NEWS
author blanchet
Sun May 04 18:14:58 2014 +0200 (2014-05-04)
changeset 56846 9df717fef2bb
parent 56845 691da43fbdd4
child 56850 13a7bca533a3
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed 'xxx_size' to 'size_xxx' for old datatype package
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * Find panel: support for 'find_consts' in addition to
   116 'find_theorems'.
   117 
   118 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   119 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   120 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   121 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   122 
   123 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   124 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   125 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   126 
   127 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   128 
   129 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   130 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   131 
   132 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   133 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   134 
   135 
   136 *** Pure ***
   137 
   138 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   139 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   140 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   141 renaming needs to be applied:
   142 
   143   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   144   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   145   all            ~>  Pure.all
   146   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   147   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   148 
   149 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   150 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   151 old constants:
   152 
   153 setup {*
   154   fn thy => thy
   155     |> Sign.root_path
   156     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   157     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   158     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   159     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   160 *}
   161 
   162 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   163 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   164 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   165 
   166 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   167 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   168 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   169 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   170 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   171 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   172 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   173 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   174 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   175 
   176 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   177 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   178 instantiated theorem.
   179 
   180 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   181 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   182 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   183 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   184 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   185 
   186   attribute_setup standard =
   187     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   188 
   189 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   190 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   191 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   192 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   193 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   194 
   195 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   196 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   197 differently).
   198 
   199 
   200 *** HOL ***
   201 
   202 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   203   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   204   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   205   and SUP instead uniformly.
   206   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   207   or SUP and Sup.
   208   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   209   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   210   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   211   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   212   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   216   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   217   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   218   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   219   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   220   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   223   can now deal with conjunctions.
   224   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   225   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   226   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   227 
   228 * HOL-Word:
   229   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   230   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   231   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   232   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   233   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   234 
   235 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   236 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240 
   241 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   242 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243 
   244 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   245 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   246 
   247 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   248 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   249 
   250 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   251   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   252   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   253   Theory renamings:
   254     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   255     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   256     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   257     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   258     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   259     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   260     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   261     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   262     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   263     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   264     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   265     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   266     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   267     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   268     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   269     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   270     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   271     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   272     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   273     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   274     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   275     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   276   New theories:
   277     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   278     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   279     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   280     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   281     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   282   Discontinued theories:
   283     BNF/BNF.thy
   284     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   285   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286 
   287 * New (co)datatype package:
   288   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   289   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   290     required by "fun".
   291   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   292     with Transfer.
   293   * Renamed commands:
   294       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   295       primrec_new ~> primrec
   296       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   299     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   300     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   302     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Old datatype package:
   306   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   307     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   310     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   311     "case_prod").
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   315   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   316   datatype package.
   317   Renamed constants:
   318     Option.set ~> set_option
   319     Option.map ~> map_option
   320     option_rel ~> rel_option
   321   Renamed theorems:
   322     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   323     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   324     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   325     option.recs ~> option.rec
   326     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   327     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   328     map.simps ~> list.map
   329     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   330     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   331     the.simps ~> option.sel
   332   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   335     sum_map ~> map_sum
   336     map_pair ~> map_prod
   337     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   338     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   339     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   340     set_rel ~> rel_set
   341     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   342     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   343     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   344     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   345 
   346 * New theory:
   347     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   348 
   349 * Theory reorganizations:
   350   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   351 
   352 * New internal SAT solver "dpll_p" that produces models and proof traces.
   353   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   354   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   355   use "dpll_p" instead. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * SMT module:
   358   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   359     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   360     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   361     elsewhere.
   362 
   363 * Sledgehammer:
   364   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   365   - New option:
   366       smt_proofs
   367   - Renamed options:
   368       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   369       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   370     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * Metis:
   373   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   375 
   376 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   377 
   378 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   381 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   382 
   383 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   384 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   385 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   386 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   387 
   388 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   392 with the given constants.
   393 
   394 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   395 
   396 Fact consolidations:
   397     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   398     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   399     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   400     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   401     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   402     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   403     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   404     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   405     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   406     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   407     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   408     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   409     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   410     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   411     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   412     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   413     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   414     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   415     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   416     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   417     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   418     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   419     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   420     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   421     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   422     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   423     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   424     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   425     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   426     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   427     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   428     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   429     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   430     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   431     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   432     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   433     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   434     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   435     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   436     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   437 
   438 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   439 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   440 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   441 
   442 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   443 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   444 
   445 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   446 
   447 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   448 
   449 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   451 
   452 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   456 operations on records.
   457 
   458 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   460 
   461 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   462     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   466     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   467     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   471   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   472   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   473   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   474     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   475   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   476     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   477   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   478 INCOMPATBILITY.
   479 
   480 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   481     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   482     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   483     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   484     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Fact name consolidation:
   488     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   489     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   490     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   491     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   492     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   494 
   495 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   496 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   497 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   498 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   499 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   500 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   501 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   502 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   503 
   504 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   505 
   506 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   507 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   508 
   509 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   510 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   511 
   512 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   513 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   514 or the brute way with
   515 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   516 
   517 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   518 
   519 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   520 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   523 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   524 
   525 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   526 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   527 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   528 INCOMPATIBILITY
   529 
   530 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   531   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   532   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   533   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   534   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   535   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   536   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   537   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   538   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   539   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   540   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   541   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   542 
   543   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   544 
   545   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   546     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   547     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   548     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   549     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   553   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   554 
   555   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   556 
   557   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   558 
   559   - removed constant isDiff
   560 
   561   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   562     syntax.
   563 
   564   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   565 
   566   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   567 
   568   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   569 
   570   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   571 
   572   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   573     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   574 
   575   - Other renamings:
   576     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   577     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   578     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   579     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   580     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   581     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   582     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   584 
   585 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   586   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   587 
   588 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   589 
   590 * Nitpick:
   591   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   592     infinite values.
   593   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   594     "Rep_Integ".
   595   - Removed "std" option.
   596   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   597     "hide_types".
   598 
   599 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   600   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   601   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   602     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   603     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   604     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   605     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   606     intervals.
   607 
   608   - renamed theorems:
   609     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   610     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   611     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   612 
   613 
   614 *** Scala ***
   615 
   616 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   617 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   618 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   619 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   620 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   621 
   622 
   623 *** ML ***
   624 
   625 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   626 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   629 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   630 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   636 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   637 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   639 
   640 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   641 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   642 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   643 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   644 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   645 of schematic variables.
   646 
   647 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   648 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   650 formal context.
   651 
   652 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   653 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   654 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   655 actually belongs to it).
   656 
   657 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   658 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   659 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   660 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   661 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   662 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   663 
   664 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   665 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   666 
   667 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   668 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   669 
   670 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   671 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   672 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   673 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   674 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   675 
   676 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   677 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   678 purposes.
   679 
   680 
   681 *** System ***
   682 
   683 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   684 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   685 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   686 processing is started.
   687 
   688 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   689 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   690 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   691 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   692 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   693 
   694 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   695 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   696 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   697 
   698 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   699 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   700 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   701 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   702 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   703 settings variable yet.
   704 
   705 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   706 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   707 
   708 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   709 -------------------------------------
   710 
   711 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   712 
   713 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   714 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   715 
   716 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   717 after edits surrounding the command location.
   718 
   719 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   720 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   721 e.g. out-of-memory).
   722 
   723 
   724 *** System ***
   725 
   726 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   727 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   728 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   729 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   730 
   731 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   732 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   733 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   734 
   735 
   736 
   737 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   738 -------------------------------------
   739 
   740 *** General ***
   741 
   742 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   743 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   744 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   745 
   746 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   747 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   750 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   751 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   752 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   753 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   754 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   755 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   756 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   757 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   758 syntax.
   759 
   760 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   761 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   764 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   765 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   766 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   767 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   768 
   769 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   773 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   774 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   775 
   776 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   777 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   778 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   779 
   780 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   781 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   782 
   783 
   784 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   785 
   786 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   787 Documentation panel.
   788 
   789 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   790 documentation.
   791 
   792 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   793 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   794 
   795 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   796 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   797 normal editing and checking process.
   798 
   799 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   800 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   801 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   802 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   803 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   804 
   805 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   806 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   807 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   808 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   809 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   810 
   811 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   812 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   813 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   814 
   815 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   816 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   817 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   818 to resolve conflict.
   819 
   820 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   821 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   822 
   823 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   824 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   825 such command executions while editing.
   826 
   827 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   828 document content.
   829 
   830 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   831 toplevel theorem statements.
   832 
   833 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   834 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   835 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   836 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   837 
   838 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   839 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   840 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   841 
   842 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   843 / Global Options / Appearance".
   844 
   845 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   846 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   847 
   848 
   849 *** Pure ***
   850 
   851 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   852 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   853 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   854 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   855 details.
   856 
   857 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   858 
   859 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   860 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   861 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   862 
   863 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   867 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   868 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   869 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   872 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   873 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   874 
   875 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   876 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   877 
   878 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   879 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   880 situations.
   881 
   882 
   883 *** HOL ***
   884 
   885 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   886 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888 
   889 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   890 
   891 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   892 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   893 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   894 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   895 
   896   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   897 
   898 * Code generator:
   899   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   900     'code_instance'.
   901   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   902     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   903 
   904 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   905 examples.
   906 
   907 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   908 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   909 to distinguish both when desired.
   910 
   911 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   912 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   913 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   914 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   917 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   918 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   919 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   920 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   921 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   922 
   923 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   924 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   925 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   926 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   927 
   928 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   929 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   930 
   931 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   932 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   933 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   934 
   935 * Lifting:
   936   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   937     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   938       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   939       transfer rules
   940     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   941       correspondence relation can be generated
   942     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   943       parametricity
   944     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   945   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   946   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   947     copies
   948   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   949     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   950     anonymous context)
   951   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   952     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   953   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   954     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   955   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   956     INCOMPATIBILITY
   957 
   958 * Transfer:
   959   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   960     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   961   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   962   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   963     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   964   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   965 
   966 * Reification and reflection:
   967   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   968     "Reification".
   969   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   970   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972 
   973 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   974   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   975     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   976     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   977   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   978     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   979   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   980     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   981     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   982     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   983     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   984     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   985     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   986     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   987   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   988     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   989   - Fact renames:
   990       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   991       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   995 
   996 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   997 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   998 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1000 
  1001 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1002 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1003 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1004 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1005 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1006 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1007 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1008 lemmas.
  1009 
  1010 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1011 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1012 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013 
  1014 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1015 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1016 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1017 
  1018 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1019 top and bottom elements.
  1020 
  1021 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1022 
  1023 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1024 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1025 
  1026  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1027    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1028    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1029 
  1030  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1031    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1032    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1033 
  1034    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1035    arbitrary filter.
  1036 
  1037  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1038    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1039    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1040    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1041    on a compact set.
  1042 
  1043  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1044    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1045    linear_continuum_topology).
  1046 
  1047  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1048    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1049    on all sequences converging to x.
  1050 
  1051  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1052    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1053    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1054    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1055    left or right.
  1056 
  1057  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1058 
  1059      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1060 
  1061  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1062    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1063 
  1064  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1065    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1066    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1067    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1068    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1069    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1070 
  1071  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1072 
  1073    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1074 
  1075    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1076      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1077 
  1078    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1079 
  1080    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1081      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1082 
  1083    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1084 
  1085    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1086 
  1087  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1088 
  1089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1090 
  1091 * Nitpick:
  1092   - Added option "spy".
  1093   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1094 
  1095 * Sledgehammer:
  1096   - Renamed option:
  1097       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1098     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1100   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1101   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1102 
  1103 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1104 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1105 
  1106 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1107   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1108   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1109     generated code.
  1110   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1111   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1112   - Fact renames:
  1113     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1114     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1115     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1116 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1119 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1120 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1121 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1122 
  1123 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1124 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1125 
  1126 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1129 
  1130     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1131     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1132 
  1133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1134 
  1135 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1136 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1137 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1138 
  1139 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1140 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1141 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1142 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1143 
  1144 * HOL-BNF:
  1145   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1146     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1147     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1148     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1149   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1150     coinduct).
  1151   - Renamed keywords:
  1152     data ~> datatype_new
  1153     codata ~> codatatype
  1154     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1155   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1156     discs ~> disc
  1157     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1158     map_id' ~> map_id
  1159     sels ~> sel
  1160     set_map' ~> set_map
  1161     sets ~> set
  1162 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1163 
  1164 
  1165 *** ML ***
  1166 
  1167 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1168 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1169 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1170 Examples.thy in particular.
  1171 
  1172 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1173 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1174 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1175 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1176 
  1177 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1178 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1179 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1180 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1184 
  1185     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1186     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1187 
  1188 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1191 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1192 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1193 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1194 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1195 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1196 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1197 
  1198 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1199 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1200 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1201 clasets separately from the context.
  1202 
  1203 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1204 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1205 
  1206 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1207 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1208 
  1209 
  1210 *** System ***
  1211 
  1212 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1213 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1216 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1217 
  1218 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1219 settings variable.
  1220 
  1221 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1222 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1223 always pdf.
  1224 
  1225 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1226 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1227 
  1228 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1229 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1230 
  1231 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1232 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1233 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1234 
  1235 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1236 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1237 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1238 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1239 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1240 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1241 
  1242 
  1243 
  1244 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1245 -----------------------------------
  1246 
  1247 *** General ***
  1248 
  1249 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1250 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1251 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1252 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1253 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1254 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1255 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1256 
  1257 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1258 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1259 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1260 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1261 
  1262 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1263 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1264 
  1265 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1266 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1267 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1268 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1269 dependencies properly.
  1270 
  1271 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1272 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1273 
  1274 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1275 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1276 
  1277 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1278 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1279 and "class ... context ...".
  1280 
  1281 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1282 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1283 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1284 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1285 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1286 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1287 
  1288 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1289 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1290 
  1291 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1292 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1293 
  1294 
  1295 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1296 
  1297 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1298 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1299 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1300 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1301 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1302 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1303 
  1304 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1305 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1306 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1307 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1308 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1309 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1310 
  1311 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1312 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1313 browser on demand.
  1314 
  1315 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1316 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1317 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1318 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1319 
  1320 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1321 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1322 
  1323 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1324 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1325 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1326 potentially infinite message streams.
  1327 
  1328 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1329 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1330 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1331 schemes.
  1332 
  1333 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1334 symbols.
  1335 
  1336 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1337 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1338 
  1339 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1340 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1341 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1342 
  1343 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1344 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1345 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1346 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1347 
  1348 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1349 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1350 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1351 
  1352 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1353 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1354 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1355 Isabelle distribution.
  1356 
  1357 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1358 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1359 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1360 
  1361 
  1362 *** Pure ***
  1363 
  1364 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1365 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1366 
  1367 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1368 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1369 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1370 
  1371 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1372 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1373 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1374 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1375 with some care where this is really required.
  1376 
  1377 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1378 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1379 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1380 
  1381   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1382 
  1383 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1384 a Hasse diagram.
  1385 
  1386 
  1387 *** HOL ***
  1388 
  1389 * Sledgehammer:
  1390 
  1391   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1392     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1393   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1394   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1395   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1396   - Renamed options:
  1397       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1398       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1399       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1400       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1401 
  1402 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1403 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1404 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1405 
  1406 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1408 
  1409 * Lifting:
  1410   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1411   - quot_del attribute
  1412   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1413 
  1414 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1415 expressions.
  1416 
  1417 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1418 pointfree expressions.
  1419 
  1420 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1421 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1422 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1423 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425 
  1426 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1427 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1428 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1429 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1430 accordingly.
  1431 
  1432 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1433 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1436 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1437 
  1438 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1441 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1442 
  1443 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1444 
  1445 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1446 
  1447   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1448   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1449 
  1450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1451 
  1452 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1453 
  1454   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1455   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1456 
  1457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1460 
  1461   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1462     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1463     output f x converges to G.
  1464 
  1465   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1466     infinity (at_bot).
  1467 
  1468   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1469     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1470 
  1471   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1472     at_top".
  1473 
  1474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1475 
  1476 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1477 lattice type classes.
  1478 
  1479 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1480 
  1481     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1482     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1483 
  1484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1485 
  1486 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1487 changes as follows.
  1488 
  1489   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1490 
  1491       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1492       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1493 
  1494   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1495     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1496     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1497     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1498 
  1499   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1500     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1501     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1502 
  1503   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1504     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1505     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1506     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1507 
  1508   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1509     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1510 
  1511       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1512       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1513       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1514       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1515       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1516       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1517       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1518       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1519       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1520       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1521       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1522       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1523       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1524       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1525       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1526       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1527 
  1528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1531 
  1532 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1533 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1534 
  1535 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1536 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1537 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1538 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1539 
  1540   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1541   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1542   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1543   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1544   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1545   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1546   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1547   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1548   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1549   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1550 
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1554 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1555 Data").
  1556 
  1557 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1558 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1559 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1560 code.
  1561 
  1562 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1563 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1564 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1568 
  1569 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1570 
  1571 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1572 
  1573   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1574   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1575 
  1576 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1577 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1578 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1579 
  1580   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1581 
  1582     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1583     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1584     cart_base i  removed
  1585     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1586 
  1587   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1588 
  1589   Renamed lemmas:
  1590 
  1591     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1592     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1593     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1594     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1595     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1596     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1597     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1598     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1599     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1600     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1601 
  1602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604 * HOL/Probability:
  1605 
  1606   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1607 
  1608   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1609     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1610     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1611 
  1612   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1613     projective family).
  1614 
  1615 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1616 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1617 
  1618 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1619 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1620 datatypes.
  1621 
  1622 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1623 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1624 
  1625 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1626 trees for the code generator.
  1627 
  1628 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1629 Lifting/Transfer.
  1630 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 
  1636 *** Document preparation ***
  1637 
  1638 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1639 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1640 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1641 
  1642 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1643 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1644 
  1645 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1646 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1647 document/root.tex.
  1648 
  1649 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1650 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 
  1653 *** ML ***
  1654 
  1655 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1656 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1657 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1658 
  1659 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1660 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1661 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1662 
  1663 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1664 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1665 necessarily printing visible text.
  1666 
  1667 
  1668 *** System ***
  1669 
  1670 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1671 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1672 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1673 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1674 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1675 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1676 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1677 
  1678 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1679 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1680 
  1681   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1682 
  1683 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1684 
  1685 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1686 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1687 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1688 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1689 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1690 
  1691 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1692 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1693 
  1694 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1695 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1696 
  1697 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1699 
  1700 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1701 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1702 version of Isabelle.
  1703 
  1704 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1705 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1706 
  1707 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1708 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1709 for home-made settings.
  1710 
  1711 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1712 
  1713 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1714 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1715 configuration.
  1716 
  1717 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1718 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1719 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1720 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1721 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1722 
  1723 
  1724 
  1725 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1726 ------------------------------
  1727 
  1728 *** General ***
  1729 
  1730 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1731 
  1732   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1733     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1734   - markup for bound variables
  1735   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1736   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1737   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1738     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1739 
  1740 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1741 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1742 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1743 
  1744 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1745 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1746 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1747 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1748 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1749 
  1750   context
  1751     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1752     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1753   begin
  1754 
  1755   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1756 
  1757   end
  1758 
  1759   thm my_trans
  1760 
  1761 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1762 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1763 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1764 
  1765 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1766 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1767 
  1768 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1769 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1770 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1771 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1772 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1773 
  1774 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1775 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1776 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1777 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1778 indices of schematic variables.
  1779 
  1780 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1781 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1782 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1783 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1784 etc. was exploited.
  1785 
  1786 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1787 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1788 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1789 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1790 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1791 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1792 
  1793 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1794 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1795 manual.
  1796 
  1797 
  1798 *** Pure ***
  1799 
  1800 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1801 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1802 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1803 
  1804 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1805 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1806 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1807 undocumented feature.)
  1808 
  1809 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1810 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1811 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1812 
  1813   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1814 
  1815   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1816     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1817 
  1818 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1819 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1820 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1821 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1822 
  1823 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1824 
  1825     num ~> num_token
  1826     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1827     xstr ~> str_token
  1828 
  1829 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1830 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1831 position information via constraints).
  1832 
  1833 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1834 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1835 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1838 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1839 
  1840 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1841 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1842 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1845 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1846 
  1847 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1848 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1849 
  1850   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1851 
  1852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1853 
  1854 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1855 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1856 
  1857 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1858 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1859 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1860 
  1861 
  1862 *** HOL ***
  1863 
  1864 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1865 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1866 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1867 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1868 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1869 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1870 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1871 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1872 possible.
  1873 
  1874 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1875 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1876 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1877 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1878 
  1879 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1880 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1881 
  1882 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1883 
  1884 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1885 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1886 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1887 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1888 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1889 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1890 
  1891   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1892     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1893 
  1894   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1895     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1896     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1897 
  1898   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1899     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1900 
  1901   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1902     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1903     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1904 
  1905   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1906     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1907 
  1908 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1909 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1910 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1911 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1912 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1913 
  1914   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1915     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1916     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1917     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1918     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1919 
  1920     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1921     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1922 
  1923   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1924     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1925     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1926     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1927     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1928     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1929     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1930     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1931 
  1932   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1933     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1934     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1935     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1936 
  1937   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1938     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1939     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1940     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1941 
  1942   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1943     from type nat to type int.
  1944 
  1945 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1946 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1947 
  1948   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1949     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1950     type.  Example syntax:
  1951 
  1952     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1953       is List.insert
  1954 
  1955     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1956     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1957     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1958     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1959     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1960     by the package.
  1961 
  1962   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1963     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1964     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1965     code generation for each constant.
  1966 
  1967   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1968     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1969     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1970     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1971     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1972 
  1973   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1974     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1975     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1976 
  1977 * Quotient package:
  1978 
  1979   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1980     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1981 
  1982   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1983     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1984 
  1985   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1986     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1987     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1988 
  1989   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1990     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1993 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1994 
  1995 * Quickcheck:
  1996 
  1997   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1998     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1999     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2000     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2001     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2002 
  2003     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2004     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2005     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2006 
  2007     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2008     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2009 
  2010     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2011     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2012     show genuine counterexamples.
  2013 
  2014   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2015     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2016 
  2017     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2018     constructors of that type.
  2019 
  2020   - Support for multisets.
  2021 
  2022   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2023 
  2024   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2025     conjectures in a locale context.
  2026 
  2027 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2028 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2029 
  2030 * Sledgehammer:
  2031   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2032     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2033   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2034   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2035     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2036   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2037   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2038   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2039   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2040 
  2041 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2042 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2043 
  2044 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2045 
  2046 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2049 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2050 
  2051   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2052 
  2053 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2054 a list and a nat.
  2055 
  2056 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2057 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2058 
  2059 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2060 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2061 default.
  2062 
  2063 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2064 
  2065   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2066 
  2067 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2068 
  2069 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2070 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2071 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2072 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2073 one_case.
  2074 
  2075 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2076 the result of the fact expression.
  2077 
  2078 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2079 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2080 of some relation theorems:
  2081 
  2082   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2083   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2084   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2085   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2086   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2087   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2088 
  2089 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2090 
  2091 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2092 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2093 
  2094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095 
  2096 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2097 to match the constant's name:
  2098 
  2099   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2100   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2101   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2102   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2103   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2104   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2105   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2106   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2107   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2108   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2109   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2110   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2111   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2112   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2113   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2114   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2115   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2116   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2117   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2118   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2119   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2120   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2121   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2122   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2123 
  2124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2127 and corresponding theorem names:
  2128 
  2129   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2130 
  2131   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2132 
  2133   - Renamed theorems:
  2134 
  2135     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2136     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2137     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2138     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2139     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2140     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2141     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2142     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2143     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2144     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2145     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2146     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2147     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2148     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2149     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2150     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2151     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2152     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2153     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2154     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2155     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2156     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2157     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2158 
  2159     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2160 
  2161     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2162 
  2163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2164 
  2165 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2166 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2167 
  2168   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2169   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2170   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2171   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2172   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2173   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2174   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2175   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2176   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2177   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2178   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2179   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2180   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2181   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2182   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2183   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2184   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2185   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2186   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2187   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2188   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2189 
  2190 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2191 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194 
  2195 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2196 
  2197   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2198   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2199   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2200   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2201   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2202   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2203   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2204   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2205   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2206   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2207   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2208   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2209   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2210   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2211   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2212   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2213   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2214   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2215 
  2216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2219 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2220 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2221 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2222 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2223 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2224 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2225 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2226 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2227 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2228 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2229 
  2230 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2231 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2232 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2233 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2234 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2235 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2236 
  2237 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2238 through option types.
  2239 
  2240 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2241 relations.
  2242 
  2243 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244 
  2245 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2246 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2247 
  2248   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2249   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2250   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2251   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2252   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2253   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2254   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2255   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2256   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2257   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2258   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2259   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2260   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2261   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2262   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2263   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2264   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2265   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2266   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2267   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2268   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2269   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2270   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2271   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2272   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2273   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2274   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2275   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2276   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2277   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2278   zless_le ~> less_le
  2279   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2280   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2281   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2282 
  2283 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2284 
  2285   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2286 
  2287 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2288 
  2289 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2290 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2291 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2292 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2296 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2297 
  2298 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2299 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2300 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2301 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2302 follows:
  2303 
  2304   Operations:
  2305   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2306   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2307   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2308   del -> rbt_del
  2309   delete -> rbt_delete
  2310   ins -> rbt_ins
  2311   insert -> rbt_insert
  2312   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2313   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2314   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2315   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2316   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2317   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2318   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2319   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2320   union -> rbt_union
  2321   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2322   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2323 
  2324   Lemmas:
  2325   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2326   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2327   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2328   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2329   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2330   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2331   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2332   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2333   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2334   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2335   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2336   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2337   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2338   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2339   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2340   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2341   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2342   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2343   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2344   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2345   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2346   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2347   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2348   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2349   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2350   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2351   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2352   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2353   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2354   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2355   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2356   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2357   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2358   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2359   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2360   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2361   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2362   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2363   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2364   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2365   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2366   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2367   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2368   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2369   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2370   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2371   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2372   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2373   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2374   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2375   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2376   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2377   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2378   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2379   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2380   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2381   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2382   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2383   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2384   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2385   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2386   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2387   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2388   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2389   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2390   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2391   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2392   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2393   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2394   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2395   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2396   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2397   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2398   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2399   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2400   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2401   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2402   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2403   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2404   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2405   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2406   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2407   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2408 
  2409 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2410 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2411 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2412 
  2413   Changed Operations:
  2414   float_abs -> abs
  2415   float_nprt -> nprt
  2416   float_pprt -> pprt
  2417   pow2 -> use powr
  2418   round_down -> float_round_down
  2419   round_up -> float_round_up
  2420   scale -> exponent
  2421 
  2422   Removed Operations:
  2423   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2424 
  2425   Renamed Lemmas:
  2426   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2427   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2428   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2429   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2430   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2431   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2432   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2433   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2434   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2435   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2436   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2437   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2438   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2439   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2440   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2441   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2442   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2443   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2444   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2445   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2446   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2447   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2448   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2449   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2450   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2451   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2452   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2453   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2454   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2455   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2456   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2457   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2458   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2459   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2460   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2461   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2462 
  2463   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2464   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2465   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2466   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2467   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2468   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2469   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2470   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2471   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2472   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2473 
  2474 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2475 association lists with distinct keys.
  2476 
  2477 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2478 annotated commands.
  2479 
  2480 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2481 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2482 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2483 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2484 
  2485 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2486 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2487 instead.
  2488 
  2489   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2490   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2491   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2492   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2493   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2494   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2495   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2496   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2497   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2498   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2499   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2500   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2501   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2502   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2503   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2504   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2505   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2506   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2507   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2508   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2509   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2510   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2511   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2512   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2513   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2514   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2515   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2516   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2517   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2518   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2519   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2520   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2521   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2522   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2523   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2524   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2525   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2526   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2527   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2528   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2529   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2530 
  2531 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2532 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2533 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2534 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2535 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2536 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2537 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2538 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2539 
  2540 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2541 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2542 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2543 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2544 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2545 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2546 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2547 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2548 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2549 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2550 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2551 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552 
  2553   Renamed constants:
  2554   measure -> emeasure
  2555   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2556   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2557   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2558   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2559 
  2560   Removed locales:
  2561   completeable_measure_space
  2562   finite_measure_space
  2563   finite_prob_space
  2564   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2565   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2566   finite_sigma_algebra
  2567   measure_space
  2568   pair_finite_prob_space
  2569   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2570   pair_finite_space
  2571   pair_sigma_algebra
  2572   product_sigma_algebra
  2573 
  2574   Removed constants:
  2575   conditional_space
  2576   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2577   image_space
  2578   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2579   pair_measure_generator
  2580   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2581   subvimage
  2582 
  2583   Replacement theorems:
  2584   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2585   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2586   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2587   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2588   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2589   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2590   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2591   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2592   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2593   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2594   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2595   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2596   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2597   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2598   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2599   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2600   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2601   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2602   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2603   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2604   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2605   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2606   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2607   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2608   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2609   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2610   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2611   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2612   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2613   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2614   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2615   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2616   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2617   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2618   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2619   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2620   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2621   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2622   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2623   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2624   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2625   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2626   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2627   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2628   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2629   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2630   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2631   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2632   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2633   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2634   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2635   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2636   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2637   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2638   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2639   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2640   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2641   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2642   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2643   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2644   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2645   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2646   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2647   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2648   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2649   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2650   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2651   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2652   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2653   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2654   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2655   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2656   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2657   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2658   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2659   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2660   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2661   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2662   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2663   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2664   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2665   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2666   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2667   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2668   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2669   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2670   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2671   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2672   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2673   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2674   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2675   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2676   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2677   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2678   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2679   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2680   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2681   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2682   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2683   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2684   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2685   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2686   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2687   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2688   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2689   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2690   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2691   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2692   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2693   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2694   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2695   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2696   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2697   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2698   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2699   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2700   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2701   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2702   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2703   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2704   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2705   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2706   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2707   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2708   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2709   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2710   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2711   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2712 
  2713 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2714 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2715 
  2716 
  2717 *** FOL ***
  2718 
  2719 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2720 
  2721 
  2722 *** ZF ***
  2723 
  2724 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2725 analysis.
  2726 
  2727 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2728 
  2729 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 
  2732 *** ML ***
  2733 
  2734 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2735 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2736 
  2737 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2738 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2739 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2740 
  2741 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2742 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2743 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2744 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2745 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2746 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2747 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2748 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2749 
  2750 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2751 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2752 
  2753 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2754 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2755 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2756 
  2757 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2758 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2761 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2762 context as well.
  2763 
  2764 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2765 
  2766   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2767   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2768   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2769   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2770   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2771   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2772   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2773   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2774   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2775   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2776   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2777   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2778 
  2779 
  2780 *** System ***
  2781 
  2782 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2783 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2784 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2785 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2786 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2787 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2788 the generic user home was intended.
  2789 
  2790 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2791 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2792 
  2793 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2794 (not just JRE).
  2795 
  2796 
  2797 
  2798 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2799 ------------------------------------
  2800 
  2801 *** General ***
  2802 
  2803 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2804 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2805 
  2806   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2807     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2808     files for checking).
  2809 
  2810   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2811     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2812     positions.
  2813 
  2814   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2815     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2816     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2817 
  2818   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2819     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2820     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2821 
  2822   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2823     cores.
  2824 
  2825   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2826     versions (garbage collection).
  2827 
  2828 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2829 including some remaining limitations.
  2830 
  2831 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2832 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2833 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2834 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2835 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2839 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2840 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2841 
  2842 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2843 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2844 usedir option -Q.
  2845 
  2846 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2847 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2848 
  2849   long_names   ~> names_long
  2850   short_names  ~> names_short
  2851   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2852 
  2853 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2854 
  2855   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2856 
  2857 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2858 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2859 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2860 
  2861 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2862 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2863 
  2864 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2865   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2866   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2867   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2868     "Classical Reasoner".
  2869 
  2870 
  2871 *** HOL ***
  2872 
  2873 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2874 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2877 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2878 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2879 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2880 class complete_linorder.
  2881 
  2882 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2883 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2884 
  2885 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2886 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2887 
  2888   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2889   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2890   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2891   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2892   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2893   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2894   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2895   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2896   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2897   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2898   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2899 
  2900 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2901 
  2902   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2903   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2904   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2905   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2906   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2907   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2908   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2909   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2910   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2911   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2912   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2913   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2914   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2915   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2916   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2917   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2918 
  2919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2925 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2926 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2927 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2930 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2931 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2935 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2936 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2937 
  2938 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2939 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2940 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2943 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2944 
  2945 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2946 
  2947     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2948     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2949 
  2950 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2951 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952 
  2953 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2954 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2957 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2958 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2959 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2962   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2963   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2964   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2965   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2966   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2967   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2968 
  2969 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2970 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2973   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2974   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2975   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2976   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2977   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2978   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2979   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2980   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2981   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2982   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2983   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2984   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2985   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2986   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2987   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2988   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2989   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2990   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2991   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2992   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2993   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2994   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2995   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2996   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2997   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2998   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2999   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3000   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3001   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3002   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3003   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3004   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3005   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3006   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3007   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3008   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3009   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3010   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3011   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3012   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3013   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3014   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3015   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3016   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3017   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3018   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3019   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3020   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3021   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3022   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3023   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3024   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3025   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3026   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3027   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3028   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3029   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3030   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3031   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3032   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3033   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3034   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3035   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3036   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3037   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3038   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3039   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3040   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3041   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3042   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3043   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3044   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3045   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3046   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3047   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3048   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3049   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3050   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3051   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3052   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3053   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3054 
  3055 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3056 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3057 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3058 
  3059 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3060 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3061 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3062 
  3063 * Code generation:
  3064 
  3065   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3066     characters in the target language.
  3067 
  3068   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3069     instead.
  3070 
  3071   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3072 
  3073   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3074     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3075 
  3076       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3077 
  3078 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3081 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3082 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3083 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3084 syntax.
  3085 
  3086 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3087 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3088 
  3089 * Nitpick:
  3090   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3091   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3092   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3093     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Sledgehammer:
  3096   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3097   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3098     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3099   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3100     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3101   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3102     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3104     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3105   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3106     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3107 
  3108 * Metis:
  3109   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3111     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113 * Command 'try':
  3114   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3115     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3117     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3118 
  3119 * Quickcheck:
  3120   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3121     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3122   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3123     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3124   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3125     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3126     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3127     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3128   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3129     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3130 
  3131 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3132 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3133 
  3134 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3135 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3136 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3137 
  3138 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3139 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3143 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3146 arithmetic.
  3147 
  3148 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3149 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3150 and lattice type classes.
  3151 
  3152 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3153 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3156 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3157 
  3158 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3159 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3160 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161 
  3162   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3163   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3164   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3165   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3166 
  3167 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3168 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3169 constants:
  3170 
  3171   type inat   ~> type enat
  3172   Fin         ~> enat
  3173   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3174   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3175   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3176 
  3177 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3178 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3179 
  3180 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3181 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3182 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3183 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3184 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3185 
  3186 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3187 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3188 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3189 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3190 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3191 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3192 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3193 
  3194   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3195   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3196   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3197   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3198 
  3199 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3200 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3201 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3204   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3205   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3206   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3207   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3208   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3209   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3210   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3211   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3212   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3213   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3214   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3215   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3216   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3217   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3218   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3219   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3220   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3221   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3222   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3223   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3224   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3225   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3226   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3227   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3228   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3229   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3230   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3231   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3232   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3233   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3234   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3235   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3236   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3237   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3238   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3239   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3240   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3241   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3242   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3243   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3244   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3245   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3246   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3247   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3248   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3249   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3250   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3251   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3252   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3253   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3254 
  3255 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3256   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3257   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3258   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3259   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3260     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3265   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3266   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3267   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3268   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3269   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3270   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3271   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3272   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3273   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3274   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3275   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3276   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3277   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3278   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3279   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3280   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3281   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3282   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3283   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3284   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3285   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3286   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3287   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3288   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3289 
  3290 
  3291 *** Document preparation ***
  3292 
  3293 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3294 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3295 same.
  3296 
  3297 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3298 result.
  3299 
  3300 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3301 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3302 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3303 
  3304 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3305 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3306 
  3307 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3308 like this:
  3309 
  3310   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3311   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3312 
  3313 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3314 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3315 layouts.
  3316 
  3317 
  3318 *** ML ***
  3319 
  3320 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3321 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3322 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3323 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3324 under external program control.
  3325 
  3326 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3327 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3328 
  3329 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3330 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3331 (better known as Proof General).
  3332 
  3333 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3334 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3335 
  3336 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3337 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3338 
  3339 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3340 (including quotes etc.).
  3341 
  3342 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3343 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3344 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3345 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3346 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3347 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3348 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3349 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3350 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3351 
  3352 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3353 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3354 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3355 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3356 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3357 
  3358 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3359 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3360 
  3361 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3362 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3363 
  3364 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3365 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3366 
  3367 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3368 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3369 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3370 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3371 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3372 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3373 proper Proof.context.
  3374 
  3375 
  3376 *** System ***
  3377 
  3378 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3379 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3380 
  3381 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3382 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3383 
  3384 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3385 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3386 
  3387   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3388   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3389   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3390   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3391   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3392 
  3393 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3394 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3397 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3398 example:
  3399 
  3400   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3401 
  3402 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3403 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3404 
  3405 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3406 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3407 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3408 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3409 
  3410 
  3411 
  3412 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3413 ----------------------------------
  3414 
  3415 *** General ***
  3416 
  3417 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3418 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3419 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3420 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3421 like this:
  3422 
  3423   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3424 
  3425 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3426 
  3427 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3428 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3429 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3430 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3431 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3432 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3433 
  3434 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3435 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3436 the following package declarations:
  3437 
  3438   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3439   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3440 
  3441 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3442 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3443 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3444 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3445 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3446 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3447 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3448 
  3449 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3450 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3451 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3452 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3453 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3454 
  3455 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3456 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3457 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3458 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3459 
  3460 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3461 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3462 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3463 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3464 
  3465   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3466 
  3467   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3468   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3469   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3470   show_types                    show_types
  3471   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3472   show_consts                   show_consts
  3473   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3474 
  3475   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3476   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3477   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3478 
  3479   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3480   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3481 
  3482   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3483 
  3484   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3485   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3486   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3487   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3488   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3489 
  3490 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3491 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3492 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3493 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3494 
  3495 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3499   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3500 
  3501 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3502 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3503 float_token.
  3504 
  3505 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3506 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3510 DejaVu Sans.
  3511 
  3512 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3513 
  3514 
  3515 *** Pure ***
  3516 
  3517 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3518 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3519 time.
  3520 
  3521 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3522 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3525 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3528 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3529 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3530 command already provided this functionality.
  3531 
  3532 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3533 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3534 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3535 without interpretations.
  3536 
  3537 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3538 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3539 
  3540 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3541 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3542 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3543 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3544 
  3545 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3546 'definition' instead.
  3547 
  3548 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3549 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3550 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3551 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3552 
  3553 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3554 constructors.
  3555 
  3556 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3557 the local file system.
  3558 
  3559 
  3560 *** HOL ***
  3561 
  3562 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3563 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3564 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3565 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3566 
  3567   declare [[coercion f]]
  3568 
  3569 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3570 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3571 
  3572   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3573 
  3574 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3575 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3576 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3577 other theories like this:
  3578 
  3579   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3580 
  3581 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3582 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3583 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3584 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3585 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3586 for examples.
  3587 
  3588 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3589 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3592 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3593 
  3594 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3595 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3596 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3597 
  3598 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3599 functorial structure of types.
  3600 
  3601 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3602 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3603 
  3604 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3605 languages.
  3606 
  3607 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3608 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3610 
  3611 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3612 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3615 combinators any longer.
  3616 
  3617 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3618 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3619 
  3620 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3621 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3622 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3623 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3624 
  3625   record 'a foo = ...
  3626   ...
  3627   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3628 
  3629 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3630 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3634 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3635 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3636 
  3637 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3638 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3639 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3640 
  3641 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3642 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3645 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3646 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3647 independently.
  3648 
  3649 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3650 counter example search.
  3651 
  3652 * Sledgehammer:
  3653   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3654     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3655     sledgehammer").
  3656   - Renamed commands:
  3657     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3658     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3659     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3660     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3661   - Renamed options:
  3662     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3663     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3664     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3665     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3666     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Nitpick:
  3669   - Renamed options:
  3670     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3671     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3672     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3674   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3675   - Added "whack" option.
  3676   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3677   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3678   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3679   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3680     higher cardinalities.
  3681   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3682 
  3683 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3684 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3685 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3686 
  3687     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3688 
  3689 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3690 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3691 
  3692 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3693 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3694 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3695 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3696 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3697 "smt_solver".
  3698 
  3699 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3700 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3701 
  3702 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3703 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3704 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3705 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3708   - Renamed:
  3709     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3710     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3711     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712   - Added:
  3713     smt_verbose
  3714     smt_random_seed
  3715     smt_datatypes
  3716     smt_infer_triggers
  3717     smt_monomorph_limit
  3718     cvc3_options
  3719     remote_cvc3_options
  3720     remote_z3_options
  3721     yices_options
  3722 
  3723 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3724 header.
  3725 
  3726 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3727 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3728 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3729 
  3730   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3731 
  3732 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3735 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3738 
  3739 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3740 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3743 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3744 
  3745 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3746 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3747 
  3748 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3749 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3750 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3758 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3761 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3762 for congruent(2)).
  3763 
  3764 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3765 
  3766   types
  3767     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3768     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3769 
  3770   constants
  3771     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3772     True ~> HOL.True
  3773     False ~> HOL.False
  3774     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3775     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3776     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3777     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3778     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3779     The ~> HOL.The
  3780     All ~> HOL.All
  3781     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3782     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3783     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3784     If ~> HOL.If
  3785     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3786     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3787     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3788     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3789     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3790     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3791     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3792     op : ~> Set.member
  3793     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3794 
  3795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3798 
  3799     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3800     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3801     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3802     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3803     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3804     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3805     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3806     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3807 
  3808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * More stylized fact names:
  3811 
  3812   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3813   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3814   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3815   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3816 
  3817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3820 
  3821   constants
  3822     null ~> List.null
  3823 
  3824   facts
  3825     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3826     null_empty ~> null_def
  3827 
  3828 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3829 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3830 generation.
  3831 
  3832 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3833 Haskell code.
  3834 
  3835 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3836 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3837 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3838 
  3839 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3840 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3843 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3844 
  3845 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3846 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3847 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3850 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3856 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3857 referred to by its qualified name.
  3858 
  3859   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3860   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3861   product ~>  Enum.product
  3862 
  3863 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3864 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3868 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3869 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3873 sort_key.
  3874 
  3875 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3879 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3880 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3881 
  3882   types
  3883     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3884               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3885               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3886         (depends on your needs)
  3887 
  3888   constants
  3889      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3890      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3891      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3892 
  3893 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3894 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3895 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3896 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3897 
  3898 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3899 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3900 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3901 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3902 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3903 
  3904 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3908 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3909 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3910 
  3911 
  3912 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3913 
  3914 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3915 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3916 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3917 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3918 compatibility.
  3919 
  3920 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3921 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3922 
  3923 
  3924 *** HOLCF ***
  3925 
  3926 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3927 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3928 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3932 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3933 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3934 
  3935   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3936   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3937   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3938 
  3939 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3940 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3941 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3944 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3945 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3946 domain definition now works:
  3947 
  3948   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3949 
  3950 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3951 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3952 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3953 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3954 
  3955   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3956     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3957 
  3958   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3959 
  3960 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3961 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3962 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3965 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3968 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3969 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3970 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3971 
  3972 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3973 
  3974 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977 
  3978 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3982 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3983 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3984 
  3985 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3986 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3987 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3988 
  3989 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3990 still supported as an input translation.
  3991 
  3992 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3993 
  3994   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3995   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3996   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3997   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3998   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3999   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4000   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4001 
  4002 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4003 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4006   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4007   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4008   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4009   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4010   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4011 
  4012 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4013 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014 
  4015 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4016 
  4017   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4018   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4019   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4020   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4021 
  4022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4025 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4028 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4031   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4032   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4033   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4034   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4035   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4036   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4037   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4038   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4039   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4040   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4041   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4042   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4043   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4044   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4045   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4046   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4047   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4048   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4049   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4050 
  4051 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4054   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4055   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4056   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4057   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4058   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4059   box_less             ~> box_below
  4060   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4061   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4062   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4063   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4064   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4065   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4066   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4067   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4068   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4069   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4070   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4071   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4072   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4073   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4074   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4075   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4076   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4077   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4078   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4079   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4080   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4081   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4082   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4083   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4084   up_less              ~> up_below
  4085   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4086   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4087   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4088   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4089   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4090   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4091   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4092   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4093   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4094   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4095   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4096   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4097   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4098 
  4099 
  4100 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4101 
  4102 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4103 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 
  4106 *** ML ***
  4107 
  4108 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4109 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4110 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4111 
  4112 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4113 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4114 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4115 
  4116 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4117 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4118 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4119 
  4120 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4121 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4122 
  4123 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4124 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4125 
  4126 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4127 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4128 
  4129 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4130 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4131 
  4132 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4133 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4134 almost all situations.
  4135 
  4136 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4137 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4138 Isabelle/ML.
  4139 
  4140 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4141 meaning.
  4142 
  4143 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4144 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4145 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4146 
  4147 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4148 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4149 
  4150 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4151 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4152 
  4153 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4154 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4155 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4156 
  4157 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4158 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4159 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4160 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4161 configuration options.
  4162 
  4163 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4164 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4165 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4166 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4167 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4168 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4169 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4170 
  4171 
  4172 
  4173 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4174 ---------------------------------
  4175 
  4176 *** General ***
  4177 
  4178 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4179 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4180 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4181 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4182 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4183 their full internal name.
  4184 
  4185 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4186 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4187 Some hints on upgrading:
  4188 
  4189   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4190     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4191     which are independent of this issue.
  4192 
  4193   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4194     provides the following special forms:
  4195 
  4196       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4197       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4198       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4199 
  4200     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4201     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4202     extra variables".
  4203 
  4204     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4205     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4206     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4207     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4208     "logic".
  4209 
  4210   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4211     antiquotations:
  4212 
  4213       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4214       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4215       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4216       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4217 
  4218   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4219     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4220     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4221     antiquotations.
  4222 
  4223 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4224 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4225 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4226 diagnose syntax problems.
  4227 
  4228 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4229 
  4230 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4231 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4232 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4233 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4234 
  4235 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4236 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4237 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4238 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4241 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4242 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4243 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4244 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4247 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4248 
  4249 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4250 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4251 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4252 
  4253   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4254 
  4255 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4256 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4257 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4258 
  4259 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4260 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4262 
  4263 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4264 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4265 
  4266 
  4267 *** Pure ***
  4268 
  4269 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4270 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4271 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4272 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4273 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4274 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4275 inspect proof terms.
  4276 
  4277 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4278 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4279 are added internally.  For example:
  4280 
  4281   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4282 
  4283 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4284 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4285 
  4286 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4289 'class' instead.
  4290 
  4291 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4292 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4296 invariants.
  4297 
  4298 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4299 user space functionality any longer.
  4300 
  4301 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4302 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4306 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4307 
  4308 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4309 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4310 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4311 
  4312 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4313 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4314 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4315 
  4316 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4317 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4318 
  4319 
  4320 *** HOL ***
  4321 
  4322 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4323 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4324 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4325 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4326 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4327 
  4328 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4329 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4330 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4331 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4332 
  4333   fun
  4334     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4335   where
  4336     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4337 
  4338   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4339     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4340 
  4341   quotient_definition
  4342     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4343 
  4344 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4345 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4346 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4347 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4348 
  4349 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4350 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4351 
  4352 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4353 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4354 
  4355 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4359 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4360 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4361 
  4362 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4363 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4372 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4375 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4376 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4379   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4380   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4381   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4382   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4383   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4384   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4385   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4386   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4387   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4388   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4389   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4390   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4391   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4392   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4393   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4394   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4395   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4396   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4397   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4398   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4399   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4400   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4401   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4402   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4403   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4404   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4405   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4406   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4407   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4408 
  4409 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4410 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4411 
  4412 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4413 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4414 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4415 
  4416 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4417 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4418 
  4419 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4420 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4423 
  4424 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4425 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4428 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429 
  4430 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431 
  4432 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4433 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4434 
  4435 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4436 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4437 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4438 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4439 
  4440 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4441   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4442   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4443   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4447 lattices):
  4448 
  4449     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4450     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4451 
  4452     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4453 
  4454     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4455     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4456     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4457     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4458     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4459     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4460     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4461     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4462     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4463     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4464     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4465     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4466     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4467 
  4468     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4469     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4470     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4471     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4472     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4473     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4474     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4475     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4476     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4477     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4478     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4479     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4480     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4481     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4482     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4483     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4484     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4485     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4486 
  4487   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4488   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4489 
  4490     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4491     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4492     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4493     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4494     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4495 
  4496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4497 
  4498 * Refined field classes:
  4499   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4500     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4501     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4502   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4504 
  4505 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4506   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4507   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4508   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4509     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4510   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4511     equal_neg_zero.
  4512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4513 
  4514 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4515 sets to lattices:
  4516 
  4517   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4518   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4519   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4520   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4521   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4522   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4523   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4524   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4525   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4526   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4527 
  4528 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4529 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4530 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4531 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4532 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4533 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4534 
  4535 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4536 multiset order:
  4537 
  4538   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4539     <= and <;
  4540   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4541     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4542     multiset_order;
  4543   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4544     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4545     generation;
  4546   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4547     if needed.
  4548 
  4549 Renamed:
  4550 
  4551   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4552   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4553   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4554 
  4555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4558 
  4559 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4560 
  4561 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4562 
  4563 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4564 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4565 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567   Constants:
  4568   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4569   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4570   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4571   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4572   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4573   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4574   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4575   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4576   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4577   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4578   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4579   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4580   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4581 
  4582   Lemmas:
  4583   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4584   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4585   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4586   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4587   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4588   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4589   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4590   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4591   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4592   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4593   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4594   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4595   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4596 
  4597 * Sledgehammer:
  4598   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4599     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4600     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4601     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4602     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4603     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4604     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4605   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4606   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4607     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4608   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4609     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4610     is still experimental.)
  4611   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4612     full-typed mode.
  4613   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4614 
  4615 * Nitpick:
  4616   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4617   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4618   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4619     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4620   - Added support for quotient types.
  4621   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4622     constructs.
  4623   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4624     "termination" proofs).
  4625   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4626   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4627   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4628   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4629     record getters.
  4630   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4631   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4632   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4633   - Added "atoms" option.
  4634   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4635     problems.
  4636   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4637     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4638     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4639   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4640     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4641   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4644   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4645   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4646   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4647   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4648   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4649   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4650   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4651   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4652   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 
  4655 *** HOLCF ***
  4656 
  4657 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4658 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4659 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4662 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4663 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4664 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4667 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4668 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4669 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4670 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4671 
  4672 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4673 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4674 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4677 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4680   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4681 
  4682 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4683 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4686   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4687   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4688   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4689   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4690 
  4691 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4692 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4695   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4696   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4697 
  4698 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4699 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4703 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4708 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 
  4711 *** ML ***
  4712 
  4713 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4714 
  4715     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4716     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4717 
  4718     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4719     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4720     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4721     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4722 
  4723     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4724     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4725     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4726 
  4727 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4728 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4729 
  4730 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4731 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4732 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4733 
  4734 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4735 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4736 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4737 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4738 
  4739 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4740 the context or even global references.
  4741 
  4742 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4743 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4744 
  4745 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4746 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4747 
  4748   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4749   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4750   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4751   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4752   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4753   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4754   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4755   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4756   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4757   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4758 
  4759 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4760 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4761 
  4762 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4763 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4764 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4765 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4766 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4767 
  4768 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4769 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4770 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4771 Theory_Data version.
  4772 
  4773 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4774 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4775 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4776 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4777 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4778 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4779 explicitly in rare situations.
  4780 
  4781 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4782 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4786 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4789 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4790 quite rare).
  4791 
  4792 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4793 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4796 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4797 terms.
  4798 
  4799 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4800 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4801 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4802 
  4803 
  4804 *** System ***
  4805 
  4806 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4807 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4808 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4809 
  4810 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4811 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4812 respectively.
  4813 
  4814 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4815 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4816 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4817 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4818 
  4819   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4820 
  4821 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4822 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4823 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4824 component.
  4825 
  4826 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4827 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4828 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4829 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4830 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4831 the user for manual installation.
  4832 
  4833 
  4834 
  4835 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4836 -------------------------------------
  4837 
  4838 *** General ***
  4839 
  4840 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4841 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4842 
  4843 
  4844 *** Pure ***
  4845 
  4846 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4847 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4848 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4849 
  4850 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4851 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4852 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4853 
  4854 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4855 interpretation.
  4856 
  4857 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4858 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 
  4861 *** Document preparation ***
  4862 
  4863 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4864 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4865 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4866 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4867 
  4868 
  4869 *** HOL ***
  4870 
  4871 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4872 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4873 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4874 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4875 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4876 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4877 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4878 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4879 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4880 
  4881 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4882 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4883 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4884 
  4885 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4886 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4887 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4888 
  4889 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4890 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4891 
  4892 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4893 
  4894 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4895 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4896 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4897 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4898 
  4899 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4900 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4901 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4902 "mirabelle" utility.
  4903 
  4904 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4905 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4906 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4907 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4908 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4909 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4910 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4911 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4912 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4913 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4914 
  4915 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4916 procedure only.
  4917 
  4918 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4919 
  4920 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4921 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4922 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4923 that fail later.
  4924 
  4925 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4926 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4927 
  4928 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4929 the same method as the approximation method.
  4930 
  4931 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4932 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4933 series expansion.
  4934 
  4935 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4936 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4937 
  4938 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4939 reals.
  4940 
  4941 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4942 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4943 
  4944 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4945 fixpoint theorem.
  4946 
  4947 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4948   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4949     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4950   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4951     accordingly
  4952   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4953     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4954   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4955     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4956 
  4957 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4958 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4959 lattice.
  4960 
  4961 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4962 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4963 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4964 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4965 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4966 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4968 
  4969 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4970   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4971     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4972   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4973     le_inf_iff
  4974   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4975     sup_aci)
  4976   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4977   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4978   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4979     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4980     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4981     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4982     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4983     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4984     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4985     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4986     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4987     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4988     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4989   - authentic syntax for
  4990     Set.Pow
  4991     Set.image
  4992   - mere abbreviations:
  4993     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4994     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4995     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4996     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4997     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4998     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4999     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5000     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5001   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5002 
  5003 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5004 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5005 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5006 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5007 
  5008 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5009 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5010 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5013 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5016 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5017 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5018 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5019 
  5020 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5021 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5022 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5023 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5024 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5025 
  5026 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5027 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5029 
  5030 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5031 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5032 
  5033 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5034 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5035 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5036 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5037 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5038 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5039 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5041 
  5042 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5043     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5044     code_post       replaces    code post
  5045     etc.
  5046   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Renamed methods:
  5049     sizechange -> size_change
  5050     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5051   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052 
  5053 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5054 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5055 
  5056 * Renamed theorems:
  5057     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5058     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5059     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5060     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5061     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5062   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5063 
  5064 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5066 
  5067 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5069 
  5070 
  5071 *** HOLCF ***
  5072 
  5073 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5074 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5075 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5076 
  5077 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5078 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5079 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5080 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5081 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5082 
  5083 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5084 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5085 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5086 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5087 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5088 
  5089 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5090 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5091 constructor are pre-configured.
  5092 
  5093 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5094 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5095 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5096 
  5097 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5098 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5099 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5100 as well.)
  5101 
  5102 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5103 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5104 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5105 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5106 examples.
  5107 
  5108 
  5109 *** ML ***
  5110 
  5111 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5112 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5113 
  5114 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5115 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5116 position, logical grouping etc.
  5117 
  5118 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5119 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5120 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5121 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5122 
  5123 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5124 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5125 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5126 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5127 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5128 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5129 
  5130 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5131 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5132 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5133 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5134 experiments with references.
  5135 
  5136 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5137 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5138 
  5139 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5140 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5141 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5142 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5143 
  5144 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5145 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5146 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5147 
  5148 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5149 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5150 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5153 
  5154 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5158 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5159 
  5160 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5161 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5162 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5163 
  5164 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5165 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5166 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5167 
  5168 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5169 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5170 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5174 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5175 instead of global theory.
  5176 
  5177 
  5178 *** System ***
  5179 
  5180 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5181 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5182 usedir option -q.
  5183 
  5184 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5185 also the system manual.
  5186 
  5187 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5188 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5189 
  5190 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5191 this is always enabled.
  5192 
  5193 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5194 
  5195 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5196 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5197 currently supported on Linux only.
  5198 
  5199 
  5200 
  5201 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5202 --------------------------------
  5203 
  5204 *** General ***
  5205 
  5206 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5207 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5208 
  5209   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5210     "isatool."
  5211 
  5212   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5213     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5214 
  5215   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5216     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5217 
  5218 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5219 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5220 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5221 
  5222 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5223 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5224 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5225 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5226 via "isabelle emacs".
  5227 
  5228 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5229 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5230 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5231 
  5232 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5233 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5234 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5235 
  5236 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5237 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5238 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5239 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5240 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5241 
  5242 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5243 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5244 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5245 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5246 
  5247 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5248 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5249 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5250 
  5251 
  5252 *** Pure ***
  5253 
  5254 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5255 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5256 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5257 
  5258 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5259 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5260 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5261 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5262 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5263 
  5264 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5265 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5266 useful in locale declarations.
  5267 
  5268 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5269 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5270 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5271 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5272 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5273 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5274 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5275 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5276 no longer generated.
  5277 
  5278 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5279 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5280 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5281 
  5282 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5283 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5284 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5285 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5286 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5287 
  5288 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5289 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5290 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5291 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5292 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5293 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5294 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5295 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5296 
  5297 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5298 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5299 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5300 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5301 
  5302 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5303 
  5304 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5305 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5306 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5307 
  5308 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5309 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5310 
  5311 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5312 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5313 in HOL, write
  5314 
  5315     class foo = ...
  5316 
  5317 instead of
  5318 
  5319     class foo = type + ...
  5320 
  5321 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5322 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5323 
  5324 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5325 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5326 
  5327 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5328 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5329 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5330 
  5331 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5332 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5333 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5334 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5335 directly in regular applications.
  5336 
  5337 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5338 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5339 
  5340 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5341 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5342 
  5343 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5344 theory context.
  5345 
  5346 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5347 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5348 
  5349 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5350 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5351 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5352 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5353 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5354 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5355 
  5356   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5357 
  5358 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5359 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5360 normalization.
  5361 
  5362 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5363 addressing etc.
  5364 
  5365 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5366 
  5367   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5368   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5369 
  5370 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5371 
  5372   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5373      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5374      parts of the code generator framework).
  5375 
  5376   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5377      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5378      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5379 
  5380 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5383 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5384 
  5385 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5386 patterns, e.g.
  5387 
  5388     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5389 
  5390 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5391 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5392 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5393 hyphen:
  5394 
  5395     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5396 
  5397 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5398 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5399 
  5400 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5401 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5402 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5403 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5404 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5405 higher-order unification.
  5406 
  5407 
  5408 *** Document preparation ***
  5409 
  5410 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5411 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5412 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5413 
  5414 
  5415 *** HOL ***
  5416 
  5417 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5418 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5419 
  5420 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5421 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5422 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5423 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5424 Main, as before.
  5425 
  5426 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5427 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5428 
  5429 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5430 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5431 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5432 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5433 
  5434 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5435 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5436 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5437 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5438 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5439 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5440 
  5441 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5442 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5443 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5444 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5445 
  5446 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5447 menu.
  5448 
  5449 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5450 (contains the empty clause).
  5451 
  5452 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5453 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5454 
  5455 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5456 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5457 
  5458 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5459 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5460 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5461 
  5462 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5463 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5464 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5465 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5466 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5467 
  5468 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5469 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5470 
  5471 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5472 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5473 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5474 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5475 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5476 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5477 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5478 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5479 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5480 
  5481 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5482 
  5483 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5484 
  5485 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5486 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5487 
  5488 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5489 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5490 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5491 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5492 
  5493 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5494 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5495 
  5496     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5497     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5498     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5499     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5500     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5501     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5502     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5503     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5504 
  5505 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5506 theory Set.
  5507 
  5508 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5509 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5510 
  5511 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5512 
  5513 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5514 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5515 
  5516 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5517 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5518 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5519 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5520 allowed. For examples see
  5521 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5522 
  5523 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5524 
  5525 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5527 
  5528 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5529 structure:
  5530 
  5531     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5532     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5533     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5534     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5535     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5536     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5537     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5538     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5539     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5540     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5541     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5542     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5543     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5544     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5545     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5546     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5547     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5548     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5549     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5550     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5551     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5552     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5553     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5554     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5555     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5556     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5557     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5558     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5559     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5560     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5561     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5562     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5563     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5564 
  5565     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5566     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5567     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5568     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5569     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5570     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5571     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5572     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5573     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5574     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5575 
  5576     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5577     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5578     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5579     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5580     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5581     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5582 
  5583 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5584 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5585 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5586 
  5587 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5588 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5589 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5590 
  5591 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5592 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5593 
  5594 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5595 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5596 
  5597 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5598 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5599 proofs, e.g.
  5600 
  5601   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5602 
  5603 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5604 
  5605 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5606 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5607 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5608 
  5609 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5610 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5612 
  5613 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5614 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5615 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5617 
  5618 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5619 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5620 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5621 preorder_class.*.
  5622 
  5623 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5624 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5625 
  5626 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5627 
  5628   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5629 
  5630 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5631 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5632 fold_image.
  5633 
  5634 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5635 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5636 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5637 the former will disappear at some point.
  5638 
  5639 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5640 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5641 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5642 
  5643 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5644 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5645 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5646 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5647 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5648 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5649 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5650 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5651 
  5652 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5653 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5654 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5655 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5656 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5657 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5658 
  5659     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5660     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5661     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5662     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5663     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5664     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5665     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5666 
  5667 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5668 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5669 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5670 
  5671 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5672 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5673 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5674 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5675 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5676 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5677 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5678 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5679 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5680 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5681 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5682 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5683 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5684 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5685 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5686 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5687 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5688 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5689 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5690 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5691 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5692 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5693 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5694 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5695 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5696 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5697 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5698 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5699 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5700 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5701 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5702 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5703 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5704 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5705 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5706 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5707 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5708 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5709 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5710 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5711 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5712 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5713 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5714 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5715 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5716 
  5717 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5718 
  5719 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5720 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5721 
  5722 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5723 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5724 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5725 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5726 
  5727 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5728 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5729 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5730 theory RealVector.
  5731 
  5732 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5733 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5734 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5735 and inner products are included.
  5736 
  5737 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5738 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5739 supported.
  5740 
  5741 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5742 first diagonalization argument.
  5743 
  5744 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5745 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5746 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5747 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5748 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5749 
  5750     hide (open) const gcd
  5751     abbreviation gcd where
  5752       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5753     notation (output)
  5754       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5755 
  5756 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5757 
  5758 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5759 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5760 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5761 
  5762 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5763 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5764 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5765 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5766 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5767 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5768 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5769 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5770 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5771 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5772 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5773 cases.
  5774 
  5775 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5776 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5777 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5778 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5779 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5780 
  5781     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5782     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5783     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5784     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5785     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5786 
  5787 
  5788 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5789 
  5790 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5791 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5792 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5793 
  5794 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5795 
  5796 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5797 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5798 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5799 
  5800 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5801 
  5802 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5803 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5804 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5805 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5806 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5807 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5808 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5809 
  5810 
  5811 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5812 
  5813 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5814 
  5815 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5816 theory targets.
  5817 
  5818 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5819 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5820 'inductive' etc.
  5821 
  5822 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5823 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5824 
  5825 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5826 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5827 
  5828 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5829 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5830 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5831 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5832 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5833 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5834 the algorithm W:
  5835 
  5836  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5837  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5838          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5839 
  5840 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5841 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5842 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5843 
  5844 
  5845 *** HOLCF ***
  5846 
  5847 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5848 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5849 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5850 
  5851 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5852 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5853 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5854 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5855 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5856 
  5857 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5858 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5859 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5860 
  5861 
  5862 *** ZF ***
  5863 
  5864 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5865 
  5866 
  5867 *** ML ***
  5868 
  5869 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5870 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5871 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5872 5.2.1!
  5873 
  5874 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5875 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5876 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5877 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5878 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5879 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5880 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5881 
  5882 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5883 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5884 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5885 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5886 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5887 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5888 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5889 
  5890 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5891 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5892 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5893 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5894 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5895 
  5896 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5897 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5898 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5899 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5900 Method.add_method.
  5901 
  5902 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5903 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5904 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5905 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5906 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5907 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5908 
  5909 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5910 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5911 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5912 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5913 examples.
  5914 
  5915 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5916 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5917 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5918 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5919 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5920 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5921 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5922 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5923 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5924 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5925 
  5926 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5927 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5928 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5929 
  5930 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5931 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5932 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5933 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5934 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5935 resort for legacy applications.
  5936 
  5937 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5938 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5939 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5940 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5941 explicit runtime argument.
  5942 
  5943 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5944 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5945 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5946 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5947 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5948 
  5949 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5950 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5951 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5952 theory state.
  5953 
  5954 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5955 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5956 
  5957   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5958   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5959   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5960   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5961   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5962   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5963   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5964   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5965   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5966   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5967 
  5968 
  5969 *** System ***
  5970 
  5971 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5972 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5973 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5974 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5975 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5976 
  5977 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5978 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5979 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5980 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5981 
  5982 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5983 
  5984 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5985 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5986 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5987 prover operations.
  5988 
  5989 
  5990 
  5991 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5992 -------------------------------
  5993 
  5994 *** General ***
  5995 
  5996 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5997 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5998 
  5999 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6000 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6001 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6002 provides a proper context already.
  6003 
  6004 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6005 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6006 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6007 
  6008 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6009 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6010 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6011 swap theory imports.
  6012 
  6013 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6014 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6015 
  6016 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6017 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6018 white space without escapes.
  6019 
  6020 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6021 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6022 "foo_bar".
  6023 
  6024 
  6025 *** Pure ***
  6026 
  6027 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6028 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6029 
  6030 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6031 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6032 
  6033 (1) unused_thms
  6034      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6035 
  6036 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6037      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6038      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6039 
  6040 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6041      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6042      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6043      their ancestors.
  6044 
  6045 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6046 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6047 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6048 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6049 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6050 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6051 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6052 
  6053 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6054 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6055 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6056 
  6057 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6058 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6059 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6060 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6061 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6062 
  6063 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6064 
  6065 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6066 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6067 update of theories within ML code.
  6068 
  6069 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6070 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6071 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6072 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6073 
  6074 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6075 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6076 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6078 
  6079 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6080 
  6081 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6082 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6083 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6084 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6085 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6086 
  6087 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6088 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6089 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6090 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6091 situations.
  6092 
  6093 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6094 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6095 proof text.
  6096 
  6097 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6098 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6099 
  6100 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6101 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6102 predicates.
  6103 
  6104 
  6105 *** Document preparation ***
  6106 
  6107 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6108 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6109 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6110 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6111 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6112 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6113 
  6114 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6115 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6116 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6117 
  6118 
  6119 *** HOL ***
  6120 
  6121 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6122 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6123 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6124 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6125 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6126 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6127 
  6128 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6129 with multithreading.
  6130 
  6131 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6132 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6133 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6134 
  6135 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6136 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6137 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6138 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6139 
  6140 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6141 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6142 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6143 and makes them available separately.  See
  6144 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6145 
  6146 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6147 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6148 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6149 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6150 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6151 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6152 type and generates all solutions by Prolog-style backward proof using
  6153 the declared rules.
  6154 
  6155 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6156 
  6157   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6158 
  6159 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6160 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6161 
  6162 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6163 
  6164   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6165 
  6166   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6167     definitions on => and bool.
  6168 
  6169   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6170     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6171     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6172 
  6173       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6174       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6175       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6176       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6177       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6178       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6179       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6180       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6181 
  6182   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6183     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6184     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6185 
  6186   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6187     The proof pattern
  6188 
  6189       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6190       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6191 
  6192     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6193     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6194 
  6195       have "EX S. P S"
  6196       proof
  6197         show "P S" <...>
  6198       qed
  6199 
  6200   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6201     The proof pattern
  6202 
  6203       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6204       also have "S = T" <...>
  6205       finally have "P T" .
  6206 
  6207     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6208     must be replaced by something like
  6209 
  6210       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6211       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6212       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6213 
  6214   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6215     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6216 
  6217       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6218 
  6219     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6220     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6221     type of the form
  6222 
  6223       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6224 
  6225     rather than
  6226 
  6227       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6228 
  6229 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6230 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6231 
  6232 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6233 
  6234 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6235 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6237 
  6238 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6239 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6240 
  6241 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6242 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6243 
  6244 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6245 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6246 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6247 
  6248 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6249 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6250 
  6251   less_trans
  6252   less_linear
  6253   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6254   le_less_trans
  6255   less_le_trans
  6256   less_not_sym
  6257   less_asym
  6258 
  6259 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6260 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6261 and different variable names.
  6262 
  6263 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6264 
  6265 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6266 finite maps.