NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Jul 27 15:44:08 2014 +0200 (2014-07-27)
changeset 57695 987c9ceeaafd
parent 57693 8ccc4875fe4f
child 57737 72d4c00064af
permissions -rw-r--r--
back to post-release mode -- after fork point;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 
     8 
     9 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
    10 ---------------------------------
    11 
    12 *** General ***
    13 
    14 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    15 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    16 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    17 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    18 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    19 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    20 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    21 some examples.
    22 
    23 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
    24 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
    25 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
    26 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
    27 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
    28 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
    29 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
    30 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
    31 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
    32 
    33 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    34 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    35 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    36 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    37 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    38 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    39 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    40 proof tools.
    41 
    42 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    43 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    44 supports input via ` (backquote).
    45 
    46 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    47 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    48 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    49 
    50 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    51 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    52 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
    53 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    54 
    55 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
    56 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    57 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
    58 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    59 
    60 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    61 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    62 
    63 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    64 not check existence within the file-system.
    65 
    66 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
    67 isar-ref, jedit, system.
    68 
    69 
    70 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    71 
    72 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
    73 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
    74 buffer.
    75 
    76 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
    77 to PIDE hyperlinks.
    78 
    79 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    80 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    81 
    82 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    83 auxiliary ML files.
    84 
    85 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
    86 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
    87 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
    88 
    89 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
    90 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
    91 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    92 
    93 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
    94 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
    95 caret".
    96 
    97 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
    98 completion popup and context-menu.
    99 
   100 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   101 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   102 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   103 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   104 
   105 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   106 to highlight text via regular expression.
   107 
   108 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   109 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   110 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   111 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   112 
   113 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   114 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   115 
   116 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   117 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   118 
   119 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   120 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   121 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   122 
   123 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   124 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   125 within the context.
   126 
   127 
   128 *** Pure ***
   129 
   130 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   131 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   132 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   133 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   134 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   135 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   136 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   137 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   138 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   139 
   140 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   141 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   142 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   143 renaming needs to be applied:
   144 
   145   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   146   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   147   all            ~>  Pure.all
   148   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   149   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   150 
   151 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   152 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   153 old constants:
   154 
   155 setup {*
   156   fn thy => thy
   157     |> Sign.root_path
   158     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   159     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   160     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   161     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   162 *}
   163 
   164 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   165 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   166 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   167 
   168 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   169 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   170 instantiated theorem.
   171 
   172 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   173 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   174 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   175 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   176 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   177 
   178   attribute_setup standard =
   179     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   180 
   181 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   182 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   183 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   184 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   185 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   186 
   187 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   188 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   189 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   190 
   191 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   192 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   193 
   194 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   195 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   196 
   197 
   198 *** HOL ***
   199 
   200 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   201 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   210 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   216 with the given constants.
   217 
   218 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   219 operations on records.
   220 
   221 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   222 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   227 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   228 
   229 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   230 
   231 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   232 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   233 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   234 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   235 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   238 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   241   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   242   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   243   part of theory "Main".
   244 
   245   Theory renamings:
   246     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   247     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   248     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   249     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   250     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   251     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   252     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   253     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   254     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   255     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   256     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   257     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   258     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   259     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   260     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   261     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   262     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   263     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   264     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   265     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   266     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   267     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   268 
   269   New theories:
   270     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   271     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   272     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   273     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   274     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   275 
   276   Discontinued theories:
   277     BNF/BNF.thy
   278     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   279 
   280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   281 
   282 * New (co)datatype package:
   283   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   284   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   285     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   286   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   287     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   288   - Renamed commands:
   289       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   290       primrec_new ~> primrec
   291       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   292     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   293   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   294     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   295     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   297     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   298     using "prim(co)rec".
   299     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   301     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   302     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   304     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   305     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   306     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307 
   308 * Old datatype package:
   309   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   310     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   311     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   313     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   314     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   317   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   318   BNF-based datatype package.
   319 
   320   Renamed constants:
   321     Option.set ~> set_option
   322     Option.map ~> map_option
   323     option_rel ~> rel_option
   324 
   325   Renamed theorems:
   326     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   327     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   328     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   329     option.recs ~> option.rec
   330     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   331     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   332     map.simps ~> list.map
   333     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   334     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   335     the.simps ~> option.sel
   336 
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   340     sum_map ~> map_sum
   341     map_pair ~> map_prod
   342     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   343     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   344     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   345     set_rel ~> rel_set
   346     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   347     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   348     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   349     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   350 
   351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   352 
   353 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   354 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   355 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   356 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   357 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   358 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   359 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360 
   361 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   362 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   363 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   364 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   365 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   366 
   367 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   368 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   369 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   370 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   371 
   372 * Sledgehammer:
   373   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   374   - MaSh overhaul:
   375     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   376       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   377     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   378       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   379       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   380       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   381   - New option:
   382       smt_proofs
   383   - Renamed options:
   384       isar_compress ~> compress
   385       isar_try0 ~> try0
   386 
   387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   390 
   391 * Nitpick:
   392   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   393     take infinite values.
   394   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   395     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   396   - Removed "std" option.
   397   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   398     "hide_types".
   399 
   400 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   401 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   404 
   405 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   406   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   407   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   408     SUP instead uniformly.
   409   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   410     or SUP and Sup.
   411   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   412   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   413   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   414     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   415     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   416 
   417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   420 
   421 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   422 
   423   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   424   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   425   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   426   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   427 
   428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   431 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   432 
   433 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   434 
   435     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   436     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   437     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   438     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   439     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   440     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   441     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   442     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   443     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   444     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   445     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   446     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   447     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   448     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   449     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   450     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   451     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   452     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   453     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   454     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   455     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   456     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   457     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   458     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   459     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   460     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   461     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   462     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   463     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   464     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   465     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   466     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   467     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   468     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   469     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   470     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   471     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   472     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   473     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   474     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   475     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   476     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   477     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   478     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   479     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   480     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   481     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   482     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   483     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   484     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   485     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   486     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   487     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   488     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   489     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   490     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   491     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   492     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   493     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   494 
   495   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   496   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   497   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   498     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   499 
   500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   503 
   504   Fact consolidations:
   505     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   506     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   507     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   508     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   509     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   510     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   511     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   512     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   513     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   514     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   515     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   516     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   517     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   518     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   519     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   520     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   521     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   522     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   523     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   524     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   525     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   526     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   527     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   528     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   529     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   530     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   531     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   532     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   533     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   534     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   535     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   536     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   537     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   538     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   539     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   540     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   541     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   542     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   543     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   544     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   545 
   546 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   547 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   548 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   549 
   550 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
   551 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   552 
   553 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   554 
   555 INCOMPATBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
   558 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   564     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   565 
   566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
   569   consolidation:
   570     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   571     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   572 
   573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   574 
   575 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   576   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   577   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   578   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   579     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   580   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   581     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   582   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   583 
   584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
   587 
   588     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
   589     add_commute ~> add.commute
   590     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
   591     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
   592     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
   593     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
   594     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
   595     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
   596     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
   597     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
   598     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
   599     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
   600     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
   601 
   602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   603 
   604 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
   605 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
   606 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
   607 
   608 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   609     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   610     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   611     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   612     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   613 
   614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * Fact name consolidation:
   617     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   618     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   619     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   620     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   621     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   622 
   623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   626 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   627 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   628 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   629 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   630 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
   631 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
   632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 
   634 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   635 
   636 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   637 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   638 
   639 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   640 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   641 
   642 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   643 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   644 or the brute way with
   645 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   646 
   647 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
   648 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
   649 stating boundedness of sets.
   650 
   651 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
   652 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
   653 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   656   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   657   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   658   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   659   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   660   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   661   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   662   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   663   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   664   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   665   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   666   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   667 
   668   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   669 
   670   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   671 
   672     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   673     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
   674     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
   675     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
   676     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   677 
   678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   681   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   682 
   683   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   684 
   685   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   686 
   687   - removed constant isDiff
   688 
   689   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
   690     input syntax.
   691 
   692   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
   693 
   694   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   695 
   696   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   697 
   698   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   699 
   700   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
   701     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
   702     has_vector_derivative.
   703 
   704   - Other renamings:
   705     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   706     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   707     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   708     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   709     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   710     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   711     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   712 
   713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
   716 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
   717 in continuous_intros.
   718 
   719 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
   720 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
   721 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   722 
   723 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
   724 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
   725 especially removes
   726 
   727     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   728 
   729 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   730     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   731 
   732 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   733 
   734   Renamings:
   735     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   736     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   737     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   738     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   739     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   740     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   741     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   742     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   743     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   744     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   745     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   746     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   747 
   748     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   749     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   750     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   751 
   752   Removed theorems:
   753     complex_zero_def
   754     complex_add_def
   755     complex_minus_def
   756     complex_diff_def
   757     complex_one_def
   758     complex_mult_def
   759     complex_inverse_def
   760     complex_scaleR_def
   761 
   762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   763 
   764 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   765 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   766 
   767 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
   768 
   769 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
   770 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
   771 
   772 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
   773 
   774 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * HOL-Word:
   778   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
   779     of "word_arith_wis".
   780   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   781     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   782     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   783 
   784 * HOL-Number_Theory:
   785   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
   786   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
   787   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
   788     (except the AFP)
   789 
   790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   791 
   792 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   793   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
   794   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
   795     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
   796   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   797     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   798     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   799     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   800     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
   801     intervals.
   802   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
   803     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
   804     - renamed theorems:
   805         interval ~> box
   806         mem_interval ~> mem_box
   807         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
   808         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
   809         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
   810         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
   811         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
   812         subset_interval ~> subset_box
   813         open_interval ~> open_box
   814         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
   815         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
   816         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
   817         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
   818         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
   819         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
   820         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
   821         convex_box ~> convex_prod
   822         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
   823         convex_interval ~> convex_box
   824         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
   825         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
   826         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
   827         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
   828         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
   829         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
   830         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
   831         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
   832         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
   833         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
   834         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
   835         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
   836         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
   837         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
   838 
   839     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
   840         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
   841         has_integral + has_integral_real
   842         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
   843         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
   844         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
   845         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
   846         integral_const + integral_const_real
   847         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
   848         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
   849         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
   850         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
   851         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
   852         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
   853         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
   854         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
   855         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
   856         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
   857 
   858   - renamed theorems:
   859     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   860     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   861     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   862 
   863 * HOL-Probability:
   864   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
   865     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   866 
   867     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   868     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   869     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   870     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   871     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   872     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   873     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   874     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   875     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   876     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   877     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   878     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   879     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   880     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   881     integral_indicator          ~>
   882          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   883     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   884     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   885     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   886 
   887     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   888          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   889 
   890     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   891          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   892 
   893     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   894          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   895 
   896     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   897          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   898          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   899 
   900     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   901          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   902 
   903     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   904          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   905 
   906     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   907          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   908          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   909 
   910     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   911          positive_integral_real_affine
   912 
   913     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   914          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   915 
   916     The following theorems where removed:
   917 
   918     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   919     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   920     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   921     lebesgue_integral_multc
   922     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   923     integral_cmul_indicator
   924     integral_real
   925 
   926   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   927 
   928     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   929       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   930 
   931     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   932 
   933   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
   934     distributed random variables.
   935 
   936 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
   937 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
   938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   939 
   940 
   941 *** Scala ***
   942 
   943 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   944 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   945 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   946 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   947 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   948 
   949 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
   950 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 
   953 *** ML ***
   954 
   955 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   956 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   957 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   958 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   959 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   960 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   961 
   962 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   963 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   964 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   965 actually belongs to it).
   966 
   967 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   968 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   969 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   970 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   971 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   972 of schematic variables.
   973 
   974 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   975 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   978 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
   979 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980 
   981 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   985 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   986 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   990 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   991 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   992 formal context.
   993 
   994 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   995 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   998 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   999 
  1000 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1001 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1002 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1003 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1004 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1005 
  1006 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1007 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1008 purposes.
  1009 
  1010 
  1011 *** System ***
  1012 
  1013 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1014 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1015 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1016 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1017 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1018 
  1019 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1020 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1021 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1022 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1023 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1024 settings variable.
  1025 
  1026 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1027 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1028 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1029 
  1030 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1031 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1032 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1033 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1034 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1035 
  1036 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1037 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1038 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1039 
  1040 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1041 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1042 
  1043 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1044 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1045 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1046 
  1047 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1048 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1049 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1050 processing is started.
  1051 
  1052 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1053 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1054 
  1055 
  1056 
  1057 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1058 -------------------------------------
  1059 
  1060 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1061 
  1062 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1063 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1064 
  1065 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1066 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1067 
  1068 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1069 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1070 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1071 
  1072 
  1073 *** System ***
  1074 
  1075 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1076 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1077 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1078 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1079 
  1080 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1081 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1082 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1083 
  1084 
  1085 
  1086 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1087 -------------------------------------
  1088 
  1089 *** General ***
  1090 
  1091 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1092 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1093 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1096 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1099 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1100 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1101 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1102 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1103 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1104 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1105 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1106 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1107 syntax.
  1108 
  1109 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1110 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1113 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1114 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1115 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1116 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1117 
  1118 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1122 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1123 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1124 
  1125 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1126 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1127 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1128 
  1129 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1130 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1131 
  1132 
  1133 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1134 
  1135 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1136 Documentation panel.
  1137 
  1138 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1139 documentation.
  1140 
  1141 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1142 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1143 
  1144 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1145 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1146 normal editing and checking process.
  1147 
  1148 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1149 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1150 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1151 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1152 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1153 
  1154 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1155 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1156 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1157 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1158 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1159 
  1160 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1161 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1162 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1163 
  1164 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1165 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1166 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1167 to resolve conflict.
  1168 
  1169 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1170 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1171 
  1172 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1173 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1174 such command executions while editing.
  1175 
  1176 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1177 document content.
  1178 
  1179 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1180 toplevel theorem statements.
  1181 
  1182 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1183 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1184 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1185 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1186 
  1187 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1188 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1189 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1190 
  1191 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1192 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1193 
  1194 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1195 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1196 
  1197 
  1198 *** Pure ***
  1199 
  1200 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1201 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1202 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1203 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1204 details.
  1205 
  1206 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1207 
  1208 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1209 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1210 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1211 
  1212 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1216 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1217 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1218 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1221 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1222 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1223 
  1224 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1225 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1226 
  1227 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1228 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1229 situations.
  1230 
  1231 
  1232 *** HOL ***
  1233 
  1234 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1235 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1239 
  1240 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1241 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1242 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1243 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1244 
  1245   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1246 
  1247 * Code generator:
  1248   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1249     'code_instance'.
  1250   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1251     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1252 
  1253 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1254 examples.
  1255 
  1256 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1257 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1258 to distinguish both when desired.
  1259 
  1260 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1261 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1262 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1263 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1266 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1267 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1268 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1269 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1270 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1271 
  1272 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1273 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1274 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1275 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1276 
  1277 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1278 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1279 
  1280 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1281 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1282 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1283 
  1284 * Lifting:
  1285   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1286     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1287       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1288       transfer rules
  1289     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1290       correspondence relation can be generated
  1291     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1292       parametricity
  1293     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1294   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1295   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1296     copies
  1297   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1298     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1299     anonymous context)
  1300   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1301     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1302   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1303     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1304   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1305     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1306 
  1307 * Transfer:
  1308   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1309     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1310   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1311   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1312     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1313   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1314 
  1315 * Reification and reflection:
  1316   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1317     "Reification".
  1318   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1319   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1321 
  1322 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1323   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1324     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1325     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1326   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1327     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1328   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1329     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1330     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1331     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1332     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1333     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1334     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1335     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1336   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1337     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1338   - Fact renames:
  1339       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1340       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1344 
  1345 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1346 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1347 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349 
  1350 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1351 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1352 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1353 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1354 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1355 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1356 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1357 lemmas.
  1358 
  1359 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1360 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1361 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1364 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1365 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1366 
  1367 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1368 top and bottom elements.
  1369 
  1370 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1371 
  1372 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1373 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1374 
  1375  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1376    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1377    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1378 
  1379  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1380    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1381    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1382 
  1383    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1384    arbitrary filter.
  1385 
  1386  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1387    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1388    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1389    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1390    on a compact set.
  1391 
  1392  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1393    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1394    linear_continuum_topology).
  1395 
  1396  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1397    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1398    on all sequences converging to x.
  1399 
  1400  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1401    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1402    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1403    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1404    left or right.
  1405 
  1406  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1407 
  1408      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1409 
  1410  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1411    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1412 
  1413  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1414    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1415    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1416    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1417    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1418    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1419 
  1420  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1421 
  1422    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1423 
  1424    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1425      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1426 
  1427    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1428 
  1429    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1430      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1431 
  1432    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1433 
  1434    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1435 
  1436  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1437 
  1438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440 * Nitpick:
  1441   - Added option "spy".
  1442   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1443 
  1444 * Sledgehammer:
  1445   - Renamed option:
  1446       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1447     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1448   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1449   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1450   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1451 
  1452 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1453 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1454 
  1455 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1456   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1457   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1458     generated code.
  1459   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1460   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1461   - Fact renames:
  1462     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1463     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1464     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1465 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1466 
  1467 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1468 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1469 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1470 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1471 
  1472 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1473 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1474 
  1475 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1476 
  1477 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1478 
  1479     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1480     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1481 
  1482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1485 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1486 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1487 
  1488 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1489 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1490 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1491 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 
  1493 * HOL-BNF:
  1494   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1495     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1496     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1497     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1498   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1499     coinduct).
  1500   - Renamed keywords:
  1501     data ~> datatype_new
  1502     codata ~> codatatype
  1503     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1504   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1505     discs ~> disc
  1506     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1507     map_id' ~> map_id
  1508     sels ~> sel
  1509     set_map' ~> set_map
  1510     sets ~> set
  1511 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 
  1514 *** ML ***
  1515 
  1516 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1517 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1518 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1519 Examples.thy in particular.
  1520 
  1521 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1522 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1523 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1524 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1525 
  1526 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1527 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1528 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1529 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1533 
  1534     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1535     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1536 
  1537 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1540 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1541 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1542 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1543 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1544 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1545 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1546 
  1547 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1548 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1549 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1550 clasets separately from the context.
  1551 
  1552 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1554 
  1555 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1556 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1557 
  1558 
  1559 *** System ***
  1560 
  1561 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1562 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1563 
  1564 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1565 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1568 settings variable.
  1569 
  1570 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1571 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1572 always pdf.
  1573 
  1574 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1575 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1576 
  1577 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1578 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1579 
  1580 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1581 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1582 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1583 
  1584 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1585 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1586 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1587 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1588 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1589 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1590 
  1591 
  1592 
  1593 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1594 -----------------------------------
  1595 
  1596 *** General ***
  1597 
  1598 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1599 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1600 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1601 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1602 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1603 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1604 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1605 
  1606 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1607 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1608 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1609 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1610 
  1611 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1612 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1613 
  1614 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1615 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1616 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1617 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1618 dependencies properly.
  1619 
  1620 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1621 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1622 
  1623 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1624 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1625 
  1626 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1627 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1628 and "class ... context ...".
  1629 
  1630 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1631 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1632 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1633 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1634 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1635 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1636 
  1637 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1638 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1639 
  1640 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1641 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1642 
  1643 
  1644 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1645 
  1646 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1647 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1648 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1649 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1650 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1651 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1652 
  1653 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1654 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1655 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1656 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1657 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1658 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1659 
  1660 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1661 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1662 browser on demand.
  1663 
  1664 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1665 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1666 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1667 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1668 
  1669 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1670 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1671 
  1672 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1673 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1674 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1675 potentially infinite message streams.
  1676 
  1677 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1678 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1679 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1680 schemes.
  1681 
  1682 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1683 symbols.
  1684 
  1685 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1686 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1687 
  1688 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1689 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1690 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1691 
  1692 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1693 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1694 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1695 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1696 
  1697 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1698 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1699 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1700 
  1701 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1702 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1703 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1704 Isabelle distribution.
  1705 
  1706 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1707 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1708 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1709 
  1710 
  1711 *** Pure ***
  1712 
  1713 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1714 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1715 
  1716 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1717 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1718 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1721 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1722 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1723 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1724 with some care where this is really required.
  1725 
  1726 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1727 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1728 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1729 
  1730   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1731 
  1732 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1733 a Hasse diagram.
  1734 
  1735 
  1736 *** HOL ***
  1737 
  1738 * Sledgehammer:
  1739 
  1740   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1741     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1742   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1743   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1744   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1745   - Renamed options:
  1746       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1747       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1748       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1749       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1750 
  1751 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1752 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1753 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1754 
  1755 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1757 
  1758 * Lifting:
  1759   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1760   - quot_del attribute
  1761   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1762 
  1763 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1764 expressions.
  1765 
  1766 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1767 pointfree expressions.
  1768 
  1769 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1770 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1771 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1772 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1776 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1777 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1778 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1779 accordingly.
  1780 
  1781 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1782 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1783 
  1784 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1785 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1786 
  1787 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1790 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1791 
  1792 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1793 
  1794 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1795 
  1796   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1797   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1798 
  1799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1802 
  1803   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1804   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1805 
  1806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1807 
  1808 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1809 
  1810   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1811     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1812     output f x converges to G.
  1813 
  1814   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1815     infinity (at_bot).
  1816 
  1817   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1818     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1819 
  1820   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1821     at_top".
  1822 
  1823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1824 
  1825 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1826 lattice type classes.
  1827 
  1828 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1829 
  1830     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1831     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1832 
  1833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834 
  1835 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1836 changes as follows.
  1837 
  1838   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1839 
  1840       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1841       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1842 
  1843   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1844     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1845     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1846     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1847 
  1848   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1849     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1850     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1851 
  1852   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1853     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1854     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1855     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1856 
  1857   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1858     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1859 
  1860       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1861       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1862       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1863       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1864       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1865       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1866       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1867       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1868       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1869       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1870       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1871       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1872       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1873       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1874       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1875       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1876 
  1877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1880 
  1881 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1882 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1883 
  1884 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1885 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1886 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1887 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1888 
  1889   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1890   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1891   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1892   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1893   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1894   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1895   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1896   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1897   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1898   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1899 
  1900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1901 
  1902 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1903 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1904 Data").
  1905 
  1906 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1907 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1908 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1909 code.
  1910 
  1911 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1912 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1913 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1917 
  1918 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1919 
  1920 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1921 
  1922   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1923   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1924 
  1925 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1926 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1927 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1928 
  1929   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1930 
  1931     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1932     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1933     cart_base i  removed
  1934     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1935 
  1936   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1937 
  1938   Renamed lemmas:
  1939 
  1940     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1941     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1942     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1943     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1944     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1945     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1946     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1947     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1948     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1949     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1950 
  1951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1952 
  1953 * HOL/Probability:
  1954 
  1955   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1956 
  1957   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1958     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1959     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1960 
  1961   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1962     projective family).
  1963 
  1964 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1965 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1966 
  1967 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1968 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1969 datatypes.
  1970 
  1971 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1972 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1973 
  1974 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1975 trees for the code generator.
  1976 
  1977 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1978 Lifting/Transfer.
  1979 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1980 
  1981 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984 
  1985 *** Document preparation ***
  1986 
  1987 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1988 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1989 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1990 
  1991 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1992 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1993 
  1994 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1995 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1996 document/root.tex.
  1997 
  1998 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1999 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 
  2002 *** ML ***
  2003 
  2004 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2005 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2006 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2007 
  2008 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2009 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2010 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2011 
  2012 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2013 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2014 necessarily printing visible text.
  2015 
  2016 
  2017 *** System ***
  2018 
  2019 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2020 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2021 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2022 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2023 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2024 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2025 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2026 
  2027 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2028 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2029 
  2030   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2031 
  2032 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2033 
  2034 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2035 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2036 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2037 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2038 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2039 
  2040 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2041 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2042 
  2043 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2044 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2045 
  2046 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2048 
  2049 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2050 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2051 version of Isabelle.
  2052 
  2053 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2054 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2055 
  2056 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2057 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2058 for home-made settings.
  2059 
  2060 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2061 
  2062 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2063 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2064 configuration.
  2065 
  2066 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2067 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2068 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2069 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2070 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2071 
  2072 
  2073 
  2074 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2075 ------------------------------
  2076 
  2077 *** General ***
  2078 
  2079 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2080 
  2081   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2082     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2083   - markup for bound variables
  2084   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2085   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2086   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2087     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2088 
  2089 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2090 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2091 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2092 
  2093 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2094 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2095 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2096 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2097 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2098 
  2099   context
  2100     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2101     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2102   begin
  2103 
  2104   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2105 
  2106   end
  2107 
  2108   thm my_trans
  2109 
  2110 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2111 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2112 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2113 
  2114 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2115 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2116 
  2117 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2118 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2119 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2120 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2121 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2122 
  2123 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2124 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2125 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2126 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2127 indices of schematic variables.
  2128 
  2129 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2130 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2131 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2132 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2133 etc. was exploited.
  2134 
  2135 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2136 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2137 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2138 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2139 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2140 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2141 
  2142 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2143 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2144 manual.
  2145 
  2146 
  2147 *** Pure ***
  2148 
  2149 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2150 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2151 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2152 
  2153 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2154 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2155 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2156 undocumented feature.)
  2157 
  2158 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2159 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2160 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2161 
  2162   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2163 
  2164   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2165     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2166 
  2167 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2168 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2169 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2170 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2171 
  2172 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2173 
  2174     num ~> num_token
  2175     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2176     xstr ~> str_token
  2177 
  2178 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2179 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2180 position information via constraints).
  2181 
  2182 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2183 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2184 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2187 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2188 
  2189 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2190 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2191 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2194 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2195 
  2196 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2197 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2198 
  2199   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2200 
  2201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2202 
  2203 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2204 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2207 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2208 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2209 
  2210 
  2211 *** HOL ***
  2212 
  2213 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2214 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2215 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2216 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2217 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2218 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2219 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2220 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2221 possible.
  2222 
  2223 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2224 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2225 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2226 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2227 
  2228 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2229 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2232 
  2233 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2234 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2235 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2236 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2237 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2238 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2239 
  2240   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2241     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2242 
  2243   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2244     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2245     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2246 
  2247   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2248     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2249 
  2250   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2251     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2252     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2253 
  2254   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2255     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2256 
  2257 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2258 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2259 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2260 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2261 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2262 
  2263   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2264     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2265     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2266     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2267     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2268 
  2269     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2270     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2271 
  2272   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2273     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2274     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2275     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2276     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2277     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2278     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2279     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2280 
  2281   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2282     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2283     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2284     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2285 
  2286   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2287     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2288     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2289     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2290 
  2291   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2292     from type nat to type int.
  2293 
  2294 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2295 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2296 
  2297   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2298     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2299     type.  Example syntax:
  2300 
  2301     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2302       is List.insert
  2303 
  2304     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2305     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2306     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2307     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2308     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2309     by the package.
  2310 
  2311   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2312     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2313     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2314     code generation for each constant.
  2315 
  2316   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2317     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2318     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2319     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2320     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2321 
  2322   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2323     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2324     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2325 
  2326 * Quotient package:
  2327 
  2328   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2329     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2330 
  2331   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2332     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2333 
  2334   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2335     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2336     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2339     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2340 
  2341 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2342 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2343 
  2344 * Quickcheck:
  2345 
  2346   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2347     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2348     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2349     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2350     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2351 
  2352     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2353     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2354     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2355 
  2356     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2357     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2358 
  2359     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2360     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2361     show genuine counterexamples.
  2362 
  2363   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2364     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2365 
  2366     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2367     constructors of that type.
  2368 
  2369   - Support for multisets.
  2370 
  2371   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2372 
  2373   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2374     conjectures in a locale context.
  2375 
  2376 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2377 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2378 
  2379 * Sledgehammer:
  2380   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2381     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2382   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2383   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2384     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2385   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2386   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2387   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2388   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2389 
  2390 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2391 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2392 
  2393 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2394 
  2395 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396 
  2397 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2398 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2399 
  2400   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2401 
  2402 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2403 a list and a nat.
  2404 
  2405 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2406 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2407 
  2408 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2409 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2410 default.
  2411 
  2412 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2413 
  2414   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2415 
  2416 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2417 
  2418 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2419 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2420 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2421 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2422 one_case.
  2423 
  2424 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2425 the result of the fact expression.
  2426 
  2427 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2428 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2429 of some relation theorems:
  2430 
  2431   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2432   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2433   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2434   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2435   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2436   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2437 
  2438 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2439 
  2440 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2441 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2442 
  2443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444 
  2445 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2446 to match the constant's name:
  2447 
  2448   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2449   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2450   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2451   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2452   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2453   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2454   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2455   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2456   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2457   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2458   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2459   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2460   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2461   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2462   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2463   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2464   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2465   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2466   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2467   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2468   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2469   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2470   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2471   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2472 
  2473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2474 
  2475 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2476 and corresponding theorem names:
  2477 
  2478   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2479 
  2480   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2481 
  2482   - Renamed theorems:
  2483 
  2484     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2485     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2486     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2487     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2488     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2489     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2490     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2491     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2492     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2493     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2494     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2495     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2496     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2497     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2498     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2499     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2500     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2501     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2502     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2503     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2504     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2505     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2506     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2507 
  2508     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2509 
  2510     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2511 
  2512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2515 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2516 
  2517   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2518   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2519   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2520   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2521   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2522   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2523   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2524   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2525   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2526   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2527   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2528   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2529   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2530   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2531   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2532   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2533   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2534   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2535   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2536   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2537   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2538 
  2539 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2540 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2545 
  2546   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2547   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2548   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2549   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2550   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2551   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2552   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2553   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2554   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2555   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2556   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2557   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2558   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2559   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2560   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2561   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2562   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2563   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2564 
  2565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2568 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2569 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2570 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2571 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2572 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2573 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2574 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2575 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2576 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2577 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2578 
  2579 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2580 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2581 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2582 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2583 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2584 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2585 
  2586 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2587 through option types.
  2588 
  2589 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2590 relations.
  2591 
  2592 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2593 
  2594 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2595 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2596 
  2597   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2598   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2599   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2600   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2601   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2602   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2603   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2604   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2605   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2606   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2607   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2608   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2609   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2610   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2611   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2612   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2613   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2614   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2615   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2616   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2617   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2618   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2619   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2620   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2621   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2622   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2623   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2624   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2625   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2626   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2627   zless_le ~> less_le
  2628   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2629   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2630   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2631 
  2632 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2633 
  2634   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2635 
  2636 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2637 
  2638 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2639 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2640 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2641 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2645 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2646 
  2647 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2648 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2649 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2650 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2651 follows:
  2652 
  2653   Operations:
  2654   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2655   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2656   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2657   del -> rbt_del
  2658   delete -> rbt_delete
  2659   ins -> rbt_ins
  2660   insert -> rbt_insert
  2661   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2662   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2663   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2664   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2665   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2666   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2667   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2668   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2669   union -> rbt_union
  2670   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2671   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2672 
  2673   Lemmas:
  2674   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2675   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2676   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2677   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2678   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2679   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2680   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2681   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2682   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2683   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2684   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2685   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2686   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2687   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2688   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2689   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2690   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2691   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2692   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2693   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2694   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2695   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2696   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2697   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2698   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2699   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2700   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2701   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2702   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2703   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2704   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2705   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2706   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2707   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2708   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2709   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2710   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2711   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2712   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2713   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2714   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2715   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2716   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2717   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2718   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2719   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2720   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2721   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2722   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2723   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2724   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2725   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2726   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2727   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2728   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2729   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2730   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2731   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2732   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2733   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2734   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2735   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2736   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2737   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2738   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2739   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2740   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2741   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2742   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2743   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2744   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2745   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2746   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2747   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2748   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2749   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2750   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2751   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2752   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2753   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2754   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2755   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2756   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2757 
  2758 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2759 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2760 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762   Changed Operations:
  2763   float_abs -> abs
  2764   float_nprt -> nprt
  2765   float_pprt -> pprt
  2766   pow2 -> use powr
  2767   round_down -> float_round_down
  2768   round_up -> float_round_up
  2769   scale -> exponent
  2770 
  2771   Removed Operations:
  2772   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2773 
  2774   Renamed Lemmas:
  2775   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2776   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2777   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2778   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2779   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2780   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2781   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2782   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2783   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2784   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2785   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2786   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2787   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2788   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2789   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2790   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2791   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2792   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2793   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2794   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2795   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2796   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2797   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2798   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2799   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2800   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2801   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2802   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2803   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2804   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2805   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2806   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2807   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2808   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2809   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2810   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2811 
  2812   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2813   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2814   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2815   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2816   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2817   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2818   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2819   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2820   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2821   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2822 
  2823 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2824 association lists with distinct keys.
  2825 
  2826 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2827 annotated commands.
  2828 
  2829 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2830 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2831 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2832 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833 
  2834 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2835 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2836 instead.
  2837 
  2838   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2839   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2840   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2841   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2842   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2843   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2844   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2845   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2846   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2847   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2848   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2849   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2850   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2851   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2852   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2853   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2854   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2855   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2856   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2857   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2858   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2859   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2860   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2861   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2862   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2863   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2864   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2865   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2866   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2867   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2868   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2869   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2870   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2871   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2872   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2873   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2874   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2875   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2876   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2877   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2878   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2879 
  2880 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2881 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2882 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2883 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2884 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2885 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2886 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2887 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2888 
  2889 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2890 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2891 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2892 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2893 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2894 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2895 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2896 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2897 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2898 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2899 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2900 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902   Renamed constants:
  2903   measure -> emeasure
  2904   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2905   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2906   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2907   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2908 
  2909   Removed locales:
  2910   completeable_measure_space
  2911   finite_measure_space
  2912   finite_prob_space
  2913   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2914   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2915   finite_sigma_algebra
  2916   measure_space
  2917   pair_finite_prob_space
  2918   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2919   pair_finite_space
  2920   pair_sigma_algebra
  2921   product_sigma_algebra
  2922 
  2923   Removed constants:
  2924   conditional_space
  2925   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2926   image_space
  2927   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2928   pair_measure_generator
  2929   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2930   subvimage
  2931 
  2932   Replacement theorems:
  2933   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2934   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2935   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2936   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2937   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2938   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2939   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2940   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2941   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2942   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2943   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2944   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2945   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2946   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2947   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2948   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2949   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2950   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2951   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2952   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2953   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2954   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2955   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2956   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2957   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2958   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2959   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2960   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2961   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2962   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2963   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2964   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2965   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2966   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2967   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2968   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2969   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2970   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2971   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2972   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2973   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2974   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2975   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2976   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2977   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2978   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2979   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2980   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2981   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2982   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2983   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2984   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2985   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2986   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2987   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2988   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2989   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2990   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2991   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2992   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2993   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2994   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2995   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2996   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2997   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2998   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2999   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3000   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3001   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3002   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3003   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3004   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3005   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3006   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3007   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3008   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3009   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3010   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3011   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3012   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3013   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3014   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3015   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3016   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3017   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3018   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3019   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3020   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3021   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3022   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3023   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3024   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3025   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3026   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3027   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3028   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3029   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3030   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3031   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3032   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3033   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3034   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3035   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3036   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3037   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3038   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3039   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3040   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3041   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3042   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3043   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3044   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3045   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3046   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3047   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3048   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3049   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3050   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3051   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3052   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3053   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3054   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3055   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3056   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3057   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3058   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3059   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3060   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3061 
  3062 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3063 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3064 
  3065 
  3066 *** FOL ***
  3067 
  3068 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3069 
  3070 
  3071 *** ZF ***
  3072 
  3073 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3074 analysis.
  3075 
  3076 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3077 
  3078 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 
  3081 *** ML ***
  3082 
  3083 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3084 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3085 
  3086 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3087 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3088 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3089 
  3090 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3091 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3092 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3093 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3094 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3095 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3096 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3097 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3098 
  3099 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3100 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3101 
  3102 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3103 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3104 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3105 
  3106 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3107 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3110 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3111 context as well.
  3112 
  3113 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3114 
  3115   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3116   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3117   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3118   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3119   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3120   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3121   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3122   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3123   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3124   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3125   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3126   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3127 
  3128 
  3129 *** System ***
  3130 
  3131 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3132 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3133 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3134 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3135 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3136 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3137 the generic user home was intended.
  3138 
  3139 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3140 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3141 
  3142 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3143 (not just JRE).
  3144 
  3145 
  3146 
  3147 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3148 ------------------------------------
  3149 
  3150 *** General ***
  3151 
  3152 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3153 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3154 
  3155   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3156     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3157     files for checking).
  3158 
  3159   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3160     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3161     positions.
  3162 
  3163   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3164     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3165     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3166 
  3167   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3168     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3169     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3170 
  3171   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3172     cores.
  3173 
  3174   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3175     versions (garbage collection).
  3176 
  3177 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3178 including some remaining limitations.
  3179 
  3180 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3181 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3182 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3183 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3184 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3188 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3189 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3190 
  3191 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3192 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3193 usedir option -Q.
  3194 
  3195 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3196 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3197 
  3198   long_names   ~> names_long
  3199   short_names  ~> names_short
  3200   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3201 
  3202 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3203 
  3204   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3205 
  3206 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3207 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3208 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3209 
  3210 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3211 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3212 
  3213 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3214   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3215   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3216   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3217     "Classical Reasoner".
  3218 
  3219 
  3220 *** HOL ***
  3221 
  3222 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3223 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3226 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3227 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3228 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3229 class complete_linorder.
  3230 
  3231 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3232 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3233 
  3234 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3235 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3236 
  3237   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3238   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3239   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3240   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3241   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3242   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3243   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3244   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3245   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3246   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3247   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3248 
  3249 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3250 
  3251   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3252   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3253   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3254   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3255   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3256   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3257   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3258   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3259   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3260   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3261   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3262   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3263   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3264   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3265   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3266   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3267 
  3268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3274 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3275 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3276 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3279 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3280 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282 
  3283 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3284 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3285 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3286 
  3287 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3288 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3289 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3292 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3293 
  3294 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3295 
  3296     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3297     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3298 
  3299 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3300 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301 
  3302 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3303 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3304 
  3305 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3306 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3307 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3308 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3311   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3312   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3313   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3314   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3315   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3316   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3317 
  3318 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3319 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3322   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3323   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3324   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3325   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3326   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3327   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3328   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3329   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3330   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3331   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3332   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3333   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3334   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3335   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3336   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3337   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3338   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3339   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3340   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3341   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3342   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3343   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3344   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3345   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3346   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3347   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3348   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3349   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3350   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3351   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3352   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3353   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3354   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3355   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3356   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3357   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3358   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3359   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3360   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3361   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3362   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3363   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3364   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3365   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3366   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3367   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3368   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3369   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3370   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3371   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3372   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3373   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3374   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3375   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3376   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3377   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3378   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3379   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3380   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3381   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3382   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3383   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3384   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3385   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3386   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3387   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3388   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3389   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3390   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3391   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3392   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3393   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3394   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3395   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3396   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3397   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3398   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3399   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3400   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3401   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3402   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3403 
  3404 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3405 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3406 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3407 
  3408 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3409 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3410 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3411 
  3412 * Code generation:
  3413 
  3414   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3415     characters in the target language.
  3416 
  3417   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3418     instead.
  3419 
  3420   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3421 
  3422   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3423     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3424 
  3425       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3426 
  3427 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3430 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3431 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3432 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3433 syntax.
  3434 
  3435 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3436 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3437 
  3438 * Nitpick:
  3439   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3440   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3441   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3442     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Sledgehammer:
  3445   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3446   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3447     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3448   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3449     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3450   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3451     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3452   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3453     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3454   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3455     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Metis:
  3458   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3460     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * Command 'try':
  3463   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3464     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3466     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3467 
  3468 * Quickcheck:
  3469   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3470     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3471   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3472     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3473   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3474     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3475     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3476     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3477   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3478     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3479 
  3480 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3481 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3482 
  3483 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3484 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3485 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3486 
  3487 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3488 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3492 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3495 arithmetic.
  3496 
  3497 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3498 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3499 and lattice type classes.
  3500 
  3501 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3502 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3503 
  3504 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3505 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3506 
  3507 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3508 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3509 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3512   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3513   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3514   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3515 
  3516 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3517 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3518 constants:
  3519 
  3520   type inat   ~> type enat
  3521   Fin         ~> enat
  3522   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3523   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3524   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3525 
  3526 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3527 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3530 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3531 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3532 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3533 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3534 
  3535 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3536 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3537 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3538 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3539 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3540 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3541 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3542 
  3543   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3544   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3545   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3546   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3547 
  3548 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3549 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3550 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3553   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3554   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3555   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3556   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3557   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3558   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3559   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3560   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3561   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3562   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3563   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3564   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3565   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3566   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3567   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3568   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3569   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3570   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3571   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3572   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3573   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3574   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3575   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3576   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3577   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3578   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3579   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3580   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3581   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3582   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3583   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3584   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3585   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3586   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3587   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3588   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3589   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3590   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3591   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3592   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3593   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3594   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3595   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3596   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3597   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3598   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3599   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3600   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3601   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3602   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3603 
  3604 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3605   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3606   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3607   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3608   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3609     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3610 
  3611 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3614   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3615   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3616   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3617   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3618   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3619   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3620   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3621   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3622   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3623   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3624   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3625   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3626   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3627   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3628   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3629   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3630   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3631   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3632   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3633   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3634   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3635   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3636   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3637   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3638 
  3639 
  3640 *** Document preparation ***
  3641 
  3642 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3643 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3644 same.
  3645 
  3646 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3647 result.
  3648 
  3649 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3650 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3651 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3652 
  3653 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3654 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3655 
  3656 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3657 like this:
  3658 
  3659   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3660   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3661 
  3662 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3663 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3664 layouts.
  3665 
  3666 
  3667 *** ML ***
  3668 
  3669 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3670 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3671 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3672 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3673 under external program control.
  3674 
  3675 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3676 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3677 
  3678 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3679 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3680 (better known as Proof General).
  3681 
  3682 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3683 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3684 
  3685 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3686 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3687 
  3688 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3689 (including quotes etc.).
  3690 
  3691 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3692 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3693 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3694 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3695 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3696 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3697 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3698 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3699 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3700 
  3701 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3702 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3703 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3704 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3705 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3706 
  3707 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3708 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3709 
  3710 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3711 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3712 
  3713 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3714 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3715 
  3716 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3717 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3718 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3719 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3720 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3721 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3722 proper Proof.context.
  3723 
  3724 
  3725 *** System ***
  3726 
  3727 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3728 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3729 
  3730 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3731 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3732 
  3733 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3734 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3735 
  3736   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3737   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3738   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3739   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3740   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3741 
  3742 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3743 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3744 
  3745 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3746 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3747 example:
  3748 
  3749   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3750 
  3751 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3752 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3753 
  3754 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3755 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3756 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3757 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3758 
  3759 
  3760 
  3761 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3762 ----------------------------------
  3763 
  3764 *** General ***
  3765 
  3766 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3767 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3768 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3769 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3770 like this:
  3771 
  3772   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3773 
  3774 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3775 
  3776 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3777 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3778 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3779 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3780 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3781 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3782 
  3783 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3784 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3785 the following package declarations:
  3786 
  3787   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3788   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3789 
  3790 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3791 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3792 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3793 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3794 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3795 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3796 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3797 
  3798 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3799 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3800 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3801 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3802 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3803 
  3804 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3805 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3806 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3807 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3808 
  3809 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3810 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3811 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3812 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3813 
  3814   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3815 
  3816   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3817   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3818   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3819   show_types                    show_types
  3820   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3821   show_consts                   show_consts
  3822   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3823 
  3824   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3825   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3826   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3827 
  3828   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3829   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3830 
  3831   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3832 
  3833   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3834   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3835   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3836   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3837   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3838 
  3839 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3840 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3841 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3842 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3843 
  3844 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3848   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3849 
  3850 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3851 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3852 float_token.
  3853 
  3854 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3855 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3859 DejaVu Sans.
  3860 
  3861 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3862 
  3863 
  3864 *** Pure ***
  3865 
  3866 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3867 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3868 time.
  3869 
  3870 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3871 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872 
  3873 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3874 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3877 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3878 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3879 command already provided this functionality.
  3880 
  3881 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3882 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3883 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3884 without interpretations.
  3885 
  3886 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3887 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3888 
  3889 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3890 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3891 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3892 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3893 
  3894 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3895 'definition' instead.
  3896 
  3897 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3898 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3899 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3900 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3901 
  3902 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3903 constructors.
  3904 
  3905 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3906 the local file system.
  3907 
  3908 
  3909 *** HOL ***
  3910 
  3911 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3912 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3913 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3914 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3915 
  3916   declare [[coercion f]]
  3917 
  3918 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3919 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3920 
  3921   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3922 
  3923 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3924 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3925 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3926 other theories like this:
  3927 
  3928   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3929 
  3930 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3931 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3932 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3933 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3934 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3935 for examples.
  3936 
  3937 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3938 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3939 
  3940 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3941 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3942 
  3943 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3944 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3945 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3946 
  3947 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3948 functorial structure of types.
  3949 
  3950 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3951 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3952 
  3953 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3954 languages.
  3955 
  3956 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3957 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3961 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3964 combinators any longer.
  3965 
  3966 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3967 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3968 
  3969 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3970 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3971 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3972 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3973 
  3974   record 'a foo = ...
  3975   ...
  3976   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3977 
  3978 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3979 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3983 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3984 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3985 
  3986 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3987 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3988 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3989 
  3990 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3991 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3994 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3995 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3996 independently.
  3997 
  3998 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3999 counter example search.
  4000 
  4001 * Sledgehammer:
  4002   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4003     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4004     sledgehammer").
  4005   - Renamed commands:
  4006     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4007     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4008     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4009     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010   - Renamed options:
  4011     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4012     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4013     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4014     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4015     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Nitpick:
  4018   - Renamed options:
  4019     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4020     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4021     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4023   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4024   - Added "whack" option.
  4025   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4026   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4027   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4028   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4029     higher cardinalities.
  4030   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4031 
  4032 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4033 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4034 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4035 
  4036     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4037 
  4038 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4039 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4040 
  4041 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4042 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4043 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4044 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4045 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4046 "smt_solver".
  4047 
  4048 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4049 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4050 
  4051 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4052 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4053 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4054 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4057   - Renamed:
  4058     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4059     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4060     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061   - Added:
  4062     smt_verbose
  4063     smt_random_seed
  4064     smt_datatypes
  4065     smt_infer_triggers
  4066     smt_monomorph_limit
  4067     cvc3_options
  4068     remote_cvc3_options
  4069     remote_z3_options
  4070     yices_options
  4071 
  4072 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4073 header.
  4074 
  4075 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4076 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4077 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4078 
  4079   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4080 
  4081 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4082 
  4083 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4084 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085 
  4086 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4089 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4092 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4093 
  4094 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4095 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4098 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4099 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4100 
  4101 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4107 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4110 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4111 for congruent(2)).
  4112 
  4113 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4114 
  4115   types
  4116     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4117     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4118 
  4119   constants
  4120     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4121     True ~> HOL.True
  4122     False ~> HOL.False
  4123     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4124     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4125     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4126     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4127     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4128     The ~> HOL.The
  4129     All ~> HOL.All
  4130     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4131     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4132     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4133     If ~> HOL.If
  4134     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4135     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4136     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4137     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4138     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4139     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4140     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4141     op : ~> Set.member
  4142     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4143 
  4144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4147 
  4148     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4149     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4150     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4151     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4152     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4153     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4154     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4155     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4156 
  4157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4158 
  4159 * More stylized fact names:
  4160 
  4161   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4162   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4163   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4164   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4165 
  4166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4169 
  4170   constants
  4171     null ~> List.null
  4172 
  4173   facts
  4174     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4175     null_empty ~> null_def
  4176 
  4177 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4178 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4179 generation.
  4180 
  4181 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4182 Haskell code.
  4183 
  4184 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4185 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4186 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4189 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4192 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4193 
  4194 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4195 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4196 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4199 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4205 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4206 referred to by its qualified name.
  4207 
  4208   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4209   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4210   product ~>  Enum.product
  4211 
  4212 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4213 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4217 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4218 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4222 sort_key.
  4223 
  4224 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4228 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4229 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4230 
  4231   types
  4232     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4233               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4234               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4235         (depends on your needs)
  4236 
  4237   constants
  4238      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4239      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4240      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4241 
  4242 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4243 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4244 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4245 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4248 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4249 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4250 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4251 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4257 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4258 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4259 
  4260 
  4261 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4262 
  4263 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4264 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4265 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4266 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4267 compatibility.
  4268 
  4269 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4270 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4271 
  4272 
  4273 *** HOLCF ***
  4274 
  4275 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4276 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4277 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4281 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4282 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4283 
  4284   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4285   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4286   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4287 
  4288 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4289 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4290 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4291 
  4292 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4293 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4294 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4295 domain definition now works:
  4296 
  4297   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4298 
  4299 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4300 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4301 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4302 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4303 
  4304   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4305     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4306 
  4307   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4308 
  4309 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4310 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4311 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4314 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4317 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4318 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4319 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4320 
  4321 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4322 
  4323 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4324 
  4325 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4331 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4332 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4333 
  4334 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4335 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4336 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4337 
  4338 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4339 still supported as an input translation.
  4340 
  4341 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4342 
  4343   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4344   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4345   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4346   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4347   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4348   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4349   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4350 
  4351 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4352 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4353 
  4354   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4355   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4356   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4357   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4358   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4359   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4360 
  4361 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4362 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4363 
  4364 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4365 
  4366   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4367   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4368   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4369   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4370 
  4371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4374 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375 
  4376 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4377 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4380   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4381   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4382   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4383   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4384   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4385   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4386   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4387   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4388   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4389   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4390   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4391   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4392   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4393   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4394   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4395   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4396   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4397   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4398   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4399 
  4400 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4403   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4404   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4405   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4406   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4407   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4408   box_less             ~> box_below
  4409   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4410   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4411   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4412   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4413   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4414   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4415   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4416   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4417   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4418   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4419   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4420   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4421   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4422   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4423   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4424   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4425   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4426   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4427   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4428   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4429   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4430   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4431   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4432   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4433   up_less              ~> up_below
  4434   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4435   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4436   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4437   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4438   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4439   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4440   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4441   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4442   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4443   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4444   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4445   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4446   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4447 
  4448 
  4449 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4450 
  4451 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4452 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 
  4455 *** ML ***
  4456 
  4457 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4458 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4459 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4460 
  4461 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4462 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4463 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4464 
  4465 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4466 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4467 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4468 
  4469 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4470 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4471 
  4472 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4473 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4474 
  4475 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4476 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4477 
  4478 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4479 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4480 
  4481 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4482 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4483 almost all situations.
  4484 
  4485 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4486 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4487 Isabelle/ML.
  4488 
  4489 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4490 meaning.
  4491 
  4492 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4493 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4494 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4495 
  4496 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4497 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4498 
  4499 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4500 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4501 
  4502 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4503 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4504 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4505 
  4506 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4507 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4508 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4509 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4510 configuration options.
  4511 
  4512 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4513 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4514 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4515 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4516 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4517 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4518 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4519 
  4520 
  4521 
  4522 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4523 ---------------------------------
  4524 
  4525 *** General ***
  4526 
  4527 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4528 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4529 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4530 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4531 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4532 their full internal name.
  4533 
  4534 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4535 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4536 Some hints on upgrading:
  4537 
  4538   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4539     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4540     which are independent of this issue.
  4541 
  4542   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4543     provides the following special forms:
  4544 
  4545       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4546       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4547       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4548 
  4549     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4550     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4551     extra variables".
  4552 
  4553     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4554     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4555     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4556     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4557     "logic".
  4558 
  4559   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4560     antiquotations:
  4561 
  4562       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4563       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4564       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4565       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4566 
  4567   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4568     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4569     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4570     antiquotations.
  4571 
  4572 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4573 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4574 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4575 diagnose syntax problems.
  4576 
  4577 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4578 
  4579 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4580 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4581 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4582 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4583 
  4584 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4585 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4586 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4587 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4590 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4591 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4592 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4593 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4596 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4597 
  4598 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4599 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4600 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4601 
  4602   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4603 
  4604 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4605 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4606 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4607 
  4608 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4609 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4613 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4614 
  4615 
  4616 *** Pure ***
  4617 
  4618 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4619 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4620 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4621 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4622 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4623 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4624 inspect proof terms.
  4625 
  4626 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4627 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4628 are added internally.  For example:
  4629 
  4630   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4631 
  4632 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4633 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4634 
  4635 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4638 'class' instead.
  4639 
  4640 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4641 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 
  4644 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4645 invariants.
  4646 
  4647 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4648 user space functionality any longer.
  4649 
  4650 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4651 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4655 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4656 
  4657 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4658 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4659 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4660 
  4661 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4662 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4663 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4664 
  4665 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4666 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4667 
  4668 
  4669 *** HOL ***
  4670 
  4671 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4672 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4673 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4674 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4675 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4676 
  4677 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4678 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4679 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4680 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4681 
  4682   fun
  4683     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4684   where
  4685     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4686 
  4687   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4688     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4689 
  4690   quotient_definition
  4691     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4692 
  4693 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4694 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4695 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4696 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4697 
  4698 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4699 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4700 
  4701 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4702 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4703 
  4704 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4708 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4709 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4710 
  4711 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4712 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 
  4720 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4721 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4724 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4725 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4728   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4729   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4730   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4731   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4732   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4733   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4734   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4735   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4736   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4737   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4738   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4739   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4740   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4741   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4742   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4743   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4744   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4745   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4746   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4747   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4748   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4749   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4750   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4751   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4752   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4753   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4754   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4755   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4756   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4757 
  4758 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4759 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4760 
  4761 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4762 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4763 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4764 
  4765 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4766 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4767 
  4768 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4769 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4772 
  4773 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4774 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4777 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4782 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4783 
  4784 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4785 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4786 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4787 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4790   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4791   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4792   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4796 lattices):
  4797 
  4798     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4799     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4800 
  4801     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4802 
  4803     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4804     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4805     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4806     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4807     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4808     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4809     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4810     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4811     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4812     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4813     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4814     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4815     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4816 
  4817     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4818     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4819     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4820     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4821     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4822     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4823     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4824     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4825     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4826     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4827     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4828     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4829     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4830     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4831     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4832     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4833     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4834     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4835 
  4836   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4837   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4838 
  4839     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4840     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4841     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4842     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4843     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4844 
  4845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847 * Refined field classes:
  4848   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4849     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4850     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4851   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4855   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4856   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4857   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4858     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4859   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4860     equal_neg_zero.
  4861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4862 
  4863 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4864 sets to lattices:
  4865 
  4866   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4867   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4868   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4869   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4870   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4871   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4872   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4873   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4874   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4875   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4876 
  4877 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4878 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4879 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4880 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4881 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4882 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4885 multiset order:
  4886 
  4887   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4888     <= and <;
  4889   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4890     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4891     multiset_order;
  4892   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4893     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4894     generation;
  4895   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4896     if needed.
  4897 
  4898 Renamed:
  4899 
  4900   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4901   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4902   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4903 
  4904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4905 
  4906 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4907 
  4908 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4909 
  4910 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4911 
  4912 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4913 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4914 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4915 
  4916   Constants:
  4917   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4918   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4919   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4920   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4921   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4922   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4923   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4924   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4925   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4926   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4927   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4928   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4929   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4930 
  4931   Lemmas:
  4932   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4933   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4934   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4935   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4936   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4937   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4938   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4939   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4940   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4941   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4942   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4943   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4944   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4945 
  4946 * Sledgehammer:
  4947   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4948     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4949     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4950     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4951     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4952     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4953     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4955   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4956     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4957   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4958     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4959     is still experimental.)
  4960   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4961     full-typed mode.
  4962   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4963 
  4964 * Nitpick:
  4965   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4966   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4967   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4968     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4969   - Added support for quotient types.
  4970   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4971     constructs.
  4972   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4973     "termination" proofs).
  4974   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4975   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4976   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4977   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4978     record getters.
  4979   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4980   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4981   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4982   - Added "atoms" option.
  4983   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4984     problems.
  4985   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4986     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4987     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4988   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4989     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4990   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4991 
  4992 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4993   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4994   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4995   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4996   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4997   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4998   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4999   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5000   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5001   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 
  5004 *** HOLCF ***
  5005 
  5006 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5007 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5008 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5011 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5012 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5013 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5016 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5017 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5018 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5019 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5020 
  5021 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5022 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5023 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5026 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5029   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5030 
  5031 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5032 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5033 
  5034   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5035   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5036   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5037   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5038   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5039 
  5040 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5041 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5042 
  5043   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5044   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5045   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5046 
  5047 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5048 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5052 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5053 
  5054 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5055 
  5056 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5057 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 
  5060 *** ML ***
  5061 
  5062 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5063 
  5064     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5065     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5066 
  5067     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5068     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5069     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5070     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5071 
  5072     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5073     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5074     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5075 
  5076 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5077 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5078 
  5079 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5080 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5081 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5082 
  5083 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5084 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5085 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5086 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5087 
  5088 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5089 the context or even global references.
  5090 
  5091 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5092 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5093 
  5094 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5095 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5096 
  5097   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5098   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5099   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5100   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5101   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5102   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5103   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5104   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5105   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5106   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5107 
  5108 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5109 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5110 
  5111 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5112 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5113 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5114 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5115 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5116 
  5117 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5118 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5119 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5120 Theory_Data version.
  5121 
  5122 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5123 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5124 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5125 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5126 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5127 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5128 explicitly in rare situations.
  5129 
  5130 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5131 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5135 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5138 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5139 quite rare).
  5140 
  5141 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5142 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5143 
  5144 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5145 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5146 terms.
  5147 
  5148 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5149 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5150 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5151 
  5152 
  5153 *** System ***
  5154 
  5155 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5156 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5157 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5158 
  5159 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5160 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5161 respectively.
  5162 
  5163 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5164 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5165 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5166 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5167 
  5168   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5169 
  5170 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5171 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5172 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5173 component.
  5174 
  5175 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5176 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5177 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5178 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5179 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5180 the user for manual installation.
  5181 
  5182 
  5183 
  5184 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5185 -------------------------------------
  5186 
  5187 *** General ***
  5188 
  5189 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5190 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5191 
  5192 
  5193 *** Pure ***
  5194 
  5195 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5196 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5197 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5198 
  5199 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5200 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5201 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5202 
  5203 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5204 interpretation.
  5205 
  5206 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5207 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5208 
  5209 
  5210 *** Document preparation ***
  5211 
  5212 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5213 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5214 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5215 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5216 
  5217 
  5218 *** HOL ***
  5219 
  5220 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5221 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5222 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5223 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5224 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5225 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5226 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5227 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5228 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5229 
  5230 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5231 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5232 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5233 
  5234 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5235 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5236 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5237 
  5238 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5239 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5240 
  5241 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5242 
  5243 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5244 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5245 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5246 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5247 
  5248 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5249 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5250 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5251 "mirabelle" utility.
  5252 
  5253 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5254 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5255 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5256 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5257 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5258 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5259 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5260 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5261 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5262 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5263 
  5264 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5265 procedure only.
  5266 
  5267 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5268 
  5269 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5270 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5271 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5272 that fail later.
  5273 
  5274 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5275 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5276 
  5277 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5278 the same method as the approximation method.
  5279 
  5280 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5281 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5282 series expansion.
  5283 
  5284 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5285 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5286 
  5287 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5288 reals.
  5289 
  5290 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5291 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5292 
  5293 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5294 fixpoint theorem.
  5295 
  5296 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5297   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5298     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5299   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5300     accordingly
  5301   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5302     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5303   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5304     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5305 
  5306 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5307 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5308 lattice.
  5309 
  5310 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5311 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5312 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5313 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5314 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5315 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5317 
  5318 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5319   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5320     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5321   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5322     le_inf_iff
  5323   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5324     sup_aci)
  5325   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5326   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5327   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5328     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5329     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5330     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5331     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5332     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5333     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5334     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5335     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5336     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5337     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5338   - authentic syntax for
  5339     Set.Pow
  5340     Set.image
  5341   - mere abbreviations:
  5342     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5343     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5344     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5345     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5346     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5347     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5348     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5349     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5350   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5351 
  5352 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5353 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5354 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5355 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5356 
  5357 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5358 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5359 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5360 
  5361 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5362 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5363 
  5364 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5365 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5366 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5367 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5368 
  5369 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5370 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5371 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5372 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5373 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5374 
  5375 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5376 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5378 
  5379 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5380 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5383 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5384 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5385 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5386 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5387 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5388 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5392     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5393     code_post       replaces    code post
  5394     etc.
  5395   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5396 
  5397 * Renamed methods:
  5398     sizechange -> size_change
  5399     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5400   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5401 
  5402 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5403 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5404 
  5405 * Renamed theorems:
  5406     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5407     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5408     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5409     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5410     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5411   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5412 
  5413 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5415 
  5416 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5418 
  5419 
  5420 *** HOLCF ***
  5421 
  5422 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5423 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5424 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5425 
  5426 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5427 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5428 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5429 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5430 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5431 
  5432 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5433 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5434 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5435 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5436 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5437 
  5438 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5439 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5440 constructor are pre-configured.
  5441 
  5442 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5443 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5444 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5445 
  5446 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5447 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5448 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5449 as well.)
  5450 
  5451 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5452 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5453 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5454 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5455 examples.
  5456 
  5457 
  5458 *** ML ***
  5459 
  5460 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5461 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5462 
  5463 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5464 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5465 position, logical grouping etc.
  5466 
  5467 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5468 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5469 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5470 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5471 
  5472 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5473 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5474 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5475 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5476 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5477 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5478 
  5479 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5480 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5481 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5482 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5483 experiments with references.
  5484 
  5485 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5486 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5487 
  5488 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5489 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5490 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5491 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5492 
  5493 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5494 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5495 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5496 
  5497 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5498 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5499 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5505 
  5506 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5507 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5508 
  5509 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5510 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5511 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5512 
  5513 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5514 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5515 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5516 
  5517 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5518 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5519 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5521 
  5522 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5523 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5524 instead of global theory.
  5525 
  5526 
  5527 *** System ***
  5528 
  5529 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5530 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5531 usedir option -q.
  5532 
  5533 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5534 also the system manual.
  5535 
  5536 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5537 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5538 
  5539 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5540 this is always enabled.
  5541 
  5542 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5543 
  5544 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5545 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5546 currently supported on Linux only.
  5547 
  5548 
  5549 
  5550 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5551 --------------------------------
  5552 
  5553 *** General ***
  5554 
  5555 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5556 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5557 
  5558   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5559     "isatool."
  5560 
  5561   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5562     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5563 
  5564   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5565     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5566 
  5567 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5568 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5569 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5570 
  5571 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5572 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5573 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5574 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5575 via "isabelle emacs".
  5576 
  5577 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5578 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5579 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5580 
  5581 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5582 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5583 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5584 
  5585 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5586 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5587 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5588 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5589 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5590 
  5591 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5592 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5593 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5594 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5595 
  5596 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5597 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5598 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5599 
  5600 
  5601 *** Pure ***
  5602 
  5603 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5604 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5605 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5606 
  5607 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5608 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5609 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5610 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5611 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5612 
  5613 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5614 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5615 useful in locale declarations.
  5616 
  5617 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5618 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5619 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5620 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5621 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5622 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5623 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5624 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5625 no longer generated.
  5626 
  5627 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5628 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5629 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5630 
  5631 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5632 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5633 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5634 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5635 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5636 
  5637 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5638 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5639 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5640 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5641 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5642 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5643 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5644 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5645 
  5646 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5647 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5648 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5649 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5650 
  5651 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5652 
  5653 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5654 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5655 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5656 
  5657 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5658 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5659 
  5660 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5661 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5662 in HOL, write
  5663 
  5664     class foo = ...
  5665 
  5666 instead of
  5667 
  5668     class foo = type + ...
  5669 
  5670 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5671 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5672 
  5673 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5674 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5675 
  5676 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5677 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5678 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5679 
  5680 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5681 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5682 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5683 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5684 directly in regular applications.
  5685 
  5686 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5687 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5688 
  5689 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5690 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5691 
  5692 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5693 theory context.
  5694 
  5695 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5696 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5697 
  5698 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5699 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5700 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5701 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5702 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5703 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5704 
  5705   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5706 
  5707 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5708 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5709 normalization.
  5710 
  5711 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5712 addressing etc.
  5713 
  5714 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5715 
  5716   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5717   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5718 
  5719 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5720 
  5721   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5722      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5723      parts of the code generator framework).
  5724 
  5725   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5726      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5727      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5728 
  5729 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5732 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5733 
  5734 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5735 patterns, e.g.
  5736 
  5737     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5738 
  5739 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5740 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5741 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5742 hyphen:
  5743 
  5744     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5745 
  5746 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5747 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5748 
  5749 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5750 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5751 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5752 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5753 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5754 higher-order unification.
  5755 
  5756 
  5757 *** Document preparation ***
  5758 
  5759 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5760 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5761 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5762 
  5763 
  5764 *** HOL ***
  5765 
  5766 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5767 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5768 
  5769 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5770 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5771 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5772 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5773 Main, as before.
  5774 
  5775 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5776 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5777 
  5778 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5779 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5780 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5781 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5782 
  5783 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5784 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5785 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5786 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5787 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5788 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5789 
  5790 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5791 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5792 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5793 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5794 
  5795 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5796 menu.
  5797 
  5798 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5799 (contains the empty clause).
  5800 
  5801 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5802 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5803 
  5804 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5805 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5806 
  5807 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5808 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5809 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5812 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5813 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5814 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5815 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5816 
  5817 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5818 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5819 
  5820 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5821 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5822 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5823 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5824 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5825 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5826 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5827 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5828 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5829 
  5830 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5831 
  5832 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5833 
  5834 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5835 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5836 
  5837 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5838 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5839 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5840 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5841 
  5842 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5843 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5844 
  5845     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5846     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5847     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5848     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5849     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5850     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5851     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5852     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5853 
  5854 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5855 theory Set.
  5856 
  5857 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5858 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5859 
  5860 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5861 
  5862 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5863 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5864 
  5865 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5866 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5867 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5868 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5869 allowed. For examples see
  5870 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5871 
  5872 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5873 
  5874 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5876 
  5877 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5878 structure:
  5879 
  5880     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5881     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5882     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5883     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5884     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5885     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5886     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5887     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5888     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5889     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5890     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5891     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5892     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5893     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5894     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5895     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5896     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5897     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5898     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5899     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5900     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5901     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5902     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5903     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5904     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5905     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5906     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5907     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5908     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5909     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5910     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5911     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5912     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5913 
  5914     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5915     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5916     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5917     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5918     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5919     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5920     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5921     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5922     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5923     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5924 
  5925     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5926     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5927     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5928     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5929     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5930     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5931 
  5932 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5933 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5934 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5935 
  5936 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5937 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5938 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5939 
  5940 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5941 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5942 
  5943 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5944 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5945 
  5946 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5947 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5948 proofs, e.g.
  5949 
  5950   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5951 
  5952 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5953 
  5954 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5955 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5956 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5957 
  5958 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5959 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5961 
  5962 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5963 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5964 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5966 
  5967 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5968 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5969 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5970 preorder_class.*.
  5971 
  5972 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5973 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5974 
  5975 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5976 
  5977   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5978 
  5979 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5980 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5981 fold_image.
  5982 
  5983 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5984 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5985 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5986 the former will disappear at some point.
  5987 
  5988 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5989 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5990 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5991 
  5992 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5993 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5994 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5995 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5996 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5997 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5998 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5999 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  6000 
  6001 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  6002 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  6003 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  6004 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  6005 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  6006 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  6007 
  6008     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  6009     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  6010     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  6011     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  6012     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  6013     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  6014     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6015 
  6016 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  6017 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6018 rename old lemmas as follows:
  6019 
  6020 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  6021 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  6022 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  6023 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  6024 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  6025 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  6026 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  6027 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  6028 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  6029 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  6030 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  6031 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  6032 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  6033 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  6034 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  6035 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  6036 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  6037 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  6038 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  6039 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  6040 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  6041 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  6042 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  6043 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  6044 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  6045 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  6046 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6047 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  6048 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  6049 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  6050 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  6051 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  6052 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  6053 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  6054 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  6055 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  6056 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  6057 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  6058 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  6059 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  6060 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  6061 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  6062 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  6063 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  6064 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  6065 
  6066 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6067 
  6068 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  6069 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  6070 
  6071 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  6072 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  6073 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  6074 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  6075 
  6076 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  6077 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  6078 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  6079 theory RealVector.
  6080 
  6081 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  6082 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  6083 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  6084 and inner products are included.
  6085 
  6086 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  6087 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  6088 supported.
  6089 
  6090 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  6091 first diagonalization argument.
  6092 
  6093 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  6094 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  6095 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  6096 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6097 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  6098 
  6099     hide (open) const gcd
  6100     abbreviation gcd where
  6101       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  6102     notation (output)
  6103       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  6104 
  6105 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  6106 
  6107 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  6108 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  6109 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6110 
  6111 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  6112 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  6113 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  6114 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  6115 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  6116 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  6117 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  6118 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  6119 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  6120 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  6121 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  6122 cases.
  6123 
  6124 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  6125 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  6126 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  6127 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  6128 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  6129 
  6130     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  6131     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  6132     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  6133     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  6134     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  6135 
  6136 
  6137 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6138 
  6139 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  6140 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  6141 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  6142 
  6143 * New theory of factorial domains.
  6144 
  6145 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  6147 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  6148 
  6149 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6150 
  6151 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  6152 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  6153 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  6154 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  6155 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  6156 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  6157 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  6158 
  6159 
  6160 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6161 
  6162 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  6163 
  6164 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  6165 theory targets.
  6166 
  6167 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  6168 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  6169 'inductive' etc.
  6170 
  6171 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  6172 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  6173 
  6174 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  6175 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  6176 
  6177 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  6178 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  6179 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  6180 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  6181 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  6182 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  6183 the algorithm W:
  6184 
  6185  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  6186  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  6187          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  6188 
  6189 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  6190 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  6191 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  6192 
  6193 
  6194 *** HOLCF ***
  6195 
  6196 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6197 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6198 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6199 
  6200 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6201 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6202 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6203 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6204 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6205 
  6206 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6207 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6208 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6209 
  6210 
  6211 *** ZF ***
  6212 
  6213 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6214 
  6215 
  6216 *** ML ***
  6217 
  6218 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6219 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6220 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6221 5.2.1!
  6222 
  6223 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6224 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6225 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6226 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6227 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6228 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6229 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6230 
  6231 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6232 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6233 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6234 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6235 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6236 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6237 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6238 
  6239 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6240 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6241 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6242 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6243 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6244 
  6245 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6246 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6247 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6248 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6249 Method.add_method.
  6250 
  6251 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6252 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6253 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6254 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6255 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6256 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6257 
  6258 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6259 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6260 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6261 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6262 examples.
  6263 
  6264 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6265 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6266 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6267 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by