 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4320 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4321 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4322 
  4323 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4324 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4325 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4326 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4327 
  4328   fun
  4329     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4330   where
  4331     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4332 
  4333   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4334     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4335 
  4336   quotient_definition
  4337     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4338 
  4339 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4340 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4341 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4342 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4343 
  4344 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4345 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4346 
  4347 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4348 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4349 
  4350 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4352 
  4353 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4354 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4355 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4356 
  4357 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4358 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4367 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4370 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4371 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4374   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4375   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4376   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4377   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4378   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4379   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4380   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4381   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4382   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4383   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4384   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4385   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4386   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4387   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4388   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4389   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4390   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4391   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4392   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4393   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4394   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4395   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4396   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4397   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4398   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4399   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4400   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4401   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4402   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4403 
  4404 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4405 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4406 
  4407 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4408 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4409 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4410 
  4411 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4412 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4413 
  4414 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4415 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4416 
  4417 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4418 
  4419 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4420 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4423 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4424 
  4425 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4428 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4429 
  4430 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4431 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4432 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4433 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4436   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4437   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4438   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4440 
  4441 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4442 lattices):
  4443 
  4444     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4445     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4446 
  4447     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4448 
  4449     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4450     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4451     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4452     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4453     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4454     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4455     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4456     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4457     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4458     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4459     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4460     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4461     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4462 
  4463     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4464     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4465     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4466     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4467     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4468     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4469     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4470     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4471     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4472     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4473     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4474     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4475     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4476     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4477     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4478     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4479     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4480     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4481 
  4482   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4483   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4484 
  4485     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4486     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4487     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4488     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4489     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4490 
  4491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4492 
  4493 * Refined field classes:
  4494   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4495     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4496     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4497   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4501   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4502   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4503   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4504     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4505   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4506     equal_neg_zero.
  4507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4508 
  4509 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4510 sets to lattices:
  4511 
  4512   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4513   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4514   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4515   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4516   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4517   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4518   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4519   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4520   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4521   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4522 
  4523 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4524 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4525 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4526 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4527 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4528 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4529 
  4530 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4531 multiset order:
  4532 
  4533   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4534     <= and <;
  4535   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4536     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4537     multiset_order;
  4538   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4539     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4540     generation;
  4541   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4542     if needed.
  4543 
  4544 Renamed:
  4545 
  4546   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4547   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4548   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4549 
  4550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4551 
  4552 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4553 
  4554 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4555 
  4556 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4557 
  4558 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4559 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4560 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562   Constants:
  4563   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4564   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4565   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4566   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4567   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4568   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4569   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4570   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4571   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4572   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4573   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4574   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4575   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4576 
  4577   Lemmas:
  4578   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4579   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4580   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4581   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4582   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4583   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4584   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4585   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4586   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4587   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4588   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4589   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4590   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4591 
  4592 * Sledgehammer:
  4593   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4594     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4595     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4596     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4597     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4598     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4599     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4601   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4602     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4603   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4604     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4605     is still experimental.)
  4606   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4607     full-typed mode.
  4608   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4609 
  4610 * Nitpick:
  4611   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4612   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4613   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4614     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4615   - Added support for quotient types.
  4616   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4617     constructs.
  4618   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4619     "termination" proofs).
  4620   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4621   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4622   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4623   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4624     record getters.
  4625   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4626   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4627   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4628   - Added "atoms" option.
  4629   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4630     problems.
  4631   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4632     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4633     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4634   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4635     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4639   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4640   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4641   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4642   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4643   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4644   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4645   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4646   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4647   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 
  4650 *** HOLCF ***
  4651 
  4652 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4653 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4654 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4657 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4658 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4659 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4662 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4663 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4664 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4665 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4668 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4669 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4672 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4673 
  4674   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4675   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4676 
  4677 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4678 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4681   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4682   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4683   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4684   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4685 
  4686 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4687 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4690   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4691   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4692 
  4693 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4694 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4698 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4703 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 
  4706 *** ML ***
  4707 
  4708 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4709 
  4710     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4711     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4712 
  4713     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4714     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4715     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4716     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4717 
  4718     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4719     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4720     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4721 
  4722 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4723 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4724 
  4725 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4726 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4727 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4728 
  4729 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4730 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4731 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4732 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4733 
  4734 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4735 the context or even global references.
  4736 
  4737 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4738 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4739 
  4740 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4741 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4742 
  4743   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4744   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4745   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4746   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4747   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4748   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4749   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4750   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4751   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4752   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4753 
  4754 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4755 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4756 
  4757 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4758 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4759 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4760 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4761 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4762 
  4763 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4764 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4765 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4766 Theory_Data version.
  4767 
  4768 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4769 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4770 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4771 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4772 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4773 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4774 explicitly in rare situations.
  4775 
  4776 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4777 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4779 
  4780 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4781 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4784 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4785 quite rare).
  4786 
  4787 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4788 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4791 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4792 terms.
  4793 
  4794 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4795 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4796 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4797 
  4798 
  4799 *** System ***
  4800 
  4801 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4802 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4803 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4804 
  4805 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4806 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4807 respectively.
  4808 
  4809 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4810 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4811 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4812 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4813 
  4814   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4815 
  4816 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4817 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4818 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4819 component.
  4820 
  4821 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4822 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4823 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4824 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4825 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4826 the user for manual installation.
  4827 
  4828 
  4829 
  4830 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4831 -------------------------------------
  4832 
  4833 *** General ***
  4834 
  4835 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4836 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4837 
  4838 
  4839 *** Pure ***
  4840 
  4841 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4842 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4843 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4844 
  4845 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4846 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4847 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4848 
  4849 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4850 interpretation.
  4851 
  4852 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4853 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 
  4856 *** Document preparation ***
  4857 
  4858 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4859 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4860 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4861 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4862 
  4863 
  4864 *** HOL ***
  4865 
  4866 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4867 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4868 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4869 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4870 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4871 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4872 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4873 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4874 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4875 
  4876 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4877 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4878 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4879 
  4880 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4881 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4882 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4883 
  4884 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4885 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4886 
  4887 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4888 
  4889 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4890 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4891 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4892 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4893 
  4894 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4895 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4896 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4897 "mirabelle" utility.
  4898 
  4899 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4900 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4901 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4902 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4903 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4904 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4905 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4906 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4907 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4908 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4909 
  4910 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4911 procedure only.
  4912 
  4913 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4914 
  4915 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4916 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4917 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4918 that fail later.
  4919 
  4920 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4921 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4922 
  4923 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4924 the same method as the approximation method.
  4925 
  4926 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4927 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4928 series expansion.
  4929 
  4930 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4931 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4932 
  4933 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4934 reals.
  4935 
  4936 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4937 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4938 
  4939 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4940 fixpoint theorem.
  4941 
  4942 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4943   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4944     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4945   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4946     accordingly
  4947   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4948     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4949   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4950     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4951 
  4952 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4953 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4954 lattice.
  4955 
  4956 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4957 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4958 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4959 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4960 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4961 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4963 
  4964 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4965   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4966     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4967   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4968     le_inf_iff
  4969   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4970     sup_aci)
  4971   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4972   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4973   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4974     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4975     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4976     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4977     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4978     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4979     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4980     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4981     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4982     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4983     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4984   - authentic syntax for
  4985     Set.Pow
  4986     Set.image
  4987   - mere abbreviations:
  4988     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4989     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4990     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4991     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4992     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4993     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4994     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4995     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4996   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4997 
  4998 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4999 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5000 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5001 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5002 
  5003 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5004 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5005 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5008 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5011 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5012 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5013 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5016 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5017 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5018 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5019 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5020 
  5021 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5022 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5026 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5029 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5030 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5031 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5032 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5033 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5034 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5036 
  5037 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5038     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5039     code_post       replaces    code post
  5040     etc.
  5041   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5042 
  5043 * Renamed methods:
  5044     sizechange -> size_change
  5045     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5046   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5049 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5050 
  5051 * Renamed theorems:
  5052     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5053     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5054     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5055     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5056     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5057   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 
  5066 *** HOLCF ***
  5067 
  5068 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5069 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5070 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5071 
  5072 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5073 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5074 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5075 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5076 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5077 
  5078 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5079 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5080 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5081 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5082 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5083 
  5084 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5085 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5086 constructor are pre-configured.
  5087 
  5088 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5089 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5090 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5091 
  5092 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5093 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5094 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5095 as well.)
  5096 
  5097 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5098 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5099 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5100 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5101 examples.
  5102 
  5103 
  5104 *** ML ***
  5105 
  5106 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5107 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5108 
  5109 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5110 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5111 position, logical grouping etc.
  5112 
  5113 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5114 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5115 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5116 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5117 
  5118 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5119 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5120 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5121 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5122 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5123 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5124 
  5125 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5126 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5127 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5128 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5129 experiments with references.
  5130 
  5131 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5132 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5133 
  5134 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5135 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5136 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5137 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5138 
  5139 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5140 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5141 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5142 
  5143 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5144 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5145 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5153 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5154 
  5155 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5156 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5157 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5158 
  5159 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5160 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5161 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5162 
  5163 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5164 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5165 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5169 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5170 instead of global theory.
  5171 
  5172 
  5173 *** System ***
  5174 
  5175 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5176 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5177 usedir option -q.
  5178 
  5179 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5180 also the system manual.
  5181 
  5182 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5183 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5184 
  5185 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5186 this is always enabled.
  5187 
  5188 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5189 
  5190 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5191 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5192 currently supported on Linux only.
  5193 
  5194 
  5195 
  5196 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5197 --------------------------------
  5198 
  5199 *** General ***
  5200 
  5201 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5202 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5203 
  5204   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5205     "isatool."
  5206 
  5207   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5208     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5209 
  5210   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5211     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5212 
  5213 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5214 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5215 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5216 
  5217 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5218 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5219 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5220 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5221 via "isabelle emacs".
  5222 
  5223 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5224 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5225 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5226 
  5227 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5228 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5229 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5230 
  5231 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5232 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5233 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5234 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5235 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5236 
  5237 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5238 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5239 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5240 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5241 
  5242 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5243 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5244 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5245 
  5246 
  5247 *** Pure ***
  5248 
  5249 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5250 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5251 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5252 
  5253 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5254 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5255 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5256 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5257 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5258 
  5259 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5260 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5261 useful in locale declarations.
  5262 
  5263 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5264 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5265 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5266 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5267 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5268 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5269 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5270 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5271 no longer generated.
  5272 
  5273 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5274 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5275 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5276 
  5277 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5278 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5279 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5280 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5281 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5282 
  5283 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5284 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5285 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5286 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5287 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5288 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5289 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5290 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5291 
  5292 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5293 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5294 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5295 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5296 
  5297 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5300 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5301 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5302 
  5303 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5304 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5305 
  5306 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5307 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5308 in HOL, write
  5309 
  5310     class foo = ...
  5311 
  5312 instead of
  5313 
  5314     class foo = type + ...
  5315 
  5316 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5317 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5318 
  5319 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5320 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5321 
  5322 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5323 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5324 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5325 
  5326 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5327 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5328 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5329 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5330 directly in regular applications.
  5331 
  5332 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5333 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5334 
  5335 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5336 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5337 
  5338 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5339 theory context.
  5340 
  5341 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5342 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5343 
  5344 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5345 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5346 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5347 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5348 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5349 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5350 
  5351   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5352 
  5353 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5354 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5355 normalization.
  5356 
  5357 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5358 addressing etc.
  5359 
  5360 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5361 
  5362   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5363   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5364 
  5365 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5366 
  5367   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5368      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5369      parts of the code generator framework).
  5370 
  5371   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5372      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5373      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5374 
  5375 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5378 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5379 
  5380 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5381 patterns, e.g.
  5382 
  5383     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5384 
  5385 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5386 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5387 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5388 hyphen:
  5389 
  5390     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5391 
  5392 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5393 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5394 
  5395 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5396 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5397 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5398 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5399 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5400 higher-order unification.
  5401 
  5402 
  5403 *** Document preparation ***
  5404 
  5405 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5406 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5407 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5408 
  5409 
  5410 *** HOL ***
  5411 
  5412 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5413 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5414 
  5415 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5416 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5417 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5418 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5419 Main, as before.
  5420 
  5421 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5422 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5423 
  5424 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5425 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5426 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5427 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5428 
  5429 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5430 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5431 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5432 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5433 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5434 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5435 
  5436 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5437 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5438 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5439 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5440 
  5441 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5442 menu.
  5443 
  5444 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5445 (contains the empty clause).
  5446 
  5447 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5448 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5449 
  5450 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5451 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5452 
  5453 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5454 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5455 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5456 
  5457 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5458 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5459 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5460 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5461 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5462 
  5463 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5464 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5465 
  5466 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5467 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5468 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5469 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5470 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5471 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5472 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5473 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5474 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5475 
  5476 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5477 
  5478 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5479 
  5480 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5481 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5482 
  5483 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5484 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5485 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5486 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5487 
  5488 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5489 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5490 
  5491     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5492     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5493     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5494     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5495     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5496     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5497     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5498     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5499 
  5500 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5501 theory Set.
  5502 
  5503 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5504 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5505 
  5506 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5507 
  5508 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5509 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5510 
  5511 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5512 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5513 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5514 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5515 allowed. For examples see
  5516 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5517 
  5518 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5519 
  5520 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5522 
  5523 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5524 structure:
  5525 
  5526     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5527     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5528     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5529     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5530     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5531     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5532     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5533     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5534     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5535     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5536     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5537     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5538     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5539     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5540     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5541     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5542     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5543     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5544     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5545     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5546     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5547     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5548     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5549     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5550     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5551     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5552     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5553     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5554     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5555     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5556     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5557     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5558     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5559 
  5560     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5561     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5562     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5563     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5564     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5565     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5566     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5567     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5568     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5569     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5570 
  5571     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5572     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5573     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5574     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5575     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5576     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5577 
  5578 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5579 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5580 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5581 
  5582 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5583 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5584 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5585 
  5586 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5587 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5590 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5591 
  5592 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5593 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5594 proofs, e.g.
  5595 
  5596   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5597 
  5598 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5599 
  5600 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5601 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5602 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5603 
  5604 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5605 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5607 
  5608 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5609 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5610 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5612 
  5613 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5614 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5615 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5616 preorder_class.*.
  5617 
  5618 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5619 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5620 
  5621 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5622 
  5623   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5624 
  5625 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5626 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5627 fold_image.
  5628 
  5629 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5630 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5631 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5632 the former will disappear at some point.
  5633 
  5634 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5635 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5636 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5637 
  5638 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5639 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5640 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5641 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5642 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5643 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5644 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5645 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5646 
  5647 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5648 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5649 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5650 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5651 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5652 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5653 
  5654     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5655     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5656     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5657     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5658     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5659     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5660     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5661 
  5662 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5663 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5664 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5665 
  5666 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5667 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5668 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5669 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5670 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5671 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5672 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5673 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5674 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5675 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5676 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5677 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5678 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5679 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5680 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5681 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5682 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5683 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5684 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5685 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5686 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5687 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5688 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5689 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5690 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5691 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5692 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5693 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5694 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5695 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5696 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5697 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5698 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5699 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5700 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5701 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5702 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5703 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5704 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5705 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5706 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5707 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5708 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5709 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5710 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5711 
  5712 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5715 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5716 
  5717 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5718 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5719 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5720 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5721 
  5722 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5723 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5724 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5725 theory RealVector.
  5726 
  5727 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5728 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5729 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5730 and inner products are included.
  5731 
  5732 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5733 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5734 supported.
  5735 
  5736 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5737 first diagonalization argument.
  5738 
  5739 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5740 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5741 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5742 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5743 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5744 
  5745     hide (open) const gcd
  5746     abbreviation gcd where
  5747       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5748     notation (output)
  5749       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5750 
  5751 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5752 
  5753 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5754 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5755 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5756 
  5757 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5758 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5759 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5760 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5761 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5762 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5763 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5764 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5765 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5766 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5767 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5768 cases.
  5769 
  5770 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5771 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5772 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5773 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5774 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5775 
  5776     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5777     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5778     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5779     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5780     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5781 
  5782 
  5783 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5784 
  5785 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5786 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5787 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5788 
  5789 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5790 
  5791 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5792 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5793 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5794 
  5795 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5796 
  5797 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5798 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5799 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5800 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5801 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5802 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5803 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5804 
  5805 
  5806 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5807 
  5808 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5809 
  5810 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5811 theory targets.
  5812 
  5813 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5814 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5815 'inductive' etc.
  5816 
  5817 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5818 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5819 
  5820 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5821 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5822 
  5823 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5824 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5825 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5826 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5827 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5828 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5829 the algorithm W:
  5830 
  5831  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5832  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5833          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5834 
  5835 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5836 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5837 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5838 
  5839 
  5840 *** HOLCF ***
  5841 
  5842 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5843 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5844 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5845 
  5846 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5847 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5848 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5849 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5850 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5851 
  5852 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5853 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5854 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5855 
  5856 
  5857 *** ZF ***
  5858 
  5859 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5860 
  5861 
  5862 *** ML ***
  5863 
  5864 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5865 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5866 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5867 5.2.1!
  5868 
  5869 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5870 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5871 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5872 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5873 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5874 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5875 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5876 
  5877 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5878 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5879 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5880 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5881 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5882 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5883 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5884 
  5885 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5886 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5887 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5888 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5889 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5890 
  5891 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5892 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5893 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5894 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5895 Method.add_method.
  5896 
  5897 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5898 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5899 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5900 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5901 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5902 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5903 
  5904 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5905 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5906 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5907 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5908 examples.
  5909 
  5910 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5911 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5912 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5913 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5914 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5915 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5916 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5917 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5918 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5919 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5920 
  5921 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5922 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5923 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5924 
  5925 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5926 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5927 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5928 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5929 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5930 resort for legacy applications.
  5931 
  5932 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5933 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5934 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5935 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5936 explicit runtime argument.
  5937 
  5938 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5939 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5940 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5941 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5942 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5943 
  5944 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5945 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5946 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5947 theory state.
  5948 
  5949 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5950 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5951 
  5952   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5953   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5954   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5955   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5956   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5957   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5958   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5959   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5960   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5961   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5962 
  5963 
  5964 *** System ***
  5965 
  5966 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5967 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5968 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5969 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5970 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5971 
  5972 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5973 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5974 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5975 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5976 
  5977 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5978 
  5979 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5980 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5981 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5982 prover operations.
  5983 
  5984 
  5985 
  5986 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5987 -------------------------------
  5988 
  5989 *** General ***
  5990 
  5991 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5992 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5993 
  5994 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5995 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5996 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5997 provides a proper context already.
  5998 
  5999 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6000 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6001 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6002 
  6003 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6004 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6005 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6006 swap theory imports.
  6007 
  6008 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6009 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6010 
  6011 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6012 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6013 white space without escapes.
  6014 
  6015 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6016 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6017 "foo_bar".
  6018 
  6019 
  6020 *** Pure ***
  6021 
  6022 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6023 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6024 
  6025 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6026 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6027 
  6028 (1) unused_thms
  6029      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6030 
  6031 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6032      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6033      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6034 
  6035 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6036      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6037      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6038      their ancestors.
  6039 
  6040 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6041 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6042 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6043 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6044 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6045 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6046 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6047 
  6048 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6049 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6050 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6051 
  6052 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6053 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6054 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6055 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6056 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6057 
  6058 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6059 
  6060 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6061 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6062 update of theories within ML code.
  6063 
  6064 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6065 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6066 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6067 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6068 
  6069 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6070 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6071 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6073 
  6074 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6075 
  6076 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6077 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6078 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6079 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6080 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6081 
  6082 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6083 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6084 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6085 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6086 situations.
  6087 
  6088 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6089 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6090 proof text.
  6091 
  6092 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6093 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6094 
  6095 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6096 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6097 predicates.
  6098 
  6099 
  6100 *** Document preparation ***
  6101 
  6102 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6103 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6104 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6105 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6106 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6107 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6108 
  6109 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6110 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6111 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6112 
  6113 
  6114 *** HOL ***
  6115 
  6116 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6117 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6118 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6119 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6120 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6121 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6122 
  6123 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6124 with multithreading.
  6125 
  6126 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6127 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6128 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6129 
  6130 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6131 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6132 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6133 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6134 
  6135 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6136 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6137 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6138 and makes them available separately.  See
  6139 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6140 
  6141 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6142 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6143 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6144 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6145 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6146 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6147 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6148 the declared rules.
  6149 
  6150 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6151 
  6152   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6153 
  6154 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6155 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6156 
  6157 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6158 
  6159   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6160 
  6161   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6162     definitions on => and bool.
  6163 
  6164   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6165     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6166     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6167 
  6168       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6169       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6170       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6171       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6172       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6173       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6174       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6175       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6176 
  6177   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6178     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6179     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6180 
  6181   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6182     The proof pattern
  6183 
  6184       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6185       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6186 
  6187     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6188     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6189 
  6190       have "EX S. P S"
  6191       proof
  6192         show "P S" <...>
  6193       qed
  6194 
  6195   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6196     The proof pattern
  6197 
  6198       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6199       also have "S = T" <...>
  6200       finally have "P T" .
  6201 
  6202     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6203     must be replaced by something like
  6204 
  6205       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6206       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6207       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6208 
  6209   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6210     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6211 
  6212       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6213 
  6214     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6215     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6216     type of the form
  6217 
  6218       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6219 
  6220     rather than
  6221 
  6222       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6223 
  6224 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6225 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6226 
  6227 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6228 
  6229 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6230 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6232 
  6233 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6234 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 
  6236 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6237 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6238 
  6239 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6240 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6241 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6242 
  6243 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6244 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6245 
  6246   less_trans
  6247   less_linear
  6248   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6249   le_less_trans
  6250   less_le_trans
  6251   less_not_sym
  6252   less_asym
  6253 
  6254 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6255 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6256 and different variable names.
  6257 
  6258 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6259 
  6260 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6261 finite maps.
  6262 
  6263 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6264 
  6265 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6266 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have