NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Dec 01 17:09:35 2013 +0100 (2013-12-01)
changeset 54664 9dd9d0f023be
parent 54653 e38592fa2830
child 54671 d64a4ef26edb
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
     8 
     9 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
    10 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
    11 
    12 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
    13 after edits surrounding the command location.
    14 
    15 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
    16 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
    17 e.g. out-of-memory).
    18 
    19 
    20 *** System ***
    21 
    22 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
    23 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
    24 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
    25 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
    26 
    27 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
    28 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
    29 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
    30 
    31 
    32 
    33 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    34 -------------------------------------
    35 
    36 *** General ***
    37 
    38 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    39 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    40 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    43 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    44 
    45 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    46 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    47 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    48 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    49 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    50 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    51 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    52 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    53 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    54 syntax.
    55 
    56 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    57 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    58 
    59 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    60 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    61 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    62 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    63 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    64 
    65 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    66 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    67 
    68 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    69 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    70 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    71 
    72 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    73 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    74 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    75 
    76 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    77 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    78 
    79 
    80 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    81 
    82 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    83 Documentation panel.
    84 
    85 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    86 documentation.
    87 
    88 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    89 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    90 
    91 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    92 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    93 normal editing and checking process.
    94 
    95 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    96 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
    97 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
    98 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
    99 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   100 
   101 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   102 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   103 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   104 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   105 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   106 
   107 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   108 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   109 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   110 
   111 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   112 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   113 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   114 to resolve conflict.
   115 
   116 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   117 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   118 
   119 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   120 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   121 such command executions while editing.
   122 
   123 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   124 document content.
   125 
   126 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   127 toplevel theorem statements.
   128 
   129 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   130 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   131 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   132 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   133 
   134 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   135 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   136 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   137 
   138 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   139 / Global Options / Appearance".
   140 
   141 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   142 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   148 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   149 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   150 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   151 details.
   152 
   153 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   154 
   155 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   156 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   157 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   158 
   159 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   161 
   162 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   163 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   164 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   165 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   168 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   169 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   172 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   173 
   174 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   175 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   176 situations.
   177 
   178 
   179 *** HOL ***
   180 
   181 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   182 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   186 
   187 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   188 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   189 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   190 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   191 
   192   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   193 
   194 * Code generator:
   195   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   196     'code_instance'.
   197   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   198     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   199 
   200 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   201 examples.
   202 
   203 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   204 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   205 to distinguish both when desired.
   206 
   207 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   208 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   209 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   210 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   213 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   214 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   215 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   216 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   217 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   220 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   221 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   222 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   223 
   224 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   225 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   226 
   227 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   228 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   229 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   230 
   231 * Lifting:
   232   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   233     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   234       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   235       transfer rules
   236     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   237       correspondence relation can be generated
   238     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   239       parametricity
   240     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   241   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   242   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   243     copies
   244   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   245     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   246     anonymous context)
   247   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   248     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   249   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   250     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   251   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   252     INCOMPATIBILITY
   253 
   254 * Transfer:
   255   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   256     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   257   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   258   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   259     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   260   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   261 
   262 * Reification and reflection:
   263   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   264     "Reification".
   265   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   266   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   270   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   271     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   272     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   273   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   274     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   275   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   276     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   277     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   278     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   279     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   280     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   281     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   282     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   283   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   284     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   285   - Fact renames:
   286       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   287       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   289 
   290 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   291 
   292 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   293 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   294 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   298 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   299 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   300 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   301 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   302 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   303 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   304 lemmas.
   305 
   306 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   307 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   308 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309 
   310 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   311 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   312 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   313 
   314 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   315 top and bottom elements.
   316 
   317 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   318 
   319 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   320 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   321 
   322  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   323    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   324    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   325 
   326  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   327    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   328    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   329 
   330    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   331    arbitrary filter.
   332 
   333  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   334    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   335    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   336    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   337    on a compact set.
   338 
   339  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   340    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   341    linear_continuum_topology).
   342 
   343  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   344    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   345    on all sequences converging to x.
   346 
   347  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   348    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   349    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   350    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   351    left or right.
   352 
   353  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   354 
   355      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   356 
   357  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   358    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   359 
   360  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   361    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   362    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   363    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   364    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   365    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   366 
   367  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   368 
   369    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   370 
   371    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   372      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   373 
   374    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   375 
   376    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   377      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   378 
   379    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   380 
   381    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   382 
   383  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   384 
   385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * Nitpick:
   388   - Added option "spy"
   389   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   390 
   391 * Sledgehammer:
   392   - Renamed option:
   393       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   394     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   395   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   396   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   397   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   398 
   399 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   400 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   401 
   402 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   403   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   404   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   405     generated code.
   406   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   407   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   408   - Fact renames:
   409     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   410     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   411     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   412 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   415 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   416 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   417 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   418 
   419 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   420 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   421 
   422 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   425 
   426     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   427     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   428 
   429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   430 
   431 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   432 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   433 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   434 
   435 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   436 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   437 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   438 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   439 
   440 * HOL-BNF:
   441   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   442     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   443     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   444     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   445   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   446     coinduct).
   447   - Renamed keywords:
   448     data ~> datatype_new
   449     codata ~> codatatype
   450     bnf_def ~> bnf
   451   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   452     discs ~> disc
   453     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   454     map_id' ~> map_id
   455     sels ~> sel
   456     set_map' ~> set_map
   457     sets ~> set
   458 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 
   461 *** ML ***
   462 
   463 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   464 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   465 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   466 Examples.thy in particular.
   467 
   468 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   469 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   470 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   471 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   472 
   473 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   474 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   475 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   476 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   480 
   481     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   482     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   483 
   484 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   485 
   486 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   487 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   488 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   489 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   490 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   491 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   492 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   493 
   494 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   495 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   496 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   497 clasets separately from the context.
   498 
   499 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   500 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   501 
   502 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   503 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   504 
   505 
   506 *** System ***
   507 
   508 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   509 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   510 
   511 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   512 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   515 settings variable.
   516 
   517 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   518 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   519 always pdf.
   520 
   521 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   522 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   523 
   524 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   525 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   526 
   527 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   528 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   529 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   530 
   531 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   532 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   533 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   534 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   535 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   536 for HTML presentation of theories.
   537 
   538 
   539 
   540 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   541 -----------------------------------
   542 
   543 *** General ***
   544 
   545 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   546 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   547 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   548 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   549 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   550 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   551 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   552 
   553 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   554 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   555 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   556 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   557 
   558 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   559 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   560 
   561 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   562 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   563 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   564 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   565 dependencies properly.
   566 
   567 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   568 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   569 
   570 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   571 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   572 
   573 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   574 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   575 and "class ... context ...".
   576 
   577 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   578 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   579 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   580 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   581 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   582 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   583 
   584 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   585 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   586 
   587 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   588 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   589 
   590 
   591 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   592 
   593 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   594 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   595 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   596 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   597 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   598 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   599 
   600 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   601 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   602 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   603 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   604 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   605 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   606 
   607 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   608 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   609 browser on demand.
   610 
   611 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   612 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   613 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   614 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   615 
   616 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   617 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   618 
   619 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   620 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   621 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   622 potentially infinite message streams.
   623 
   624 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   625 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   626 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   627 schemes.
   628 
   629 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   630 symbols.
   631 
   632 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   633 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   634 
   635 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   636 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   637 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   638 
   639 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   640 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   641 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   642 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   643 
   644 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   645 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   646 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   647 
   648 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   649 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   650 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   651 Isabelle distribution.
   652 
   653 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   654 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   655 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   656 
   657 
   658 *** Pure ***
   659 
   660 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   661 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   662 
   663 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   664 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   665 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   666 
   667 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   668 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   669 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   670 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   671 with some care where this is really required.
   672 
   673 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   674 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   675 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   676 
   677   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   678 
   679 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   680 a Hasse diagram.
   681 
   682 
   683 *** HOL ***
   684 
   685 * Sledgehammer:
   686 
   687   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   688     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   689   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   690   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   691   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   692   - Renamed options:
   693       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   694       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   695       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   696       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   697 
   698 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   699 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   700 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   701 
   702 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 * Lifting:
   706   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   707   - quot_del attribute
   708   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   709 
   710 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   711 expressions.
   712 
   713 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   714 pointfree expressions.
   715 
   716 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   717 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   718 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   719 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   723 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   724 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   725 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   726 accordingly.
   727 
   728 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   729 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   730 
   731 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   732 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   733 
   734 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   737 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   738 
   739 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   740 
   741 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   742 
   743   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   744   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   745 
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   749 
   750   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   751   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   752 
   753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   756 
   757   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   758     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   759     output f x converges to G.
   760 
   761   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   762     infinity (at_bot).
   763 
   764   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   765     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   766 
   767   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   768     at_top".
   769 
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   773 lattice type classes.
   774 
   775 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   776 
   777     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   778     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   779 
   780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   781 
   782 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   783 changes as follows.
   784 
   785   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   786 
   787       prefix ~> prefixeq
   788       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   789 
   790   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   791     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   792     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   793     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   794 
   795   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   796     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   797     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   798 
   799   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   800     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   801     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   802     Library/Prefix_Order.
   803 
   804   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   805     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   806 
   807       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   808       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   809       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   810       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   811       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   812       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   813       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   814       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   815       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   816       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   817       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   818       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   819       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   820       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   821       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   822       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   823 
   824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   825 
   826 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   827 
   828 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   829 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   830 
   831 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   832 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   833 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   834 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   835 
   836   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   837   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   838   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   839   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   840   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   841   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   842   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   843   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   844   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   845   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   846 
   847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   850 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   851 Data").
   852 
   853 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   854 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   855 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   856 code.
   857 
   858 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   859 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   860 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   864 
   865 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   866 
   867 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   868 
   869   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   870   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   871 
   872 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   873 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   874 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   875 
   876   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   877 
   878     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   879     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   880     cart_base i  removed
   881     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   882 
   883   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   884 
   885   Renamed lemmas:
   886 
   887     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   888     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   889     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   890     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   891     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   892     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   893     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   894     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   895     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   896     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   897 
   898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   899 
   900 * HOL/Probability:
   901 
   902   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   903 
   904   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   905     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   906     (borel_measurable_induct).
   907 
   908   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   909     projective family).
   910 
   911 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   912 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   913 
   914 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   915 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   916 datatypes.
   917 
   918 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   919 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   920 
   921 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   922 trees for the code generator.
   923 
   924 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   925 Lifting/Transfer.
   926 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   930 
   931 
   932 *** Document preparation ***
   933 
   934 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   935 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   936 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   937 
   938 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   939 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   940 
   941 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   942 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   943 document/root.tex.
   944 
   945 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   946 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948 
   949 *** ML ***
   950 
   951 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   952 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   953 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   954 
   955 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   956 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   957 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   958 
   959 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   960 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   961 necessarily printing visible text.
   962 
   963 
   964 *** System ***
   965 
   966 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   967 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   968 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   969 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   970 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   971 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   972 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   973 
   974 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   975 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   976 
   977   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   978 
   979 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   980 
   981 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   982 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   983 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   984 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   985 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   986 
   987 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   988 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   989 
   990 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   991 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   992 
   993 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   995 
   996 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   997 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   998 version of Isabelle.
   999 
  1000 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1001 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1002 
  1003 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1004 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1005 for home-made settings.
  1006 
  1007 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1008 
  1009 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1010 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1011 configuration.
  1012 
  1013 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1014 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1015 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1016 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1017 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1018 
  1019 
  1020 
  1021 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1022 ------------------------------
  1023 
  1024 *** General ***
  1025 
  1026 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1027 
  1028   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1029     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1030   - markup for bound variables
  1031   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1032   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1033   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1034     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1035 
  1036 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1037 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1038 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1039 
  1040 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1041 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1042 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1043 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1044 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1045 
  1046   context
  1047     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1048     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1049   begin
  1050 
  1051   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1052 
  1053   end
  1054 
  1055   thm my_trans
  1056 
  1057 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1058 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1059 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1060 
  1061 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1062 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1063 
  1064 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1065 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1066 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1067 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1068 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1069 
  1070 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1071 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1072 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1073 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1074 indices of schematic variables.
  1075 
  1076 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1077 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1078 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1079 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1080 etc. was exploited.
  1081 
  1082 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1083 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1084 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1085 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1086 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1087 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1088 
  1089 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1090 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1091 manual.
  1092 
  1093 
  1094 *** Pure ***
  1095 
  1096 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1097 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1098 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1099 
  1100 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1101 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1102 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1103 undocumented feature.)
  1104 
  1105 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1106 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1107 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1108 
  1109   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1110 
  1111   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1112     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1113 
  1114 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1115 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1116 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1117 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1118 
  1119 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1120 
  1121     num ~> num_token
  1122     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1123     xstr ~> str_token
  1124 
  1125 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1126 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1127 position information via constraints).
  1128 
  1129 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1130 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1131 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1132 
  1133 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1134 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1135 
  1136 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1137 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1138 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1141 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1142 
  1143 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1144 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1145 
  1146   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1147 
  1148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1151 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1154 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1155 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1156 
  1157 
  1158 *** HOL ***
  1159 
  1160 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1161 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1162 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1163 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1164 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1165 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1166 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1167 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1168 possible.
  1169 
  1170 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1171 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1172 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1173 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1174 
  1175 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1176 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1179 
  1180 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1181 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1182 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1183 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1184 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1185 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1186 
  1187   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1188     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1189 
  1190   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1191     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1192     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1193 
  1194   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1195     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1196 
  1197   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1198     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1199     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1200 
  1201   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1202     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1203 
  1204 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1205 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1206 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1207 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1208 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1209 
  1210   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1211     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1212     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1213     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1214     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1215 
  1216     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1217     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1218 
  1219   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1220     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1221     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1222     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1223     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1224     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1225     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1226     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1227 
  1228   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1229     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1230     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1231     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1232 
  1233   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1234     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1235     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1236     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1237 
  1238   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1239     from type nat to type int.
  1240 
  1241 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1242 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1243 
  1244   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1245     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1246     type.  Example syntax:
  1247 
  1248     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1249       is List.insert
  1250 
  1251     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1252     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1253     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1254     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1255     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1256     by the package.
  1257 
  1258   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1259     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1260     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1261     code generation for each constant.
  1262 
  1263   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1264     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1265     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1266     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1267     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1268 
  1269   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1270     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1271     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1272 
  1273 * Quotient package:
  1274 
  1275   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1276     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1277 
  1278   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1279     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1280 
  1281   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1282     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1283     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1284 
  1285   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1286     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1287 
  1288 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1289 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1290 
  1291 * Quickcheck:
  1292 
  1293   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1294     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1295     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1296     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1297     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1298 
  1299     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1300     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1301     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1302 
  1303     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1304     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1305 
  1306     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1307     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1308     show genuine counterexamples.
  1309 
  1310   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1311     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1312 
  1313     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1314     constructors of that type.
  1315 
  1316   - Support for multisets.
  1317 
  1318   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1319 
  1320   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1321     conjectures in a locale context.
  1322 
  1323 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1324 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1325 
  1326 * Sledgehammer:
  1327   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1328     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1329   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1330   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1331     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1332   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1333   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1334   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1335   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1336 
  1337 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1338 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1339 
  1340 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1341 
  1342 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1343 
  1344 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1345 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1346 
  1347   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1348 
  1349 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1350 a list and a nat.
  1351 
  1352 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1353 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1354 
  1355 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1356 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1357 default.
  1358 
  1359 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1360 
  1361   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1362 
  1363 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1364 
  1365 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1366 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1367 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1368 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1369 one_case.
  1370 
  1371 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1372 the result of the fact expression.
  1373 
  1374 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1375 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1376 of some relation theorems:
  1377 
  1378   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1379   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1380   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1381   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1382   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1383   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1384 
  1385 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1386 
  1387 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1388 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1389 
  1390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1391 
  1392 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1393 to match the constant's name:
  1394 
  1395   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1396   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1397   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1398   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1399   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1400   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1401   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1402   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1403   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1404   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1405   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1406   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1407   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1408   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1409   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1410   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1411   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1412   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1413   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1414   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1415   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1416   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1417   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1418   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1419 
  1420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1421 
  1422 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1423 and corresponding theorem names:
  1424 
  1425   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1426 
  1427   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1428 
  1429   - Renamed theorems:
  1430 
  1431     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1432     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1433     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1434     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1435     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1436     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1437     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1438     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1439     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1440     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1441     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1442     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1443     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1444     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1445     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1446     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1447     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1448     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1449     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1450     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1451     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1452     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1453     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1454 
  1455     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1456 
  1457     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1458 
  1459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1462 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1463 
  1464   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1465   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1466   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1467   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1468   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1469   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1470   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1471   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1472   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1473   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1474   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1475   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1476   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1477   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1478   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1479   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1480   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1481   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1482   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1483   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1484   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1485 
  1486 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1487 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1492 
  1493   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1494   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1495   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1496   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1497   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1498   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1499   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1500   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1501   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1502   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1503   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1504   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1505   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1506   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1507   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1508   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1509   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1510   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1511 
  1512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1513 
  1514 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1515 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1516 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1517 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1518 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1519 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1520 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1521 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1522 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1523 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1524 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1525 
  1526 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1527 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1528 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1529 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1530 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1531 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1532 
  1533 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1534 through option types.
  1535 
  1536 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1537 relations.
  1538 
  1539 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1540 
  1541 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1542 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1543 
  1544   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1545   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1546   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1547   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1548   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1549   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1550   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1551   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1552   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1553   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1554   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1555   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1556   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1557   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1558   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1559   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1560   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1561   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1562   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1563   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1564   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1565   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1566   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1567   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1568   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1569   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1570   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1571   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1572   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1573   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1574   zless_le ~> less_le
  1575   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1576   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1577   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1578 
  1579 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1580 
  1581   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1582 
  1583 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1584 
  1585 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1586 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1587 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1588 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1592 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1593 
  1594 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1595 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1596 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1597 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1598 follows:
  1599 
  1600   Operations:
  1601   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1602   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1603   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1604   del -> rbt_del
  1605   delete -> rbt_delete
  1606   ins -> rbt_ins
  1607   insert -> rbt_insert
  1608   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1609   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1610   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1611   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1612   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1613   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1614   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1615   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1616   union -> rbt_union
  1617   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1618   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1619 
  1620   Lemmas:
  1621   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1622   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1623   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1624   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1625   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1626   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1627   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1628   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1629   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1630   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1631   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1632   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1633   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1634   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1635   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1636   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1637   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1638   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1639   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1640   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1641   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1642   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1643   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1644   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1645   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1646   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1647   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1648   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1649   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1650   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1651   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1652   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1653   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1654   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1655   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1656   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1657   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1658   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1659   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1660   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1661   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1662   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1663   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1664   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1665   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1666   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1667   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1668   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1669   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1670   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1671   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1672   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1673   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1674   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1675   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1676   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1677   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1678   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1679   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1680   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1681   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1682   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1683   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1684   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1685   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1686   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1687   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1688   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1689   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1690   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1691   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1692   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1693   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1694   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1695   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1696   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1697   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1698   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1699   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1700   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1701   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1702   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1703   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1704 
  1705 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1706 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1707 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1708 
  1709   Changed Operations:
  1710   float_abs -> abs
  1711   float_nprt -> nprt
  1712   float_pprt -> pprt
  1713   pow2 -> use powr
  1714   round_down -> float_round_down
  1715   round_up -> float_round_up
  1716   scale -> exponent
  1717 
  1718   Removed Operations:
  1719   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1720 
  1721   Renamed Lemmas:
  1722   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1723   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1724   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1725   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1726   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1727   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1728   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1729   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1730   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1731   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1732   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1733   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1734   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1735   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1736   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1737   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1738   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1739   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1740   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1741   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1742   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1743   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1744   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1745   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1746   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1747   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1748   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1749   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1750   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1751   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1752   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1753   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1754   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1755   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1756   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1757   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1758 
  1759   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1760   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1761   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1762   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1763   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1764   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1765   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1766   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1767   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1768   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1769 
  1770 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1771 association lists with distinct keys.
  1772 
  1773 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1774 annotated commands.
  1775 
  1776 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1777 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1778 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1779 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1782 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1783 instead.
  1784 
  1785   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1786   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1787   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1788   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1789   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1790   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1791   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1792   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1793   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1794   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1795   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1796   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1797   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1798   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1799   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1800   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1801   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1802   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1803   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1804   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1805   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1806   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1807   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1808   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1809   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1810   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1811   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1812   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1813   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1814   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1815   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1816   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1817   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1818   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1819   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1820   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1821   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1822   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1823   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1824   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1825   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1826 
  1827 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1828 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1829 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1830 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1831 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1832 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1833 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1834 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1835 
  1836 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1837 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1838 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1839 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1840 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1841 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1842 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1843 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1844 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1845 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1846 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1847 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849   Renamed constants:
  1850   measure -> emeasure
  1851   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1852   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1853   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1854   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1855 
  1856   Removed locales:
  1857   completeable_measure_space
  1858   finite_measure_space
  1859   finite_prob_space
  1860   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1861   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1862   finite_sigma_algebra
  1863   measure_space
  1864   pair_finite_prob_space
  1865   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1866   pair_finite_space
  1867   pair_sigma_algebra
  1868   product_sigma_algebra
  1869 
  1870   Removed constants:
  1871   conditional_space
  1872   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1873   image_space
  1874   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1875   pair_measure_generator
  1876   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1877   subvimage
  1878 
  1879   Replacement theorems:
  1880   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1881   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1882   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1883   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1884   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1885   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1886   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1887   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1888   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1889   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1890   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1891   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1892   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1893   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1894   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1895   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1896   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1897   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1898   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1899   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1900   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1901   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1902   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1903   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1904   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1905   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1906   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1907   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1908   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1909   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1910   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1911   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1912   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1913   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1914   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1915   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1916   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1917   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1918   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1919   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1920   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1921   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1922   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1923   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1924   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1925   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1926   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1927   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1928   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1929   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1930   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1931   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1932   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1933   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1934   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1935   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1936   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1937   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1938   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1939   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1940   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1941   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1942   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1943   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1944   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1945   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1946   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1947   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1948   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1949   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1950   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1951   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1952   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1953   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1954   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1955   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1956   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1957   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1958   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1959   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1960   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1961   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1962   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1963   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1964   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1965   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1966   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1967   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1968   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1969   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1970   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1971   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1972   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1973   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1974   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1975   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1976   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1977   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1978   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1979   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1980   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1981   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1982   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1983   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1984   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1985   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1986   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1987   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1988   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1989   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1990   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1991   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1992   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1993   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1994   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1995   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1996   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1997   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1998   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1999   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2000   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2001   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2002   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2003   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2004   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2005   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2006   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2007   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2008 
  2009 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2010 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2011 
  2012 
  2013 *** FOL ***
  2014 
  2015 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2016 
  2017 
  2018 *** ZF ***
  2019 
  2020 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2021 analysis.
  2022 
  2023 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2024 
  2025 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026 
  2027 
  2028 *** ML ***
  2029 
  2030 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2031 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2032 
  2033 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2034 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2035 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2036 
  2037 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2038 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2039 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2040 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2041 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2042 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2043 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2044 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2045 
  2046 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2047 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2048 
  2049 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2050 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2051 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2052 
  2053 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2054 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2057 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2058 context as well.
  2059 
  2060 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2061 
  2062   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2063   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2064   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2065   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2066   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2067   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2068   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2069   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2070   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2071   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2072   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2073   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2074 
  2075 
  2076 *** System ***
  2077 
  2078 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2079 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2080 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2081 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2082 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2083 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2084 the generic user home was intended.
  2085 
  2086 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2087 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2088 
  2089 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2090 (not just JRE).
  2091 
  2092 
  2093 
  2094 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2095 ------------------------------------
  2096 
  2097 *** General ***
  2098 
  2099 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2100 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2101 
  2102   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2103     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2104     files for checking).
  2105 
  2106   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2107     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2108     positions.
  2109 
  2110   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2111     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2112     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2113 
  2114   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2115     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2116     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2117 
  2118   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2119     cores.
  2120 
  2121   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2122     versions (garbage collection).
  2123 
  2124 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2125 including some remaining limitations.
  2126 
  2127 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2128 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2129 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2130 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2131 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2133 
  2134 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2135 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2136 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2137 
  2138 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2139 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2140 usedir option -Q.
  2141 
  2142 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2143 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2144 
  2145   long_names   ~> names_long
  2146   short_names  ~> names_short
  2147   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2148 
  2149 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2150 
  2151   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2152 
  2153 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2154 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2155 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2156 
  2157 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2158 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2159 
  2160 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2161   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2162   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2163   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2164     "Classical Reasoner".
  2165 
  2166 
  2167 *** HOL ***
  2168 
  2169 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2170 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2173 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2174 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2175 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2176 class complete_linorder.
  2177 
  2178 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2179 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2180 
  2181 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2182 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2183 
  2184   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2185   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2186   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2187   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2188   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2189   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2190   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2191   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2192   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2193   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2194   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2195 
  2196 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2197 
  2198   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2199   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2200   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2201   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2202   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2203   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2204   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2205   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2206   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2207   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2208   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2209   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2210   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2211   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2212   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2213   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2214 
  2215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2216 
  2217 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2221 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2222 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2223 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224 
  2225 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2226 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2227 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2231 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2232 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2233 
  2234 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2235 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2236 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2239 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2240 
  2241 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2242 
  2243     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2244     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2245 
  2246 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2247 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2250 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2253 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2254 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2255 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2258   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2259   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2260   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2261   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2262   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2263   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2264 
  2265 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2266 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2269   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2270   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2271   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2272   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2273   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2274   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2275   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2276   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2277   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2278   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2279   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2280   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2281   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2282   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2283   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2284   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2285   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2286   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2287   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2288   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2289   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2290   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2291   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2292   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2293   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2294   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2295   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2296   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2297   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2298   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2299   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2300   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2301   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2302   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2303   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2304   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2305   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2306   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2307   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2308   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2309   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2310   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2311   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2312   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2313   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2314   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2315   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2316   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2317   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2318   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2319   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2320   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2321   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2322   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2323   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2324   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2325   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2326   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2327   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2328   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2329   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2330   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2331   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2332   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2333   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2334   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2335   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2336   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2337   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2338   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2339   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2340   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2341   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2342   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2343   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2344   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2345   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2346   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2347   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2348   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2349   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2350 
  2351 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2352 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2353 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2354 
  2355 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2356 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2357 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2358 
  2359 * Code generation:
  2360 
  2361   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2362     characters in the target language.
  2363 
  2364   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2365     instead.
  2366 
  2367   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2368 
  2369   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2370     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2371 
  2372       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2373 
  2374 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2377 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2378 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2379 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2380 syntax.
  2381 
  2382 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2383 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2384 
  2385 * Nitpick:
  2386   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2387   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2388   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2389     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390 
  2391 * Sledgehammer:
  2392   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2393   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2394     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2395   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2396     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2397   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2398     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2400     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2401   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2402     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Metis:
  2405   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2407     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 * Command 'try':
  2410   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2411     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2412   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2413     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2414 
  2415 * Quickcheck:
  2416   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2417     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2418   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2419     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2420   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2421     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2422     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2423     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2424   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2425     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2426 
  2427 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2428 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2429 
  2430 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2431 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2432 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2433 
  2434 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2435 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2439 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440 
  2441 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2442 arithmetic.
  2443 
  2444 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2445 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2446 and lattice type classes.
  2447 
  2448 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2449 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2450 
  2451 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2452 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2453 
  2454 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2455 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2456 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2459   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2460   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2461   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2462 
  2463 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2464 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2465 constants:
  2466 
  2467   type inat   ~> type enat
  2468   Fin         ~> enat
  2469   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2470   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2471   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2472 
  2473 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2474 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2477 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2478 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2479 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2480 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2481 
  2482 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2483 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2484 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2485 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2486 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2487 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2488 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2489 
  2490   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2491   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2492   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2493   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2494 
  2495 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2496 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2497 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2500   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2501   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2502   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2503   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2504   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2505   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2506   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2507   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2508   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2509   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2510   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2511   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2512   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2513   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2514   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2515   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2516   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2517   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2518   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2519   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2520   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2521   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2522   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2523   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2524   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2525   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2526   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2527   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2528   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2529   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2530   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2531   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2532   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2533   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2534   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2535   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2536   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2537   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2538   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2539   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2540   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2541   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2542   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2543   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2544   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2545   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2546   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2547   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2548   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2549   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2550 
  2551 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2552   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2553   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2554   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2555   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2556     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2559 
  2560   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2561   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2562   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2563   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2564   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2565   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2566   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2567   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2568   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2569   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2570   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2571   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2572   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2573   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2574   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2575   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2576   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2577   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2578   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2579   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2580   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2581   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2582   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2583   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2584   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2585 
  2586 
  2587 *** Document preparation ***
  2588 
  2589 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2590 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2591 same.
  2592 
  2593 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2594 result.
  2595 
  2596 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2597 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2598 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2599 
  2600 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2601 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2602 
  2603 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2604 like this:
  2605 
  2606   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2607   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2608 
  2609 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2610 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2611 layouts.
  2612 
  2613 
  2614 *** ML ***
  2615 
  2616 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2617 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2618 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2619 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2620 under external program control.
  2621 
  2622 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2623 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2624 
  2625 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2626 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2627 (better known as Proof General).
  2628 
  2629 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2630 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2631 
  2632 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2633 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2634 
  2635 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2636 (including quotes etc.).
  2637 
  2638 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2639 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2640 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2641 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2642 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2643 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2644 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2645 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2646 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2647 
  2648 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2649 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2650 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2651 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2652 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2653 
  2654 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2655 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2656 
  2657 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2658 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2659 
  2660 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2661 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2662 
  2663 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2664 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2665 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2666 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2667 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2668 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2669 proper Proof.context.
  2670 
  2671 
  2672 *** System ***
  2673 
  2674 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2675 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2676 
  2677 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2678 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2679 
  2680 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2681 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2682 
  2683   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2684   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2685   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2686   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2687   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2688 
  2689 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2690 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2693 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2694 example:
  2695 
  2696   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2697 
  2698 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2699 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2700 
  2701 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2702 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2703 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2704 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2705 
  2706 
  2707 
  2708 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2709 ----------------------------------
  2710 
  2711 *** General ***
  2712 
  2713 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2714 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2715 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2716 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2717 like this:
  2718 
  2719   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2720 
  2721 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2722 
  2723 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2724 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2725 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2726 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2727 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2728 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2729 
  2730 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2731 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2732 the following package declarations:
  2733 
  2734   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2735   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2736 
  2737 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2738 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2739 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2740 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2741 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2742 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2743 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2744 
  2745 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2746 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2747 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2748 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2749 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2750 
  2751 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2752 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2753 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2754 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2755 
  2756 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2757 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2758 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2759 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2760 
  2761   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2762 
  2763   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2764   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2765   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2766   show_types                    show_types
  2767   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2768   show_consts                   show_consts
  2769   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2770 
  2771   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2772   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2773   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2774 
  2775   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2776   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2777 
  2778   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2779 
  2780   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2781   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2782   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2783   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2784   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2785 
  2786 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2787 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2788 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2789 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2790 
  2791 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2795   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2796 
  2797 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2798 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2799 float_token.
  2800 
  2801 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2802 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2806 DejaVu Sans.
  2807 
  2808 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2809 
  2810 
  2811 *** Pure ***
  2812 
  2813 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2814 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2815 time.
  2816 
  2817 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2818 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2819 
  2820 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2821 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2822 
  2823 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2824 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2825 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2826 command already provided this functionality.
  2827 
  2828 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2829 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2830 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2831 without interpretations.
  2832 
  2833 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2834 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2835 
  2836 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2837 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2838 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2839 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2840 
  2841 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2842 'definition' instead.
  2843 
  2844 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2845 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2846 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2847 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2848 
  2849 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2850 constructors.
  2851 
  2852 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2853 the local file system.
  2854 
  2855 
  2856 *** HOL ***
  2857 
  2858 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2859 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2860 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2861 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2862 
  2863   declare [[coercion f]]
  2864 
  2865 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2866 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2867 
  2868   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2869 
  2870 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2871 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2872 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2873 other theories like this:
  2874 
  2875   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2876 
  2877 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2878 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2879 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2880 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2881 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2882 for examples.
  2883 
  2884 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2885 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886 
  2887 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2888 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2889 
  2890 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2891 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2892 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2893 
  2894 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2895 functorial structure of types.
  2896 
  2897 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2898 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2899 
  2900 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2901 languages.
  2902 
  2903 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2904 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2908 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909 
  2910 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2911 combinators any longer.
  2912 
  2913 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2914 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2915 
  2916 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2917 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2918 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2919 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2920 
  2921   record 'a foo = ...
  2922   ...
  2923   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2924 
  2925 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2926 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2930 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2931 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2932 
  2933 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2934 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2935 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2936 
  2937 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2938 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2941 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2942 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2943 independently.
  2944 
  2945 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2946 counter example search.
  2947 
  2948 * Sledgehammer:
  2949   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2950     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2951     sledgehammer").
  2952   - Renamed commands:
  2953     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2954     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2955     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2956     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2957   - Renamed options:
  2958     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2959     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2960     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2961     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2962     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964 * Nitpick:
  2965   - Renamed options:
  2966     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2967     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2968     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2970   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2971   - Added "whack" option.
  2972   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2973   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2974   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2975   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2976     higher cardinalities.
  2977   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2978 
  2979 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2980 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2981 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2982 
  2983     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2984 
  2985 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2986 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2987 
  2988 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2989 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2990 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2991 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2992 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2993 "smt_solver".
  2994 
  2995 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2996 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2997 
  2998 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2999 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3000 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3001 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3004   - Renamed:
  3005     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3006     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3007     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008   - Added:
  3009     smt_verbose
  3010     smt_random_seed
  3011     smt_datatypes
  3012     smt_infer_triggers
  3013     smt_monomorph_limit
  3014     cvc3_options
  3015     remote_cvc3_options
  3016     remote_z3_options
  3017     yices_options
  3018 
  3019 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3020 header.
  3021 
  3022 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3023 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3024 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3025 
  3026   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3027 
  3028 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3029 
  3030 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3031 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3036 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3037 
  3038 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3039 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3040 
  3041 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3042 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3045 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3046 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3047 
  3048 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3054 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3057 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3058 for congruent(2)).
  3059 
  3060 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3061 
  3062   types
  3063     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3064     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3065 
  3066   constants
  3067     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3068     True ~> HOL.True
  3069     False ~> HOL.False
  3070     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3071     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3072     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3073     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3074     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3075     The ~> HOL.The
  3076     All ~> HOL.All
  3077     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3078     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3079     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3080     If ~> HOL.If
  3081     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3082     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3083     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3084     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3085     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3086     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3087     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3088     op : ~> Set.member
  3089     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3090 
  3091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3094 
  3095     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3096     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3097     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3098     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3099     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3100     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3101     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3102     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3103 
  3104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106 * More stylized fact names:
  3107 
  3108   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3109   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3110   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3111   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3112 
  3113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3114 
  3115 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3116 
  3117   constants
  3118     null ~> List.null
  3119 
  3120   facts
  3121     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3122     null_empty ~> null_def
  3123 
  3124 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3125 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3126 generation.
  3127 
  3128 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3129 Haskell code.
  3130 
  3131 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3132 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3133 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3134 
  3135 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3136 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3137 
  3138 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3139 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3140 
  3141 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3142 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3143 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3146 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3152 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3153 referred to by its qualified name.
  3154 
  3155   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3156   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3157   product ~>  Enum.product
  3158 
  3159 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3160 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3164 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3165 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3167 
  3168 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3169 sort_key.
  3170 
  3171 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173 
  3174 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3175 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3176 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3177 
  3178   types
  3179     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3180               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3181               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3182         (depends on your needs)
  3183 
  3184   constants
  3185      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3186      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3187      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3188 
  3189 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3190 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3191 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3192 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3195 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3196 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3197 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3198 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3204 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3205 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3206 
  3207 
  3208 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3209 
  3210 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3211 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3212 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3213 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3214 compatibility.
  3215 
  3216 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3217 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3218 
  3219 
  3220 *** HOLCF ***
  3221 
  3222 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3223 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3224 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 
  3227 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3228 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3229 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3232   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3233   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3234 
  3235 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3236 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3237 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238 
  3239 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3240 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3241 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3242 domain definition now works:
  3243 
  3244   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3245 
  3246 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3247 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3248 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3249 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3250 
  3251   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3252     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3253 
  3254   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3255 
  3256 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3257 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3258 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3261 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3264 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3265 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3266 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3267 
  3268 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3269 
  3270 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271 
  3272 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276 
  3277 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3278 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3279 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3280 
  3281 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3282 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3283 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3286 still supported as an input translation.
  3287 
  3288 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3289 
  3290   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3291   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3292   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3293   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3294   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3295   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3296   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3297 
  3298 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3299 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300 
  3301   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3302   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3303   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3304   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3305   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3306   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3307 
  3308 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3309 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310 
  3311 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3312 
  3313   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3314   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3315   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3316   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3317 
  3318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3319 
  3320 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3321 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3324 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3327   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3328   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3329   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3330   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3331   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3332   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3333   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3334   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3335   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3336   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3337   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3338   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3339   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3340   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3341   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3342   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3343   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3344   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3345   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3346 
  3347 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3350   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3351   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3352   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3353   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3354   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3355   box_less             ~> box_below
  3356   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3357   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3358   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3359   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3360   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3361   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3362   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3363   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3364   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3365   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3366   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3367   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3368   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3369   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3370   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3371   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3372   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3373   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3374   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3375   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3376   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3377   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3378   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3379   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3380   up_less              ~> up_below
  3381   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3382   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3383   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3384   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3385   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3386   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3387   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3388   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3389   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3390   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3391   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3392   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3393   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3394 
  3395 
  3396 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3397 
  3398 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3399 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 
  3402 *** ML ***
  3403 
  3404 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3405 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3406 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3407 
  3408 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3409 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3410 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3411 
  3412 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3413 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3414 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3415 
  3416 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3417 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3418 
  3419 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3420 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3421 
  3422 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3423 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3424 
  3425 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3426 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3427 
  3428 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3429 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3430 almost all situations.
  3431 
  3432 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3433 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3434 Isabelle/ML.
  3435 
  3436 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3437 meaning.
  3438 
  3439 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3440 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3441 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3442 
  3443 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3444 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3445 
  3446 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3447 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3448 
  3449 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3450 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3451 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3452 
  3453 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3454 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3455 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3456 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3457 configuration options.
  3458 
  3459 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3460 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3461 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3462 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3463 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3464 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3465 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3466 
  3467 
  3468 
  3469 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3470 ---------------------------------
  3471 
  3472 *** General ***
  3473 
  3474 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3475 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3476 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3477 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3478 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3479 their full internal name.
  3480 
  3481 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3482 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3483 Some hints on upgrading:
  3484 
  3485   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3486     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3487     which are independent of this issue.
  3488 
  3489   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3490     provides the following special forms:
  3491 
  3492       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3493       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3494       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3495 
  3496     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3497     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3498     extra variables".
  3499 
  3500     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3501     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3502     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3503     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3504     "logic".
  3505 
  3506   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3507     antiquotations:
  3508 
  3509       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3510       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3511       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3512       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3513 
  3514   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3515     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3516     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3517     antiquotations.
  3518 
  3519 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3520 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3521 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3522 diagnose syntax problems.
  3523 
  3524 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3525 
  3526 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3527 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3528 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3529 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3530 
  3531 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3532 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3533 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3534 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3535 
  3536 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3537 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3538 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3539 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3540 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3543 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3544 
  3545 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3546 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3547 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3548 
  3549   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3550 
  3551 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3552 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3553 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3554 
  3555 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3556 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3560 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3561 
  3562 
  3563 *** Pure ***
  3564 
  3565 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3566 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3567 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3568 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3569 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3570 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3571 inspect proof terms.
  3572 
  3573 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3574 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3575 are added internally.  For example:
  3576 
  3577   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3578 
  3579 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3580 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3581 
  3582 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3585 'class' instead.
  3586 
  3587 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3588 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3592 invariants.
  3593 
  3594 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3595 user space functionality any longer.
  3596 
  3597 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3598 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3602 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3603 
  3604 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3605 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3606 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3607 
  3608 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3609 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3610 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3611 
  3612 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3613 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 
  3616 *** HOL ***
  3617 
  3618 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3619 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3620 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3621 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3622 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3623 
  3624 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3625 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3626 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3627 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3628 
  3629   fun
  3630     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3631   where
  3632     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3633 
  3634   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3635     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3636 
  3637   quotient_definition
  3638     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3639 
  3640 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3641 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3642 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3643 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3644 
  3645 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3646 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3647 
  3648 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3649 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3650 
  3651 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3655 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3656 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3657 
  3658 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3659 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3668 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3669 
  3670 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3671 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3672 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3675   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3676   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3677   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3678   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3679   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3680   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3681   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3682   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3683   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3684   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3685   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3686   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3687   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3688   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3689   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3690   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3691   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3692   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3693   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3694   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3695   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3696   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3697   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3698   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3699   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3700   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3701   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3702   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3703   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3704 
  3705 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3706 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3707 
  3708 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3709 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3710 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3711 
  3712 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3713 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3714 
  3715 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3716 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3719 
  3720 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3721 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3724 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3729 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3730 
  3731 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3732 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3733 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3734 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3737   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3738   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3739   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3743 lattices):
  3744 
  3745     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3746     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3747 
  3748     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3749 
  3750     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3751     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3752     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3753     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3754     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3755     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3756     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3757     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3758     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3759     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3760     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3761     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3762     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3763 
  3764     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3765     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3766     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3767     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3768     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3769     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3770     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3771     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3772     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3773     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3774     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3775     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3776     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3777     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3778     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3779     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3780     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3781     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3782 
  3783   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3784   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3785 
  3786     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3787     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3788     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3789     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3790     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3791 
  3792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 * Refined field classes:
  3795   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3796     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3797     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3798   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3802   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3803   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3804   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3805     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3806   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3807     equal_neg_zero.
  3808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3811 sets to lattices:
  3812 
  3813   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3814   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3815   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3816   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3817   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3818   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3819   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3820   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3821   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3822   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3823 
  3824 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3825 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3826 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3827 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3828 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3829 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3832 multiset order:
  3833 
  3834   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3835     <= and <;
  3836   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3837     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3838     multiset_order;
  3839   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3840     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3841     generation;
  3842   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3843     if needed.
  3844 
  3845 Renamed:
  3846 
  3847   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3848   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3849   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3850 
  3851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3852 
  3853 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3854 
  3855 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3856 
  3857 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3858 
  3859 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3860 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3861 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863   Constants:
  3864   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3865   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3866   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3867   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3868   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3869   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3870   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3871   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3872   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3873   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3874   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3875   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3876   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3877 
  3878   Lemmas:
  3879   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3880   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3881   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3882   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3883   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3884   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3885   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3886   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3887   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3888   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3889   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3890   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3891   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3892 
  3893 * Sledgehammer:
  3894   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3895     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3896     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3897     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3898     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3899     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3900     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3902   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3903     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3904   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3905     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3906     is still experimental.)
  3907   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3908     full-typed mode.
  3909   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3910 
  3911 * Nitpick:
  3912   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3913   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3914   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3915     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3916   - Added support for quotient types.
  3917   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3918     constructs.
  3919   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3920     "termination" proofs).
  3921   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3922   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3923   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3924   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3925     record getters.
  3926   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3927   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3928   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3929   - Added "atoms" option.
  3930   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3931     problems.
  3932   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3933     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3934     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3936     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3940   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3941   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3942   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3943   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3944   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3945   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3946   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3947   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3948   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 
  3951 *** HOLCF ***
  3952 
  3953 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3954 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3955 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3958 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3959 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3960 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3963 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3964 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3965 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3966 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3969 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3970 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3973 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3976   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3977 
  3978 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3979 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3982   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3983   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3984   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3985   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3986 
  3987 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3988 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3991   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3992   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3993 
  3994 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3995 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3999 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002 
  4003 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4004 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005 
  4006 
  4007 *** ML ***
  4008 
  4009 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4010 
  4011     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4012     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4013 
  4014     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4015     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4016     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4017     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4018 
  4019     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4020     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4021     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4022 
  4023 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4024 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4025 
  4026 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4027 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4028 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4029 
  4030 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4031 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4032 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4033 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4034 
  4035 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4036 the context or even global references.
  4037 
  4038 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4039 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4040 
  4041 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4042 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4043 
  4044   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4045   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4046   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4047   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4048   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4049   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4050   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4051   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4052   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4053   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4054 
  4055 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4056 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4057 
  4058 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4059 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4060 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4061 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4062 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4063 
  4064 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4065 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4066 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4067 Theory_Data version.
  4068 
  4069 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4070 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4071 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4072 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4073 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4074 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4075 explicitly in rare situations.
  4076 
  4077 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4078 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4082 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4085 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4086 quite rare).
  4087 
  4088 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4089 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4092 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4093 terms.
  4094 
  4095 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4096 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4097 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4098 
  4099 
  4100 *** System ***
  4101 
  4102 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4103 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4104 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4105 
  4106 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4107 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4108 respectively.
  4109 
  4110 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4111 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4112 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4113 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4114 
  4115   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4116 
  4117 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4118 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4119 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4120 component.
  4121 
  4122 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4123 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4124 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4125 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4126 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4127 the user for manual installation.
  4128 
  4129 
  4130 
  4131 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4132 -------------------------------------
  4133 
  4134 *** General ***
  4135 
  4136 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4137 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4138 
  4139 
  4140 *** Pure ***
  4141 
  4142 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4143 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4144 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4145 
  4146 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4147 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4148 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4149 
  4150 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4151 interpretation.
  4152 
  4153 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4154 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4155 
  4156 
  4157 *** Document preparation ***
  4158 
  4159 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4160 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4161 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4162 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4163 
  4164 
  4165 *** HOL ***
  4166 
  4167 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4168 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4169 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4170 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4171 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4172 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4173 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4174 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4175 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4176 
  4177 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4178 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4179 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4180 
  4181 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4182 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4183 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4184 
  4185 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4186 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4187 
  4188 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4189 
  4190 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4191 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4192 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4193 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4194 
  4195 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4196 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4197 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4198 "mirabelle" utility.
  4199 
  4200 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4201 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4202 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4203 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4204 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4205 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4206 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4207 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4208 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4209 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4210 
  4211 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4212 procedure only.
  4213 
  4214 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4215 
  4216 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4217 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4218 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4219 that fail later.
  4220 
  4221 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4222 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4223 
  4224 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4225 the same method as the approximation method.
  4226 
  4227 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4228 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4229 series expansion.
  4230 
  4231 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4232 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4233 
  4234 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4235 reals.
  4236 
  4237 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4238 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4239 
  4240 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4241 fixpoint theorem.
  4242 
  4243 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4244   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4245     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4246   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4247     accordingly
  4248   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4249     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4250   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4251     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4252 
  4253 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4254 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4255 lattice.
  4256 
  4257 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4258 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4259 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4260 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4261 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4262 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4266   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4267     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4268   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4269     le_inf_iff
  4270   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4271     sup_aci)
  4272   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4273   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4274   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4275     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4276     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4277     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4278     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4279     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4280     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4281     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4282     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4283     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4284     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4285   - authentic syntax for
  4286     Set.Pow
  4287     Set.image
  4288   - mere abbreviations:
  4289     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4290     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4291     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4292     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4293     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4294     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4295     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4296     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4297   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4298 
  4299 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4300 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4301 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4302 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4303 
  4304 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4305 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4306 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4309 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4312 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4313 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4314 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4317 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4318 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4319 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4320 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4321 
  4322 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4323 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4325 
  4326 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4327 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4330 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4331 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4332 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4333 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4334 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4335 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4337 
  4338 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4339     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4340     code_post       replaces    code post
  4341     etc.
  4342   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344 * Renamed methods:
  4345     sizechange -> size_change
  4346     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4347   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4348 
  4349 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4350 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4351 
  4352 * Renamed theorems:
  4353     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4354     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4355     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4356     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4357     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4358   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 
  4367 *** HOLCF ***
  4368 
  4369 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4370 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4371 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4372 
  4373 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4374 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4375 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4376 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4377 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4378 
  4379 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4380 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4381 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4382 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4383 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4384 
  4385 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4386 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4387 constructor are pre-configured.
  4388 
  4389 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4390 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4391 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4392 
  4393 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4394 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4395 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4396 as well.)
  4397 
  4398 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4399 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4400 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4401 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4402 examples.
  4403 
  4404 
  4405 *** ML ***
  4406 
  4407 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4408 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4409 
  4410 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4411 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4412 position, logical grouping etc.
  4413 
  4414 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4415 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4416 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4417 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4418 
  4419 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4420 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4421 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4422 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4423 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4424 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4425 
  4426 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4427 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4428 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4429 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4430 experiments with references.
  4431 
  4432 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4433 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4434 
  4435 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4436 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4437 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4438 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4439 
  4440 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4441 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4442 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4443 
  4444 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4445 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4446 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4454 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4455 
  4456 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4457 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4458 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4459 
  4460 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4461 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4462 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4463 
  4464 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4465 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4466 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4468 
  4469 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4470 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4471 instead of global theory.
  4472 
  4473 
  4474 *** System ***
  4475 
  4476 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4477 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4478 usedir option -q.
  4479 
  4480 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4481 also the system manual.
  4482 
  4483 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4484 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4485 
  4486 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4487 this is always enabled.
  4488 
  4489 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4490 
  4491 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4492 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4493 currently supported on Linux only.
  4494 
  4495 
  4496 
  4497 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4498 --------------------------------
  4499 
  4500 *** General ***
  4501 
  4502 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4503 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4504 
  4505   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4506     "isatool."
  4507 
  4508   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4509     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4510 
  4511   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4512     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4513 
  4514 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4515 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4516 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4517 
  4518 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4519 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4520 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4521 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4522 via "isabelle emacs".
  4523 
  4524 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4525 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4526 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4527 
  4528 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4529 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4530 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4531 
  4532 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4533 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4534 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4535 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4536 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4537 
  4538 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4539 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4540 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4541 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4542 
  4543 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4544 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4545 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4546 
  4547 
  4548 *** Pure ***
  4549 
  4550 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4551 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4552 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4553 
  4554 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4555 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4556 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4557 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4558 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4559 
  4560 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4561 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4562 useful in locale declarations.
  4563 
  4564 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4565 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4566 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4567 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4568 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4569 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4570 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4571 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4572 no longer generated.
  4573 
  4574 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4575 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4576 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4577 
  4578 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4579 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4580 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4581 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4582 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4583 
  4584 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4586 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4587 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4588 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4589 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4590 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4591 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4592 
  4593 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4594 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4595 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4596 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4597 
  4598 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4599 
  4600 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4601 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4602 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4603 
  4604 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4605 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4606 
  4607 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4608 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4609 in HOL, write
  4610 
  4611     class foo = ...
  4612 
  4613 instead of
  4614 
  4615     class foo = type + ...
  4616 
  4617 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4618 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4621 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4622 
  4623 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4624 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4625 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4626 
  4627 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4628 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4629 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4630 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4631 directly in regular applications.
  4632 
  4633 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4634 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4635 
  4636 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4637 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4638 
  4639 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4640 theory context.
  4641 
  4642 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4643 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4646 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4647 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4648 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4649 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4650 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4651 
  4652   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4653 
  4654 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4655 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4656 normalization.
  4657 
  4658 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4659 addressing etc.
  4660 
  4661 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4662 
  4663   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4664   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4665 
  4666 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4667 
  4668   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4669      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4670      parts of the code generator framework).
  4671 
  4672   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4673      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4674      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4675 
  4676 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4677 
  4678 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4679 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4682 patterns, e.g.
  4683 
  4684     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4685 
  4686 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4687 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4688 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4689 hyphen:
  4690 
  4691     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4692 
  4693 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4694 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4695 
  4696 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4697 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4698 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4699 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4700 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4701 higher-order unification.
  4702 
  4703 
  4704 *** Document preparation ***
  4705 
  4706 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4707 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4708 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4709 
  4710 
  4711 *** HOL ***
  4712 
  4713 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4714 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4715 
  4716 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4717 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4718 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4719 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4720 Main, as before.
  4721 
  4722 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4723 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4724 
  4725 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4726 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4727 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4728 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4729 
  4730 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4731 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4732 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4733 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4734 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4735 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4736 
  4737 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4738 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4739 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4740 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4741 
  4742 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4743 menu.
  4744 
  4745 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4746 (contains the empty clause).
  4747 
  4748 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4749 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4750 
  4751 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4752 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4753 
  4754 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4755 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4756 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4759 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4760 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4761 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4762 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4763 
  4764 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4765 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4766 
  4767 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4768 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4769 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4770 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4771 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4772 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4773 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4774 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4775 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4776 
  4777 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4778 
  4779 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4780 
  4781 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4782 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4785 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4786 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4787 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4788 
  4789 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4790 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4791 
  4792     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4793     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4794     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4795     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4796     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4797     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4798     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4799     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4800 
  4801 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4802 theory Set.
  4803 
  4804 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4805 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4806 
  4807 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4808 
  4809 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4810 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4811 
  4812 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4813 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4814 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4815 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4816 allowed. For examples see
  4817 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4818 
  4819 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4820 
  4821 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4825 structure:
  4826 
  4827     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4828     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4829     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4830     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4831     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4832     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4833     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4834     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4835     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4836     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4837     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4838     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4839     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4840     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4841     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4842     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4843     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4844     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4845     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4846     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4847     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4848     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4849     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4850     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4851     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4852     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4853     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4854     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4855     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4856     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4857     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4858     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4859     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4860 
  4861     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4862     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4863     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4864     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4865     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4866     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4867     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4868     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4869     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4870     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4871 
  4872     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4873     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4874     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4875     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4876     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4877     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4878 
  4879 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4880 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4881 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4882 
  4883 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4884 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4885 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4886 
  4887 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4888 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4891 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4892 
  4893 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4894 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4895 proofs, e.g.
  4896 
  4897   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4898 
  4899 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4900 
  4901 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4902 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4903 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4906 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4908 
  4909 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4910 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4911 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4913 
  4914 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4915 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4916 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4917 preorder_class.*.
  4918 
  4919 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4920 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4921 
  4922 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4923 
  4924   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4925 
  4926 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4927 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4928 fold_image.
  4929 
  4930 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4931 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4932 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4933 the former will disappear at some point.
  4934 
  4935 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4936 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4937 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4938 
  4939 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4940 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4941 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4942 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4943 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4944 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4945 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4946 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4947 
  4948 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4949 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4950 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4951 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4952 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4953 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4954 
  4955     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4956     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4957     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4958     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4959     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4960     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4961     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4962 
  4963 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4964 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4965 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4966 
  4967 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4968 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4969 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4970 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4971 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4972 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4973 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4974 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4975 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4976 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4977 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4978 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4979 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4980 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4981 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4982 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4983 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4984 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4985 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4986 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4987 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4988 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4989 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4990 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4991 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4992 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4993 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4994 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4995 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4996 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4997 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4998 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4999 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5000 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5001 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5002 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5003 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5004 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5005 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5006 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5007 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5008 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5009 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5010 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5011 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5012 
  5013 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5016 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5017 
  5018 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5019 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5020 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5021 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5022 
  5023 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5024 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5025 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5026 theory RealVector.
  5027 
  5028 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5029 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5030 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5031 and inner products are included.
  5032 
  5033 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5034 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5035 supported.
  5036 
  5037 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5038 first diagonalization argument.
  5039 
  5040 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5041 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5042 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5043 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5044 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5045 
  5046     hide (open) const gcd
  5047     abbreviation gcd where
  5048       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5049     notation (output)
  5050       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5051 
  5052 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5053 
  5054 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5055 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5056 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5059 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5060 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5061 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5062 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5063 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5064 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5065 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5066 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5067 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5068 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5069 cases.
  5070 
  5071 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5072 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5073 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5074 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5075 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5076 
  5077     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5078     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5079     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5080     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5081     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5082 
  5083 
  5084 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5085 
  5086 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5087 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5088 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5089 
  5090 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5091 
  5092 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5093 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5094 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5095 
  5096 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5097 
  5098 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5099 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5100 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5101 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5102 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5103 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5104 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5105 
  5106 
  5107 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5108 
  5109 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5110 
  5111 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5112 theory targets.
  5113 
  5114 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5115 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5116 'inductive' etc.
  5117 
  5118 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5119 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5120 
  5121 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5122 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5123 
  5124 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5125 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5126 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5127 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5128 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5129 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5130 the algorithm W:
  5131 
  5132  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5133  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5134          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5135 
  5136 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5137 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5138 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5139 
  5140 
  5141 *** HOLCF ***
  5142 
  5143 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5144 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5145 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5146 
  5147 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5148 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5149 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5150 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5151 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5152 
  5153 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5154 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5155 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 
  5158 *** ZF ***
  5159 
  5160 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5161 
  5162 
  5163 *** ML ***
  5164 
  5165 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5166 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5167 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5168 5.2.1!
  5169 
  5170 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5171 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5172 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5173 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5174 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5175 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5176 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5177 
  5178 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5179 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5180 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5181 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5182 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5183 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5184 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5185 
  5186 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5187 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5188 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5189 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5190 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5191 
  5192 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5193 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5194 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5195 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5196 Method.add_method.
  5197 
  5198 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5199 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5200 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5201 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5202 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5203 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5204 
  5205 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5206 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5207 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5208 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5209 examples.
  5210 
  5211 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5212 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5213 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5214 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5215 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5216 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5217 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5218 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5219 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5220 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5221 
  5222 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5223 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5224 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5225 
  5226 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5227 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5228 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5229 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5230 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5231 resort for legacy applications.
  5232 
  5233 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5234 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5235 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5236 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5237 explicit runtime argument.
  5238 
  5239 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5240 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5241 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5242 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5243 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5244 
  5245 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5246 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5247 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5248 theory state.
  5249 
  5250 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5251 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5252 
  5253   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5254   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5255   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5256   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5257   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5258   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5259   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5260   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5261   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5262   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5263 
  5264 
  5265 *** System ***
  5266 
  5267 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5268 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5269 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5270 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5271 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5272 
  5273 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5274 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5275 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5276 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5277 
  5278 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5279 
  5280 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5281 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5282 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5283 prover operations.
  5284 
  5285 
  5286 
  5287 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5288 -------------------------------
  5289 
  5290 *** General ***
  5291 
  5292 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5293 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5294 
  5295 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5296 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5297 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5298 provides a proper context already.
  5299 
  5300 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5301 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5302 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5303 
  5304 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5305 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5306 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5307 swap theory imports.
  5308 
  5309 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5310 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5311 
  5312 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5313 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5314 white space without escapes.
  5315 
  5316 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5317 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5318 "foo_bar".
  5319 
  5320 
  5321 *** Pure ***
  5322 
  5323 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5324 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5325 
  5326 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5327 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5328 
  5329 (1) unused_thms
  5330      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5331 
  5332 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5333      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5334      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5335 
  5336 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5337      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5338      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5339      their ancestors.
  5340 
  5341 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5342 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5343 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5344 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5345 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5346 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5347 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5348 
  5349 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5350 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5351 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5352 
  5353 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5354 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5355 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5356 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5357 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5358 
  5359 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5360 
  5361 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5362 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5363 update of theories within ML code.
  5364 
  5365 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5366 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5367 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5368 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5369 
  5370 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5371 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5372 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5374 
  5375 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5376 
  5377 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5378 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5379 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5380 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5381 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5382 
  5383 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5384 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5385 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5386 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5387 situations.
  5388 
  5389 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5390 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5391 proof text.
  5392 
  5393 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5394 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5395 
  5396 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5397 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5398 predicates.
  5399 
  5400 
  5401 *** Document preparation ***
  5402 
  5403 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5404 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5405 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5406 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5407 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5408 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5409 
  5410 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5411 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5412 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5413 
  5414 
  5415 *** HOL ***
  5416 
  5417 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5418 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5419 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5420 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5421 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5422 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5423 
  5424 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5425 with multithreading.
  5426 
  5427 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5428 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5429 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5430 
  5431 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5432 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5433 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5434 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5435 
  5436 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5437 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5438 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5439 and makes them available separately.  See
  5440 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5441 
  5442 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5443 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5444 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5445 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5446 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5447 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5448 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5449 the declared rules.
  5450 
  5451 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5452 
  5453   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5454 
  5455 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5456 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5457 
  5458 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5459 
  5460   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5461 
  5462   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5463     definitions on => and bool.
  5464 
  5465   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5466     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5467     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5468 
  5469       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5470       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5471       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5472       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5473       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5474       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5475       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5476       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5477 
  5478   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5479     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5480     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5481 
  5482   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5483     The proof pattern
  5484 
  5485       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5486       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5487 
  5488     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5489     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5490 
  5491       have "EX S. P S"
  5492       proof
  5493         show "P S" <...>
  5494       qed
  5495 
  5496   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5497     The proof pattern
  5498 
  5499       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5500       also have "S = T" <...>
  5501       finally have "P T" .
  5502 
  5503     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5504     must be replaced by something like
  5505 
  5506       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5507       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5508       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5509 
  5510   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5511     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5512 
  5513       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5514 
  5515     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5516     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5517     type of the form
  5518 
  5519       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5520 
  5521     rather than
  5522 
  5523       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5524 
  5525 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5526 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5527 
  5528 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5529 
  5530 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5531 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5535 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5536 
  5537 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5538 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5539 
  5540 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5541 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5542 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5545 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5546 
  5547   less_trans
  5548   less_linear
  5549   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5550   le_less_trans
  5551   less_le_trans
  5552   less_not_sym
  5553   less_asym
  5554 
  5555 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5556 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5557 and different variable names.
  5558 
  5559 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5560 
  5561 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5562 finite maps.
  5563 
  5564 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5565 
  5566 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5567 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5568 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5569 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5570 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5571 accordingly.
  5572 
  5573 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5574 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5575 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5576 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5577 
  5578 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5579 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5580 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5581 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5582 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5586 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5587 
  5588 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5589 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5590 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5591 
  5592 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5594 
  5595 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5596 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5597 
  5598 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5599 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5600 
  5601 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5602 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5603 
  5604 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5605 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5607 
  5608 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5609 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5612 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5613 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5614 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5615 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5616 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5617 
  5618 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5619 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5620 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5621 
  5622 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5623 
  5624 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5625 
  5626 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5627 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5628 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5629 
  5630 
  5631 *** ZF ***
  5632 
  5633 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5634 same session:
  5635 
  5636   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5637   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5638   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5639   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5640   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5641   List      -> List_ZF
  5642   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5643 
  5644 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5645 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5646 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5647 
  5648 
  5649 *** ML ***
  5650 
  5651 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5652 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5653 
  5654 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5655 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5656 
  5657 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5658 
  5659 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5660 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5661 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5662 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5663 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5666 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5667 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5668 
  5669 
  5670 *** System ***
  5671 
  5672 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5673 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5674 
  5675 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5676 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5677 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5678 
  5679 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5680 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5681 
  5682 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5683 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5684 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5685 
  5686 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5687 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5688 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5689 
  5690 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5691 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5692 
  5693 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5694 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5695 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5696 script.
  5697 
  5698 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5699 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5700 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5701 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5702 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5703 
  5704 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5705 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5706 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5707 
  5708 
  5709 
  5710 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5711 -----------------------------------
  5712 
  5713 *** General ***
  5714 
  5715 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5716 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5717 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5718 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5719 
  5720 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5721 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5722 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5723 
  5724 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5725 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5726 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5727 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5728 
  5729 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5730 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5731 quotes.
  5732 
  5733 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5734 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5735 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5736 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5737 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5738 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5739 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5740 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5741 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5742 
  5743 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5744 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5745 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5746 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5747 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5748 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5749 
  5750 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5751 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5752 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5753 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5754 
  5755 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5756 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5757 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5758 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5759 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5760 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5761 
  5762 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5763 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5764 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5765 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5766 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5767 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5768 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5769 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5770 
  5771 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5772 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5773 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5774 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5775 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5776 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5777 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5778 
  5779 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5780 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5781 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5782 
  5783 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5784 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5785 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5786 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5787 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5788 limit is imposed.
  5789 
  5790 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5791 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5792 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5793 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5794 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5795 and scalability.
  5796 
  5797 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5798 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5799 
  5800 
  5801 *** Document preparation ***
  5802 
  5803 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5804 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5805 current context.
  5806 
  5807 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5808 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5809 
  5810 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5811 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5812 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5813 
  5814 
  5815 *** Pure ***
  5816 
  5817 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5818 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5819 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5820 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5821 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5822 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5823 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5824 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5825 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5826 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5827 
  5828 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5829 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5830 sketch:
  5831 
  5832     internal compilation:
  5833         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5834     writing SML code to a file:
  5835         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5836     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5837         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5838     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5839         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5840 
  5841     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5842         method ``eval''
  5843 
  5844 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5845 
  5846 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5847 
  5848     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5849     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5850     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5851     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5852 
  5853 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5854 
  5855     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5856       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5857 
  5858     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5859       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5860 
  5861     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5862       {(target)}+
  5863         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5864 
  5865     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5866       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5867         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5868 
  5869 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5870 
  5871 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5872 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5873 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5874 codegen".
  5875 
  5876 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5877 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5878 annotations).
  5879 
  5880 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5881 syntax.
  5882 
  5883 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5884 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5885 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5886 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5887 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5888 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5889 
  5890 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5891 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5892 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5893 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5894 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5895 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5896 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5897 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5898 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5899 equations, see section "definitions".
  5900 
  5901 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5902 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5903 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5904 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5905 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5906 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5907 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5908 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5909 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5910 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5911 
  5912 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5913 configuration options:
  5914 
  5915   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5916   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5917   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5918   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5919   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5920   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5921   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5922   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5923   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5924 
  5925 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5926 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5927 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5928 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5929 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5930 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5931 order.
  5932 
  5933 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5934 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5935 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5936 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5937 context encountered later on.
  5938 
  5939 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5940 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5941 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5942 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5943 
  5944 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5945 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5946 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5947 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5948 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5949 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5950 
  5951 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5952 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5953 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5954 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5955 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5956 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5957 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5958 more permissive.
  5959 
  5960 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5961 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5962 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5963 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5964 maintainability of proof texts.
  5965 
  5966 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5967 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5968 
  5969   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5970   then guess x and y by clarify
  5971 
  5972 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5973 proof tools being involved here.
  5974 
  5975 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5976 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5977 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5978 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5979 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5980 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5981 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5982 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5983 
  5984 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5985 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5986 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5987 
  5988   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5989   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5990   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5991   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5992 
  5993 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5994 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5995 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5996 
  5997 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5998 both named and unnamed ones.
  5999 
  6000 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6001 
  6002   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6003 
  6004 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6005 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6006 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6007 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6008 
  6009 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6010 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6011 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6012 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6013 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6014 
  6015 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6016 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6017 
  6018 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6019 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6020 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6021 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6022 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6023 originally first one.
  6024 
  6025 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6026 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6027 expected.
  6028 
  6029 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6030 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6031 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6032 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6033 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6034 
  6035   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6036     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6037     obtains x where "P x"
  6038 
  6039   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6040     assumes "A & B"
  6041     obtains A and B
  6042 
  6043   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6044     assumes "A | B"
  6045     obtains
  6046       A
  6047     | B
  6048 
  6049 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6050 explicitly:
  6051 
  6052   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6053     obtains "~ thesis"
  6054 
  6055   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6056     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6057 
  6058 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6059 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6060 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6061 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6062 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6063 case_names).
  6064 
  6065 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6066 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6067 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6068 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6069 
  6070 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6071 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6072 top-level lemma.
  6073 
  6074 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6075 introduction rule (default "that").
  6076 
  6077 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6078 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6079 to occur.
  6080 
  6081 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6082 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6083 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6084 representations independently of name spaces.
  6085 
  6086 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6087 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6088 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6089 
  6090 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6091 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6092 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6093 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6094 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6095 current context.
  6096 
  6097 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6098 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6099 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6100 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6101 
  6102   axiomatization
  6103     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6104     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6105 
  6106   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6107   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6108 
  6109   abbreviation
  6110     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6111     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6112 
  6113 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6114 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6115 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6116 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6117 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6118 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6119 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6120 
  6121 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6122 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6123 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6124 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6125 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6126 
  6127 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6128 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6129 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6130 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6131 
  6132 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6133 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6134 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6135 
  6136   definition "K x _ = x"
  6137 
  6138   inductive conj for A B
  6139   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6140 
  6141 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6142 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6143 abbreviations on output.
  6144 
  6145 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6146 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6147 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6148 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6149 
  6150 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6151 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6152 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6153 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6154 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6155 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6156 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6157 
  6158 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6159 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6160 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6161 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6162 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6163 
  6164 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6165 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6166 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6167 
  6168 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6169 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6170 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6171 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6172 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6173 
  6174   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6175     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6176 
  6177 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6178 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6179 partial_order.
  6180 
  6181 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6182 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6183 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6184 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6185 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6186 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6187 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6188 examples.
  6189 
  6190 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6191 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6192 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6193 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6194 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6195 
  6196 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6197 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6198 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6199 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6200 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6201 
  6202   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6203   (induct set: foo bar)
  6204   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6205   (induct type: foo bar)
  6206 
  6207 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6208 new format.
  6209 
  6210 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6211 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6212 
  6213 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6214 considered a legacy feature.
  6215 
  6216 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6217 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6218 
  6219 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6220 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6221 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6222 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6223   
  6224 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6225 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6226 manipulating the claset.
  6227 
  6228 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6229 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6230 least one premise.
  6231 
  6232 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6233 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6234 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6235 rule steps.
  6236 
  6237 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6238 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6239 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6240 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6241 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6242 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6243 
  6244 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6245 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6246 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6247 
  6248 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6249 the graph browser tool.
  6250 
  6251 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6252 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6253 
  6254