NEWS
author blanchet
Tue Mar 27 16:59:13 2012 +0300 (2012-03-27)
changeset 47149 97f8c6c88134
parent 47142 d64fa2ca54b8
child 47158 d317a71f24d5
child 47159 978c00c20a59
permissions -rw-r--r--
tweak slices, based on eval by Daniel Wand
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - markup for bound variables
    12   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    13   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    14 
    15 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    16 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    17 
    18 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    19 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    20 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    21 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    22 etc. was exploited.
    23 
    24 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    25 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    26 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    27 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    28 indices of schematic variables.
    29 
    30 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    31 
    32     num ~> num_token
    33     xnum ~> xnum_token
    34     xstr ~> str_token
    35 
    36 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    37 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    38 position information via constraints).
    39 
    40 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    41 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    42 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    45 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    46 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    47 
    48 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
    49 (not just JRE), derived from JAVA_HOME from the shell environment or
    50 java.home of the running JVM.
    51 
    52 
    53 *** Pure ***
    54 
    55 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    56 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    57 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    58 
    59 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    60 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    61 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    62 undocumented feature.)
    63 
    64 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
    65 collection of foundational premises in the context (marked as legacy
    66 since Isabelle2011).
    67 
    68 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
    69 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    70 
    71 * Ancient code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
    72 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
    73 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    74 
    75 * Redundant attribute 'code_inline' has been discontinued. Use
    76 'code_unfold' instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77 
    78 * Dropped attribute 'code_unfold_post' in favor of the its dual
    79 'code_abbrev', which yields a common pattern in definitions like
    80 
    81   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
    82 
    83 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    84 
    85 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
    86 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    87 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
    88 
    89   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
    90 
    91   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
    92     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurence (!)"
    93 
    94 
    95 *** HOL ***
    96 
    97 * The representation of numerals has changed. We now have a datatype
    98 "num" representing strictly positive binary numerals, along with
    99 functions "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to
   100 represent positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See
   101 definitions in Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY; some user theories
   102 may require adaptations:
   103 
   104   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   105     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   106 
   107   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   108     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   109     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   110 
   111   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   112     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   113 
   114   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   115     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   116     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   117 
   118   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   119     Redefine using other integer operations.
   120 
   121 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   122 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   123 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   124 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   125 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   126 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   127 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and
   128 Collect_def as far as possible.
   129 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and
   130 sets, a planning step is necessary to determine what should become a
   131 predicate and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   132 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   133 
   134 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   135 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   138 
   139 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   140 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   141 
   142   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   143   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   144   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   145   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   146   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   147   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   148 
   149 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   150 and predicates.  Consolidation of some relation theorems:
   151 
   152   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   153   rel_comp_def ~> rel_comp_unfold
   154   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   155   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   156   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   157   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   158 
   159 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   160 
   161 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set conversions
   162 by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   163 
   164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Consolidated various theorem names relating to Finite_Set.fold
   167 combinator:
   168 
   169   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   170   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   171   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   172   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   173   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   174   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   175 
   176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   179 
   180   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   181   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   182   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   183   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   184   foldr.simps ~> foldr_Nil foldr_Cons (in point-free formulation)
   185   foldl.simps ~> foldl_Nil foldl_Cons
   186   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_def
   187   foldl_fold ~> foldl_def
   188 
   189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   192 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   193 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   194 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   195 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   196 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 Prefer "List.fold" with canonical argument order, or boil down
   198 "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by unfolding "foldr_def"
   199 and "foldl_def".  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   200 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".
   201 
   202 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   203 through option types.
   204 
   205 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   206 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   207 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   208 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   209 one_case.
   210 
   211 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   212 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   213 
   214 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * Renamed some facts on canonical fold on lists, in order to avoid
   217 problems with interpretation involving corresponding facts on foldl
   218 with the same base names:
   219 
   220   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   221   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   222   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   223 
   224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   227   to match the constant's name:
   228   
   229   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   230   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   231   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   232   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   233   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   234   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   235   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   236   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   237   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2 
   238   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   239   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   240   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   241   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   242   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   243   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   244   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   245   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   246   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   247   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   248   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   249   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   250   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   251   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   252   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   253  
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for association
   257   lists with distinct keys.
   258 
   259 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   260 
   261 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   262 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   263 
   264 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   265 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   266 instead.
   267 
   268   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   269   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   270   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   271   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   272   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   273   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   274   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   275   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   276   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   277   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   278   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   279   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   280   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   281   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   282   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   283   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   284   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   285   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   286   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   287   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   288   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   289   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   290   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   291   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   292   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   293   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   294   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   295   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   296   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   297   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   298   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   299   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   300   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   301   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   302   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   303   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   304   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   305   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   306   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   307   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   308   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   309 
   310 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   311 the result of the fact expression.
   312 
   313 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   314 relations.
   315 
   316 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 * "sublists" moved to theory More_List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   321 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   322 
   323   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   324   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   325   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   326   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   327   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   328   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   329   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   330   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   331   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   332   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   333   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   334   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   335   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   336   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   337   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   338   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   339   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   340   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   341   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   342   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   343   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   344   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   345   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   346   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   347   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   348   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   349   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   350   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   351   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   352   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   353   zless_le ~> less_le
   354   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   355   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   356   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   357 
   358 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   359 
   360   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   361 
   362 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   363 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   364 
   365   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   366 
   367 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   368 a list and a nat.
   369 
   370 * Improved code generation of multisets.
   371 
   372 * New diagnostic command find_unused_assms to find potentially superfluous
   373   assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   374 
   375 * Quickcheck:
   376   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   377     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   378     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   379     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   380     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   381     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   382     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   383     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   384     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   385     continues searching for genuine ones.
   386     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   387     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to
   388     only show genuine counterexamples.
   389 
   390   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   391     value generators for a given type and operations.
   392     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   393     constructors of that type. 
   394 
   395   - Support for multisets.
   396 
   397   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   398  
   399 * Nitpick:
   400   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   401     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   402 
   403 * Sledgehammer:
   404   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   405   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   406   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   407 
   408 * Metis:
   409   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   410     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   411 
   412 * Command 'try0':
   413   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   416   eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   417 
   418 
   419 *** FOL ***
   420 
   421 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   422 
   423 
   424 *** ML ***
   425 
   426 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   427 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   428 
   429 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   430 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   431 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   432 
   433 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   434 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   435 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   436 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   437 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   438 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   439 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   440 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   441 
   442 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   443 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   444 
   445 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   446 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   447 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   448 
   449 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   450 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   451 
   452 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   453 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   454 context as well.
   455 
   456 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   457 
   458   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   459   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   460   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   461   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   462   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   463   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   464   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   465   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   466   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   467   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   468   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   469   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   470 
   471 
   472 
   473 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   474 ------------------------------------
   475 
   476 *** General ***
   477 
   478 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   479 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   480 
   481   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   482     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   483     files for checking).
   484 
   485   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   486     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   487     positions.
   488 
   489   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   490     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   491     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   492 
   493   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   494     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   495     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   496 
   497   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   498     cores.
   499 
   500   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   501     versions (garbage collection).
   502 
   503 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   504 including some remaining limitations.
   505 
   506 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   507 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   508 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   509 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   510 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   514 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   515 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   516 
   517 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   518 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   519 usedir option -Q.
   520 
   521 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   522 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   523 
   524   long_names   ~> names_long
   525   short_names  ~> names_short
   526   unique_names ~> names_unique
   527 
   528 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   529 
   530   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   531 
   532 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   533 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   534 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   535 
   536 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   537 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   538 
   539 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   540   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   541   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   542   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   543     "Classical Reasoner".
   544 
   545 
   546 *** HOL ***
   547 
   548 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   549 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   550 
   551 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   552 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   553 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   554 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   555 class complete_linorder.
   556 
   557 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   558 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   559 
   560 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   561 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   562 
   563   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   564   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   565   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   566   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   567   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   568   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   569   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   570   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   571   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   572   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   573   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   574 
   575 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   576 
   577   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   578   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   579   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   580   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   581   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   582   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   583   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   584   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   585   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   586   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   587   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   588   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   589   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   590   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   591   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   592   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   593 
   594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   595 
   596 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598 
   599 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   600 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   601 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   602 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   603 
   604 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   605 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   606 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   608 
   609 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   610 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   611 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   612 
   613 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   614 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   615 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   618 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   619 
   620 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   621 
   622     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   623     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   624 
   625 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   626 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   629 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   632 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   633 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   634 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   637   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   638   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   639   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   640   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   641   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   642   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   643 
   644 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   645 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   648   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   649   real_less_def ~> less_le
   650   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   651   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   652   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   653   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   654   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   655   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   656   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   657   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   658   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   659   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   660   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   661   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   662   real_le_linear ~> linear
   663   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   664   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   665   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   666   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   667   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   668   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   669   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   670   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   671   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   672   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   673   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   674   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   675   expi_add ~> exp_add
   676   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   677   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   678   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   679   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   680   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   681   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   682   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   683   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   684   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   685   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   686   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   687   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   688   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   689   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   690   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   691   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   692   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   693   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   694   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   695   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   696   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   697   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   698   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   699   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   700   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   701   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   702   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   703   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   704   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   705   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   706   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   707   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   708   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   709   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   710   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   711   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   712   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   713   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   714   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   715   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   716   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   717   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   718   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   719   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   720   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   721   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   722   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   723   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   724   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   725   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   726   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   727   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   728   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   729 
   730 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   731 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   732 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   733 
   734 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   735 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   736 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   737 
   738 * Code generation:
   739 
   740   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
   741     characters in the target language.
   742 
   743   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
   744     instead.
   745 
   746   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
   747 
   748   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
   749     reactivated by the following theory command:
   750 
   751       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   752 
   753 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
   756 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
   757 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
   758 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
   759 syntax.
   760 
   761 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
   762 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
   763 
   764 * Nitpick:
   765   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   766   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   767   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   768     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Sledgehammer:
   771   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
   772   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
   773     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
   774   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
   775     this can be done within reasonable time.
   776   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   777     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   778   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
   779     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   780   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
   781     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * Metis:
   784   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   785   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
   786     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   787 
   788 * Command 'try':
   789   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
   790     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   791   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
   792     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
   793 
   794 * Quickcheck:
   795   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   796     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   797   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   798     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
   799   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   800     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
   801     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
   802     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
   803   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   804     (formly in HOL/Library).
   805 
   806 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   807 use 'partial_function' instead.
   808 
   809 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
   810 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
   811 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
   812 
   813 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
   814 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
   815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   816 
   817 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
   818 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
   821 arithmetic.
   822 
   823 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
   824 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
   825 and lattice type classes.
   826 
   827 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
   828 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
   829 
   830 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
   831 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
   832 
   833 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
   834 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
   835 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
   838   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
   839   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
   840   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
   841 
   842 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
   843 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
   844 constants:
   845 
   846   type inat   ~> type enat
   847   Fin         ~> enat
   848   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   849   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   850   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   851 
   852 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   853 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
   856 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
   857 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
   858 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
   859 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
   860 
   861 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   862 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   863 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   864 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   865 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   866 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   867 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   868 
   869   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   870   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   871   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   872   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   873 
   874 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   875 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   876 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   879   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   880   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   881   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   882   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   883   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
   884   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   885   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   886   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   887   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   888   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   889   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   890   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   891   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   892   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   893   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   894   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   895   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   896   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   897   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   898   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   899   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   900   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   901   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   902   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   903   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   904   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   905   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   906   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   907   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   908   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   909   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   910   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   911   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   912   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   913   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   914   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   915   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   916   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   917   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   918   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   919   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   920   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   921   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   922   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   923   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   924   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   925   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   926   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   927   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   928   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   929 
   930 * Session HOL-Probability:
   931   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   932   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   933   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
   934   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
   935     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   938 
   939   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
   940   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
   941   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
   942   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
   943   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
   944   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
   945   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
   946   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
   947   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
   948   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
   949   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   950   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
   951   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
   952   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
   953   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
   954   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
   955   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
   956   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
   957   UU_I ~> bottomI
   958   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
   959   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
   960   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
   961   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
   962   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
   963   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
   964 
   965 
   966 *** Document preparation ***
   967 
   968 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   969 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
   970 same.
   971 
   972 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
   973 result.
   974 
   975 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
   976 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
   977 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   978 
   979 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   980 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   981 
   982 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   983 like this:
   984 
   985   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   986   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   987 
   988 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
   989 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
   990 layouts.
   991 
   992 
   993 *** ML ***
   994 
   995 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   996 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   997 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   998 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   999 under external program control.
  1000 
  1001 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1002 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1003 
  1004 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1005 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1006 (better known as Proof General).
  1007 
  1008 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1009 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1010 
  1011 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1012 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1013 
  1014 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1015 (including quotes etc.).
  1016 
  1017 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1018 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1019 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1020 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1021 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1022 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1023 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1024 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1025 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1026 
  1027 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1028 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1029 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1030 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1031 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1032 
  1033 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1034 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1035 
  1036 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1037 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1038 
  1039 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1040 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1041 
  1042 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1043 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1044 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1045 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1046 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1047 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1048 proper Proof.context.
  1049 
  1050 
  1051 *** System ***
  1052 
  1053 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1054 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1055 
  1056 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1057 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1058 
  1059 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1060 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1061 
  1062   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1063   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1064   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1065   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1066   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1067 
  1068 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1069 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1072 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1073 example:
  1074 
  1075   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1076 
  1077 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1078 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1079 
  1080 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1081 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1082 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1083 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1084 
  1085 
  1086 
  1087 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1088 ----------------------------------
  1089 
  1090 *** General ***
  1091 
  1092 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1093 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1094 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1095 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1096 like this:
  1097 
  1098   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1099 
  1100 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1101 
  1102 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1103 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1104 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1105 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1106 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1107 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1108 
  1109 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1110 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1111 the following package declarations:
  1112 
  1113   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1114   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1115 
  1116 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1117 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1118 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1119 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1120 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1121 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1122 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1123 
  1124 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1125 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1126 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1127 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1128 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1129 
  1130 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1131 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1132 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1133 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1134 
  1135 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1136 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1137 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1138 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1139 
  1140   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1141 
  1142   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1143   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1144   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1145   show_types                    show_types
  1146   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1147   show_consts                   show_consts
  1148   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1149 
  1150   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1151   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1152   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1153 
  1154   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1155   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1156 
  1157   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1158 
  1159   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1160   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1161   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1162   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1163   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1164 
  1165 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1166 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1167 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1168 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1169 
  1170 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1172 
  1173   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1174   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1175 
  1176 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1177 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1178 float_token.
  1179 
  1180 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1181 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1183 
  1184 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1185 DejaVu Sans.
  1186 
  1187 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1188 
  1189 
  1190 *** Pure ***
  1191 
  1192 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1193 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1194 time.
  1195 
  1196 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1197 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1200 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1203 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1204 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1205 command already provided this functionality.
  1206 
  1207 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1208 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1209 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1210 without interpretations.
  1211 
  1212 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1213 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1214 
  1215 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1216 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1217 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1218 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1219 
  1220 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1221 'definition' instead.
  1222 
  1223 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1224 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1225 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1226 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1227 
  1228 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1229 constructors.
  1230 
  1231 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1232 the local file system.
  1233 
  1234 
  1235 *** HOL ***
  1236 
  1237 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1238 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1239 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1240 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1241 
  1242   declare [[coercion f]]
  1243 
  1244 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1245 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1246 
  1247   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1248 
  1249 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1250 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1251 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1252 other theories like this:
  1253 
  1254   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1255 
  1256 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1257 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1258 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1259 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1260 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1261 for examples.
  1262 
  1263 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1264 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1265 
  1266 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1267 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1268 
  1269 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1270 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1271 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1272 
  1273 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1274 functorial structure of types.
  1275 
  1276 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1277 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1278 
  1279 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1280 languages.
  1281 
  1282 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1283 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1287 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1290 combinators any longer.
  1291 
  1292 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1293 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1294 
  1295 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1296 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1297 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1298 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1299 
  1300   record 'a foo = ...
  1301   ...
  1302   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1303 
  1304 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1305 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1307 
  1308 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1309 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1310 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1311 
  1312 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1313 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1314 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1315 
  1316 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1317 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1318 
  1319 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1320 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1321 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1322 independently.
  1323 
  1324 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1325 counter example search.
  1326 
  1327 * Sledgehammer:
  1328   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1329     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1330     sledgehammer").
  1331   - Renamed commands:
  1332     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1333     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1334     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1335     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336   - Renamed options:
  1337     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1338     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1339     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1340     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1341     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Nitpick:
  1344   - Renamed options:
  1345     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1346     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1347     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1348   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1349   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1350   - Added "whack" option.
  1351   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1352   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1353   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1354   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1355     higher cardinalities.
  1356   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1357 
  1358 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1359 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1360 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1361 
  1362     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1363 
  1364 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1365 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1366 
  1367 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1368 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1369 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1370 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1371 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1372 "smt_solver".
  1373 
  1374 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1375 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1376 
  1377 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1378 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1379 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1380 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1383   - Renamed:
  1384     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1385     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1386     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1387   - Added:
  1388     smt_verbose
  1389     smt_random_seed
  1390     smt_datatypes
  1391     smt_infer_triggers
  1392     smt_monomorph_limit
  1393     cvc3_options
  1394     remote_cvc3_options
  1395     remote_z3_options
  1396     yices_options
  1397 
  1398 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1399 header.
  1400 
  1401 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1402 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1403 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1404 
  1405   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1406 
  1407 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1408 
  1409 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1410 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1411 
  1412 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1415 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1416 
  1417 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1418 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1419 
  1420 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1421 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1422 
  1423 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1424 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1425 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1426 
  1427 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1431 
  1432 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1433 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1436 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1437 for congruent(2)).
  1438 
  1439 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1440 
  1441   types
  1442     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1443     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1444 
  1445   constants
  1446     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1447     True ~> HOL.True
  1448     False ~> HOL.False
  1449     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1450     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1451     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1452     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1453     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1454     The ~> HOL.The
  1455     All ~> HOL.All
  1456     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1457     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1458     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1459     If ~> HOL.If
  1460     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1461     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1462     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1463     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1464     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1465     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1466     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1467     op : ~> Set.member
  1468     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1469 
  1470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1471 
  1472 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1473 
  1474     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1475     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1476     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1477     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1478     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1479     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1480     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1481     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1482 
  1483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 
  1485 * More stylized fact names:
  1486 
  1487   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1488   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1489   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1490   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1491 
  1492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1495 
  1496   constants
  1497     null ~> List.null
  1498 
  1499   facts
  1500     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1501     null_empty ~> null_def
  1502 
  1503 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1504 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1505 generation.
  1506 
  1507 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1508 Haskell code.
  1509 
  1510 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1511 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1512 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1513 
  1514 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1515 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1518 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1519 
  1520 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1521 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1522 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1525 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1526 
  1527 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1531 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1532 referred to by its qualified name.
  1533 
  1534   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1535   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1536   product ~>  Enum.product
  1537 
  1538 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1539 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1543 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1544 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1548 sort_key.
  1549 
  1550 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1554 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1555 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1556 
  1557   types
  1558     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1559               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1560               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1561         (depends on your needs)
  1562 
  1563   constants
  1564      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1565      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1566      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1567 
  1568 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1569 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1570 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1571 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1572 
  1573 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1574 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1575 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1576 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1577 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1581 
  1582 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1583 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1584 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1585 
  1586 
  1587 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1588 
  1589 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1590 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1591 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1592 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1593 compatibility.
  1594 
  1595 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1596 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1597 
  1598 
  1599 *** HOLCF ***
  1600 
  1601 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1602 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1603 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605 
  1606 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1607 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1608 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1609 
  1610   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1611   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1612   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1613 
  1614 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1615 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1616 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1619 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1620 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1621 domain definition now works:
  1622 
  1623   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1624 
  1625 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1626 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1627 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1628 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1629 
  1630   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1631     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1632 
  1633   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1634 
  1635 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1636 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1637 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638 
  1639 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1640 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1643 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1644 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1645 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1646 
  1647 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1648 
  1649 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1655 
  1656 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1657 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1658 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1659 
  1660 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1661 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1662 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1663 
  1664 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1665 still supported as an input translation.
  1666 
  1667 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1668 
  1669   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1670   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1671   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1672   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1673   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1674   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1675   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1676 
  1677 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1678 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1681   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1682   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1683   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1684   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1685   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1686 
  1687 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1688 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1691 
  1692   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1693   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1694   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1695   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1696 
  1697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1698 
  1699 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1700 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1701 
  1702 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1703 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1706   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1707   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1708   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1709   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1710   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1711   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1712   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1713   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1714   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1715   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1716   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1717   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1718   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1719   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1720   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1721   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1722   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1723   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1724   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1725 
  1726 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1729   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1730   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1731   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1732   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1733   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1734   box_less             ~> box_below
  1735   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1736   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1737   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1738   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1739   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1740   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1741   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1742   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1743   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1744   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1745   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1746   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1747   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1748   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1749   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1750   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1751   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1752   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1753   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1754   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1755   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1756   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1757   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1758   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1759   up_less              ~> up_below
  1760   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1761   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1762   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1763   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1764   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1765   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1766   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1767   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1768   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1769   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1770   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1771   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1772   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1773 
  1774 
  1775 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1776 
  1777 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1778 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1779 
  1780 *** ZF ***
  1781 
  1782 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case analysis.
  1783 
  1784 * Much greater use of special symbols.
  1785 
  1786 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 *** ML ***
  1789 
  1790 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1791 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1792 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1793 
  1794 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1795 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1796 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1797 
  1798 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1799 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1800 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1801 
  1802 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1803 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1804 
  1805 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1806 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1807 
  1808 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1809 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1810 
  1811 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1812 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1813 
  1814 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1815 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1816 almost all situations.
  1817 
  1818 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1819 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1820 Isabelle/ML.
  1821 
  1822 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1823 meaning.
  1824 
  1825 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1826 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1827 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1828 
  1829 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1830 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1831 
  1832 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1833 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1834 
  1835 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1836 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1837 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1838 
  1839 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1840 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1841 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1842 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1843 configuration options.
  1844 
  1845 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1846 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1847 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1848 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1849 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1850 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1851 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1852 
  1853 
  1854 
  1855 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1856 ---------------------------------
  1857 
  1858 *** General ***
  1859 
  1860 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1861 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1862 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1863 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1864 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1865 their full internal name.
  1866 
  1867 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1868 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1869 Some hints on upgrading:
  1870 
  1871   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1872     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1873     which are independent of this issue.
  1874 
  1875   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1876     provides the following special forms:
  1877 
  1878       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1879       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1880       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1881 
  1882     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1883     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1884     extra variables".
  1885 
  1886     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1887     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1888     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1889     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1890     "logic".
  1891 
  1892   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1893     antiquotations:
  1894 
  1895       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1896       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1897       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1898       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1899 
  1900   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1901     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1902     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1903     antiquotations.
  1904 
  1905 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1906 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1907 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1908 diagnose syntax problems.
  1909 
  1910 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1911 
  1912 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1913 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1914 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1915 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1916 
  1917 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1918 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1919 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1920 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1921 
  1922 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1923 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1924 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1925 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1926 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1927 
  1928 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1929 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1930 
  1931 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1932 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1933 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1934 
  1935   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1936 
  1937 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1938 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1939 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1940 
  1941 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1942 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1943 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1946 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1947 
  1948 
  1949 *** Pure ***
  1950 
  1951 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1952 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1953 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1954 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1955 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1956 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1957 inspect proof terms.
  1958 
  1959 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1960 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1961 are added internally.  For example:
  1962 
  1963   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1964 
  1965 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1966 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1967 
  1968 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1969 
  1970 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1971 'class' instead.
  1972 
  1973 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1974 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1978 invariants.
  1979 
  1980 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1981 user space functionality any longer.
  1982 
  1983 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1984 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1986 
  1987 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1988 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1989 
  1990 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1991 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1992 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1993 
  1994 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1995 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1996 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1997 
  1998 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1999 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 
  2002 *** HOL ***
  2003 
  2004 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2005 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2006 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2007 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2008 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2009 
  2010 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2011 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2012 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2013 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2014 
  2015   fun
  2016     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2017   where
  2018     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2019 
  2020   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2021     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2022 
  2023   quotient_definition
  2024     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2025 
  2026 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2027 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2028 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2029 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2030 
  2031 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2032 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2033 
  2034 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2035 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2036 
  2037 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2041 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2042 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2043 
  2044 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2045 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2049 
  2050 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2052 
  2053 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2054 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2057 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2058 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2059 
  2060   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2061   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2062   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2063   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2064   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2065   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2066   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2067   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2068   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2069   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2070   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2071   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2072   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2073   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2074   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2075   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2076   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2077   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2078   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2079   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2080   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2081   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2082   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2083   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2084   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2085   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2086   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2087   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2088   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2089   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2090 
  2091 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2092 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2093 
  2094 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2095 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2096 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2097 
  2098 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2099 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2100 
  2101 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2102 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2105 
  2106 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2107 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108 
  2109 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2110 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113 
  2114 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2115 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2116 
  2117 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2118 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2119 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2120 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2123   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2124   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2125   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2129 lattices):
  2130 
  2131     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2132     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2133 
  2134     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2135 
  2136     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2137     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2138     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2139     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2140     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2141     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2142     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2143     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2144     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2145     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2146     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2147     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2148     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2149 
  2150     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2151     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2152     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2153     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2154     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2155     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2156     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2157     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2158     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2159     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2160     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2161     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2162     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2163     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2164     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2165     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2166     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2167     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2168 
  2169   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2170   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2171 
  2172     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2173     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2174     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2175     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2176     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2177 
  2178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Refined field classes:
  2181   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2182     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2183     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2184   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2188   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2189   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2190   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2191     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2192   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2193     equal_neg_zero.
  2194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2195 
  2196 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2197 sets to lattices:
  2198 
  2199   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2200   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2201   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2202   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2203   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2204   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2205   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2206   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2207   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2208   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2209 
  2210 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2211 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2212 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2213 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2214 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2215 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2216 
  2217 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2218 multiset order:
  2219 
  2220   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2221     <= and <;
  2222   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2223     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2224     multiset_order;
  2225   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2226     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2227     generation;
  2228   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2229     if needed.
  2230 
  2231 Renamed:
  2232 
  2233   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2234   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2235   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2236 
  2237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2240 
  2241 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2242 
  2243 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2244 
  2245 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2246 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2247 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249   Constants:
  2250   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2251   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2252   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2253   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2254   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2255   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2256   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2257   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2258   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2259   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2260   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2261   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2262   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2263 
  2264   Lemmas:
  2265   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2266   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2267   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2268   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2269   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2270   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2271   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2272   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2273   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2274   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2275   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2276   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2277   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2278 
  2279 * Sledgehammer:
  2280   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2281     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2282     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2283     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2284     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2285     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2286     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2287   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2288   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2289     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2290   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2291     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2292     is still experimental.)
  2293   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2294     full-typed mode.
  2295   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2296 
  2297 * Nitpick:
  2298   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2299   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2300   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2301     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2302   - Added support for quotient types.
  2303   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2304     constructs.
  2305   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2306     "termination" proofs).
  2307   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2308   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2309   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2310   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2311     record getters.
  2312   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2313   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2314   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2315   - Added "atoms" option.
  2316   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2317     problems.
  2318   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2319     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2320     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2322     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2323   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2324 
  2325 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2326   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2327   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2328   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2329   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2330   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2331   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2332   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2333   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2334   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 
  2337 *** HOLCF ***
  2338 
  2339 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2340 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2341 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2344 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2345 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2346 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2349 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2350 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2351 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2352 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2355 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2356 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2357 
  2358 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2359 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2362   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2363 
  2364 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2365 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2368   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2369   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2370   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2371   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2372 
  2373 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2374 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2377   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2378   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2379 
  2380 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2381 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2385 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2386 
  2387 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2388 
  2389 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2390 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392 
  2393 *** ML ***
  2394 
  2395 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2396 
  2397     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2398     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2399 
  2400     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2401     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2402     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2403     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2404 
  2405     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2406     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2407     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2408 
  2409 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2410 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2411 
  2412 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2413 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2414 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2415 
  2416 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2417 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2418 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2419 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2420 
  2421 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2422 the context or even global references.
  2423 
  2424 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2425 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2426 
  2427 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2428 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2429 
  2430   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2431   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2432   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2433   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2434   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2435   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2436   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2437   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2438   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2439   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2440 
  2441 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2442 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2443 
  2444 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2445 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2446 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2447 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2448 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2449 
  2450 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2451 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2452 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2453 Theory_Data version.
  2454 
  2455 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2456 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2457 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2458 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2459 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2460 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2461 explicitly in rare situations.
  2462 
  2463 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2464 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2468 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2469 
  2470 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2471 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2472 quite rare).
  2473 
  2474 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2475 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2476 
  2477 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2478 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2479 terms.
  2480 
  2481 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2482 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2483 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2484 
  2485 
  2486 *** System ***
  2487 
  2488 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2489 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2490 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2491 
  2492 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2493 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2494 respectively.
  2495 
  2496 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2497 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2498 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2499 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2500 
  2501   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2502 
  2503 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2504 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2505 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2506 component.
  2507 
  2508 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2509 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2510 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2511 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2512 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2513 the user for manual installation.
  2514 
  2515 
  2516 
  2517 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2518 -------------------------------------
  2519 
  2520 *** General ***
  2521 
  2522 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2523 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2524 
  2525 
  2526 *** Pure ***
  2527 
  2528 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2529 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2530 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2531 
  2532 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2533 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2534 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2535 
  2536 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2537 interpretation.
  2538 
  2539 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2540 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 
  2543 *** Document preparation ***
  2544 
  2545 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2546 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2547 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2548 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2549 
  2550 
  2551 *** HOL ***
  2552 
  2553 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2554 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2555 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2556 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2557 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2558 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2559 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2560 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2561 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2562 
  2563 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2564 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2565 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2566 
  2567 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2568 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2569 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2570 
  2571 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2572 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2573 
  2574 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2575 
  2576 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2577 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2578 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2579 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2580 
  2581 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2582 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2583 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2584 "mirabelle" utility.
  2585 
  2586 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2587 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2588 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2589 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2590 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2591 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2592 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2593 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2594 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2595 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2596 
  2597 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2598 procedure only.
  2599 
  2600 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2601 
  2602 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2603 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2604 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2605 that fail later.
  2606 
  2607 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2608 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2609 
  2610 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2611 the same method as the approximation method.
  2612 
  2613 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2614 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2615 series expansion.
  2616 
  2617 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2618 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2619 
  2620 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2621 reals.
  2622 
  2623 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2624 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2625 
  2626 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2627 fixpoint theorem.
  2628 
  2629 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2630   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2631     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2632   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2633     accordingly
  2634   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2635     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2636   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2637     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2638 
  2639 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2640 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2641 lattice.
  2642 
  2643 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2644 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2645 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2646 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2647 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2648 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2650 
  2651 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2652   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2653     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2654   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2655     le_inf_iff
  2656   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2657     sup_aci)
  2658   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2659   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2660   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2661     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2662     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2663     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2664     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2665     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2666     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2667     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2668     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2669     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2670     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2671   - authentic syntax for
  2672     Set.Pow
  2673     Set.image
  2674   - mere abbreviations:
  2675     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2676     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2677     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2678     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2679     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2680     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2681     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2682     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2683   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2684 
  2685 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2686 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2687 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2688 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2689 
  2690 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2691 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2692 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2695 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2698 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2699 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2700 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2703 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2704 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2705 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2706 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2707 
  2708 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2709 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2713 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2714 
  2715 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2716 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2717 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2718 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2719 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2720 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2721 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2722 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2725     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2726     code_post       replaces    code post
  2727     etc.
  2728   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * Renamed methods:
  2731     sizechange -> size_change
  2732     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2733   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2736 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2737 
  2738 * Renamed theorems:
  2739     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2740     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2741     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2742     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2743     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2744   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 
  2753 *** HOLCF ***
  2754 
  2755 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2756 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2757 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2758 
  2759 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2760 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2761 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2762 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2763 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2764 
  2765 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2766 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2767 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2768 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2769 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2770 
  2771 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2772 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2773 constructor are pre-configured.
  2774 
  2775 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2776 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2777 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2778 
  2779 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2780 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2781 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2782 as well.)
  2783 
  2784 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2785 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2786 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2787 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2788 examples.
  2789 
  2790 
  2791 *** ML ***
  2792 
  2793 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2794 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2795 
  2796 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2797 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2798 position, logical grouping etc.
  2799 
  2800 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2801 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2802 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2803 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2804 
  2805 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2806 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2807 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2808 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2809 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2810 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2811 
  2812 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2813 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2814 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2815 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2816 experiments with references.
  2817 
  2818 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2819 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2820 
  2821 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2822 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2823 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2824 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2825 
  2826 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2827 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2828 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2829 
  2830 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2831 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2832 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833 
  2834 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2835 
  2836 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838 
  2839 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2840 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2841 
  2842 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2843 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2844 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2845 
  2846 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2847 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2848 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2851 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2852 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2854 
  2855 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2856 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2857 instead of global theory.
  2858 
  2859 
  2860 *** System ***
  2861 
  2862 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2863 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2864 usedir option -q.
  2865 
  2866 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2867 also the system manual.
  2868 
  2869 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2870 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2871 
  2872 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2873 this is always enabled.
  2874 
  2875 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2876 
  2877 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2878 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2879 currently supported on Linux only.
  2880 
  2881 
  2882 
  2883 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2884 --------------------------------
  2885 
  2886 *** General ***
  2887 
  2888 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2889 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2890 
  2891   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2892     "isatool."
  2893 
  2894   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2895     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2896 
  2897   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2898     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2899 
  2900 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2901 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2902 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2903 
  2904 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2905 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2906 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2907 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2908 via "isabelle emacs".
  2909 
  2910 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2911 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2912 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2913 
  2914 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2915 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2916 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2917 
  2918 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2919 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2920 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2921 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2922 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2923 
  2924 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2925 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2926 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2927 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2928 
  2929 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2930 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2931 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2932 
  2933 
  2934 *** Pure ***
  2935 
  2936 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2937 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2938 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2939 
  2940 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2941 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2942 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2943 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2944 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2945 
  2946 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2947 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2948 useful in locale declarations.
  2949 
  2950 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2951 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2952 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2953 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2954 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2955 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2956 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2957 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2958 no longer generated.
  2959 
  2960 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2961 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2962 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2963 
  2964 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2965 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2966 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2967 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2968 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2969 
  2970 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2972 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2973 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2974 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2975 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2976 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2977 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2978 
  2979 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2980 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2981 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2982 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2983 
  2984 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2987 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2988 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2989 
  2990 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2991 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2994 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2995 in HOL, write
  2996 
  2997     class foo = ...
  2998 
  2999 instead of
  3000 
  3001     class foo = type + ...
  3002 
  3003 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3004 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3007 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3008 
  3009 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3010 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3011 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3012 
  3013 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3014 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3015 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3016 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3017 directly in regular applications.
  3018 
  3019 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3020 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3021 
  3022 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3023 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3024 
  3025 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3026 theory context.
  3027 
  3028 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3029 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3030 
  3031 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3032 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3033 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3034 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3035 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3036 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3037 
  3038   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3039 
  3040 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3041 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3042 normalization.
  3043 
  3044 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3045 addressing etc.
  3046 
  3047 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3048 
  3049   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3050   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3051 
  3052 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3053 
  3054   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3055      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3056      parts of the code generator framework).
  3057 
  3058   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3059      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3060      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3061 
  3062 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3065 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3068 patterns, e.g.
  3069 
  3070     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3071 
  3072 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3073 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3074 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3075 hyphen:
  3076 
  3077     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3078 
  3079 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3080 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3081 
  3082 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3083 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3084 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3085 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3086 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3087 higher-order unification.
  3088 
  3089 
  3090 *** Document preparation ***
  3091 
  3092 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3093 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3094 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3095 
  3096 
  3097 *** HOL ***
  3098 
  3099 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3100 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3101 
  3102 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3103 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3104 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3105 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3106 Main, as before.
  3107 
  3108 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3109 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3110 
  3111 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3112 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3113 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3114 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3115 
  3116 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3117 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3118 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3119 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3120 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3121 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3122 
  3123 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3124 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3125 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3126 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3127 
  3128 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3129 menu.
  3130 
  3131 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3132 (contains the empty clause).
  3133 
  3134 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3135 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3136 
  3137 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3138 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3139 
  3140 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3141 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3142 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3145 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3146 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3147 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3148 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3149 
  3150 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3151 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3152 
  3153 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3154 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3155 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3156 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3157 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3158 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3159 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3160 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3161 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3162 
  3163 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3164 
  3165 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3166 
  3167 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3168 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3171 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3172 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3173 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3174 
  3175 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3176 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3177 
  3178     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3179     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3180     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3181     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3182     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3183     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3184     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3185     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3186 
  3187 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3188 theory Set.
  3189 
  3190 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3191 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3192 
  3193 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3194 
  3195 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3196 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3197 
  3198 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3199 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3200 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3201 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3202 allowed. For examples see
  3203 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3204 
  3205 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3206 
  3207 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3211 structure:
  3212 
  3213     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3214     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3215     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3216     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3217     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3218     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3219     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3220     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3221     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3222     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3223     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3224     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3225     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3226     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3227     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3228     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3229     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3230     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3231     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3232     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3233     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3234     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3235     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3236     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3237     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3238     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3239     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3240     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3241     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3242     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3243     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3244     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3245     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3246 
  3247     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3248     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3249     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3250     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3251     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3252     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3253     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3254     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3255     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3256     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3257 
  3258     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3259     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3260     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3261     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3262     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3263     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3264 
  3265 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3266 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3267 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3268 
  3269 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3270 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3271 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3272 
  3273 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3274 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3277 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3278 
  3279 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3280 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3281 proofs, e.g.
  3282 
  3283   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3284 
  3285 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3286 
  3287 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3288 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3289 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3292 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3296 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3297 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3299 
  3300 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3301 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3302 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3303 preorder_class.*.
  3304 
  3305 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3306 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3307 
  3308 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3309 
  3310   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3311 
  3312 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3313 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3314 fold_image.
  3315 
  3316 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3317 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3318 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3319 the former will disappear at some point.
  3320 
  3321 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3322 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3323 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3324 
  3325 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3326 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3327 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3328 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3329 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3330 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3331 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3332 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3333 
  3334 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3335 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3336 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3337 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3338 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3339 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3340 
  3341     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3342     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3343     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3344     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3345     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3346     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3347     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3348 
  3349 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3350 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3351 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3352 
  3353 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3354 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3355 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3356 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3357 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3358 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3359 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3360 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3361 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3362 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3363 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3364 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3365 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3366 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3367 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3368 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3369 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3370 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3371 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3372 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3373 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3374 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3375 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3376 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3377 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3378 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3379 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3380 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3381 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3382 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3383 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3384 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3385 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3386 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3387 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3388 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3389 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3390 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3391 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3392 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3393 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3394 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3395 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3396 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3397 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3398 
  3399 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3402 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3403 
  3404 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3405 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3406 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3407 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3408 
  3409 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3410 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3411 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3412 theory RealVector.
  3413 
  3414 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3415 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3416 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3417 and inner products are included.
  3418 
  3419 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3420 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3421 supported.
  3422 
  3423 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3424 first diagonalization argument.
  3425 
  3426 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3427 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3428 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3429 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3430 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3431 
  3432     hide (open) const gcd
  3433     abbreviation gcd where
  3434       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3435     notation (output)
  3436       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3437 
  3438 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3439 
  3440 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3441 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3442 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3445 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3446 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3447 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3448 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3449 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3450 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3451 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3452 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3453 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3454 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3455 cases.
  3456 
  3457 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3458 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3459 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3460 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3461 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3462 
  3463     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3464     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3465     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3466     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3467     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3468 
  3469 
  3470 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3471 
  3472 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3473 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3474 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3475 
  3476 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3477 
  3478 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3479 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3480 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3481 
  3482 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3483 
  3484 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3485 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3486 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3487 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3488 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3489 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3490 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3491 
  3492 
  3493 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3494 
  3495 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3496 
  3497 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3498 theory targets.
  3499 
  3500 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3501 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3502 'inductive' etc.
  3503 
  3504 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3505 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3506 
  3507 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3508 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3509 
  3510 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3511 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3512 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3513 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3514 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3515 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3516 the algorithm W:
  3517 
  3518  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3519  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3520          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3521 
  3522 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3523 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3524 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3525 
  3526 
  3527 *** HOLCF ***
  3528 
  3529 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3530 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3531 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3532 
  3533 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3534 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3535 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3536 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3537 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3540 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3541 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 
  3544 *** ZF ***
  3545 
  3546 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3547 
  3548 
  3549 *** ML ***
  3550 
  3551 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3552 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3553 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3554 5.2.1!
  3555 
  3556 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3557 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3558 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3559 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3560 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3561 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3562 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3563 
  3564 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3565 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3566 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3567 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3568 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3569 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3570 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3571 
  3572 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3573 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3574 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3575 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3576 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3577 
  3578 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3579 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3580 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3581 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3582 Method.add_method.
  3583 
  3584 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3585 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3586 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3587 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3588 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3589 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3590 
  3591 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3592 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3593 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3594 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3595 examples.
  3596 
  3597 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3598 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3599 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3600 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3601 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3602 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3603 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3604 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3605 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3606 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3607 
  3608 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3609 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3610 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3611 
  3612 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3613 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3614 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3615 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3616 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3617 resort for legacy applications.
  3618 
  3619 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3620 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3621 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3622 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3623 explicit runtime argument.
  3624 
  3625 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3626 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3627 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3628 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3629 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3632 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3633 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3634 theory state.
  3635 
  3636 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3637 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3638 
  3639   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3640   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3641   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3642   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3643   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3644   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3645   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3646   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3647   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3648   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3649 
  3650 
  3651 *** System ***
  3652 
  3653 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3654 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3655 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3656 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3657 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3658 
  3659 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3660 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3661 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3662 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3663 
  3664 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3665 
  3666 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3667 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3668 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3669 prover operations.
  3670 
  3671 
  3672 
  3673 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3674 -------------------------------
  3675 
  3676 *** General ***
  3677 
  3678 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3679 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3680 
  3681 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3682 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3683 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3684 provides a proper context already.
  3685 
  3686 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3687 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3688 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3689 
  3690 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3691 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3692 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3693 swap theory imports.
  3694 
  3695 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3696 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3697 
  3698 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3699 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3700 white space without escapes.
  3701 
  3702 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3703 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3704 "foo_bar".
  3705 
  3706 
  3707 *** Pure ***
  3708 
  3709 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3710 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3711 
  3712 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3713 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3714 
  3715 (1) unused_thms
  3716      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3717 
  3718 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3719      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3720      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3721 
  3722 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3723      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3724      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3725      their ancestors.
  3726 
  3727 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3728 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3729 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3730 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3731 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3732 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3733 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3734 
  3735 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3736 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3737 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3738 
  3739 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3740 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3741 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3742 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3743 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3744 
  3745 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3746 
  3747 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3748 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3749 update of theories within ML code.
  3750 
  3751 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3752 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3753 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3754 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3755 
  3756 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3757 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3758 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760 
  3761 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3762 
  3763 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3764 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3765 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3766 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3767 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3768 
  3769 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3770 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3771 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3772 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3773 situations.
  3774 
  3775 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3776 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3777 proof text.
  3778 
  3779 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3780 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3781 
  3782 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3783 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3784 predicates.
  3785 
  3786 
  3787 *** Document preparation ***
  3788 
  3789 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3790 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3791 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3792 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3793 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3794 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3795 
  3796 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3797 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3798 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3799 
  3800 
  3801 *** HOL ***
  3802 
  3803 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3804 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3805 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3806 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3807 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3808 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3809 
  3810 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3811 with multithreading.
  3812 
  3813 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3814 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3815 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3816 
  3817 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3818 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3819 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3820 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3823 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3824 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3825 and makes them available separately.  See
  3826 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3827 
  3828 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3829 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3830 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3831 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3832 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3833 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3834 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3835 the declared rules.
  3836 
  3837 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3838 
  3839   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3840 
  3841 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3842 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3843 
  3844 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3845 
  3846   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3847 
  3848   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3849     definitions on => and bool.
  3850 
  3851   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3852     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3853     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3854 
  3855       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3856       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3857       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3858       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3859       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3860       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3861       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3862       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3863 
  3864   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3865     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3866     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3867 
  3868   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3869     The proof pattern
  3870 
  3871       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3872       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3873 
  3874     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3875     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3876 
  3877       have "EX S. P S"
  3878       proof
  3879         show "P S" <...>
  3880       qed
  3881 
  3882   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3883     The proof pattern
  3884 
  3885       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3886       also have "S = T" <...>
  3887       finally have "P T" .
  3888 
  3889     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3890     must be replaced by something like
  3891 
  3892       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3893       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3894       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3895 
  3896   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3897     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3898 
  3899       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3900 
  3901     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3902     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3903     type of the form
  3904 
  3905       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3906 
  3907     rather than
  3908 
  3909       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3910 
  3911 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3912 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3913 
  3914 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3915 
  3916 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3917 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3921 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3924 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3927 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3928 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3931 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3932 
  3933   less_trans
  3934   less_linear
  3935   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3936   le_less_trans
  3937   less_le_trans
  3938   less_not_sym
  3939   less_asym
  3940 
  3941 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3942 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3943 and different variable names.
  3944 
  3945 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3946 
  3947 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3948 finite maps.
  3949 
  3950 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3951 
  3952 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3953 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3954 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3955 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3956 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3957 accordingly.
  3958 
  3959 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3960 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3961 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3962 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3963 
  3964 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3965 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3966 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3967 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3968 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3972 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3975 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3976 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3977 
  3978 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3982 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3983 
  3984 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3985 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3988 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3991 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3995 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3998 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3999 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4000 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4001 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4002 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4005 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4006 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4007 
  4008 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4009 
  4010 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4011 
  4012 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4013 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4014 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4015 
  4016 
  4017 *** ZF ***
  4018 
  4019 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4020 same session:
  4021 
  4022   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4023   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4024   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4025   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4026   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4027   List      -> List_ZF
  4028   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4029 
  4030 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4031 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4032 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4033 
  4034 
  4035 *** ML ***
  4036 
  4037 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4038 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4039 
  4040 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4041 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4042 
  4043 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4044 
  4045 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4046 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4047 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4048 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4049 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4052 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4053 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4054 
  4055 
  4056 *** System ***
  4057 
  4058 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4059 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4060 
  4061 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4062 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4063 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4064 
  4065 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4066 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4067 
  4068 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4069 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4070 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4071 
  4072 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4073 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4074 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4075 
  4076 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4077 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4078 
  4079 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4080 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4081 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4082 script.
  4083 
  4084 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4085 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4086 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4087 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4088 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4089 
  4090 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4091 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4092 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4093 
  4094 
  4095 
  4096 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4097 -----------------------------------
  4098 
  4099 *** General ***
  4100 
  4101 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4102 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4103 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4104 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4105 
  4106 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4107 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4108 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4109 
  4110 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4111 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4112 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4113 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4116 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4117 quotes.
  4118 
  4119 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4120 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4121 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4122 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4123 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4124 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4125 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4126 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4127 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4128 
  4129 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4130 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4131 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4132 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4133 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4134 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4135 
  4136 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4137 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4138 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4139 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4140 
  4141 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4142 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4143 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4144 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4145 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4146 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4147 
  4148 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4149 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4150 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4151 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4152 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4153 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4154 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4155 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4156 
  4157 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4158 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4159 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4160 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4161 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4162 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4163 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4164 
  4165 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4166 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4167 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4168 
  4169 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4170 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4171 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4172 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4173 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4174 limit is imposed.
  4175 
  4176 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4177 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4178 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4179 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4180 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4181 and scalability.
  4182 
  4183 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4184 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4185 
  4186 
  4187 *** Document preparation ***
  4188 
  4189 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4190 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4191 current context.
  4192 
  4193 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4194 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4195 
  4196 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4197 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4198 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4199 
  4200 
  4201 *** Pure ***
  4202 
  4203 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4204 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4205 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4206 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4207 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4208 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4209 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4210 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4211 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4212 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4213 
  4214 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4215 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4216 sketch:
  4217 
  4218     internal compilation:
  4219         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4220     writing SML code to a file:
  4221         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4222     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4223         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4224     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4225         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4226 
  4227     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4228         method ``eval''
  4229 
  4230 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4231 
  4232 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4233 
  4234     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4235     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4236     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4237     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4238 
  4239 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4240 
  4241     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4242       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4243 
  4244     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4245       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4246 
  4247     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4248       {(target)}+
  4249         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4250 
  4251     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4252       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4253         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4254 
  4255 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4256 
  4257 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4258 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4259 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4260 codegen".
  4261 
  4262 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4263 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4264 annotations).
  4265 
  4266 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4267 syntax.
  4268 
  4269 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4270 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4271 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4272 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4273 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4274 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4275 
  4276 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4277 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4278 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4279 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4280 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4281 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4282 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4283 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4284 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4285 equations, see section "definitions".
  4286 
  4287 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4288 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4289 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4290 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4291 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4292 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4293 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4294 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4295 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4296 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4297 
  4298 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4299 configuration options:
  4300 
  4301   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4302   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4303   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4304   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4305   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4306   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4307   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4308   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4309   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4310 
  4311 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4312 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4313 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4314 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4315 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4316 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4317 order.
  4318 
  4319 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4320 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4321 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4322 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4323 context encountered later on.
  4324 
  4325 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4326 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4327 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4328 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4329 
  4330 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4331 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4332 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4333 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4334 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4335 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4336 
  4337 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4338 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4339 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4340 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4341 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4342 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4343 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4344 more permissive.
  4345 
  4346 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4347 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4348 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4349 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4350 maintainability of proof texts.
  4351 
  4352 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4353 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4354 
  4355   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4356   then guess x and y by clarify
  4357 
  4358 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4359 proof tools being involved here.
  4360 
  4361 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4362 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4363 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4364 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4365 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4366 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4367 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4368 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4369 
  4370 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4371 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4372 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4373 
  4374   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4375   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4376   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4377   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4378 
  4379 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4380 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4381 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4382 
  4383 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4384 both named and unnamed ones.
  4385 
  4386 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4387 
  4388   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4389 
  4390 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4391 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4392 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4393 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4394 
  4395 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4396 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4397 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4398 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4399 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4400 
  4401 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4402 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4403 
  4404 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4405 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4406 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4407 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4408 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4409 originally first one.
  4410 
  4411 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4412 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4413 expected.
  4414 
  4415 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4416 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4417 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4418 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4419 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4420 
  4421   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4422     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4423     obtains x where "P x"
  4424 
  4425   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4426     assumes "A & B"
  4427     obtains A and B
  4428 
  4429   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4430     assumes "A | B"
  4431     obtains
  4432       A
  4433     | B
  4434 
  4435 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4436 explicitly:
  4437 
  4438   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4439     obtains "~ thesis"
  4440 
  4441   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4442     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4443 
  4444 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4445 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4446 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4447 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4448 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4449 case_names).
  4450 
  4451 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4452 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4453 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4454 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4455 
  4456 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4457 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4458 top-level lemma.
  4459 
  4460 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4461 introduction rule (default "that").
  4462 
  4463 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4464 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4465 to occur.
  4466 
  4467 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4468 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4469 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4470 representations independently of name spaces.
  4471 
  4472 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4473 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4474 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4475 
  4476 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4477 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4478 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4479 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4480 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4481 current context.
  4482 
  4483 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4484 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4485 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4486 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4487 
  4488   axiomatization
  4489     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4490     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4491 
  4492   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4493   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4494 
  4495   abbreviation
  4496     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4497     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4498 
  4499 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4500 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4501 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4502 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4503 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4504 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4505 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4506 
  4507 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4508 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4509 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4510 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4511 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4512 
  4513 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4514 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4515 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4516 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4517 
  4518 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4519 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4520 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4521 
  4522   definition "K x _ = x"
  4523 
  4524   inductive conj for A B
  4525   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4526 
  4527 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4528 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4529 abbreviations on output.
  4530 
  4531 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4532 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4533 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4534 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4535 
  4536 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4537 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4538 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4539 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4540 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4541 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4542 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4543 
  4544 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4545 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4546 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4547 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4548 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4549 
  4550 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4551 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4552 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4553 
  4554 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4555 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4556 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4557 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4558 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4559 
  4560   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4561     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4562 
  4563 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4564 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4565 partial_order.
  4566 
  4567 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4568 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4569 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4570 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4571 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4572 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4573 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4574 examples.
  4575 
  4576 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4577 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4578 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4579 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4580 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4581 
  4582 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4583 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4584 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4585 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4586 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4587 
  4588   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4589   (induct set: foo bar)
  4590   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4591   (induct type: foo bar)
  4592 
  4593 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4594 new format.
  4595 
  4596 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4597 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4598 
  4599 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4600 considered a legacy feature.
  4601 
  4602 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4603 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4604 
  4605 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4606 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4607 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4608 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4609   
  4610 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4611 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4612 manipulating the claset.
  4613 
  4614 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4615 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4616 least one premise.
  4617 
  4618 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4619 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4620 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4621 rule steps.
  4622 
  4623 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4624 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4625 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4626 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4627 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4628 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4629 
  4630 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4631 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4632 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4633 
  4634 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4635 the graph browser tool.
  4636 
  4637 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4638 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4639 
  4640 
  4641 *** HOL ***
  4642 
  4643 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4644 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4645 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4646 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4647 multi-threading.
  4648   
  4649 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4650 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4651 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4652 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4653 work with multi-threading.
  4654 
  4655 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4656 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4657 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4658 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4659 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4660 
  4661 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4662 
  4663 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4664 equality.
  4665 
  4666 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4667 the new 'class' package:
  4668 
  4669     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4670     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4671     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4672     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4673     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4674     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4675     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4676     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4677     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4678     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4679     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4680     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4681     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4682     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4683     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4684     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4685     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4686     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4687     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4688     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4689 
  4690 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4691 
  4692 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4693 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4694 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4695 names.
  4696 
  4697 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4698 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4699 
  4700 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4701 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4702 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4703 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4704 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4705 
  4706 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4707 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4708 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4709 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4710 
  4711 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4712 
  4713 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4714 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4715 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4716 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4718 
  4719 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4720 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4723 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4724 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4727 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4728 
  4729 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4730 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4731 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4732 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4733 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4734 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4735 in the current context.
  4736 
  4737 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4738 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4742 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4743 
  4744 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4745 
  4746     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4747     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4748 
  4749     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4750       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4751     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4752     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4753 
  4754     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4755     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4756 
  4757   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4758 
  4759     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4760     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4761     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4762     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4763     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4764     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4765     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4766     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4767     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4768     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4769     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4770     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4771     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4772     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4773     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4774     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4775     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4776     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4777     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4778     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4779     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4780     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4781     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4782     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4783     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4784     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4785     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4786     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4787     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4788     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4789     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4790     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4791     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4792     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4793     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4794 
  4795     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4796     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4797     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4798     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4799     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4800     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4801     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4802     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4803     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4804     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4805     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4806     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4807     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4808     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4809     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4810     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4811     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4812 
  4813     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4814     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4815     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4816     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4817     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4818     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4819     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4820     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4821     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4822     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4823     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4824     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4825     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4826     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4827     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4828     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4829     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4830     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4831     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4832     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4833     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4834     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4835     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4836     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4837     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4838     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4839     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4840     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4841 
  4842     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4843     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4844     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4845     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4846     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4847     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4848 
  4849     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4850     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4851     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4852     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4853 
  4854     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4855     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4856 
  4857     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4858     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4859 
  4860 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4861 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4862 
  4863 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4864 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4865 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4866 "*.size".
  4867 
  4868 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4872 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4873 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4874 
  4875 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4876 
  4877 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4878 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4879 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4880 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4881 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4882 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4883 numerals on all operations.
  4884 
  4885 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4886 
  4887 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4888 
  4889 * Code generator library theories:
  4890   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4891     languages.
  4892   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4893     languages.
  4894   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4895     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4896   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4897   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4898     denominator).
  4899   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4900     representable by rational numbers.
  4901   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4902     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4903     includes Code_Integer.
  4904   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4905     target-language built-in integers.
  4906   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4907     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4908 
  4909 * New package for inductive predicates
  4910 
  4911   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4912 
  4913     inductive
  4914       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4915       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4916     where
  4917       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4918     | ...
  4919 
  4920   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4921 
  4922     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4923 
  4924     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4925     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4926 
  4927     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4928     intros
  4929       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4930       ...
  4931 
  4932   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4933   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4934 
  4935     inductive_set
  4936       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4937       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4938     where
  4939       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4940     | ...
  4941 
  4942   or
  4943 
  4944     inductive_set
  4945       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4946       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4947       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4948     where
  4949       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4950     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4951     | ...
  4952 
  4953   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4954 
  4955   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4956   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4957 
  4958   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4959 
  4960   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4961     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4962     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4963     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4964     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4965 
  4966   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4967     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4968     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4969     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4970     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4971     statements of the form
  4972 
  4973       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4974 
  4975     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4976     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4977 
  4978       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4979 
  4980   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4981 
  4982       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4983         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4984         ==> ... ==> P
  4985 
  4986     for predicates and
  4987 
  4988       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4989         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4990         ==> ... ==> P
  4991 
  4992     for sets rather than
  4993 
  4994       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4995         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4996         ==> ... ==> P
  4997 
  4998     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4999     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5000     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5001 
  5002   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5003     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5004     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5005 
  5006 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5007 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5008 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5009 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5010 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5011 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5012 
  5013 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5014 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5015 
  5016 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5017 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5018 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5019 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5020 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5021 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5022 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5023 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5024 variable.
  5025 
  5026 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5027 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5028 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5029 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5030   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5031   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5032 
  5033 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5034 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5035 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5036 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5037 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5038 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5039 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5040 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5041 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5042 
  5043 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5044 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5045 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5046 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5047 rat, etc.
  5048 
  5049 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5050 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5051 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5052 
  5053 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5054 
  5055 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5056 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5057 
  5058 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5059 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5060 
  5061 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5062 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5063 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5066 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5068 
  5069 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5070 
  5071 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5072 
  5073 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5074 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5075 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5076 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5077 
  5078 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5079 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5080 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5081 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5084 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5085 algebraic operations.
  5086 
  5087 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5089 
  5090 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5092 
  5093 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5094 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5095 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5096 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5097 adapted.
  5098  
  5099 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5100 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5101 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5102 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5103 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5104 
  5105 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5106 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5107 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5108 
  5109 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5110 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5111 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5112 
  5113 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5114 
  5115 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5116 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5117 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5118   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5119       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5120   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5121   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5122   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5123 
  5124 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5125 
  5126 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5127 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5128 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5129 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5130 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5131 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5132 
  5133 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5134 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5135 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5136 
  5137 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5138 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5139 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5141 
  5142 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5143 
  5144 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5145 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5148 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5149 
  5150 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5151 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5152 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5153 
  5154 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5155 True/False.
  5156 
  5157 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5158 
  5159 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5160 
  5161 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5162 ``rule'' method.
  5163 
  5164 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5165 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5166 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5167 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5168 
  5169 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5170 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5171 
  5172 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5173 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5174 
  5175 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5176 Library.
  5177 
  5178 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5179 
  5180 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5181 as greatest fixed-point.
  5182 
  5183 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5184 association lists.
  5185 
  5186 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5187 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5188 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5189 
  5190 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5191 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5192 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5193 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5194 behavior.
  5195 
  5196 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5197 
  5198 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5199 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5200 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5201 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5202 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5203 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5204 
  5205 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5206 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5207 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5208 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5209 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5210 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5211 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5212 
  5213 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5214 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5215 
  5216 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5217 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5218 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5219 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5220 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5221 
  5222 
  5223 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5224 
  5225 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5226 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5227 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5228 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5230 
  5231 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5232 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5233 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5234 
  5235 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5236 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5237 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5238 
  5239 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5240 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5241 
  5242 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5243 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5244 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5246 
  5247   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5248   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5249   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5250   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5251   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5252   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5253   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5254   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5255   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5256   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5257   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5258   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5259   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5260   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5261   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5262 
  5263 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5264 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5265 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5266 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5267 
  5268   approx        <-- capprox
  5269   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5270   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5271   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5272   monad         <-- cmonad
  5273   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5274   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5275   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5276   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5277 
  5278 
  5279 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5280 
  5281 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5282 
  5283 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5285 
  5286 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5287 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5288 
  5289 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5290 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5291 of algebraic structures.
  5292 
  5293 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5294 
  5295 
  5296 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5297 
  5298 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5299 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5300 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5301 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5302 
  5303 
  5304 *** ML ***
  5305 
  5306 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5307 (even on SML/NJ).
  5308 
  5309 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5310 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5311 compile-time.  For example:
  5312 
  5313 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5314 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5315 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5316 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5317 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5318 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5319 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5320 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5321 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5322 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5323 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5324 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5325 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5326 ML {* @{context} *}
  5327 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5328 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5329 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5330 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5331 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5332 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5333 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5334 
  5335 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5336 
  5337 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5338 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5339 
  5340 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5341 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5342 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5343 
  5344 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5345 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5346 
  5347 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5348 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5349 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5350 
  5351 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5352 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5353 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5354 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5355 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5356 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5357 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5358 declarations and definitions.
  5359 
  5360 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5361 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5362 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5363 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5364 
  5365 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5366 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5367 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5368 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5369 
  5370 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5371 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5372 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5373 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5374 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5375 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5376 
  5377 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5378 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5379 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5380 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5381 attributes, methods, etc.
  5382 
  5383 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5384 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5385 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5386 fold_map combinators.
  5387 
  5388 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5389 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5390 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5391 derivation.
  5392 
  5393 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5394 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5395 achieve the old behaviour.
  5396 
  5397 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5398 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5399 statements.
  5400 
  5401 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5402 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5403 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5404 
  5405 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5406 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5407 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5408 
  5409   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5410   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5411   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5412 
  5413 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5414 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5415 
  5416 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5417 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5418 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5419 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5420 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5421 
  5422 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5423 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5424 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5425 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5426 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5427 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5428 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5429 in a locale context).
  5430 
  5431 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5432 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5433 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5434 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5435 
  5436 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5437 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5438 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5439 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5440 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5441 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5442 
  5443 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5444 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5445 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5446 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5447 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5448 
  5449   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5450 
  5451 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5452 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5453 this:
  5454 
  5455   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5456 
  5457 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5458 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5459 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5460 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5461 
  5462 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5463 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5464 
  5465 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5466 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5467 
  5468 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5469 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5470 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5471 batch mode.
  5472 
  5473 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5474 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5475 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5476 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5479 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5480 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5481 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5482 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5483 
  5484 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5485 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5486 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5487 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5488 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5489 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5490 
  5491 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5492 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5493 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5495 
  5496 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5497 "Trueprop" etc.
  5498 
  5499 
  5500 *** System ***
  5501 
  5502 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5503 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5504 Isabelle installations.
  5505 
  5506 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5507 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5508 code.
  5509 
  5510 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5511 
  5512 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5513 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5514 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5515 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5516 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5517 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5518 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5519 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5520 Implementation manual.
  5521 
  5522 
  5523 
  5524 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5525 ----------------------------------
  5526 
  5527 *** General ***
  5528 
  5529 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5530 
  5531   theory <name>
  5532   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5533   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5534   begin
  5535 
  5536 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5537 
  5538   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5539 
  5540 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5541 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5542 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5543 
  5544 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5545 relative and absolute paths.
  5546 
  5547 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5548 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5549 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5550 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5551 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5552 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5553 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5554 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5555 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5556 
  5557   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5558 
  5559 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5560 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5561 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5562 
  5563 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5564 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5567 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5568 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5569 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5570 
  5571   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5572   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5573 
  5574 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5575 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5576 faster.
  5577 
  5578 
  5579 *** Document preparation ***
  5580 
  5581 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5582 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5583 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5584 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5585 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5586 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5587 
  5588 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5589 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5590 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5591 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5592 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5593 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5594 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5595 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5596 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5597 \isadroptag.
  5598 
  5599 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5600 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5601 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5602 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5603 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5604 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5605 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5606 specified above.
  5607 
  5608 * Several new antiquotations:
  5609 
  5610   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5611 
  5612   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5613 
  5614   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5615   argument is a known logical constant;
  5616 
  5617   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5618   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5619 
  5620   @{ML text}
  5621 
  5622 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5623 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5624 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5625 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5626 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5627 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5628 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5629 
  5630 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5631 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5632 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5633 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5634 
  5635 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5636 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5637 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5638 
  5639 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5640 a proof context.
  5641 
  5642 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5643 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5644 
  5645 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5646 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5647 
  5648 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5649 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5650 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5651 
  5652 
  5653 *** Pure ***
  5654 
  5655 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5656 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5657 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5658 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5659 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5660 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5661 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5662 
  5663 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5664 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5665 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5666 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5667 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5668 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5669 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5670 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5671 
  5672 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5673 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5674 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5675 
  5676 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5677 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5678 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5679 
  5680 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5681 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5682 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5683 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5687 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5688 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5689 axclasses vs. locales.
  5690 
  5691 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5692 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5693 
  5694 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5695 marks in schematic variable names.
  5696 
  5697 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5698 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5699 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5700 
  5701   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5702     by simp
  5703 
  5704 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5705 
  5706 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5707 annotations as "(00...)".
  5708 
  5709 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5710 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5711 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5712 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5713 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5714 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5715 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5716 
  5717 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5718 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5719 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5720 specifications.
  5721 
  5722 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5723 locally fixed variables as well.
  5724 
  5725 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5726 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5727 Limit.
  5728 
  5729 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5730 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5731 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5732 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5733 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5734 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5735 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5736 
  5737 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5738 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5739 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5740 
  5741 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5742 
  5743 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5744 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5745 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5746 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5747 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5748 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5749 
  5750 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5751 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5752 
  5753 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5754 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5755 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5756 
  5757 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5758 
  5759 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5760 theory development.
  5761 
  5762 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5763 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5764 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5765 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5766 
  5767 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5768 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5769 quoted when used as identifier.
  5770 
  5771 
  5772 *** Locales ***
  5773 
  5774 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5775 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5776 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5777 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5778 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5779 commands is a follows:
  5780 
  5781   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5782   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5783   (3) interpret expr inst
  5784 
  5785 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5786 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5787 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5788 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5789 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5790 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5791 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5792 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5793 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5794 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5795 
  5796 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5797 'interpret' instead.
  5798 
  5799 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5800 parameters.
  5801 
  5802 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5803 redeclaration.
  5804 
  5805 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5806 
  5807 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5808 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5809 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5810 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5811 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5812 
  5813 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5814 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5815 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5816 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5817 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5818 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5819 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5820 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5821 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5822 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5823 
  5824 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5825 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5826 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5827 
  5828 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5829 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5830 
  5831 
  5832 *** Provers ***
  5833 
  5834 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5835 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5836 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5837 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5838 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5839 
  5840 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5841 and quasi orders.
  5842 
  5843 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5844 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5845 
  5846 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5847 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5848 
  5849 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5850 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5851 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5852 
  5853 
  5854 *** HOL ***
  5855 
  5856 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5857 
  5858   syntax (epsilon)
  5859     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5860 
  5861 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5862 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5863 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5864 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5865 
  5866 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5867 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5868 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5869 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5870 
  5871 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5872 instead of ":".
  5873 
  5874 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5875 
  5876   Old       New
  5877   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5878   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5879   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5880   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5881   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5882 
  5883 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5884 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5885 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5886 
  5887   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5888   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5889 
  5890 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5891 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5892 interface.
  5893 
  5894 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5895 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5896 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5897 be a tuple pattern.
  5898 
  5899 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5900 
  5901   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5902   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5903   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5904   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5905 
  5906 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5907 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5908 
  5909 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5910 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5911 (insert F x)'.
  5912 
  5913 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5914 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5915 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5916 
  5917 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5918 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5919 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5920 
  5921 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5922 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5923 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5924 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5925 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5926 
  5927 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5928 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5929 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5930 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5931 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5932 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5933 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5934 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5935 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5936 
  5937 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5938 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5939 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5940 quite long.
  5941 
  5942 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5943 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5944 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5945 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5946 
  5947 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5948 type-variables in the term.
  5949 
  5950 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5951 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5952 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5953 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5954 goals than previously.
  5955 
  5956 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5957 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5958 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5959 just like y <= x.
  5960 
  5961 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5962 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5963 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5964 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5965 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5966 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5967 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5968 
  5969 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5970 
  5971 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5972 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5973 
  5974 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5975 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5976 inequalities.
  5977 
  5978 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5979 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5980 
  5981   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5982   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5983   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5984   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5985   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5986   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5987   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5988   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5989   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5990   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5991   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5992 
  5993 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5994      
  5995      zero_le_square
  5996      not_square_less_zero 
  5997 
  5998   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5999   
  6000      realpow_zero_zero
  6001      realpow_two
  6002      realpow_less
  6003      zero_le_power
  6004      realpow_two_le
  6005      abs_realpow_two
  6006      realpow_two_abs     
  6007 
  6008 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  6009 
  6010 * Theory List:
  6011 
  6012 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6013 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6014 
  6015   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  6016   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  6017   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  6018   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  6019 
  6020 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  6021 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  6022 
  6023 
  6024 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6025 
  6026 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  6027 integers in the reals.
  6028 
  6029 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6030 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6031 
  6032   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  6033   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6034   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6035   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6036   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  6037 
  6038 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  6039 
  6040 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  6041 
  6042 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  6043 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  6044 
  6045   hypreal = real star
  6046   hypnat = nat star
  6047   hcomplex = complex star
  6048 
  6049 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  6050 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6051 
  6052   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  6053 
  6054   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  6055   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  6056   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  6057   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  6058   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  6059 
  6060   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6061   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  6062   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  6063   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  6064   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  6065 
  6066 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  6067 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6068 
  6069   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  6070   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  6071   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  6072   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  6073   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  6074   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  6075   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  6076   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  6077   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  6078   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  6079   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  6080   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  6081   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  6082   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  6083   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  6084   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  6085   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  6086   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  6087   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  6088   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  6089   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  6090   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  6091   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  6092   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  6093 
  6094 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  6095 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  6096 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6097 
  6098   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  6099   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  6100   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  6101   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  6102   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  6103   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  6104   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  6105   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  6106   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  6107   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  6108     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  6109   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  6110   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  6111   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  6112   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  6113   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  6114   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  6115   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  6116   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  6117   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  6118   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  6119   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  6120   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  6121   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6122   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  6123   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  6124   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  6125   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  6126   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  6127   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  6128   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  6129   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  6130   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  6131   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  6132   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  6133   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  6134   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  6135   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  6136   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  6137   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  6138   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  6139   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  6140   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  6141   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  6142   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  6143   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  6144   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  6145   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  6146   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  6147   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  6148   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  6149   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  6150   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  6151   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  6152 
  6153   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  6154   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  6155   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  6156   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  6157   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  6158   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  6159   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  6160   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  6161   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  6162   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  6163   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  6164 
  6165   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  6166   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  6167   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  6168   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  6169   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  6170   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  6171   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  6172   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  6173   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  6174   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  6175   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  6176   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  6177   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  6178   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  6179   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  6180   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  6181   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  6182   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  6183   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  6184   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  6185   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  6186 
  6187 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  6188 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  6189 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  6190 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  6191 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  6192 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  6193 
  6194 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  6195 
  6196 
  6197 *** HOLCF ***
  6198 
  6199 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  6200 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  6201 type-inference.
  6202 
  6203 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  6204 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  6205 instead of exponential time).
  6206 
  6207 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  6208 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  6209 
  6210   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  6211 
  6212 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  6213 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  6214 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  6215 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  6216 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6217 syntax and examples.
  6218 
  6219 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  6220 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  6221 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  6222 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  6223 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  6224 
  6225 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  6226 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6227 
  6228   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  6229   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  6230   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  6231   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  6232   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  6233   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  6234 
  6235 
  6236 *** ZF ***
  6237 
  6238 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  6239 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  6240 of a homomorphism).
  6241 
  6242 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  6243 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  6244 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  6245 
  6246 
  6247 *** Cube ***
  6248 
  6249 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic