NEWS
author haftmann
Sun Mar 16 18:09:04 2014 +0100 (2014-03-16)
changeset 56166 9a241bc276cd
parent 56154 f0a927235162
child 56205 ceb8a93460b7
permissions -rw-r--r--
normalising simp rules for compound operators
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    44 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    45 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    46 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    47 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    48 to the system option "completion_limit").
    49 
    50 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    51 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    52 
    53 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    54 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    55 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    56 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    57 
    58 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    59 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    60 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Pure ***
    64 
    65 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    66 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    67 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    68 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    69 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    70 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    71 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    72 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    73 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    74 
    75 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    76 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    77 instantiated theorem.
    78 
    79 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    80 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    81 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    82 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    83 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    84 
    85   attribute_setup standard =
    86     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    87 
    88 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    89 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    90 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    91 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    92 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    93 
    94 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    95 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    96 differently).
    97 
    98 
    99 *** HOL ***
   100 
   101 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   102 or SUP and Sup. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   108   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   109   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   110   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   111   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   112   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   115   can now deal with conjunctions.
   116   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   117   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   118   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   119 
   120 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * HOL-Word:
   123   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   124   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   125   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   126   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   127   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   128 
   129 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   133 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   136 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   139 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   140 
   141 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   142   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   143   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   144   Theory renamings:
   145     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   146     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   147     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   148     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   149     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   150     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   151     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   152     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   153     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   154     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   155     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   156     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   157     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   158     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   159     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   160     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   161     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   162     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   163     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   164     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   165     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   166     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   167   New theories:
   168     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   169     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   170     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   171     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   172     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   173   Discontinued theories:
   174     BNF/BNF.thy
   175     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   176   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * New (co)datatype package:
   179   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   180   * Renamed commands:
   181       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   182       primrec_new ~> primrec
   183       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   184     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   186     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   187     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   189     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   190     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Old datatype package:
   193   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   194     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   195     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   196   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   197     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   198     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   201   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   202   datatype package.
   203   Renamed constants:
   204     Option.set ~> set_option
   205     Option.map ~> map_option
   206     option_rel ~> rel_option
   207     option_rec ~> case_option
   208   Renamed theorems:
   209     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   210     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   211     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   212     option.recs ~> option.case
   213     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   214     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   215     map.simps ~> list.map
   216     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   217     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   218     the.simps ~> option.sel
   219   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   222     sum_map ~> map_sum
   223     map_pair ~> map_prod
   224     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   225     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   226     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   227     set_rel ~> rel_set
   228     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   229     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   230     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   231     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   232 
   233 * New theory:
   234     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   235 
   236 * Theory reorganizations:
   237   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   238 
   239 * SMT module:
   240   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   241     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   242     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   243     elsewhere.
   244 
   245 * Sledgehammer:
   246   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   247   - New option:
   248       smt_proofs
   249   - Renamed options:
   250       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   251       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   252     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253 
   254 * Metis:
   255   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   257 
   258 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   259 
   260 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   263 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   264 
   265 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   266 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   267 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   268 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   269 
   270 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   274 with the given constants.
   275 
   276 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   277 
   278 Fact consolidations:
   279     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   280     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   281     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   282     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   283     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   284     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   285     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   286     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   287     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   288     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   289     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   290     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   291     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   292     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   293     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   294     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   295     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   296     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   297     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   298     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   299     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   300     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   301     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   302     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   303     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   304     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   305     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   306     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   307     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   308     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   309     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   310     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   311     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   312     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   313     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   314     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   315     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   316     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   317     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   318     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   319 
   320 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   321 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   322 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   323 
   324 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   325 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   326 
   327 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   328 
   329 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   330 
   331 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   338 operations on records.
   339 
   340 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   342 
   343 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   344     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   346 
   347 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   348     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   349     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   353   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   354   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   355   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   356     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   357   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   358     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   359   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   360 INCOMPATBILITY.
   361 
   362 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   363     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   364     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   365     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   366     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 * Fact name consolidation:
   370     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   371     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   372     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   373     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   374     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376 
   377 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   378 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   379 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   380 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   381 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   382 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   383 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   384 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   385 
   386 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   387 
   388 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   389 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   390 
   391 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   392 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   393 
   394 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   395 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   396 or the brute way with
   397 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   398 
   399 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   400 
   401 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   402 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   403 
   404 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   405 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   406 
   407 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   408 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   409 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   410 INCOMPATIBILITY
   411 
   412 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   413 
   414 * Nitpick:
   415   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   416     infinite values.
   417   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   418     "Rep_Integ".
   419   - Removed "std" option.
   420   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   421     "hide_types".
   422 
   423 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   424   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   425   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   426     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   427     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   428     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   429     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   430     intervals.
   431 
   432 
   433 *** Scala ***
   434 
   435 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   436 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   437 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   438 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   439 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 
   441 
   442 *** ML ***
   443 
   444 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   445 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   446 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   447 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   448 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   449 of schematic variables.
   450 
   451 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   452 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   453 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   454 formal context.
   455 
   456 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   457 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   458 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   459 actually belongs to it).
   460 
   461 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   462 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   463 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   464 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   465 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   466 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   467 
   468 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations (to
   469 make it more close to the analogous Thy_Output.antiquotation).  See
   470 ML_Context.antiquotation and structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   474 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   475 
   476 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   477 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   478 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   479 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   480 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   481 
   482 
   483 *** System ***
   484 
   485 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   486 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   487 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   488 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   489 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   490 
   491 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   492 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   493 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   494 
   495 
   496 
   497 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   498 -------------------------------------
   499 
   500 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   501 
   502 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   503 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   504 
   505 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   506 after edits surrounding the command location.
   507 
   508 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   509 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   510 e.g. out-of-memory).
   511 
   512 
   513 *** System ***
   514 
   515 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   516 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   517 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   518 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   519 
   520 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   521 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   522 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   523 
   524 
   525 
   526 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   527 -------------------------------------
   528 
   529 *** General ***
   530 
   531 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   532 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   533 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   534 
   535 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   536 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   537 
   538 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   539 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   540 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   541 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   542 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   543 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   544 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   545 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   546 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   547 syntax.
   548 
   549 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   550 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   553 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   554 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   556 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   557 
   558 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   560 
   561 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   562 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   563 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   564 
   565 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   566 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   567 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   568 
   569 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   570 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   571 
   572 
   573 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   574 
   575 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   576 Documentation panel.
   577 
   578 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   579 documentation.
   580 
   581 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   582 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   583 
   584 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   585 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   586 normal editing and checking process.
   587 
   588 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   589 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   590 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   591 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   592 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   593 
   594 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   595 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   596 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   597 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   598 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   599 
   600 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   601 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   602 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   603 
   604 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   605 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   606 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   607 to resolve conflict.
   608 
   609 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   610 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   611 
   612 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   613 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   614 such command executions while editing.
   615 
   616 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   617 document content.
   618 
   619 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   620 toplevel theorem statements.
   621 
   622 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   623 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   624 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   625 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   626 
   627 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   628 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   629 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   630 
   631 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   632 / Global Options / Appearance".
   633 
   634 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   635 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   636 
   637 
   638 *** Pure ***
   639 
   640 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   641 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   642 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   643 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   644 details.
   645 
   646 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   647 
   648 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   649 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   650 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   651 
   652 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   656 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   657 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   658 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   661 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   662 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   665 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   666 
   667 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   668 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   669 situations.
   670 
   671 
   672 *** HOL ***
   673 
   674 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   675 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   677 
   678 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   679 
   680 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   681 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   682 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   683 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   684 
   685   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   686 
   687 * Code generator:
   688   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   689     'code_instance'.
   690   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   691     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   692 
   693 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   694 examples.
   695 
   696 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   697 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   698 to distinguish both when desired.
   699 
   700 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   701 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   702 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   703 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   706 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   707 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   708 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   709 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   710 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   713 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   714 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   715 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   716 
   717 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   718 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   719 
   720 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   721 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   722 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   723 
   724 * Lifting:
   725   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   726     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   727       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   728       transfer rules
   729     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   730       correspondence relation can be generated
   731     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   732       parametricity
   733     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   734   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   735   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   736     copies
   737   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   738     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   739     anonymous context)
   740   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   741     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   742   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   743     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   744   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   745     INCOMPATIBILITY
   746 
   747 * Transfer:
   748   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   749     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   750   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   751   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   752     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   753   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   754 
   755 * Reification and reflection:
   756   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   757     "Reification".
   758   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   759   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   763   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   764     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   765     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   766   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   767     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   768   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   769     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   770     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   771     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   772     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   773     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   774     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   775     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   776   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   777     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   778   - Fact renames:
   779       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   780       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   784 
   785 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   786 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   787 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 
   790 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   791 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   792 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   793 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   794 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   795 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   796 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   797 lemmas.
   798 
   799 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   800 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   801 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   802 
   803 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   804 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   805 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   806 
   807 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   808 top and bottom elements.
   809 
   810 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   811 
   812 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   813 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   814 
   815  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   816    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   817    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   818 
   819  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   820    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   821    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   822 
   823    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   824    arbitrary filter.
   825 
   826  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   827    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   828    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   829    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   830    on a compact set.
   831 
   832  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   833    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   834    linear_continuum_topology).
   835 
   836  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   837    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   838    on all sequences converging to x.
   839 
   840  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   841    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   842    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   843    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   844    left or right.
   845 
   846  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   847 
   848      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   849 
   850  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   851    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   852 
   853  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   854    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   855    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   856    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   857    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   858    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   859 
   860  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   861 
   862    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   863 
   864    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   865      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   866 
   867    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   868 
   869    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   870      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   871 
   872    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   873 
   874    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   875 
   876  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   877 
   878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Nitpick:
   881   - Added option "spy".
   882   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   883 
   884 * Sledgehammer:
   885   - Renamed option:
   886       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   887     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   889   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   890   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   891 
   892 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   893 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   894 
   895 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   896   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   897   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   898     generated code.
   899   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   900   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   901   - Fact renames:
   902     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   903     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   904     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   905 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   906 
   907 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   908 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   909 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   910 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   911 
   912 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   913 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   914 
   915 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   918 
   919     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   920     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   921 
   922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923 
   924 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   925 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   926 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   927 
   928 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   929 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   930 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   931 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   932 
   933 * HOL-BNF:
   934   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   935     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   936     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   937     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   938   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   939     coinduct).
   940   - Renamed keywords:
   941     data ~> datatype_new
   942     codata ~> codatatype
   943     bnf_def ~> bnf
   944   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   945     discs ~> disc
   946     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   947     map_id' ~> map_id
   948     sels ~> sel
   949     set_map' ~> set_map
   950     sets ~> set
   951 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   952 
   953 
   954 *** ML ***
   955 
   956 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   957 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   958 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   959 Examples.thy in particular.
   960 
   961 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   962 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   963 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   964 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   965 
   966 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   967 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   968 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   969 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   973 
   974     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   975     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   976 
   977 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   980 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   981 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   982 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   983 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   984 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   985 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   986 
   987 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   988 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   989 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   990 clasets separately from the context.
   991 
   992 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   993 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   994 
   995 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   996 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   997 
   998 
   999 *** System ***
  1000 
  1001 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1002 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1005 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1006 
  1007 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1008 settings variable.
  1009 
  1010 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1011 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1012 always pdf.
  1013 
  1014 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1015 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1016 
  1017 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1018 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1019 
  1020 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1021 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1022 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1023 
  1024 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1025 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1026 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1027 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1028 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1029 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1030 
  1031 
  1032 
  1033 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1034 -----------------------------------
  1035 
  1036 *** General ***
  1037 
  1038 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1039 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1040 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1041 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1042 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1043 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1044 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1045 
  1046 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1047 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1048 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1049 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1050 
  1051 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1052 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1053 
  1054 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1055 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1056 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1057 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1058 dependencies properly.
  1059 
  1060 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1061 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1062 
  1063 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1064 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1065 
  1066 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1067 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1068 and "class ... context ...".
  1069 
  1070 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1071 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1072 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1073 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1074 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1075 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1076 
  1077 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1078 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1079 
  1080 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1081 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1082 
  1083 
  1084 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1085 
  1086 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1087 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1088 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1089 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1090 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1091 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1092 
  1093 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1094 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1095 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1096 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1097 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1098 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1099 
  1100 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1101 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1102 browser on demand.
  1103 
  1104 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1105 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1106 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1107 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1108 
  1109 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1110 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1111 
  1112 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1113 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1114 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1115 potentially infinite message streams.
  1116 
  1117 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1118 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1119 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1120 schemes.
  1121 
  1122 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1123 symbols.
  1124 
  1125 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1126 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1127 
  1128 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1129 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1130 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1131 
  1132 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1133 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1134 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1135 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1136 
  1137 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1138 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1139 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1140 
  1141 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1142 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1143 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1144 Isabelle distribution.
  1145 
  1146 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1147 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1148 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1149 
  1150 
  1151 *** Pure ***
  1152 
  1153 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1154 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1155 
  1156 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1157 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1158 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1159 
  1160 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1161 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1162 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1163 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1164 with some care where this is really required.
  1165 
  1166 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1167 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1168 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1169 
  1170   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1171 
  1172 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1173 a Hasse diagram.
  1174 
  1175 
  1176 *** HOL ***
  1177 
  1178 * Sledgehammer:
  1179 
  1180   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1181     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1182   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1183   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1184   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1185   - Renamed options:
  1186       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1187       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1188       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1189       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1190 
  1191 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1192 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1193 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1194 
  1195 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 * Lifting:
  1199   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1200   - quot_del attribute
  1201   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1202 
  1203 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1204 expressions.
  1205 
  1206 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1207 pointfree expressions.
  1208 
  1209 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1210 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1211 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1212 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1216 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1217 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1218 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1219 accordingly.
  1220 
  1221 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1222 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1223 
  1224 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1225 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1228 
  1229 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1230 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1231 
  1232 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1233 
  1234 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1235 
  1236   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1237   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1238 
  1239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1240 
  1241 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1242 
  1243   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1244   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1245 
  1246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1247 
  1248 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1249 
  1250   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1251     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1252     output f x converges to G.
  1253 
  1254   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1255     infinity (at_bot).
  1256 
  1257   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1258     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1259 
  1260   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1261     at_top".
  1262 
  1263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1266 lattice type classes.
  1267 
  1268 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1269 
  1270     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1271     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1272 
  1273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1276 changes as follows.
  1277 
  1278   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1279 
  1280       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1281       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1282 
  1283   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1284     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1285     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1286     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1287 
  1288   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1289     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1290     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1291 
  1292   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1293     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1294     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1295     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1296 
  1297   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1298     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1299 
  1300       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1301       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1302       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1303       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1304       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1305       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1306       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1307       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1308       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1309       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1310       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1311       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1312       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1313       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1314       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1315       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1316 
  1317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1318 
  1319 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1320 
  1321 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1322 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1323 
  1324 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1325 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1326 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1327 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1328 
  1329   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1330   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1331   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1332   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1333   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1334   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1335   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1336   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1337   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1338   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1339 
  1340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1341 
  1342 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1343 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1344 Data").
  1345 
  1346 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1347 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1348 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1349 code.
  1350 
  1351 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1352 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1353 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1355 
  1356 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1357 
  1358 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1359 
  1360 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1361 
  1362   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1363   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1364 
  1365 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1366 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1367 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1368 
  1369   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1370 
  1371     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1372     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1373     cart_base i  removed
  1374     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1375 
  1376   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1377 
  1378   Renamed lemmas:
  1379 
  1380     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1381     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1382     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1383     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1384     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1385     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1386     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1387     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1388     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1389     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1390 
  1391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1392 
  1393 * HOL/Probability:
  1394 
  1395   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1396 
  1397   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1398     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1399     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1400 
  1401   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1402     projective family).
  1403 
  1404 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1405 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1406 
  1407 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1408 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1409 datatypes.
  1410 
  1411 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1412 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1413 
  1414 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1415 trees for the code generator.
  1416 
  1417 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1418 Lifting/Transfer.
  1419 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424 
  1425 *** Document preparation ***
  1426 
  1427 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1428 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1429 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1430 
  1431 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1432 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1433 
  1434 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1435 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1436 document/root.tex.
  1437 
  1438 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1439 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 
  1442 *** ML ***
  1443 
  1444 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1445 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1446 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1447 
  1448 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1449 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1450 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1451 
  1452 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1453 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1454 necessarily printing visible text.
  1455 
  1456 
  1457 *** System ***
  1458 
  1459 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1460 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1461 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1462 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1463 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1464 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1465 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1466 
  1467 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1468 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1469 
  1470   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1471 
  1472 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1473 
  1474 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1475 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1476 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1477 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1478 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1479 
  1480 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1481 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1482 
  1483 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1484 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1485 
  1486 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1490 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1491 version of Isabelle.
  1492 
  1493 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1494 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1495 
  1496 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1497 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1498 for home-made settings.
  1499 
  1500 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1501 
  1502 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1503 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1504 configuration.
  1505 
  1506 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1507 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1508 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1509 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1510 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1511 
  1512 
  1513 
  1514 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1515 ------------------------------
  1516 
  1517 *** General ***
  1518 
  1519 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1520 
  1521   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1522     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1523   - markup for bound variables
  1524   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1525   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1526   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1527     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1528 
  1529 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1530 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1531 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1532 
  1533 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1534 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1535 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1536 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1537 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1538 
  1539   context
  1540     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1541     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1542   begin
  1543 
  1544   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1545 
  1546   end
  1547 
  1548   thm my_trans
  1549 
  1550 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1551 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1552 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1553 
  1554 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1555 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1556 
  1557 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1558 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1559 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1560 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1561 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1562 
  1563 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1564 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1565 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1566 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1567 indices of schematic variables.
  1568 
  1569 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1570 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1571 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1572 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1573 etc. was exploited.
  1574 
  1575 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1576 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1577 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1578 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1579 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1580 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1581 
  1582 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1583 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1584 manual.
  1585 
  1586 
  1587 *** Pure ***
  1588 
  1589 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1590 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1591 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1592 
  1593 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1594 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1595 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1596 undocumented feature.)
  1597 
  1598 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1599 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1600 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1601 
  1602   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1603 
  1604   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1605     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1606 
  1607 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1608 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1609 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1610 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1611 
  1612 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1613 
  1614     num ~> num_token
  1615     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1616     xstr ~> str_token
  1617 
  1618 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1619 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1620 position information via constraints).
  1621 
  1622 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1623 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1624 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1625 
  1626 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1627 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1628 
  1629 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1630 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1631 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1634 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1635 
  1636 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1637 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1638 
  1639   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1640 
  1641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1642 
  1643 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1644 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1647 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1648 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1649 
  1650 
  1651 *** HOL ***
  1652 
  1653 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1654 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1655 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1656 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1657 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1658 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1659 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1660 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1661 possible.
  1662 
  1663 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1664 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1665 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1666 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1667 
  1668 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1669 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1672 
  1673 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1674 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1675 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1676 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1677 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1678 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1679 
  1680   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1681     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1682 
  1683   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1684     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1685     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1686 
  1687   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1688     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1689 
  1690   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1691     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1692     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1693 
  1694   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1695     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1696 
  1697 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1698 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1699 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1700 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1701 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1702 
  1703   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1704     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1705     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1706     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1707     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1708 
  1709     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1710     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1711 
  1712   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1713     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1714     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1715     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1716     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1717     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1718     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1719     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1720 
  1721   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1722     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1723     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1724     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1725 
  1726   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1727     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1728     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1729     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1730 
  1731   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1732     from type nat to type int.
  1733 
  1734 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1735 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1736 
  1737   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1738     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1739     type.  Example syntax:
  1740 
  1741     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1742       is List.insert
  1743 
  1744     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1745     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1746     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1747     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1748     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1749     by the package.
  1750 
  1751   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1752     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1753     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1754     code generation for each constant.
  1755 
  1756   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1757     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1758     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1759     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1760     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1761 
  1762   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1763     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1764     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1765 
  1766 * Quotient package:
  1767 
  1768   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1769     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1770 
  1771   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1772     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1773 
  1774   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1775     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1776     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1779     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1782 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1783 
  1784 * Quickcheck:
  1785 
  1786   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1787     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1788     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1789     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1790     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1791 
  1792     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1793     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1794     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1795 
  1796     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1797     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1798 
  1799     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1800     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1801     show genuine counterexamples.
  1802 
  1803   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1804     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1805 
  1806     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1807     constructors of that type.
  1808 
  1809   - Support for multisets.
  1810 
  1811   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1812 
  1813   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1814     conjectures in a locale context.
  1815 
  1816 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1817 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1818 
  1819 * Sledgehammer:
  1820   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1821     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1822   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1823   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1824     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1825   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1826   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1827   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1828   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1829 
  1830 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1831 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1832 
  1833 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1834 
  1835 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1838 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1839 
  1840   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1841 
  1842 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1843 a list and a nat.
  1844 
  1845 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1846 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1847 
  1848 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1849 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1850 default.
  1851 
  1852 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1853 
  1854   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1855 
  1856 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1857 
  1858 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1859 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1860 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1861 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1862 one_case.
  1863 
  1864 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1865 the result of the fact expression.
  1866 
  1867 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1868 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1869 of some relation theorems:
  1870 
  1871   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1872   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1873   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1874   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1875   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1876   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1877 
  1878 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1879 
  1880 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1881 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1882 
  1883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1884 
  1885 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1886 to match the constant's name:
  1887 
  1888   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1889   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1890   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1891   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1892   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1893   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1894   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1895   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1896   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1897   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1898   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1899   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1900   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1901   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1902   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1903   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1904   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1905   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1906   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1907   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1908   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1909   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1910   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1911   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1912 
  1913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1914 
  1915 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1916 and corresponding theorem names:
  1917 
  1918   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1919 
  1920   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1921 
  1922   - Renamed theorems:
  1923 
  1924     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1925     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1926     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1927     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1928     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1929     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1930     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1931     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1932     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1933     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1934     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1935     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1936     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1937     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1938     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1939     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1940     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1941     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1942     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1943     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1944     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1945     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1946     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1947 
  1948     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1949 
  1950     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1951 
  1952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1953 
  1954 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1955 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1956 
  1957   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1958   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1959   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1960   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1961   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1962   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1963   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1964   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1965   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1966   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1967   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1968   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1969   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1970   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1971   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1972   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1973   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1974   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1975   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1976   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1977   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1978 
  1979 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1980 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1981 
  1982 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1985 
  1986   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1987   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1988   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1989   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1990   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1991   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1992   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1993   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1994   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1995   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1996   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1997   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1998   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1999   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2000   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2001   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2002   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2003   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2004 
  2005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2006 
  2007 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2008 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2009 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2010 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2011 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2012 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2013 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2014 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2015 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2016 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2017 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2018 
  2019 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2020 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2021 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2022 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2023 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2024 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2025 
  2026 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2027 through option types.
  2028 
  2029 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2030 relations.
  2031 
  2032 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2033 
  2034 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2035 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2036 
  2037   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2038   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2039   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2040   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2041   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2042   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2043   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2044   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2045   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2046   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2047   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2048   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2049   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2050   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2051   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2052   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2053   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2054   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2055   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2056   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2057   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2058   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2059   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2060   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2061   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2062   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2063   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2064   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2065   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2066   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2067   zless_le ~> less_le
  2068   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2069   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2070   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2071 
  2072 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2073 
  2074   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2075 
  2076 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2077 
  2078 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2079 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2080 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2081 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083 
  2084 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2085 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2086 
  2087 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2088 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2089 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2090 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2091 follows:
  2092 
  2093   Operations:
  2094   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2095   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2096   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2097   del -> rbt_del
  2098   delete -> rbt_delete
  2099   ins -> rbt_ins
  2100   insert -> rbt_insert
  2101   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2102   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2103   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2104   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2105   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2106   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2107   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2108   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2109   union -> rbt_union
  2110   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2111   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2112 
  2113   Lemmas:
  2114   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2115   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2116   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2117   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2118   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2119   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2120   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2121   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2122   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2123   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2124   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2125   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2126   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2127   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2128   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2129   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2130   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2131   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2132   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2133   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2134   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2135   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2136   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2137   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2138   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2139   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2140   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2141   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2142   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2143   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2144   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2145   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2146   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2147   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2148   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2149   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2150   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2151   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2152   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2153   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2154   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2155   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2156   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2157   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2158   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2159   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2160   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2161   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2162   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2163   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2164   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2165   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2166   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2167   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2168   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2169   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2170   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2171   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2172   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2173   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2174   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2175   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2176   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2177   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2178   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2179   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2180   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2181   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2182   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2183   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2184   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2185   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2186   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2187   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2188   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2189   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2190   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2191   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2192   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2193   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2194   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2195   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2196   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2197 
  2198 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2199 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2200 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2201 
  2202   Changed Operations:
  2203   float_abs -> abs
  2204   float_nprt -> nprt
  2205   float_pprt -> pprt
  2206   pow2 -> use powr
  2207   round_down -> float_round_down
  2208   round_up -> float_round_up
  2209   scale -> exponent
  2210 
  2211   Removed Operations:
  2212   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2213 
  2214   Renamed Lemmas:
  2215   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2216   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2217   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2218   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2219   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2220   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2221   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2222   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2223   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2224   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2225   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2226   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2227   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2228   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2229   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2230   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2231   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2232   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2233   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2234   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2235   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2236   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2237   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2238   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2239   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2240   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2241   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2242   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2243   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2244   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2245   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2246   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2247   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2248   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2249   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2250   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2251 
  2252   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2253   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2254   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2255   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2256   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2257   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2258   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2259   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2260   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2261   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2262 
  2263 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2264 association lists with distinct keys.
  2265 
  2266 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2267 annotated commands.
  2268 
  2269 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2270 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2271 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2272 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2275 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2276 instead.
  2277 
  2278   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2279   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2280   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2281   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2282   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2283   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2284   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2285   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2286   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2287   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2288   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2289   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2290   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2291   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2292   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2293   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2294   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2295   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2296   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2297   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2298   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2299   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2300   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2301   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2302   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2303   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2304   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2305   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2306   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2307   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2308   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2309   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2310   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2311   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2312   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2313   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2314   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2315   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2316   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2317   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2318   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2319 
  2320 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2321 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2322 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2323 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2324 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2325 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2326 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2327 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2328 
  2329 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2330 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2331 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2332 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2333 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2334 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2335 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2336 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2337 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2338 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2339 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2340 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342   Renamed constants:
  2343   measure -> emeasure
  2344   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2345   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2346   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2347   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2348 
  2349   Removed locales:
  2350   completeable_measure_space
  2351   finite_measure_space
  2352   finite_prob_space
  2353   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2354   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2355   finite_sigma_algebra
  2356   measure_space
  2357   pair_finite_prob_space
  2358   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2359   pair_finite_space
  2360   pair_sigma_algebra
  2361   product_sigma_algebra
  2362 
  2363   Removed constants:
  2364   conditional_space
  2365   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2366   image_space
  2367   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2368   pair_measure_generator
  2369   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2370   subvimage
  2371 
  2372   Replacement theorems:
  2373   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2374   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2375   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2376   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2377   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2378   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2379   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2380   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2381   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2382   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2383   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2384   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2385   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2386   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2387   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2388   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2389   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2390   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2391   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2392   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2393   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2394   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2395   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2396   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2397   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2398   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2399   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2400   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2401   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2402   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2403   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2404   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2405   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2406   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2407   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2408   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2409   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2410   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2411   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2412   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2413   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2414   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2415   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2416   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2417   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2418   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2419   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2420   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2421   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2422   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2423   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2424   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2425   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2426   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2427   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2428   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2429   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2430   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2431   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2432   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2433   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2434   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2435   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2436   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2437   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2438   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2439   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2440   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2441   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2442   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2443   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2444   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2445   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2446   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2447   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2448   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2449   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2450   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2451   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2452   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2453   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2454   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2455   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2456   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2457   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2458   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2459   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2460   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2461   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2462   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2463   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2464   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2465   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2466   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2467   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2468   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2469   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2470   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2471   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2472   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2473   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2474   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2475   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2476   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2477   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2478   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2479   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2480   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2481   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2482   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2483   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2484   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2485   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2486   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2487   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2488   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2489   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2490   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2491   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2492   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2493   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2494   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2495   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2496   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2497   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2498   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2499   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2500   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2501 
  2502 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2503 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2504 
  2505 
  2506 *** FOL ***
  2507 
  2508 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2509 
  2510 
  2511 *** ZF ***
  2512 
  2513 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2514 analysis.
  2515 
  2516 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2517 
  2518 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520 
  2521 *** ML ***
  2522 
  2523 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2524 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2525 
  2526 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2527 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2528 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2529 
  2530 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2531 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2532 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2533 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2534 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2535 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2536 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2537 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2538 
  2539 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2540 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2541 
  2542 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2543 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2544 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2545 
  2546 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2547 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2548 
  2549 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2550 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2551 context as well.
  2552 
  2553 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2554 
  2555   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2556   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2557   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2558   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2559   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2560   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2561   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2562   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2563   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2564   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2565   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2566   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2567 
  2568 
  2569 *** System ***
  2570 
  2571 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2572 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2573 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2574 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2575 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2576 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2577 the generic user home was intended.
  2578 
  2579 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2580 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2581 
  2582 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2583 (not just JRE).
  2584 
  2585 
  2586 
  2587 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2588 ------------------------------------
  2589 
  2590 *** General ***
  2591 
  2592 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2593 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2594 
  2595   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2596     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2597     files for checking).
  2598 
  2599   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2600     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2601     positions.
  2602 
  2603   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2604     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2605     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2606 
  2607   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2608     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2609     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2610 
  2611   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2612     cores.
  2613 
  2614   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2615     versions (garbage collection).
  2616 
  2617 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2618 including some remaining limitations.
  2619 
  2620 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2621 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2622 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2623 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2624 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2628 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2629 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2630 
  2631 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2632 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2633 usedir option -Q.
  2634 
  2635 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2636 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2637 
  2638   long_names   ~> names_long
  2639   short_names  ~> names_short
  2640   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2641 
  2642 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2643 
  2644   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2645 
  2646 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2647 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2648 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2649 
  2650 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2651 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2652 
  2653 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2654   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2655   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2656   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2657     "Classical Reasoner".
  2658 
  2659 
  2660 *** HOL ***
  2661 
  2662 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2663 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2664 
  2665 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2666 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2667 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2668 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2669 class complete_linorder.
  2670 
  2671 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2672 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2673 
  2674 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2675 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2676 
  2677   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2678   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2679   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2680   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2681   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2682   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2683   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2684   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2685   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2686   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2687   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2688 
  2689 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2690 
  2691   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2692   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2693   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2694   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2695   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2696   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2697   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2698   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2699   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2700   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2701   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2702   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2703   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2704   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2705   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2706   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2707 
  2708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2709 
  2710 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2714 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2715 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2716 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2719 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2720 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2724 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2725 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2726 
  2727 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2728 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2729 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2732 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2733 
  2734 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2735 
  2736     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2737     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2738 
  2739 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2740 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2743 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2746 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2747 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2748 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2749 
  2750   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2751   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2752   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2753   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2754   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2755   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2756   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2757 
  2758 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2759 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2762   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2763   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2764   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2765   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2766   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2767   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2768   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2769   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2770   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2771   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2772   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2773   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2774   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2775   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2776   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2777   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2778   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2779   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2780   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2781   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2782   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2783   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2784   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2785   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2786   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2787   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2788   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2789   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2790   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2791   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2792   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2793   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2794   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2795   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2796   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2797   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2798   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2799   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2800   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2801   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2802   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2803   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2804   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2805   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2806   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2807   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2808   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2809   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2810   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2811   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2812   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2813   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2814   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2815   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2816   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2817   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2818   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2819   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2820   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2821   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2822   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2823   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2824   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2825   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2826   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2827   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2828   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2829   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2830   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2831   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2832   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2833   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2834   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2835   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2836   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2837   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2838   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2839   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2840   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2841   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2842   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2843 
  2844 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2845 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2846 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2847 
  2848 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2849 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2850 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2851 
  2852 * Code generation:
  2853 
  2854   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2855     characters in the target language.
  2856 
  2857   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2858     instead.
  2859 
  2860   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2861 
  2862   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2863     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2864 
  2865       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2866 
  2867 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868 
  2869 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2870 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2871 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2872 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2873 syntax.
  2874 
  2875 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2876 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2877 
  2878 * Nitpick:
  2879   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2880   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2881   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2882     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2883 
  2884 * Sledgehammer:
  2885   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2886   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2887     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2888   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2889     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2890   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2891     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2892   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2893     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2894   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2895     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897 * Metis:
  2898   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2899   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2900     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * Command 'try':
  2903   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2904     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2906     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2907 
  2908 * Quickcheck:
  2909   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2910     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2911   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2912     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2913   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2914     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2915     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2916     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2917   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2918     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2919 
  2920 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2921 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2922 
  2923 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2924 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2925 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2926 
  2927 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2928 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930 
  2931 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2932 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2935 arithmetic.
  2936 
  2937 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2938 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2939 and lattice type classes.
  2940 
  2941 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2942 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2943 
  2944 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2945 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2946 
  2947 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2948 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2949 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2952   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2953   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2954   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2955 
  2956 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2957 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2958 constants:
  2959 
  2960   type inat   ~> type enat
  2961   Fin         ~> enat
  2962   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2963   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2964   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2965 
  2966 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2967 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2968 
  2969 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2970 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2971 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2972 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2973 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2974 
  2975 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2976 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2977 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2978 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2979 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2980 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2981 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2982 
  2983   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2984   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2985   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2986   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2987 
  2988 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2989 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2990 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991 
  2992   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2993   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2994   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2995   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2996   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2997   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2998   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2999   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3000   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3001   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3002   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3003   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3004   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3005   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3006   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3007   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3008   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3009   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3010   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3011   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3012   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3013   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3014   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3015   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3016   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3017   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3018   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3019   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3020   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3021   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3022   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3023   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3024   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3025   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3026   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3027   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3028   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3029   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3030   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3031   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3032   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3033   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3034   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3035   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3036   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3037   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3038   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3039   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3040   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3041   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3042   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3043 
  3044 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3045   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3046   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3047   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3048   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3049     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3054   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3055   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3056   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3057   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3058   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3059   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3060   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3061   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3062   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3063   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3064   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3065   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3066   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3067   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3068   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3069   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3070   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3071   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3072   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3073   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3074   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3075   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3076   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3077   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3078 
  3079 
  3080 *** Document preparation ***
  3081 
  3082 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3083 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3084 same.
  3085 
  3086 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3087 result.
  3088 
  3089 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3090 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3091 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3092 
  3093 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3094 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3095 
  3096 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3097 like this:
  3098 
  3099   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3100   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3101 
  3102 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3103 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3104 layouts.
  3105 
  3106 
  3107 *** ML ***
  3108 
  3109 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3110 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3111 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3112 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3113 under external program control.
  3114 
  3115 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3116 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3117 
  3118 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3119 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3120 (better known as Proof General).
  3121 
  3122 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3123 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3124 
  3125 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3126 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3127 
  3128 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3129 (including quotes etc.).
  3130 
  3131 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3132 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3133 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3134 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3135 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3136 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3137 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3138 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3139 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3140 
  3141 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3142 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3143 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3144 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3145 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3146 
  3147 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3148 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3149 
  3150 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3151 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3152 
  3153 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3154 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3155 
  3156 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3157 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3158 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3159 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3160 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3161 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3162 proper Proof.context.
  3163 
  3164 
  3165 *** System ***
  3166 
  3167 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3168 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3169 
  3170 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3171 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3172 
  3173 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3174 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3175 
  3176   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3177   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3178   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3179   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3180   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3181 
  3182 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3183 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3186 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3187 example:
  3188 
  3189   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3190 
  3191 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3192 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3193 
  3194 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3195 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3196 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3197 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3198 
  3199 
  3200 
  3201 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3202 ----------------------------------
  3203 
  3204 *** General ***
  3205 
  3206 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3207 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3208 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3209 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3210 like this:
  3211 
  3212   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3213 
  3214 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3215 
  3216 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3217 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3218 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3219 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3220 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3221 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3222 
  3223 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3224 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3225 the following package declarations:
  3226 
  3227   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3228   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3229 
  3230 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3231 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3232 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3233 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3234 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3235 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3236 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3237 
  3238 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3239 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3240 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3241 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3242 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3243 
  3244 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3245 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3246 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3247 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3248 
  3249 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3250 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3251 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3252 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3253 
  3254   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3255 
  3256   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3257   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3258   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3259   show_types                    show_types
  3260   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3261   show_consts                   show_consts
  3262   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3263 
  3264   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3265   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3266   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3267 
  3268   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3269   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3270 
  3271   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3272 
  3273   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3274   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3275   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3276   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3277   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3278 
  3279 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3280 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3281 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3282 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3283 
  3284 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3288   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3289 
  3290 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3291 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3292 float_token.
  3293 
  3294 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3295 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3299 DejaVu Sans.
  3300 
  3301 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3302 
  3303 
  3304 *** Pure ***
  3305 
  3306 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3307 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3308 time.
  3309 
  3310 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3311 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3314 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3317 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3318 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3319 command already provided this functionality.
  3320 
  3321 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3322 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3323 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3324 without interpretations.
  3325 
  3326 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3327 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3328 
  3329 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3330 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3331 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3332 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3333 
  3334 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3335 'definition' instead.
  3336 
  3337 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3338 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3339 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3340 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3341 
  3342 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3343 constructors.
  3344 
  3345 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3346 the local file system.
  3347 
  3348 
  3349 *** HOL ***
  3350 
  3351 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3352 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3353 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3354 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3355 
  3356   declare [[coercion f]]
  3357 
  3358 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3359 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3360 
  3361   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3362 
  3363 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3364 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3365 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3366 other theories like this:
  3367 
  3368   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3369 
  3370 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3371 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3372 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3373 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3374 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3375 for examples.
  3376 
  3377 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3378 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3379 
  3380 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3381 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3382 
  3383 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3384 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3385 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3386 
  3387 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3388 functorial structure of types.
  3389 
  3390 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3391 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3392 
  3393 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3394 languages.
  3395 
  3396 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3397 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3401 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3404 combinators any longer.
  3405 
  3406 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3407 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3408 
  3409 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3410 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3411 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3412 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3413 
  3414   record 'a foo = ...
  3415   ...
  3416   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3417 
  3418 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3419 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3423 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3424 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3425 
  3426 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3427 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3428 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3429 
  3430 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3431 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3434 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3435 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3436 independently.
  3437 
  3438 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3439 counter example search.
  3440 
  3441 * Sledgehammer:
  3442   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3443     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3444     sledgehammer").
  3445   - Renamed commands:
  3446     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3447     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3448     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3449     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450   - Renamed options:
  3451     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3452     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3453     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3454     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3455     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Nitpick:
  3458   - Renamed options:
  3459     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3460     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3461     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3463   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3464   - Added "whack" option.
  3465   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3466   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3467   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3468   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3469     higher cardinalities.
  3470   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3471 
  3472 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3473 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3474 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3475 
  3476     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3477 
  3478 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3479 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3480 
  3481 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3482 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3483 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3484 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3485 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3486 "smt_solver".
  3487 
  3488 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3489 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3490 
  3491 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3492 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3493 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3494 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3497   - Renamed:
  3498     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3499     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3500     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501   - Added:
  3502     smt_verbose
  3503     smt_random_seed
  3504     smt_datatypes
  3505     smt_infer_triggers
  3506     smt_monomorph_limit
  3507     cvc3_options
  3508     remote_cvc3_options
  3509     remote_z3_options
  3510     yices_options
  3511 
  3512 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3513 header.
  3514 
  3515 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3516 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3517 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3518 
  3519   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3520 
  3521 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3524 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3529 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3530 
  3531 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3532 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3533 
  3534 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3535 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3538 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3539 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3547 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3550 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3551 for congruent(2)).
  3552 
  3553 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3554 
  3555   types
  3556     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3557     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3558 
  3559   constants
  3560     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3561     True ~> HOL.True
  3562     False ~> HOL.False
  3563     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3564     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3565     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3566     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3567     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3568     The ~> HOL.The
  3569     All ~> HOL.All
  3570     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3571     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3572     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3573     If ~> HOL.If
  3574     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3575     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3576     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3577     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3578     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3579     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3580     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3581     op : ~> Set.member
  3582     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3583 
  3584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3587 
  3588     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3589     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3590     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3591     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3592     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3593     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3594     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3595     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3596 
  3597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 * More stylized fact names:
  3600 
  3601   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3602   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3603   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3604   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3605 
  3606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3609 
  3610   constants
  3611     null ~> List.null
  3612 
  3613   facts
  3614     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3615     null_empty ~> null_def
  3616 
  3617 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3618 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3619 generation.
  3620 
  3621 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3622 Haskell code.
  3623 
  3624 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3625 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3626 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3629 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3632 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3633 
  3634 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3635 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3636 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3639 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3645 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3646 referred to by its qualified name.
  3647 
  3648   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3649   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3650   product ~>  Enum.product
  3651 
  3652 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3653 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3657 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3658 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3662 sort_key.
  3663 
  3664 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3668 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3669 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3670 
  3671   types
  3672     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3673               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3674               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3675         (depends on your needs)
  3676 
  3677   constants
  3678      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3679      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3680      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3681 
  3682 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3683 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3684 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3685 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686 
  3687 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3688 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3689 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3690 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3691 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3697 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3698 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3699 
  3700 
  3701 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3702 
  3703 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3704 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3705 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3706 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3707 compatibility.
  3708 
  3709 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3710 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3711 
  3712 
  3713 *** HOLCF ***
  3714 
  3715 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3716 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3717 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3721 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3722 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3725   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3726   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3727 
  3728 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3729 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3730 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3731 
  3732 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3733 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3734 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3735 domain definition now works:
  3736 
  3737   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3738 
  3739 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3740 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3741 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3742 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3743 
  3744   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3745     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3746 
  3747   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3748 
  3749 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3750 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3751 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3754 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3757 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3758 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3759 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3760 
  3761 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3762 
  3763 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3771 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3772 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3773 
  3774 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3775 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3776 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3777 
  3778 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3779 still supported as an input translation.
  3780 
  3781 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3782 
  3783   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3784   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3785   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3786   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3787   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3788   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3789   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3790 
  3791 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3792 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3795   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3796   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3797   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3798   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3799   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3800 
  3801 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3802 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3805 
  3806   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3807   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3808   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3809   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3810 
  3811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3814 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3817 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3820   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3821   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3822   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3823   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3824   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3825   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3826   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3827   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3828   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3829   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3830   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3831   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3832   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3833   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3834   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3835   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3836   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3837   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3838   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3839 
  3840 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3843   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3844   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3845   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3846   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3847   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3848   box_less             ~> box_below
  3849   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3850   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3851   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3852   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3853   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3854   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3855   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3856   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3857   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3858   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3859   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3860   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3861   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3862   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3863   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3864   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3865   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3866   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3867   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3868   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3869   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3870   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3871   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3872   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3873   up_less              ~> up_below
  3874   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3875   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3876   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3877   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3878   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3879   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3880   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3881   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3882   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3883   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3884   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3885   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3886   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3887 
  3888 
  3889 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3890 
  3891 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3892 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 
  3895 *** ML ***
  3896 
  3897 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3898 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3899 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3900 
  3901 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3902 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3903 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3904 
  3905 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3906 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3907 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3908 
  3909 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3910 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3911 
  3912 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3913 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3914 
  3915 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3916 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3917 
  3918 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3919 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3920 
  3921 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3922 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3923 almost all situations.
  3924 
  3925 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3926 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3927 Isabelle/ML.
  3928 
  3929 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3930 meaning.
  3931 
  3932 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3933 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3934 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3935 
  3936 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3937 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3938 
  3939 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3940 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3941 
  3942 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3943 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3944 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3945 
  3946 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3947 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3948 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3949 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3950 configuration options.
  3951 
  3952 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3953 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3954 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3955 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3956 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3957 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3958 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3959 
  3960 
  3961 
  3962 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3963 ---------------------------------
  3964 
  3965 *** General ***
  3966 
  3967 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3968 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3969 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3970 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3971 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3972 their full internal name.
  3973 
  3974 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3975 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3976 Some hints on upgrading:
  3977 
  3978   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3979     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3980     which are independent of this issue.
  3981 
  3982   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3983     provides the following special forms:
  3984 
  3985       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3986       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3987       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3988 
  3989     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3990     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3991     extra variables".
  3992 
  3993     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3994     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3995     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3996     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3997     "logic".
  3998 
  3999   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4000     antiquotations:
  4001 
  4002       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4003       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4004       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4005       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4006 
  4007   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4008     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4009     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4010     antiquotations.
  4011 
  4012 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4013 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4014 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4015 diagnose syntax problems.
  4016 
  4017 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4018 
  4019 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4020 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4021 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4022 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4023 
  4024 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4025 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4026 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4027 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4030 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4031 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4032 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4033 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4036 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4037 
  4038 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4039 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4040 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4041 
  4042   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4043 
  4044 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4045 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4046 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4047 
  4048 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4049 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4053 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4054 
  4055 
  4056 *** Pure ***
  4057 
  4058 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4059 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4060 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4061 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4062 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4063 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4064 inspect proof terms.
  4065 
  4066 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4067 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4068 are added internally.  For example:
  4069 
  4070   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4071 
  4072 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4073 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4078 'class' instead.
  4079 
  4080 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4081 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4085 invariants.
  4086 
  4087 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4088 user space functionality any longer.
  4089 
  4090 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4091 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4095 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4096 
  4097 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4098 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4099 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4100 
  4101 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4102 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4103 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4104 
  4105 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4106 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 
  4109 *** HOL ***
  4110 
  4111 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4112 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4113 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4114 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4115 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4116 
  4117 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4118 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4119 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4120 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4121 
  4122   fun
  4123     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4124   where
  4125     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4126 
  4127   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4128     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4129 
  4130   quotient_definition
  4131     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4132 
  4133 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4134 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4135 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4136 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4137 
  4138 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4139 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4140 
  4141 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4142 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4143 
  4144 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4148 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4149 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4150 
  4151 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4152 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4159 
  4160 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4161 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4164 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4165 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4166 
  4167   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4168   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4169   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4170   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4171   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4172   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4173   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4174   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4175   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4176   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4177   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4178   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4179   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4180   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4181   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4182   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4183   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4184   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4185   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4186   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4187   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4188   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4189   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4190   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4191   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4192   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4193   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4194   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4195   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4196   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4197 
  4198 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4199 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4200 
  4201 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4202 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4203 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4204 
  4205 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4206 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4207 
  4208 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4209 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4212 
  4213 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4214 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4217 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218 
  4219 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4222 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4223 
  4224 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4225 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4226 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4227 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4230   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4231   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4232   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4236 lattices):
  4237 
  4238     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4239     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4240 
  4241     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4242 
  4243     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4244     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4245     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4246     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4247     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4248     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4249     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4250     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4251     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4252     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4253     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4254     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4255     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4256 
  4257     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4258     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4259     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4260     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4261     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4262     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4263     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4264     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4265     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4266     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4267     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4268     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4269     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4270     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4271     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4272     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4273     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4274     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4275 
  4276   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4277   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4278 
  4279     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4280     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4281     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4282     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4283     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4284 
  4285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 * Refined field classes:
  4288   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4289     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4290     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4291   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4293 
  4294 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4295   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4296   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4297   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4298     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4299   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4300     equal_neg_zero.
  4301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302 
  4303 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4304 sets to lattices:
  4305 
  4306   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4307   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4308   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4309   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4310   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4311   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4312   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4313   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4314   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4315   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4316 
  4317 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4318 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4319 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4320 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4321 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4322 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4325 multiset order:
  4326 
  4327   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4328     <= and <;
  4329   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4330     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4331     multiset_order;
  4332   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4333     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4334     generation;
  4335   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4336     if needed.
  4337 
  4338 Renamed:
  4339 
  4340   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4341   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4342   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4343 
  4344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4345 
  4346 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4347 
  4348 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4349 
  4350 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4351 
  4352 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4353 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4354 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4355 
  4356   Constants:
  4357   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4358   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4359   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4360   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4361   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4362   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4363   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4364   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4365   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4366   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4367   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4368   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4369   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4370 
  4371   Lemmas:
  4372   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4373   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4374   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4375   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4376   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4377   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4378   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4379   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4380   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4381   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4382   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4383   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4384   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4385 
  4386 * Sledgehammer:
  4387   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4388     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4389     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4390     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4391     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4392     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4393     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4395   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4396     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4397   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4398     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4399     is still experimental.)
  4400   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4401     full-typed mode.
  4402   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4403 
  4404 * Nitpick:
  4405   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4406   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4407   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4408     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4409   - Added support for quotient types.
  4410   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4411     constructs.
  4412   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4413     "termination" proofs).
  4414   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4415   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4416   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4417   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4418     record getters.
  4419   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4420   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4421   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4422   - Added "atoms" option.
  4423   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4424     problems.
  4425   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4426     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4427     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4428   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4429     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431 
  4432 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4433   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4434   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4435   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4436   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4437   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4438   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4439   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4440   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4441   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4442 
  4443 
  4444 *** HOLCF ***
  4445 
  4446 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4447 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4448 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4451 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4452 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4453 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4454 
  4455 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4456 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4457 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4458 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4459 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4460 
  4461 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4462 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4463 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4464 
  4465 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4466 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4467 
  4468   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4469   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4470 
  4471 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4472 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4473 
  4474   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4475   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4476   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4477   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4478   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4479 
  4480 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4481 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4482 
  4483   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4484   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4485   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4486 
  4487 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4488 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4492 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4495 
  4496 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4497 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4498 
  4499 
  4500 *** ML ***
  4501 
  4502 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4503 
  4504     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4505     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4506 
  4507     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4508     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4509     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4510     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4511 
  4512     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4513     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4514     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4515 
  4516 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4517 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4518 
  4519 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4520 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4521 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4522 
  4523 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4524 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4525 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4526 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4527 
  4528 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4529 the context or even global references.
  4530 
  4531 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4532 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4533 
  4534 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4535 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4536 
  4537   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4538   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4539   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4540   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4541   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4542   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4543   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4544   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4545   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4546   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4547 
  4548 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4549 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4550 
  4551 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4552 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4553 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4554 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4555 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4556 
  4557 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4558 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4559 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4560 Theory_Data version.
  4561 
  4562 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4563 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4564 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4565 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4566 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4567 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4568 explicitly in rare situations.
  4569 
  4570 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4571 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4573 
  4574 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4575 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4576 
  4577 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4578 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4579 quite rare).
  4580 
  4581 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4582 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4585 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4586 terms.
  4587 
  4588 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4589 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4590 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4591 
  4592 
  4593 *** System ***
  4594 
  4595 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4596 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4597 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4598 
  4599 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4600 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4601 respectively.
  4602 
  4603 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4604 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4605 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4606 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4607 
  4608   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4609 
  4610 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4611 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4612 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4613 component.
  4614 
  4615 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4616 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4617 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4618 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4619 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4620 the user for manual installation.
  4621 
  4622 
  4623 
  4624 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4625 -------------------------------------
  4626 
  4627 *** General ***
  4628 
  4629 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4630 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4631 
  4632 
  4633 *** Pure ***
  4634 
  4635 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4636 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4637 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4638 
  4639 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4640 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4641 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4642 
  4643 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4644 interpretation.
  4645 
  4646 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4647 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 
  4650 *** Document preparation ***
  4651 
  4652 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4653 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4654 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4655 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4656 
  4657 
  4658 *** HOL ***
  4659 
  4660 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4661 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4662 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4663 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4664 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4665 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4666 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4667 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4668 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4669 
  4670 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4671 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4672 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4673 
  4674 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4675 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4676 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4677 
  4678 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4679 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4680 
  4681 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4682 
  4683 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4684 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4685 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4686 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4687 
  4688 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4689 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4690 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4691 "mirabelle" utility.
  4692 
  4693 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4694 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4695 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4696 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4697 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4698 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4699 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4700 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4701 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4702 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4703 
  4704 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4705 procedure only.
  4706 
  4707 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4708 
  4709 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4710 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4711 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4712 that fail later.
  4713 
  4714 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4715 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4716 
  4717 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4718 the same method as the approximation method.
  4719 
  4720 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4721 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4722 series expansion.
  4723 
  4724 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4725 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4726 
  4727 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4728 reals.
  4729 
  4730 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4731 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4732 
  4733 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4734 fixpoint theorem.
  4735 
  4736 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4737   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4738     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4739   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4740     accordingly
  4741   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4742     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4743   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4744     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4745 
  4746 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4747 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4748 lattice.
  4749 
  4750 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4751 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4752 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4753 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4754 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4755 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4759   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4760     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4761   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4762     le_inf_iff
  4763   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4764     sup_aci)
  4765   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4766   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4767   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4768     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4769     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4770     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4771     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4772     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4773     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4774     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4775     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4776     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4777     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4778   - authentic syntax for
  4779     Set.Pow
  4780     Set.image
  4781   - mere abbreviations:
  4782     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4783     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4784     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4785     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4786     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4787     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4788     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4789     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4790   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4791 
  4792 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4793 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4794 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4795 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4796 
  4797 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4798 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4799 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4800 
  4801 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4802 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4803 
  4804 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4805 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4806 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4807 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4810 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4811 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4812 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4813 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4814 
  4815 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4816 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4820 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4821 
  4822 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4823 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4824 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4825 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4826 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4827 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4828 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4832     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4833     code_post       replaces    code post
  4834     etc.
  4835   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837 * Renamed methods:
  4838     sizechange -> size_change
  4839     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4840   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4841 
  4842 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4843 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4844 
  4845 * Renamed theorems:
  4846     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4847     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4848     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4849     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4850     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4851   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4858 
  4859 
  4860 *** HOLCF ***
  4861 
  4862 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4863 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4864 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4865 
  4866 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4867 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4868 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4869 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4870 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4871 
  4872 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4873 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4874 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4875 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4876 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4877 
  4878 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4879 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4880 constructor are pre-configured.
  4881 
  4882 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4883 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4884 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4885 
  4886 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4887 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4888 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4889 as well.)
  4890 
  4891 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4892 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4893 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4894 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4895 examples.
  4896 
  4897 
  4898 *** ML ***
  4899 
  4900 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4901 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4902 
  4903 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4904 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4905 position, logical grouping etc.
  4906 
  4907 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4908 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4909 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4910 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4911 
  4912 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4913 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4914 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4915 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4916 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4917 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4918 
  4919 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4920 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4921 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4922 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4923 experiments with references.
  4924 
  4925 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4926 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4927 
  4928 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4929 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4930 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4931 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4932 
  4933 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4934 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4935 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4936 
  4937 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4938 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4939 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4942 
  4943 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4947 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4948 
  4949 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4950 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4951 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4952 
  4953 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4954 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4955 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4956 
  4957 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4958 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4959 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4961 
  4962 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4963 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4964 instead of global theory.
  4965 
  4966 
  4967 *** System ***
  4968 
  4969 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4970 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4971 usedir option -q.
  4972 
  4973 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4974 also the system manual.
  4975 
  4976 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4977 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4978 
  4979 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4980 this is always enabled.
  4981 
  4982 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4983 
  4984 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4985 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4986 currently supported on Linux only.
  4987 
  4988 
  4989 
  4990 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4991 --------------------------------
  4992 
  4993 *** General ***
  4994 
  4995 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4996 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4997 
  4998   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4999     "isatool."
  5000 
  5001   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5002     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5003 
  5004   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5005     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5006 
  5007 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5008 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5009 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5010 
  5011 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5012 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5013 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5014 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5015 via "isabelle emacs".
  5016 
  5017 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5018 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5019 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5020 
  5021 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5022 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5023 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5024 
  5025 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5026 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5027 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5028 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5029 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5030 
  5031 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5032 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5033 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5034 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5035 
  5036 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5037 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5038 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5039 
  5040 
  5041 *** Pure ***
  5042 
  5043 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5044 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5045 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5046 
  5047 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5048 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5049 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5050 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5051 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5052 
  5053 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5054 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5055 useful in locale declarations.
  5056 
  5057 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5058 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5059 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5060 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5061 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5062 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5063 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5064 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5065 no longer generated.
  5066 
  5067 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5068 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5069 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5070 
  5071 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5072 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5073 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5074 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5075 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5076 
  5077 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5078 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5079 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5080 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5081 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5082 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5083 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5084 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5085 
  5086 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5087 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5088 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5089 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5090 
  5091 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5092 
  5093 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5094 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5095 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5096 
  5097 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5098 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5099 
  5100 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5101 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5102 in HOL, write
  5103 
  5104     class foo = ...
  5105 
  5106 instead of
  5107 
  5108     class foo = type + ...
  5109 
  5110 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5111 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5114 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5115 
  5116 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5117 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5118 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5119 
  5120 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5121 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5122 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5123 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5124 directly in regular applications.
  5125 
  5126 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5127 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5128 
  5129 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5130 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5131 
  5132 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5133 theory context.
  5134 
  5135 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5136 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5137 
  5138 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5139 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5140 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5141 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5142 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5143 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5144 
  5145   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5146 
  5147 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5148 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5149 normalization.
  5150 
  5151 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5152 addressing etc.
  5153 
  5154 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5155 
  5156   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5157   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5158 
  5159 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5160 
  5161   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5162      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5163      parts of the code generator framework).
  5164 
  5165   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5166      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5167      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5168 
  5169 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5170 
  5171 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5172 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5173 
  5174 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5175 patterns, e.g.
  5176 
  5177     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5178 
  5179 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5180 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5181 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5182 hyphen:
  5183 
  5184     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5185 
  5186 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5187 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5188 
  5189 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5190 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5191 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5192 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5193 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5194 higher-order unification.
  5195 
  5196 
  5197 *** Document preparation ***
  5198 
  5199 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5200 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5201 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5202 
  5203 
  5204 *** HOL ***
  5205 
  5206 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5207 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5208 
  5209 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5210 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5211 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5212 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5213 Main, as before.
  5214 
  5215 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5216 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5217 
  5218 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5219 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5220 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5221 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5222 
  5223 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5224 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5225 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5226 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5227 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5228 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5229 
  5230 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5231 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5232 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5233 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5234 
  5235 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5236 menu.
  5237 
  5238 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5239 (contains the empty clause).
  5240 
  5241 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5242 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5243 
  5244 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5245 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5246 
  5247 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5248 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5249 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5250 
  5251 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5252 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5253 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5254 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5255 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5256 
  5257 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5258 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5259 
  5260 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5261 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5262 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5263 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5264 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5265 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5266 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5267 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5268 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5269 
  5270 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5271 
  5272 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5273 
  5274 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5275 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5276 
  5277 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5278 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5279 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5280 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5281 
  5282 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5283 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5284 
  5285     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5286     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5287     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5288     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5289     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5290     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5291     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5292     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5293 
  5294 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5295 theory Set.
  5296 
  5297 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5298 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5299 
  5300 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5301 
  5302 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5303 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5304 
  5305 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5306 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5307 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5308 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5309 allowed. For examples see
  5310 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5311 
  5312 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5313 
  5314 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5318 structure:
  5319 
  5320     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5321     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5322     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5323     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5324     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5325     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5326     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5327     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5328     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5329     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5330     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5331     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5332     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5333     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5334     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5335     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5336     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5337     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5338     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5339     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5340     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5341     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5342     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5343     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5344     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5345     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5346     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5347     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5348     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5349     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5350     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5351     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5352     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5353 
  5354     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5355     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5356     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5357     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5358     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5359     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5360     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5361     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5362     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5363     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5364 
  5365     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5366     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5367     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5368     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5369     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5370     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5371 
  5372 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5373 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5374 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5375 
  5376 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5377 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5378 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5379 
  5380 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5381 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5382 
  5383 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5384 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5385 
  5386 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5387 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5388 proofs, e.g.
  5389 
  5390   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5391 
  5392 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5393 
  5394 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5395 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5396 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5397 
  5398 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5399 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5401 
  5402 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5403 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5404 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5408 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5409 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5410 preorder_class.*.
  5411 
  5412 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5413 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5414 
  5415 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5416 
  5417   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5418 
  5419 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5420 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5421 fold_image.
  5422 
  5423 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5424 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5425 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5426 the former will disappear at some point.
  5427 
  5428 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5429 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5430 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5431 
  5432 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5433 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5434 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5435 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5436 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5437 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5438 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5439 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5440 
  5441 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5442 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5443 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5444 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5445 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5446 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5447 
  5448     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5449     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5450     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5451     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5452     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5453     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5454     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5455 
  5456 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5457 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5458 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5459 
  5460 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5461 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5462 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5463 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5464 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5465 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5466 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5467 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5468 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5469 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5470 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5471 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5472 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5473 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5474 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5475 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5476 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5477 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5478 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5479 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5480 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5481 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5482 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5483 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5484 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5485 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5486 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5487 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5488 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5489 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5490 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5491 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5492 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5493 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5494 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5495 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5496 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5497 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5498 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5499 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5500 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5501 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5502 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5503 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5504 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5505 
  5506 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5507 
  5508 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5509 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5510 
  5511 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5512 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5513 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5514 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5515 
  5516 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5517 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5518 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5519 theory RealVector.
  5520 
  5521 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5522 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5523 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5524 and inner products are included.
  5525 
  5526 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5527 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5528 supported.
  5529 
  5530 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5531 first diagonalization argument.
  5532 
  5533 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5534 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5535 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5536 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5537 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5538 
  5539     hide (open) const gcd
  5540     abbreviation gcd where
  5541       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5542     notation (output)
  5543       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5544 
  5545 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5546 
  5547 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5548 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5549 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5550 
  5551 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5552 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5553 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5554 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5555 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5556 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5557 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5558 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5559 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5560 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5561 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5562 cases.
  5563 
  5564 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5565 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5566 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5567 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5568 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5569 
  5570     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5571     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5572     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5573     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5574     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5575 
  5576 
  5577 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5578 
  5579 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5580 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5581 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5582 
  5583 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5584 
  5585 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5586 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5587 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5588 
  5589 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5590 
  5591 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5592 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5593 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5594 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5595 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5596 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5597 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5598 
  5599 
  5600 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5601 
  5602 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5603 
  5604 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5605 theory targets.
  5606 
  5607 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5608 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5609 'inductive' etc.
  5610 
  5611 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5612 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5613 
  5614 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5615 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5616 
  5617 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5618 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5619 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5620 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5621 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5622 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5623 the algorithm W:
  5624 
  5625  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5626  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5627          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5628 
  5629 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5630 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5631 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5632 
  5633 
  5634 *** HOLCF ***
  5635 
  5636 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5637 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5638 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5639 
  5640 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5641 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5642 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5643 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5644 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5645 
  5646 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5647 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5648 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5649 
  5650 
  5651 *** ZF ***
  5652 
  5653 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5654 
  5655 
  5656 *** ML ***
  5657 
  5658 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5659 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5660 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5661 5.2.1!
  5662 
  5663 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5664 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5665 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5666 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5667 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5668 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5669 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5670 
  5671 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5672 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5673 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5674 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5675 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5676 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5677 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5678 
  5679 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5680 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5681 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5682 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5683 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5684 
  5685 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5686 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5687 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5688 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5689 Method.add_method.
  5690 
  5691 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5692 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5693 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5694 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5695 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5696 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5697 
  5698 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5699 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5700 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5701 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5702 examples.
  5703 
  5704 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5705 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5706 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5707 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5708 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5709 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5710 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5711 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5712 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5713 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5714 
  5715 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5716 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5717 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5718 
  5719 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5720 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5721 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5722 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5723 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5724 resort for legacy applications.
  5725 
  5726 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5727 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5728 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5729 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5730 explicit runtime argument.
  5731 
  5732 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5733 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5734 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5735 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5736 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5737 
  5738 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5739 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5740 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5741 theory state.
  5742 
  5743 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5744 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5745 
  5746   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5747   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5748   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5749   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5750   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5751   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5752   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5753   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5754   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5755   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5756 
  5757 
  5758 *** System ***
  5759 
  5760 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5761 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5762 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5763 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5764 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5765 
  5766 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5767 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5768 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5769 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5770 
  5771 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5772 
  5773 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5774 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5775 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5776 prover operations.
  5777 
  5778 
  5779 
  5780 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5781 -------------------------------
  5782 
  5783 *** General ***
  5784 
  5785 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5786 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5787 
  5788 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5789 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5790 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5791 provides a proper context already.
  5792 
  5793 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5794 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5795 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5796 
  5797 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5798 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5799 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5800 swap theory imports.
  5801 
  5802 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5803 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5804 
  5805 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5806 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5807 white space without escapes.
  5808 
  5809 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5810 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5811 "foo_bar".
  5812 
  5813 
  5814 *** Pure ***
  5815 
  5816 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5817 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5818 
  5819 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5820 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5821 
  5822 (1) unused_thms
  5823      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5824 
  5825 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5826      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5827      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5828 
  5829 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5830      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5831      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5832      their ancestors.
  5833 
  5834 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5835 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5836 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5837 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5838 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5839 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5840 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5841 
  5842 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5843 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5844 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5845 
  5846 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5847 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5848 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5849 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5850 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5851 
  5852 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5853 
  5854 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5855 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5856 update of theories within ML code.
  5857 
  5858 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5859 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5860 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5861 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5862 
  5863 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5864 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5865 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5867 
  5868 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5869 
  5870 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5871 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5872 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5873 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5874 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5875 
  5876 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5877 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5878 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5879 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5880 situations.
  5881 
  5882 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5883 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5884 proof text.
  5885 
  5886 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5887 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5888 
  5889 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5890 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5891 predicates.
  5892 
  5893 
  5894 *** Document preparation ***
  5895 
  5896 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5897 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5898 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5899 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5900 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5901 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5902 
  5903 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5904 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5905 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5906 
  5907 
  5908 *** HOL ***
  5909 
  5910 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5911 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5912 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5913 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5914 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5915 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5916 
  5917 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5918 with multithreading.
  5919 
  5920 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5921 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5922 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5923 
  5924 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5925 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5926 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5927 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5928 
  5929 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5930 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5931 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5932 and makes them available separately.  See
  5933 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5934 
  5935 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5936 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5937 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5938 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5939 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5940 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5941 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5942 the declared rules.
  5943 
  5944 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5945 
  5946   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5947 
  5948 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5949 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5950 
  5951 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5952 
  5953   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5954 
  5955   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5956     definitions on => and bool.
  5957 
  5958   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5959     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5960     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5961 
  5962       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5963       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5964       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5965       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5966       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5967       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5968       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5969       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5970 
  5971   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5972     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5973     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5974 
  5975   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5976     The proof pattern
  5977 
  5978       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5979       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5980 
  5981     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5982     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5983 
  5984       have "EX S. P S"
  5985       proof
  5986         show "P S" <...>
  5987       qed
  5988 
  5989   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5990     The proof pattern
  5991 
  5992       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5993       also have "S = T" <...>
  5994       finally have "P T" .
  5995 
  5996     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5997     must be replaced by something like
  5998 
  5999       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6000       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6001       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6002 
  6003   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6004     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6005 
  6006       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6007 
  6008     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6009     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6010     type of the form
  6011 
  6012       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6013 
  6014     rather than
  6015 
  6016       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6017 
  6018 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6019 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6020 
  6021 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6022 
  6023 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6024 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6026 
  6027 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6028 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6031 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6032 
  6033 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6034 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6035 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6036 
  6037 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6038 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6039 
  6040   less_trans
  6041   less_linear
  6042   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6043   le_less_trans
  6044   less_le_trans
  6045   less_not_sym
  6046   less_asym
  6047 
  6048 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6049 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6050 and different variable names.
  6051 
  6052 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6053 
  6054 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6055 finite maps.
  6056 
  6057 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6058 
  6059 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6060 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6061 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6062 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6063 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6064 accordingly.
  6065 
  6066 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6067 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6068 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6069 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6070 
  6071 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6072 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6073 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6074 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6075 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6077 
  6078 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6079 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6080 
  6081 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6082 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6083 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6084 
  6085 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6087 
  6088 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6089 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6090 
  6091 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6092 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6093 
  6094 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6095 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6096 
  6097 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6098 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6100 
  6101 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6102 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6103 
  6104 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6105 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6106 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6107 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6108 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6109 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6110 
  6111 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6112 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6113 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6114 
  6115 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6116 
  6117 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6118 
  6119 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6120 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6121 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6122 
  6123 
  6124 *** ZF ***
  6125 
  6126 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6127 same session:
  6128 
  6129   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6130   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6131   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6132   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6133   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6134   List      -> List_ZF
  6135   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6136 
  6137 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6138 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6139 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6140 
  6141 
  6142 *** ML ***
  6143 
  6144 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6145 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6146 
  6147 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6148 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6149 
  6150 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6151 
  6152 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6153 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6154 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6155 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6156 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6157 
  6158 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6159 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6160 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6161 
  6162 
  6163 *** System ***
  6164 
  6165 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6166 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6167 
  6168 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6169 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6170 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6171 
  6172 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6173 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6174 
  6175 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6176 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6177 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6178 
  6179 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6180 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6181 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6182 
  6183 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6184 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6185 
  6186 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6187 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6188 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6189 script.
  6190 
  6191 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6192 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6193 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6194 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6195 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6196 
  6197 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6198 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6199 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6200 
  6201 
  6202 
  6203 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6204 -----------------------------------
  6205 
  6206 *** General ***
  6207 
  6208 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6209 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6210 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6211 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6212 
  6213 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6214 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6215 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6216 
  6217 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6218 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6219 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6220 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6221 
  6222 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6223 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6224 quotes.
  6225 
  6226 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6227 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6228 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6229 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6230 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6231 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6232 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6233 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6234 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6235 
  6236 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6237 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6238 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6239 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6240 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6241 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6242 
  6243 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6244 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6245 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6246 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6247 
  6248 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6249 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6250 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6251 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6252 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6253 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6254 
  6255 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6256 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6257 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6258 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6259 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6260 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6261 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6262 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6263 
  6264 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6265 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6266 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6267 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6268 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
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