NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Mar 25 14:52:35 2014 +0100 (2014-03-25)
changeset 56276 9e2d5e3debd3
parent 56275 600f432ab556
child 56279 b4d874f6c6be
permissions -rw-r--r--
some SML examples;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    29 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    30 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    31 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    32 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    33 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    34 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    35 proof tools.
    36 
    37 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
    38 "exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
    39 "declare [[exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    40 
    41 * Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  See also
    45 ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for some basic examples.
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    51 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    52 
    53 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    54 auxiliary ML files.
    55 
    56 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    57 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    58 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    59 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    60 antiquotations.
    61 
    62 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    63 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    64 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    65 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    66 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    67 to the system option "completion_limit").
    68 
    69 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    70 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    71 
    72 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    73 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    74 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    75 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    76 
    77 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    78 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    79 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    80 
    81 
    82 *** Pure ***
    83 
    84 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
    85 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
    86 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
    87 renaming needs to be applied:
    88 
    89   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
    90   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
    91   all            ~>  Pure.all
    92   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
    93   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
    94 
    95 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
    96 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
    97 old constants:
    98 
    99 setup {*
   100   fn thy => thy
   101     |> Sign.root_path
   102     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   103     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   104     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   105     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   106 *}
   107 
   108 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   109 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   110 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   111 
   112 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   113 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   114 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   115 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   116 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   117 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   118 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   119 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   120 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   121 
   122 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   123 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   124 instantiated theorem.
   125 
   126 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   127 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   128 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   129 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   130 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   131 
   132   attribute_setup standard =
   133     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   134 
   135 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   136 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   137 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   138 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   139 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   140 
   141 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   142 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   143 differently).
   144 
   145 
   146 *** HOL ***
   147 
   148 * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   152 with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalized and replace
   153 former INT_cong, SUP_cong.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   154 
   155 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   156 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157 
   158 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   159 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160 
   161 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   165   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   166   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   167   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   168   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   169   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   172   can now deal with conjunctions.
   173   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   174   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   175   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   176 
   177 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * HOL-Word:
   180   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   181   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   182   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   183   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   184   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   185 
   186 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   190 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   193 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   194 
   195 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   196 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   199   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   200   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   201   Theory renamings:
   202     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   203     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   204     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   205     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   206     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   207     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   208     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   209     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   210     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   211     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   212     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   213     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   214     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   215     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   216     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   217     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   218     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   219     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   220     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   221     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   222     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   223     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   224   New theories:
   225     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   226     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   227     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   228     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   229     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   230   Discontinued theories:
   231     BNF/BNF.thy
   232     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   233   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * New (co)datatype package:
   236   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   237   * Renamed commands:
   238       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   239       primrec_new ~> primrec
   240       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   241     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   243     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   244     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   246     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   247     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Old datatype package:
   250   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   251     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   252     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   254     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   258   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   259   datatype package.
   260   Renamed constants:
   261     Option.set ~> set_option
   262     Option.map ~> map_option
   263     option_rel ~> rel_option
   264     option_rec ~> case_option
   265   Renamed theorems:
   266     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   267     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   268     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   269     option.recs ~> option.case
   270     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   271     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   272     map.simps ~> list.map
   273     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   274     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   275     the.simps ~> option.sel
   276   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   279     sum_map ~> map_sum
   280     map_pair ~> map_prod
   281     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   282     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   283     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   284     set_rel ~> rel_set
   285     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   286     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   287     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   288     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   289 
   290 * New theory:
   291     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   292 
   293 * Theory reorganizations:
   294   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   295 
   296 * SMT module:
   297   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   298     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   299     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   300     elsewhere.
   301 
   302 * Sledgehammer:
   303   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   304   - New option:
   305       smt_proofs
   306   - Renamed options:
   307       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   308       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   309     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * Metis:
   312   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   313     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   316 
   317 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   320 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   321 
   322 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   323 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   324 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   325 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   326 
   327 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   331 with the given constants.
   332 
   333 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   334 
   335 Fact consolidations:
   336     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   337     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   338     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   339     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   340     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   341     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   342     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   343     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   344     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   345     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   346     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   347     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   348     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   349     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   350     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   351     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   352     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   353     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   354     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   355     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   356     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   357     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   358     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   359     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   360     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   361     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   362     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   363     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   364     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   365     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   366     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   367     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   368     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   369     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   370     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   371     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   372     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   373     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   374     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   375     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   376 
   377 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   378 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   379 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   380 
   381 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   382 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   383 
   384 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   385 
   386 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   387 
   388 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   395 operations on records.
   396 
   397 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   401     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   403 
   404 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   405     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   406     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   410   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   411   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   412   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   413     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   414   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   415     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   416   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   417 INCOMPATBILITY.
   418 
   419 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   420     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   421     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   422     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   423     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 
   426 * Fact name consolidation:
   427     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   428     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   429     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   430     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   431     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   433 
   434 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   435 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   436 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   437 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   438 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   439 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   440 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   441 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   442 
   443 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   444 
   445 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   446 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   447 
   448 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   449 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   450 
   451 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   452 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   453 or the brute way with
   454 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   455 
   456 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   457 
   458 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   459 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   460 
   461 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   462 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   463 
   464 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   465 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   466 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   467 INCOMPATIBILITY
   468 
   469 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   470   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   471   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   472   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   473   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   474   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   475   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   476   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   477   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   478   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   479   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   480   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   481 
   482   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   483 
   484   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   485     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   486     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   487     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   488     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   492   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   493 
   494   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   495 
   496   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   497 
   498   - removed constant isDiff
   499 
   500   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   501     syntax.
   502 
   503   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   504 
   505   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   506 
   507   - Other renamings:
   508     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   509     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   510     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   511     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   512     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   513     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515 
   516 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   517 
   518 * Nitpick:
   519   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   520     infinite values.
   521   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   522     "Rep_Integ".
   523   - Removed "std" option.
   524   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   525     "hide_types".
   526 
   527 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   528   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   529   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   530     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   531     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   532     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   533     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   534     intervals.
   535 
   536 
   537 *** Scala ***
   538 
   539 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   540 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   541 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   542 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   543 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   544 
   545 
   546 *** ML ***
   547 
   548 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   549 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   550 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   551 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   552 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   553 of schematic variables.
   554 
   555 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   556 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   557 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   558 formal context.
   559 
   560 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   561 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   562 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   563 actually belongs to it).
   564 
   565 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   566 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   567 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   568 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   569 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   570 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   571 
   572 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   573 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   574 
   575 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   576 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   577 
   578 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   579 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   580 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   581 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   582 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   583 
   584 
   585 *** System ***
   586 
   587 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   588 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   589 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   590 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   591 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   592 
   593 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   594 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   595 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   596 
   597 
   598 
   599 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   600 -------------------------------------
   601 
   602 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   603 
   604 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   605 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   606 
   607 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   608 after edits surrounding the command location.
   609 
   610 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   611 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   612 e.g. out-of-memory).
   613 
   614 
   615 *** System ***
   616 
   617 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   618 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   619 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   620 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   621 
   622 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   623 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   624 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   625 
   626 
   627 
   628 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   629 -------------------------------------
   630 
   631 *** General ***
   632 
   633 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   634 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   635 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   638 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   639 
   640 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   641 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   642 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   643 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   644 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   645 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   646 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   647 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   648 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   649 syntax.
   650 
   651 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   652 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   653 
   654 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   655 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   656 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   657 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   658 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   659 
   660 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   664 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   665 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   666 
   667 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   668 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   669 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   670 
   671 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   672 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   673 
   674 
   675 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   676 
   677 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   678 Documentation panel.
   679 
   680 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   681 documentation.
   682 
   683 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   684 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   685 
   686 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   687 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   688 normal editing and checking process.
   689 
   690 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   691 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   692 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   693 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   694 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   695 
   696 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   697 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   698 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   699 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   700 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   701 
   702 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   703 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   704 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   705 
   706 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   707 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   709 to resolve conflict.
   710 
   711 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   712 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   713 
   714 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   715 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   716 such command executions while editing.
   717 
   718 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   719 document content.
   720 
   721 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   722 toplevel theorem statements.
   723 
   724 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   725 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   726 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   727 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   728 
   729 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   730 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   731 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   732 
   733 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   734 / Global Options / Appearance".
   735 
   736 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   737 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   738 
   739 
   740 *** Pure ***
   741 
   742 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   743 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   744 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   745 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   746 details.
   747 
   748 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   749 
   750 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   751 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   752 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   753 
   754 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   756 
   757 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   758 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   759 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   760 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   763 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   764 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   767 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   768 
   769 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   770 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   771 situations.
   772 
   773 
   774 *** HOL ***
   775 
   776 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   777 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   781 
   782 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   783 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   784 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   785 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   786 
   787   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   788 
   789 * Code generator:
   790   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   791     'code_instance'.
   792   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   793     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   794 
   795 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   796 examples.
   797 
   798 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   799 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   800 to distinguish both when desired.
   801 
   802 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   803 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   804 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   805 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   808 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   809 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   810 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   811 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   812 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   813 
   814 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   815 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   816 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   817 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   818 
   819 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   820 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   821 
   822 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   823 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   824 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   825 
   826 * Lifting:
   827   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   828     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   829       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   830       transfer rules
   831     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   832       correspondence relation can be generated
   833     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   834       parametricity
   835     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   836   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   837   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   838     copies
   839   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   840     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   841     anonymous context)
   842   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   843     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   844   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   845     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   846   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   847     INCOMPATIBILITY
   848 
   849 * Transfer:
   850   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   851     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   852   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   853   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   854     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   855   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   856 
   857 * Reification and reflection:
   858   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   859     "Reification".
   860   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   861   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   863 
   864 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   865   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   866     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   867     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   868   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   869     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   870   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   871     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   872     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   873     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   874     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   875     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   876     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   877     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   878   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   879     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   880   - Fact renames:
   881       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   882       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   886 
   887 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   888 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   889 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   893 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   894 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   895 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   896 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   897 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   898 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   899 lemmas.
   900 
   901 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   902 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   903 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   906 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   907 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   908 
   909 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   910 top and bottom elements.
   911 
   912 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   913 
   914 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   915 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   916 
   917  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   918    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   919    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   920 
   921  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   922    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   923    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   924 
   925    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   926    arbitrary filter.
   927 
   928  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   929    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   930    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   931    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   932    on a compact set.
   933 
   934  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   935    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   936    linear_continuum_topology).
   937 
   938  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   939    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   940    on all sequences converging to x.
   941 
   942  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   943    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   944    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   945    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   946    left or right.
   947 
   948  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   949 
   950      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   951 
   952  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   953    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   954 
   955  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   956    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   957    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   958    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   959    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   960    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   961 
   962  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   963 
   964    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   965 
   966    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   967      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   968 
   969    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   970 
   971    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   972      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   973 
   974    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   975 
   976    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   977 
   978  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   979 
   980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   981 
   982 * Nitpick:
   983   - Added option "spy".
   984   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   985 
   986 * Sledgehammer:
   987   - Renamed option:
   988       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   989     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   990   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   991   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   992   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   993 
   994 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   995 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   996 
   997 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   998   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   999   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1000     generated code.
  1001   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1002   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1003   - Fact renames:
  1004     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1005     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1006     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1007 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1008 
  1009 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1010 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1011 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1012 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1013 
  1014 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1015 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1016 
  1017 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1020 
  1021     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1022     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1023 
  1024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1027 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1028 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1029 
  1030 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1031 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1032 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1033 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1034 
  1035 * HOL-BNF:
  1036   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1037     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1038     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1039     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1040   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1041     coinduct).
  1042   - Renamed keywords:
  1043     data ~> datatype_new
  1044     codata ~> codatatype
  1045     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1046   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1047     discs ~> disc
  1048     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1049     map_id' ~> map_id
  1050     sels ~> sel
  1051     set_map' ~> set_map
  1052     sets ~> set
  1053 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 
  1056 *** ML ***
  1057 
  1058 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1059 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1060 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1061 Examples.thy in particular.
  1062 
  1063 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1064 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1065 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1066 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1067 
  1068 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1069 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1070 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1071 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1075 
  1076     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1077     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1078 
  1079 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1082 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1083 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1084 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1085 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1086 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1087 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1088 
  1089 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1090 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1091 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1092 clasets separately from the context.
  1093 
  1094 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1095 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1096 
  1097 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1098 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1099 
  1100 
  1101 *** System ***
  1102 
  1103 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1104 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1107 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1110 settings variable.
  1111 
  1112 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1113 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1114 always pdf.
  1115 
  1116 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1117 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1118 
  1119 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1120 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1121 
  1122 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1123 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1124 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1125 
  1126 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1127 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1128 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1129 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1130 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1131 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1132 
  1133 
  1134 
  1135 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1136 -----------------------------------
  1137 
  1138 *** General ***
  1139 
  1140 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1141 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1142 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1143 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1144 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1145 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1146 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1147 
  1148 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1149 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1150 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1151 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1152 
  1153 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1154 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1155 
  1156 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1157 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1158 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1159 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1160 dependencies properly.
  1161 
  1162 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1163 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1164 
  1165 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1166 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1167 
  1168 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1169 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1170 and "class ... context ...".
  1171 
  1172 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1173 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1174 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1175 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1176 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1177 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1178 
  1179 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1180 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1181 
  1182 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1183 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1184 
  1185 
  1186 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1187 
  1188 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1189 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1190 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1191 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1192 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1193 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1194 
  1195 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1196 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1197 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1198 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1199 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1200 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1201 
  1202 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1203 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1204 browser on demand.
  1205 
  1206 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1207 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1208 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1209 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1210 
  1211 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1212 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1213 
  1214 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1215 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1216 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1217 potentially infinite message streams.
  1218 
  1219 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1220 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1221 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1222 schemes.
  1223 
  1224 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1225 symbols.
  1226 
  1227 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1228 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1229 
  1230 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1231 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1232 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1233 
  1234 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1235 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1236 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1237 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1238 
  1239 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1240 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1241 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1242 
  1243 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1244 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1245 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1246 Isabelle distribution.
  1247 
  1248 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1249 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1250 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1251 
  1252 
  1253 *** Pure ***
  1254 
  1255 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1256 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1257 
  1258 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1259 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1260 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1263 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1264 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1265 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1266 with some care where this is really required.
  1267 
  1268 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1269 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1270 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1271 
  1272   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1273 
  1274 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1275 a Hasse diagram.
  1276 
  1277 
  1278 *** HOL ***
  1279 
  1280 * Sledgehammer:
  1281 
  1282   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1283     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1284   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1285   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1286   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1287   - Renamed options:
  1288       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1289       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1290       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1291       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1292 
  1293 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1294 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1295 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1296 
  1297 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * Lifting:
  1301   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1302   - quot_del attribute
  1303   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1304 
  1305 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1306 expressions.
  1307 
  1308 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1309 pointfree expressions.
  1310 
  1311 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1312 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1313 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1314 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1318 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1319 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1320 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1321 accordingly.
  1322 
  1323 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1324 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1325 
  1326 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1327 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1328 
  1329 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1330 
  1331 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1332 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1333 
  1334 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1335 
  1336 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1337 
  1338   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1339   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1340 
  1341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1344 
  1345   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1346   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1347 
  1348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349 
  1350 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1351 
  1352   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1353     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1354     output f x converges to G.
  1355 
  1356   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1357     infinity (at_bot).
  1358 
  1359   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1360     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1361 
  1362   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1363     at_top".
  1364 
  1365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1368 lattice type classes.
  1369 
  1370 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1371 
  1372     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1373     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1374 
  1375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1376 
  1377 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1378 changes as follows.
  1379 
  1380   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1381 
  1382       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1383       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1384 
  1385   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1386     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1387     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1388     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1389 
  1390   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1391     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1392     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1393 
  1394   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1395     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1396     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1397     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1398 
  1399   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1400     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1401 
  1402       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1403       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1404       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1405       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1406       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1407       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1408       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1409       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1410       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1411       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1412       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1413       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1414       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1415       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1416       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1417       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1418 
  1419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1422 
  1423 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1424 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1425 
  1426 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1427 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1428 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1429 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1430 
  1431   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1432   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1433   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1434   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1435   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1436   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1437   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1438   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1439   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1440   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1441 
  1442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1445 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1446 Data").
  1447 
  1448 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1449 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1450 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1451 code.
  1452 
  1453 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1454 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1455 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1459 
  1460 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1461 
  1462 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1463 
  1464   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1465   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1466 
  1467 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1468 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1469 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1470 
  1471   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1472 
  1473     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1474     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1475     cart_base i  removed
  1476     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1477 
  1478   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1479 
  1480   Renamed lemmas:
  1481 
  1482     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1483     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1484     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1485     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1486     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1487     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1488     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1489     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1490     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1491     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1492 
  1493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 * HOL/Probability:
  1496 
  1497   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1498 
  1499   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1500     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1501     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1502 
  1503   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1504     projective family).
  1505 
  1506 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1507 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1508 
  1509 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1510 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1511 datatypes.
  1512 
  1513 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1514 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1515 
  1516 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1517 trees for the code generator.
  1518 
  1519 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1520 Lifting/Transfer.
  1521 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1522 
  1523 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 
  1527 *** Document preparation ***
  1528 
  1529 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1530 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1531 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1532 
  1533 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1534 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1535 
  1536 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1537 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1538 document/root.tex.
  1539 
  1540 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1541 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1542 
  1543 
  1544 *** ML ***
  1545 
  1546 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1547 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1548 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1549 
  1550 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1551 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1552 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1553 
  1554 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1555 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1556 necessarily printing visible text.
  1557 
  1558 
  1559 *** System ***
  1560 
  1561 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1562 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1563 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1564 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1565 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1566 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1567 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1568 
  1569 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1570 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1571 
  1572   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1573 
  1574 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1575 
  1576 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1577 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1578 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1579 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1580 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1581 
  1582 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1583 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1584 
  1585 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1586 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1587 
  1588 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1592 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1593 version of Isabelle.
  1594 
  1595 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1596 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1597 
  1598 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1599 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1600 for home-made settings.
  1601 
  1602 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1603 
  1604 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1605 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1606 configuration.
  1607 
  1608 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1609 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1610 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1611 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1612 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1613 
  1614 
  1615 
  1616 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1617 ------------------------------
  1618 
  1619 *** General ***
  1620 
  1621 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1622 
  1623   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1624     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1625   - markup for bound variables
  1626   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1627   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1628   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1629     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1630 
  1631 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1632 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1633 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1634 
  1635 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1636 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1637 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1638 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1639 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1640 
  1641   context
  1642     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1643     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1644   begin
  1645 
  1646   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1647 
  1648   end
  1649 
  1650   thm my_trans
  1651 
  1652 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1653 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1654 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1655 
  1656 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1657 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1658 
  1659 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1660 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1661 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1662 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1663 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1664 
  1665 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1666 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1667 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1668 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1669 indices of schematic variables.
  1670 
  1671 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1672 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1673 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1674 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1675 etc. was exploited.
  1676 
  1677 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1678 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1679 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1680 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1681 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1682 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1683 
  1684 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1685 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1686 manual.
  1687 
  1688 
  1689 *** Pure ***
  1690 
  1691 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1692 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1693 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1694 
  1695 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1696 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1697 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1698 undocumented feature.)
  1699 
  1700 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1701 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1702 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1703 
  1704   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1705 
  1706   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1707     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1708 
  1709 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1710 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1711 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1712 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1713 
  1714 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1715 
  1716     num ~> num_token
  1717     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1718     xstr ~> str_token
  1719 
  1720 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1721 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1722 position information via constraints).
  1723 
  1724 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1725 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1726 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1729 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1730 
  1731 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1732 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1733 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1734 
  1735 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1736 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1737 
  1738 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1739 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1740 
  1741   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1742 
  1743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1746 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1749 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1750 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1751 
  1752 
  1753 *** HOL ***
  1754 
  1755 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1756 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1757 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1758 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1759 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1760 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1761 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1762 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1763 possible.
  1764 
  1765 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1766 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1767 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1768 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1769 
  1770 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1771 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1774 
  1775 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1776 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1777 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1778 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1779 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1780 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1781 
  1782   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1783     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1784 
  1785   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1786     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1787     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1788 
  1789   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1790     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1791 
  1792   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1793     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1794     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1795 
  1796   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1797     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1798 
  1799 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1800 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1801 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1802 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1803 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1804 
  1805   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1806     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1807     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1808     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1809     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1810 
  1811     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1812     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1813 
  1814   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1815     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1816     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1817     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1818     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1819     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1820     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1821     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1822 
  1823   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1824     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1825     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1826     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1827 
  1828   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1829     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1830     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1831     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1832 
  1833   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1834     from type nat to type int.
  1835 
  1836 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1837 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1838 
  1839   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1840     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1841     type.  Example syntax:
  1842 
  1843     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1844       is List.insert
  1845 
  1846     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1847     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1848     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1849     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1850     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1851     by the package.
  1852 
  1853   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1854     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1855     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1856     code generation for each constant.
  1857 
  1858   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1859     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1860     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1861     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1862     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1863 
  1864   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1865     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1866     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1867 
  1868 * Quotient package:
  1869 
  1870   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1871     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1872 
  1873   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1874     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1875 
  1876   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1877     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1878     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1879 
  1880   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1881     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1882 
  1883 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1884 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1885 
  1886 * Quickcheck:
  1887 
  1888   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1889     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1890     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1891     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1892     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1893 
  1894     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1895     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1896     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1897 
  1898     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1899     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1900 
  1901     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1902     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1903     show genuine counterexamples.
  1904 
  1905   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1906     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1907 
  1908     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1909     constructors of that type.
  1910 
  1911   - Support for multisets.
  1912 
  1913   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1914 
  1915   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1916     conjectures in a locale context.
  1917 
  1918 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1919 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1920 
  1921 * Sledgehammer:
  1922   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1923     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1924   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1925   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1926     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1927   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1928   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1929   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1930   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1931 
  1932 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1933 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1934 
  1935 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1936 
  1937 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938 
  1939 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1940 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1941 
  1942   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1943 
  1944 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1945 a list and a nat.
  1946 
  1947 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1948 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1949 
  1950 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1951 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1952 default.
  1953 
  1954 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1955 
  1956   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1957 
  1958 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1959 
  1960 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1961 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1962 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1963 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1964 one_case.
  1965 
  1966 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1967 the result of the fact expression.
  1968 
  1969 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1970 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1971 of some relation theorems:
  1972 
  1973   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1974   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1975   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1976   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1977   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1978   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1979 
  1980 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1981 
  1982 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1983 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1984 
  1985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1986 
  1987 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1988 to match the constant's name:
  1989 
  1990   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1991   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1992   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1993   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1994   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1995   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1996   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1997   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1998   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1999   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2000   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2001   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2002   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2003   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2004   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2005   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2006   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2007   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2008   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2009   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2010   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2011   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2012   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2013   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2014 
  2015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2016 
  2017 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2018 and corresponding theorem names:
  2019 
  2020   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2021 
  2022   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2023 
  2024   - Renamed theorems:
  2025 
  2026     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2027     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2028     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2029     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2030     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2031     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2032     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2033     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2034     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2035     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2036     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2037     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2038     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2039     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2040     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2041     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2042     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2043     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2044     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2045     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2046     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2047     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2048     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2049 
  2050     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2051 
  2052     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2053 
  2054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2057 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2058 
  2059   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2060   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2061   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2062   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2063   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2064   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2065   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2066   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2067   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2068   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2069   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2070   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2071   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2072   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2073   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2074   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2075   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2076   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2077   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2078   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2079   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2080 
  2081 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2082 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083 
  2084 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2085 
  2086 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2087 
  2088   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2089   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2090   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2091   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2092   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2093   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2094   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2095   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2096   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2097   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2098   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2099   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2100   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2101   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2102   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2103   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2104   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2105   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2106 
  2107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108 
  2109 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2110 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2111 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2112 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2113 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2114 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2115 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2116 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2117 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2118 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2119 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2120 
  2121 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2122 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2123 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2124 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2125 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2126 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2127 
  2128 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2129 through option types.
  2130 
  2131 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2132 relations.
  2133 
  2134 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2135 
  2136 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2137 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2138 
  2139   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2140   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2141   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2142   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2143   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2144   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2145   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2146   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2147   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2148   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2149   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2150   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2151   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2152   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2153   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2154   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2155   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2156   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2157   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2158   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2159   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2160   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2161   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2162   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2163   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2164   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2165   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2166   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2167   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2168   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2169   zless_le ~> less_le
  2170   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2171   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2172   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2173 
  2174 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2175 
  2176   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2177 
  2178 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2179 
  2180 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2181 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2182 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2183 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2187 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2188 
  2189 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2190 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2191 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2192 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2193 follows:
  2194 
  2195   Operations:
  2196   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2197   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2198   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2199   del -> rbt_del
  2200   delete -> rbt_delete
  2201   ins -> rbt_ins
  2202   insert -> rbt_insert
  2203   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2204   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2205   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2206   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2207   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2208   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2209   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2210   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2211   union -> rbt_union
  2212   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2213   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2214 
  2215   Lemmas:
  2216   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2217   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2218   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2219   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2220   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2221   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2222   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2223   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2224   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2225   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2226   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2227   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2228   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2229   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2230   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2231   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2232   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2233   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2234   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2235   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2236   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2237   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2238   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2239   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2240   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2241   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2242   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2243   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2244   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2245   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2246   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2247   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2248   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2249   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2250   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2251   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2252   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2253   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2254   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2255   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2256   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2257   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2258   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2259   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2260   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2261   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2262   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2263   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2264   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2265   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2266   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2267   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2268   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2269   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2270   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2271   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2272   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2273   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2274   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2275   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2276   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2277   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2278   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2279   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2280   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2281   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2282   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2283   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2284   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2285   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2286   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2287   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2288   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2289   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2290   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2291   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2292   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2293   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2294   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2295   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2296   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2297   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2298   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2299 
  2300 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2301 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2302 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2303 
  2304   Changed Operations:
  2305   float_abs -> abs
  2306   float_nprt -> nprt
  2307   float_pprt -> pprt
  2308   pow2 -> use powr
  2309   round_down -> float_round_down
  2310   round_up -> float_round_up
  2311   scale -> exponent
  2312 
  2313   Removed Operations:
  2314   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2315 
  2316   Renamed Lemmas:
  2317   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2318   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2319   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2320   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2321   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2322   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2323   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2324   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2325   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2326   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2327   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2328   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2329   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2330   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2331   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2332   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2333   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2334   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2335   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2336   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2337   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2338   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2339   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2340   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2341   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2342   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2343   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2344   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2345   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2346   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2347   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2348   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2349   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2350   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2351   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2352   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2353 
  2354   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2355   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2356   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2357   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2358   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2359   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2360   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2361   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2362   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2363   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2364 
  2365 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2366 association lists with distinct keys.
  2367 
  2368 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2369 annotated commands.
  2370 
  2371 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2372 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2373 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2374 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2377 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2378 instead.
  2379 
  2380   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2381   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2382   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2383   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2384   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2385   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2386   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2387   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2388   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2389   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2390   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2391   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2392   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2393   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2394   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2395   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2396   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2397   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2398   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2399   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2400   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2401   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2402   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2403   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2404   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2405   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2406   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2407   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2408   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2409   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2410   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2411   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2412   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2413   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2414   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2415   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2416   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2417   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2418   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2419   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2420   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2421 
  2422 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2423 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2424 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2425 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2426 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2427 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2428 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2429 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2430 
  2431 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2432 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2433 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2434 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2435 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2436 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2437 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2438 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2439 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2440 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2441 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2442 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444   Renamed constants:
  2445   measure -> emeasure
  2446   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2447   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2448   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2449   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2450 
  2451   Removed locales:
  2452   completeable_measure_space
  2453   finite_measure_space
  2454   finite_prob_space
  2455   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2456   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2457   finite_sigma_algebra
  2458   measure_space
  2459   pair_finite_prob_space
  2460   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2461   pair_finite_space
  2462   pair_sigma_algebra
  2463   product_sigma_algebra
  2464 
  2465   Removed constants:
  2466   conditional_space
  2467   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2468   image_space
  2469   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2470   pair_measure_generator
  2471   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2472   subvimage
  2473 
  2474   Replacement theorems:
  2475   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2476   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2477   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2478   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2479   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2480   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2481   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2482   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2483   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2484   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2485   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2486   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2487   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2488   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2489   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2490   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2491   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2492   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2493   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2494   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2495   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2496   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2497   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2498   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2499   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2500   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2501   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2502   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2503   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2504   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2505   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2506   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2507   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2508   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2509   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2510   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2511   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2512   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2513   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2514   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2515   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2516   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2517   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2518   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2519   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2520   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2521   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2522   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2523   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2524   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2525   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2526   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2527   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2528   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2529   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2530   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2531   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2532   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2533   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2534   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2535   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2536   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2537   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2538   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2539   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2540   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2541   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2542   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2543   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2544   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2545   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2546   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2547   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2548   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2549   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2550   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2551   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2552   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2553   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2554   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2555   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2556   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2557   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2558   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2559   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2560   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2561   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2562   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2563   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2564   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2565   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2566   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2567   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2568   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2569   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2570   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2571   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2572   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2573   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2574   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2575   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2576   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2577   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2578   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2579   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2580   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2581   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2582   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2583   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2584   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2585   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2586   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2587   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2588   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2589   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2590   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2591   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2592   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2593   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2594   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2595   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2596   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2597   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2598   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2599   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2600   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2601   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2602   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2603 
  2604 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2605 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2606 
  2607 
  2608 *** FOL ***
  2609 
  2610 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2611 
  2612 
  2613 *** ZF ***
  2614 
  2615 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2616 analysis.
  2617 
  2618 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2619 
  2620 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 
  2623 *** ML ***
  2624 
  2625 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2626 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2627 
  2628 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2629 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2630 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2631 
  2632 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2633 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2634 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2635 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2636 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2637 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2638 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2639 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2640 
  2641 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2642 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2643 
  2644 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2645 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2646 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2647 
  2648 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2649 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2650 
  2651 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2652 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2653 context as well.
  2654 
  2655 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2656 
  2657   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2658   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2659   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2660   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2661   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2662   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2663   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2664   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2665   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2666   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2667   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2668   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2669 
  2670 
  2671 *** System ***
  2672 
  2673 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2674 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2675 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2676 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2677 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2678 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2679 the generic user home was intended.
  2680 
  2681 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2682 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2683 
  2684 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2685 (not just JRE).
  2686 
  2687 
  2688 
  2689 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2690 ------------------------------------
  2691 
  2692 *** General ***
  2693 
  2694 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2695 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2696 
  2697   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2698     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2699     files for checking).
  2700 
  2701   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2702     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2703     positions.
  2704 
  2705   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2706     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2707     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2708 
  2709   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2710     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2711     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2712 
  2713   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2714     cores.
  2715 
  2716   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2717     versions (garbage collection).
  2718 
  2719 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2720 including some remaining limitations.
  2721 
  2722 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2723 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2724 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2725 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2726 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2730 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2731 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2732 
  2733 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2734 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2735 usedir option -Q.
  2736 
  2737 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2738 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2739 
  2740   long_names   ~> names_long
  2741   short_names  ~> names_short
  2742   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2743 
  2744 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2745 
  2746   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2747 
  2748 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2749 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2750 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2751 
  2752 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2753 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2754 
  2755 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2756   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2757   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2758   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2759     "Classical Reasoner".
  2760 
  2761 
  2762 *** HOL ***
  2763 
  2764 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2765 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2768 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2769 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2770 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2771 class complete_linorder.
  2772 
  2773 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2774 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2775 
  2776 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2777 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2778 
  2779   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2780   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2781   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2782   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2783   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2784   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2785   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2786   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2787   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2788   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2789   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2790 
  2791 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2792 
  2793   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2794   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2795   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2796   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2797   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2798   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2799   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2800   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2801   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2802   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2803   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2804   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2805   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2806   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2807   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2808   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2809 
  2810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2811 
  2812 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2814 
  2815 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2816 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2817 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2818 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2819 
  2820 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2821 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2822 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2824 
  2825 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2826 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2827 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2828 
  2829 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2830 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2831 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2834 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2835 
  2836 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2837 
  2838     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2839     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2840 
  2841 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2842 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2845 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2848 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2849 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2850 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851 
  2852   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2853   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2854   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2855   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2856   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2857   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2858   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2859 
  2860 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2861 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2862 
  2863   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2864   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2865   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2866   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2867   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2868   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2869   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2870   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2871   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2872   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2873   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2874   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2875   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2876   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2877   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2878   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2879   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2880   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2881   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2882   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2883   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2884   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2885   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2886   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2887   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2888   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2889   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2890   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2891   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2892   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2893   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2894   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2895   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2896   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2897   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2898   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2899   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2900   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2901   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2902   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2903   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2904   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2905   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2906   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2907   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2908   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2909   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2910   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2911   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2912   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2913   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2914   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2915   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2916   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2917   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2918   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2919   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2920   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2921   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2922   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2923   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2924   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2925   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2926   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2927   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2928   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2929   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2930   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2931   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2932   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2933   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2934   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2935   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2936   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2937   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2938   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2939   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2940   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2941   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2942   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2943   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2944   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2945 
  2946 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2947 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2948 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2949 
  2950 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2951 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2952 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2953 
  2954 * Code generation:
  2955 
  2956   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2957     characters in the target language.
  2958 
  2959   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2960     instead.
  2961 
  2962   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2963 
  2964   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2965     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2966 
  2967       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2968 
  2969 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2972 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2973 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2974 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2975 syntax.
  2976 
  2977 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2978 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2979 
  2980 * Nitpick:
  2981   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2982   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2983   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2984     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * Sledgehammer:
  2987   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2988   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2989     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2990   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2991     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2992   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2993     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2995     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2996   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2997     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Metis:
  3000   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3002     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * Command 'try':
  3005   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3006     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3008     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3009 
  3010 * Quickcheck:
  3011   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3012     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3013   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3014     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3015   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3016     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3017     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3018     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3019   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3020     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3021 
  3022 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3023 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3024 
  3025 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3026 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3027 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3028 
  3029 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3030 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3034 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3035 
  3036 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3037 arithmetic.
  3038 
  3039 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3040 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3041 and lattice type classes.
  3042 
  3043 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3044 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3045 
  3046 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3047 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3048 
  3049 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3050 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3051 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3054   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3055   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3056   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3057 
  3058 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3059 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3060 constants:
  3061 
  3062   type inat   ~> type enat
  3063   Fin         ~> enat
  3064   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3065   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3066   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3067 
  3068 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3069 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3072 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3073 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3074 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3075 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3076 
  3077 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3078 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3079 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3080 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3081 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3082 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3083 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3084 
  3085   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3086   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3087   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3088   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3089 
  3090 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3091 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3092 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3095   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3096   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3097   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3098   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3099   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3100   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3101   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3102   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3103   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3104   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3105   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3106   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3107   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3108   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3109   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3110   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3111   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3112   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3113   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3114   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3115   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3116   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3117   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3118   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3119   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3120   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3121   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3122   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3123   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3124   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3125   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3126   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3127   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3128   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3129   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3130   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3131   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3132   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3133   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3134   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3135   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3136   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3137   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3138   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3139   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3140   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3141   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3142   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3143   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3144   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3145 
  3146 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3147   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3148   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3149   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3150   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3151     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3152 
  3153 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3156   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3157   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3158   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3159   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3160   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3161   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3162   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3163   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3164   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3165   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3166   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3167   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3168   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3169   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3170   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3171   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3172   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3173   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3174   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3175   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3176   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3177   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3178   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3179   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3180 
  3181 
  3182 *** Document preparation ***
  3183 
  3184 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3185 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3186 same.
  3187 
  3188 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3189 result.
  3190 
  3191 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3192 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3193 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3194 
  3195 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3196 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3197 
  3198 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3199 like this:
  3200 
  3201   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3202   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3203 
  3204 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3205 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3206 layouts.
  3207 
  3208 
  3209 *** ML ***
  3210 
  3211 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3212 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3213 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3214 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3215 under external program control.
  3216 
  3217 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3218 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3219 
  3220 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3221 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3222 (better known as Proof General).
  3223 
  3224 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3225 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3226 
  3227 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3228 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3229 
  3230 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3231 (including quotes etc.).
  3232 
  3233 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3234 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3235 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3236 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3237 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3238 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3239 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3240 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3241 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3242 
  3243 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3244 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3245 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3246 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3247 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3248 
  3249 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3250 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3251 
  3252 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3253 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3254 
  3255 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3256 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3257 
  3258 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3259 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3260 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3261 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3262 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3263 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3264 proper Proof.context.
  3265 
  3266 
  3267 *** System ***
  3268 
  3269 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3270 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3271 
  3272 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3273 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3274 
  3275 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3276 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3277 
  3278   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3279   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3280   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3281   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3282   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3283 
  3284 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3285 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3288 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3289 example:
  3290 
  3291   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3292 
  3293 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3294 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3295 
  3296 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3297 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3298 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3299 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3300 
  3301 
  3302 
  3303 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3304 ----------------------------------
  3305 
  3306 *** General ***
  3307 
  3308 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3309 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3310 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3311 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3312 like this:
  3313 
  3314   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3315 
  3316 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3317 
  3318 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3319 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3320 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3321 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3322 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3323 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3324 
  3325 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3326 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3327 the following package declarations:
  3328 
  3329   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3330   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3331 
  3332 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3333 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3334 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3335 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3336 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3337 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3338 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3339 
  3340 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3341 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3342 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3343 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3344 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3345 
  3346 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3347 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3348 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3349 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3350 
  3351 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3352 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3353 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3354 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3355 
  3356   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3357 
  3358   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3359   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3360   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3361   show_types                    show_types
  3362   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3363   show_consts                   show_consts
  3364   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3365 
  3366   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3367   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3368   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3369 
  3370   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3371   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3372 
  3373   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3374 
  3375   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3376   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3377   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3378   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3379   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3380 
  3381 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3382 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3383 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3384 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3385 
  3386 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3390   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3391 
  3392 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3393 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3394 float_token.
  3395 
  3396 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3397 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3401 DejaVu Sans.
  3402 
  3403 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3404 
  3405 
  3406 *** Pure ***
  3407 
  3408 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3409 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3410 time.
  3411 
  3412 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3413 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3416 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3419 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3420 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3421 command already provided this functionality.
  3422 
  3423 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3424 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3425 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3426 without interpretations.
  3427 
  3428 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3429 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3430 
  3431 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3432 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3433 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3434 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3435 
  3436 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3437 'definition' instead.
  3438 
  3439 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3440 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3441 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3442 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3443 
  3444 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3445 constructors.
  3446 
  3447 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3448 the local file system.
  3449 
  3450 
  3451 *** HOL ***
  3452 
  3453 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3454 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3455 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3456 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3457 
  3458   declare [[coercion f]]
  3459 
  3460 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3461 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3462 
  3463   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3464 
  3465 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3466 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3467 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3468 other theories like this:
  3469 
  3470   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3471 
  3472 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3473 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3474 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3475 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3476 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3477 for examples.
  3478 
  3479 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3480 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3483 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3484 
  3485 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3486 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3487 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3488 
  3489 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3490 functorial structure of types.
  3491 
  3492 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3493 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3494 
  3495 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3496 languages.
  3497 
  3498 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3499 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3503 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3506 combinators any longer.
  3507 
  3508 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3509 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3510 
  3511 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3512 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3513 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3514 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3515 
  3516   record 'a foo = ...
  3517   ...
  3518   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3519 
  3520 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3521 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3525 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3526 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3527 
  3528 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3529 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3530 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3531 
  3532 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3533 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3536 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3537 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3538 independently.
  3539 
  3540 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3541 counter example search.
  3542 
  3543 * Sledgehammer:
  3544   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3545     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3546     sledgehammer").
  3547   - Renamed commands:
  3548     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3549     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3550     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3551     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552   - Renamed options:
  3553     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3554     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3555     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3556     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3557     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Nitpick:
  3560   - Renamed options:
  3561     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3562     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3563     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3565   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3566   - Added "whack" option.
  3567   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3568   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3569   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3570   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3571     higher cardinalities.
  3572   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3573 
  3574 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3575 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3576 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3577 
  3578     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3579 
  3580 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3581 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3582 
  3583 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3584 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3585 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3586 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3587 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3588 "smt_solver".
  3589 
  3590 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3591 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3592 
  3593 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3594 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3595 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3596 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597 
  3598 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3599   - Renamed:
  3600     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3601     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3602     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603   - Added:
  3604     smt_verbose
  3605     smt_random_seed
  3606     smt_datatypes
  3607     smt_infer_triggers
  3608     smt_monomorph_limit
  3609     cvc3_options
  3610     remote_cvc3_options
  3611     remote_z3_options
  3612     yices_options
  3613 
  3614 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3615 header.
  3616 
  3617 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3618 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3619 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3620 
  3621   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3622 
  3623 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3626 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3631 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3634 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3635 
  3636 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3637 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3640 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3641 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3642 
  3643 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3647 
  3648 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3649 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3652 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3653 for congruent(2)).
  3654 
  3655 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3656 
  3657   types
  3658     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3659     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3660 
  3661   constants
  3662     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3663     True ~> HOL.True
  3664     False ~> HOL.False
  3665     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3666     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3667     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3668     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3669     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3670     The ~> HOL.The
  3671     All ~> HOL.All
  3672     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3673     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3674     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3675     If ~> HOL.If
  3676     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3677     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3678     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3679     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3680     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3681     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3682     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3683     op : ~> Set.member
  3684     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3685 
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3689 
  3690     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3691     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3692     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3693     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3694     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3695     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3696     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3697     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3698 
  3699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * More stylized fact names:
  3702 
  3703   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3704   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3705   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3706   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3707 
  3708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709 
  3710 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3711 
  3712   constants
  3713     null ~> List.null
  3714 
  3715   facts
  3716     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3717     null_empty ~> null_def
  3718 
  3719 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3720 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3721 generation.
  3722 
  3723 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3724 Haskell code.
  3725 
  3726 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3727 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3728 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3729 
  3730 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3731 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3734 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3735 
  3736 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3737 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3738 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3741 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3747 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3748 referred to by its qualified name.
  3749 
  3750   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3751   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3752   product ~>  Enum.product
  3753 
  3754 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3755 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3759 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3760 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3764 sort_key.
  3765 
  3766 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3770 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3771 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3772 
  3773   types
  3774     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3775               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3776               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3777         (depends on your needs)
  3778 
  3779   constants
  3780      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3781      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3782      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3783 
  3784 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3785 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3786 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3787 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3790 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3791 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3792 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3793 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3799 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3800 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3801 
  3802 
  3803 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3804 
  3805 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3806 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3807 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3808 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3809 compatibility.
  3810 
  3811 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3812 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3813 
  3814 
  3815 *** HOLCF ***
  3816 
  3817 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3818 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3819 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3823 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3824 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3825 
  3826   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3827   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3828   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3829 
  3830 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3831 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3832 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3833 
  3834 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3835 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3836 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3837 domain definition now works:
  3838 
  3839   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3840 
  3841 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3842 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3843 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3844 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3845 
  3846   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3847     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3848 
  3849   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3850 
  3851 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3852 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3853 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3856 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3859 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3860 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3861 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3862 
  3863 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3864 
  3865 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3873 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3874 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3875 
  3876 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3877 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3878 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879 
  3880 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3881 still supported as an input translation.
  3882 
  3883 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3884 
  3885   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3886   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3887   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3888   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3889   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3890   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3891   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3892 
  3893 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3894 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3897   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3898   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3899   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3900   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3901   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3902 
  3903 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3904 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905 
  3906 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3907 
  3908   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3909   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3910   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3911   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3912 
  3913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3916 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3919 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3922   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3923   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3924   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3925   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3926   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3927   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3928   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3929   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3930   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3931   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3932   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3933   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3934   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3935   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3936   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3937   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3938   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3939   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3940   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3941 
  3942 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3945   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3946   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3947   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3948   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3949   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3950   box_less             ~> box_below
  3951   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3952   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3953   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3954   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3955   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3956   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3957   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3958   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3959   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3960   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3961   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3962   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3963   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3964   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3965   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3966   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3967   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3968   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3969   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3970   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3971   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3972   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3973   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3974   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3975   up_less              ~> up_below
  3976   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3977   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3978   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3979   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3980   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3981   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3982   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3983   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3984   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3985   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3986   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3987   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3988   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3989 
  3990 
  3991 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3992 
  3993 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3994 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995 
  3996 
  3997 *** ML ***
  3998 
  3999 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4000 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4001 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4002 
  4003 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4004 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4005 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4006 
  4007 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4008 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4009 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4010 
  4011 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4012 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4013 
  4014 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4015 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4016 
  4017 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4018 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4019 
  4020 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4021 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4022 
  4023 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4024 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4025 almost all situations.
  4026 
  4027 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4028 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4029 Isabelle/ML.
  4030 
  4031 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4032 meaning.
  4033 
  4034 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4035 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4036 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4037 
  4038 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4039 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4040 
  4041 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4042 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4043 
  4044 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4045 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4046 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4047 
  4048 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4049 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4050 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4051 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4052 configuration options.
  4053 
  4054 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4055 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4056 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4057 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4058 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4059 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4060 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4061 
  4062 
  4063 
  4064 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4065 ---------------------------------
  4066 
  4067 *** General ***
  4068 
  4069 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4070 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4071 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4072 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4073 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4074 their full internal name.
  4075 
  4076 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4077 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4078 Some hints on upgrading:
  4079 
  4080   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4081     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4082     which are independent of this issue.
  4083 
  4084   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4085     provides the following special forms:
  4086 
  4087       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4088       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4089       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4090 
  4091     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4092     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4093     extra variables".
  4094 
  4095     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4096     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4097     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4098     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4099     "logic".
  4100 
  4101   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4102     antiquotations:
  4103 
  4104       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4105       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4106       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4107       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4108 
  4109   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4110     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4111     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4112     antiquotations.
  4113 
  4114 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4115 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4116 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4117 diagnose syntax problems.
  4118 
  4119 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4120 
  4121 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4122 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4123 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4124 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4125 
  4126 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4127 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4128 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4129 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4132 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4133 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4134 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4135 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4138 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4139 
  4140 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4141 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4142 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4143 
  4144   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4145 
  4146 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4147 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4148 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4149 
  4150 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4151 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4155 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4156 
  4157 
  4158 *** Pure ***
  4159 
  4160 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4161 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4162 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4163 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4164 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4165 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4166 inspect proof terms.
  4167 
  4168 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4169 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4170 are added internally.  For example:
  4171 
  4172   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4173 
  4174 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4175 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4180 'class' instead.
  4181 
  4182 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4183 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4187 invariants.
  4188 
  4189 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4190 user space functionality any longer.
  4191 
  4192 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4193 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4197 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4198 
  4199 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4200 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4201 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4202 
  4203 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4204 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4205 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4206 
  4207 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4208 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 
  4211 *** HOL ***
  4212 
  4213 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4214 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4215 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4216 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4217 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4218 
  4219 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4220 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4221 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4222 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4223 
  4224   fun
  4225     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4226   where
  4227     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4228 
  4229   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4230     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4231 
  4232   quotient_definition
  4233     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4234 
  4235 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4236 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4237 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4238 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4239 
  4240 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4241 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4242 
  4243 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4244 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4245 
  4246 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4250 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4251 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4252 
  4253 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4254 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4261 
  4262 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4263 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4266 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4267 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4270   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4271   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4272   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4273   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4274   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4275   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4276   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4277   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4278   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4279   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4280   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4281   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4282   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4283   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4284   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4285   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4286   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4287   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4288   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4289   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4290   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4291   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4292   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4293   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4294   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4295   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4296   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4297   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4298   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4299 
  4300 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4301 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4302 
  4303 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4304 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4305 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4306 
  4307 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4308 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4309 
  4310 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4311 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4314 
  4315 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4316 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4319 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4322 
  4323 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4324 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4325 
  4326 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4327 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4328 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4329 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4330 
  4331 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4332   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4333   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4334   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336 
  4337 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4338 lattices):
  4339 
  4340     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4341     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4342 
  4343     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4344 
  4345     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4346     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4347     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4348     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4349     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4350     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4351     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4352     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4353     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4354     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4355     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4356     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4357     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4358 
  4359     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4360     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4361     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4362     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4363     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4364     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4365     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4366     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4367     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4368     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4369     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4370     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4371     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4372     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4373     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4374     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4375     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4376     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4377 
  4378   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4379   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4380 
  4381     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4382     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4383     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4384     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4385     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4386 
  4387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4388 
  4389 * Refined field classes:
  4390   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4391     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4392     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4393   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4397   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4398   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4399   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4400     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4401   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4402     equal_neg_zero.
  4403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4406 sets to lattices:
  4407 
  4408   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4409   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4410   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4411   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4412   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4413   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4414   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4415   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4416   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4417   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4418 
  4419 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4420 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4421 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4422 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4423 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4424 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4427 multiset order:
  4428 
  4429   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4430     <= and <;
  4431   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4432     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4433     multiset_order;
  4434   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4435     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4436     generation;
  4437   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4438     if needed.
  4439 
  4440 Renamed:
  4441 
  4442   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4443   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4444   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4445 
  4446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4449 
  4450 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4451 
  4452 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4453 
  4454 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4455 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4456 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4457 
  4458   Constants:
  4459   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4460   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4461   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4462   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4463   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4464   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4465   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4466   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4467   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4468   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4469   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4470   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4471   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4472 
  4473   Lemmas:
  4474   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4475   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4476   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4477   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4478   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4479   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4480   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4481   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4482   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4483   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4484   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4485   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4486   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4487 
  4488 * Sledgehammer:
  4489   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4490     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4491     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4492     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4493     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4494     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4495     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4497   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4498     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4499   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4500     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4501     is still experimental.)
  4502   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4503     full-typed mode.
  4504   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4505 
  4506 * Nitpick:
  4507   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4508   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4509   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4510     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4511   - Added support for quotient types.
  4512   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4513     constructs.
  4514   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4515     "termination" proofs).
  4516   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4517   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4518   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4519   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4520     record getters.
  4521   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4522   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4523   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4524   - Added "atoms" option.
  4525   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4526     problems.
  4527   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4528     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4529     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4530   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4531     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4532   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4533 
  4534 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4535   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4536   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4537   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4538   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4539   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4540   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4541   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4542   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4543   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4544 
  4545 
  4546 *** HOLCF ***
  4547 
  4548 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4549 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4550 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4551 
  4552 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4553 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4554 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4555 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4558 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4559 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4560 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4561 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4562 
  4563 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4564 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4565 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4568 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4571   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4572 
  4573 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4574 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4577   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4578   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4579   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4580   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4581 
  4582 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4583 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4586   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4587   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4588 
  4589 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4590 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4594 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4599 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 
  4602 *** ML ***
  4603 
  4604 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4605 
  4606     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4607     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4608 
  4609     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4610     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4611     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4612     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4613 
  4614     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4615     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4616     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4617 
  4618 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4619 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4620 
  4621 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4622 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4623 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4624 
  4625 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4626 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4627 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4628 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4629 
  4630 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4631 the context or even global references.
  4632 
  4633 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4634 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4635 
  4636 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4637 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4638 
  4639   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4640   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4641   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4642   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4643   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4644   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4645   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4646   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4647   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4648   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4649 
  4650 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4651 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4652 
  4653 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4654 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4655 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4656 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4657 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4658 
  4659 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4660 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4661 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4662 Theory_Data version.
  4663 
  4664 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4665 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4666 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4667 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4668 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4669 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4670 explicitly in rare situations.
  4671 
  4672 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4673 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4677 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4680 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4681 quite rare).
  4682 
  4683 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4684 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4687 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4688 terms.
  4689 
  4690 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4691 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4692 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4693 
  4694 
  4695 *** System ***
  4696 
  4697 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4698 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4699 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4700 
  4701 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4702 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4703 respectively.
  4704 
  4705 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4706 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4707 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4708 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4709 
  4710   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4711 
  4712 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4713 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4714 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4715 component.
  4716 
  4717 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4718 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4719 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4720 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4721 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4722 the user for manual installation.
  4723 
  4724 
  4725 
  4726 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4727 -------------------------------------
  4728 
  4729 *** General ***
  4730 
  4731 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4732 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4733 
  4734 
  4735 *** Pure ***
  4736 
  4737 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4738 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4739 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4740 
  4741 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4742 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4743 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4744 
  4745 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4746 interpretation.
  4747 
  4748 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4749 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 *** Document preparation ***
  4753 
  4754 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4755 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4756 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4757 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4758 
  4759 
  4760 *** HOL ***
  4761 
  4762 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4763 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4764 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4765 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4766 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4767 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4768 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4769 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4770 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4771 
  4772 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4773 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4774 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4775 
  4776 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4777 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4778 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4779 
  4780 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4781 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4782 
  4783 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4784 
  4785 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4786 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4787 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4788 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4789 
  4790 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4791 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4792 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4793 "mirabelle" utility.
  4794 
  4795 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4796 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4797 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4798 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4799 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4800 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4801 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4802 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4803 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4804 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4805 
  4806 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4807 procedure only.
  4808 
  4809 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4810 
  4811 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4812 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4813 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4814 that fail later.
  4815 
  4816 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4817 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4818 
  4819 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4820 the same method as the approximation method.
  4821 
  4822 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4823 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4824 series expansion.
  4825 
  4826 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4827 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4828 
  4829 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4830 reals.
  4831 
  4832 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4833 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4834 
  4835 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4836 fixpoint theorem.
  4837 
  4838 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4839   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4840     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4841   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4842     accordingly
  4843   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4844     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4845   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4846     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4847 
  4848 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4849 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4850 lattice.
  4851 
  4852 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4853 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4854 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4855 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4856 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4857 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4861   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4862     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4863   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4864     le_inf_iff
  4865   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4866     sup_aci)
  4867   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4868   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4869   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4870     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4871     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4872     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4873     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4874     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4875     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4876     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4877     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4878     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4879     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4880   - authentic syntax for
  4881     Set.Pow
  4882     Set.image
  4883   - mere abbreviations:
  4884     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4885     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4886     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4887     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4888     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4889     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4890     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4891     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4892   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4893 
  4894 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4895 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4896 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4897 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4898 
  4899 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4900 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4901 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4902 
  4903 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4904 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4905 
  4906 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4907 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4908 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4909 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4912 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4913 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4914 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4915 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4916 
  4917 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4918 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4920 
  4921 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4922 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4923 
  4924 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4925 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4926 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4927 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4928 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4929 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4930 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4932 
  4933 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4934     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4935     code_post       replaces    code post
  4936     etc.
  4937   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4938 
  4939 * Renamed methods:
  4940     sizechange -> size_change
  4941     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4942   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4945 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4946 
  4947 * Renamed theorems:
  4948     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4949     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4950     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4951     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4952     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4953   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 
  4962 *** HOLCF ***
  4963 
  4964 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4965 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4966 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4967 
  4968 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4969 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4970 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4971 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4972 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4973 
  4974 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4975 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4976 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4977 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4978 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4979 
  4980 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4981 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4982 constructor are pre-configured.
  4983 
  4984 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4985 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4986 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4987 
  4988 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4989 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4990 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4991 as well.)
  4992 
  4993 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4994 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4995 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4996 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4997 examples.
  4998 
  4999 
  5000 *** ML ***
  5001 
  5002 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5003 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5004 
  5005 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5006 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5007 position, logical grouping etc.
  5008 
  5009 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5010 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5011 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5012 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5013 
  5014 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5015 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5016 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5017 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5018 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5019 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5020 
  5021 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5022 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5023 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5024 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5025 experiments with references.
  5026 
  5027 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5028 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5029 
  5030 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5031 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5032 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5033 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5034 
  5035 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5036 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5037 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5038 
  5039 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5040 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5041 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5042 
  5043 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5049 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5050 
  5051 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5052 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5053 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5054 
  5055 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5056 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5057 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5060 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5061 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5063 
  5064 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5065 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5066 instead of global theory.
  5067 
  5068 
  5069 *** System ***
  5070 
  5071 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5072 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5073 usedir option -q.
  5074 
  5075 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5076 also the system manual.
  5077 
  5078 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5079 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5080 
  5081 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5082 this is always enabled.
  5083 
  5084 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5085 
  5086 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5087 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5088 currently supported on Linux only.
  5089 
  5090 
  5091 
  5092 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5093 --------------------------------
  5094 
  5095 *** General ***
  5096 
  5097 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5098 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5099 
  5100   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5101     "isatool."
  5102 
  5103   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5104     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5105 
  5106   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5107     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5108 
  5109 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5110 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5111 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5112 
  5113 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5114 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5115 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5116 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5117 via "isabelle emacs".
  5118 
  5119 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5120 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5121 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5122 
  5123 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5124 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5125 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5126 
  5127 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5128 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5129 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5130 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5131 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5132 
  5133 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5134 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5135 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5136 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5137 
  5138 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5139 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5140 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5141 
  5142 
  5143 *** Pure ***
  5144 
  5145 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5146 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5147 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5148 
  5149 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5150 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5151 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5152 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5153 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5154 
  5155 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5156 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5157 useful in locale declarations.
  5158 
  5159 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5160 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5161 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5162 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5163 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5164 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5165 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5166 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5167 no longer generated.
  5168 
  5169 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5170 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5171 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5172 
  5173 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5174 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5175 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5176 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5177 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5178 
  5179 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5180 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5181 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5182 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5183 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5184 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5185 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5186 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5187 
  5188 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5189 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5190 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5191 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5192 
  5193 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5194 
  5195 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5196 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5197 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5198 
  5199 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5200 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5201 
  5202 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5203 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5204 in HOL, write
  5205 
  5206     class foo = ...
  5207 
  5208 instead of
  5209 
  5210     class foo = type + ...
  5211 
  5212 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5213 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5214 
  5215 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5216 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5217 
  5218 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5219 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5220 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5221 
  5222 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5223 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5224 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5225 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5226 directly in regular applications.
  5227 
  5228 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5229 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5230 
  5231 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5232 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5233 
  5234 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5235 theory context.
  5236 
  5237 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5238 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5239 
  5240 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5241 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5242 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5243 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5244 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5245 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5246 
  5247   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5248 
  5249 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5250 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5251 normalization.
  5252 
  5253 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5254 addressing etc.
  5255 
  5256 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5257 
  5258   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5259   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5260 
  5261 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5262 
  5263   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5264      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5265      parts of the code generator framework).
  5266 
  5267   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5268      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5269      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5270 
  5271 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5272 
  5273 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5274 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5275 
  5276 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5277 patterns, e.g.
  5278 
  5279     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5280 
  5281 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5282 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5283 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5284 hyphen:
  5285 
  5286     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5287 
  5288 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5289 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5290 
  5291 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5292 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5293 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5294 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5295 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5296 higher-order unification.
  5297 
  5298 
  5299 *** Document preparation ***
  5300 
  5301 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5302 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5303 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5304 
  5305 
  5306 *** HOL ***
  5307 
  5308 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5309 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5310 
  5311 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5312 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5313 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5314 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5315 Main, as before.
  5316 
  5317 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5318 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5319 
  5320 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5321 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5322 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5323 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5324 
  5325 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5326 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5327 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5328 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5329 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5330 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5331 
  5332 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5333 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5334 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5335 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5336 
  5337 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5338 menu.
  5339 
  5340 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5341 (contains the empty clause).
  5342 
  5343 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5344 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5345 
  5346 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5347 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5348 
  5349 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5350 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5351 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5352 
  5353 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5354 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5355 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5356 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5357 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5358 
  5359 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5360 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5361 
  5362 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5363 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5364 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5365 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5366 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5367 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5368 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5369 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5370 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5371 
  5372 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5373 
  5374 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5375 
  5376 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5377 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5378 
  5379 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5380 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5381 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5382 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5383 
  5384 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5385 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5386 
  5387     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5388     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5389     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5390     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5391     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5392     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5393     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5394     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5395 
  5396 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5397 theory Set.
  5398 
  5399 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5400 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5401 
  5402 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5403 
  5404 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5405 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5406 
  5407 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5408 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5409 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5410 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5411 allowed. For examples see
  5412 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5413 
  5414 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5415 
  5416 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5418 
  5419 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5420 structure:
  5421 
  5422     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5423     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5424     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5425     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5426     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5427     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5428     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5429     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5430     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5431     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5432     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5433     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5434     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5435     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5436     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5437     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5438     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5439     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5440     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5441     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5442     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5443     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5444     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5445     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5446     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5447     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5448     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5449     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5450     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5451     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5452     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5453     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5454     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5455 
  5456     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5457     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5458     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5459     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5460     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5461     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5462     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5463     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5464     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5465     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5466 
  5467     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5468     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5469     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5470     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5471     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5472     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5473 
  5474 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5475 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5476 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5477 
  5478 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5479 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5480 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5481 
  5482 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5483 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5484 
  5485 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5486 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5487 
  5488 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5489 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5490 proofs, e.g.
  5491 
  5492   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5493 
  5494 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5495 
  5496 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5497 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5498 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5499 
  5500 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5501 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5503 
  5504 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5505 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5506 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5510 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5511 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5512 preorder_class.*.
  5513 
  5514 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5515 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5516 
  5517 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5518 
  5519   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5520 
  5521 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5522 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5523 fold_image.
  5524 
  5525 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5526 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5527 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5528 the former will disappear at some point.
  5529 
  5530 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5531 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5532 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5533 
  5534 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5535 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5536 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5537 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5538 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5539 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5540 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5541 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5542 
  5543 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5544 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5545 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5546 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5547 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5548 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5549 
  5550     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5551     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5552     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5553     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5554     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5555     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5556     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5557 
  5558 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5559 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5560 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5561 
  5562 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5563 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5564 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5565 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5566 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5567 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5568 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5569 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5570 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5571 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5572 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5573 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5574 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5575 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5576 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5577 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5578 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5579 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5580 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5581 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5582 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5583 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5584 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5585 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5586 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5587 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5588 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5589 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5590 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5591 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5592 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5593 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5594 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5595 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5596 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5597 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5598 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5599 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5600 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5601 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5602 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5603 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5604 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5605 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5606 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5607 
  5608 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5609 
  5610 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5611 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5612 
  5613 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5614 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5615 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5616 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5617 
  5618 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5619 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5620 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5621 theory RealVector.
  5622 
  5623 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5624 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5625 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5626 and inner products are included.
  5627 
  5628 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5629 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5630 supported.
  5631 
  5632 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5633 first diagonalization argument.
  5634 
  5635 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5636 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5637 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5638 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5639 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5640 
  5641     hide (open) const gcd
  5642     abbreviation gcd where
  5643       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5644     notation (output)
  5645       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5646 
  5647 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5648 
  5649 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5650 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5651 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5652 
  5653 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5654 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5655 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5656 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5657 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5658 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5659 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5660 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5661 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5662 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5663 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5664 cases.
  5665 
  5666 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5667 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5668 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5669 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5670 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5671 
  5672     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5673     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5674     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5675     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5676     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5677 
  5678 
  5679 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5680 
  5681 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5682 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5683 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5684 
  5685 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5686 
  5687 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5688 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5689 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5690 
  5691 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5692 
  5693 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5694 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5695 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5696 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5697 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5698 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5699 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5700 
  5701 
  5702 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5703 
  5704 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5705 
  5706 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5707 theory targets.
  5708 
  5709 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5710 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5711 'inductive' etc.
  5712 
  5713 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5714 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5715 
  5716 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5717 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5718 
  5719 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5720 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5721 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5722 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5723 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5724 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5725 the algorithm W:
  5726 
  5727  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5728  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5729          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5730 
  5731 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5732 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5733 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5734 
  5735 
  5736 *** HOLCF ***
  5737 
  5738 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5739 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5740 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5741 
  5742 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5743 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5744 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5745 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5746 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5747 
  5748 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5749 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5750 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5751 
  5752 
  5753 *** ZF ***
  5754 
  5755 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5756 
  5757 
  5758 *** ML ***
  5759 
  5760 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5761 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5762 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5763 5.2.1!
  5764 
  5765 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5766 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5767 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5768 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5769 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5770 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5771 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5772 
  5773 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5774 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5775 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5776 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5777 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5778 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5779 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5780 
  5781 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5782 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5783 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5784 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5785 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5786 
  5787 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5788 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5789 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5790 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5791 Method.add_method.
  5792 
  5793 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5794 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5795 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5796 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5797 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5798 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5799 
  5800 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5801 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5802 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5803 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5804 examples.
  5805 
  5806 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5807 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5808 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5809 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5810 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5811 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5812 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5813 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5814 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5815 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5816 
  5817 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5818 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5819 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5820 
  5821 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5822 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5823 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5824 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5825 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5826 resort for legacy applications.
  5827 
  5828 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5829 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5830 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5831 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5832 explicit runtime argument.
  5833 
  5834 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5835 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5836 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5837 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5838 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5839 
  5840 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5841 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5842 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5843 theory state.
  5844 
  5845 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5846 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5847 
  5848   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5849   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5850   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5851   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5852   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5853   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5854   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5855   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5856   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5857   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5858 
  5859 
  5860 *** System ***
  5861 
  5862 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5863 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5864 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5865 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5866 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5867 
  5868 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5869 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5870 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5871 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5872 
  5873 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5874 
  5875 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5876 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5877 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5878 prover operations.
  5879 
  5880 
  5881 
  5882 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5883 -------------------------------
  5884 
  5885 *** General ***
  5886 
  5887 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5888 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5889 
  5890 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5891 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5892 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5893 provides a proper context already.
  5894 
  5895 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5896 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5897 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5898 
  5899 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5900 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5901 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5902 swap theory imports.
  5903 
  5904 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5905 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5906 
  5907 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5908 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5909 white space without escapes.
  5910 
  5911 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5912 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5913 "foo_bar".
  5914 
  5915 
  5916 *** Pure ***
  5917 
  5918 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5919 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5920 
  5921 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5922 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5923 
  5924 (1) unused_thms
  5925      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5926 
  5927 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5928      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5929      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5930 
  5931 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5932      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5933      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5934      their ancestors.
  5935 
  5936 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5937 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5938 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5939 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5940 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5941 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5942 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5943 
  5944 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5945 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5946 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5947 
  5948 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5949 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5950 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5951 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5952 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5953 
  5954 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5955 
  5956 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5957 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5958 update of theories within ML code.
  5959 
  5960 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5961 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5962 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5963 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5964 
  5965 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5966 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5967 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5969 
  5970 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5971 
  5972 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5973 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5974 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5975 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5976 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5977 
  5978 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5979 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5980 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5981 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5982 situations.
  5983 
  5984 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5985 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5986 proof text.
  5987 
  5988 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5989 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5990 
  5991 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5992 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5993 predicates.
  5994 
  5995 
  5996 *** Document preparation ***
  5997 
  5998 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5999 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6000 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6001 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6002 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6003 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6004 
  6005 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6006 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6007 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6008 
  6009 
  6010 *** HOL ***
  6011 
  6012 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6013 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6014 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6015 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6016 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6017 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6018 
  6019 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6020 with multithreading.
  6021 
  6022 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6023 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6024 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6025 
  6026 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6027 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6028 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6029 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6030 
  6031 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6032 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6033 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6034 and makes them available separately.  See
  6035 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6036 
  6037 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6038 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6039 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6040 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6041 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6042 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6043 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6044 the declared rules.
  6045 
  6046 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6047 
  6048   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6049 
  6050 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6051 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6052 
  6053 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6054 
  6055   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6056 
  6057   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6058     definitions on => and bool.
  6059 
  6060   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6061     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6062     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6063 
  6064       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6065       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6066       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6067       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6068       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6069       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6070       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6071       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6072 
  6073   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6074     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6075     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6076 
  6077   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6078     The proof pattern
  6079 
  6080       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6081       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6082 
  6083     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6084     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6085 
  6086       have "EX S. P S"
  6087       proof
  6088         show "P S" <...>
  6089       qed
  6090 
  6091   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6092     The proof pattern
  6093 
  6094       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6095       also have "S = T" <...>
  6096       finally have "P T" .
  6097 
  6098     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6099     must be replaced by something like
  6100 
  6101       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6102       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6103       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6104 
  6105   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6106     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6107 
  6108       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6109 
  6110     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6111     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6112     type of the form
  6113 
  6114       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6115 
  6116     rather than
  6117 
  6118       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6119 
  6120 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6121 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6122 
  6123 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6124 
  6125 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6126 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6128 
  6129 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6130 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6131 
  6132 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6133 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6134 
  6135 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6136 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6137 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6138 
  6139 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6140 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6141 
  6142   less_trans
  6143   less_linear
  6144   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6145   le_less_trans
  6146   less_le_trans
  6147   less_not_sym
  6148   less_asym
  6149 
  6150 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6151 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6152 and different variable names.
  6153 
  6154 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6155 
  6156 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6157 finite maps.
  6158 
  6159 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6160 
  6161 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6162 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6163 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6164 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6165 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6166 accordingly.
  6167 
  6168 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6169 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6170 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6171 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6172 
  6173 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6174 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6175 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6176 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6177 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6179 
  6180 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6181 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6182 
  6183 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6184 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6185 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6186 
  6187 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6189 
  6190 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6191 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6192 
  6193 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6194 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6195 
  6196 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6197 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6198 
  6199 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6200 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6204 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6205 
  6206 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6207 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6208 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6209 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6210 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6211 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6212 
  6213 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6214 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6215 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6216 
  6217 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6218 
  6219 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6220 
  6221 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6222 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6223 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6224 
  6225 
  6226 *** ZF ***
  6227 
  6228 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6229 same session:
  6230 
  6231   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6232   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6233   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6234   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6235   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6236   List      -> List_ZF
  6237   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6238 
  6239 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6240 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6241 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6242 
  6243 
  6244 *** ML ***
  6245 
  6246 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6247 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6248 
  6249 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6250 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6251 
  6252 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6253 
  6254 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6255 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6256 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6257 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6258 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6259 
  6260 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6261 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6262 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6263 
  6264 
  6265 *** System ***
  6266 
  6267 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6268 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6269 
  6270 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6271 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6272 setting, the default settings attempt