NEWS
author Manuel Eberl <eberlm@in.tum.de>
Mon Feb 04 12:16:03 2019 +0100 (7 months ago)
changeset 69785 9e326f6f8a24
parent 69780 b9a5805d1d70
child 69790 154cf64e403e
permissions -rw-r--r--
More material for HOL-Number_Theory: ord, Carmichael's function, primitive roots
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    36 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    37 automatically.
    38 
    39 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    40 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    45 
    46 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    47 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    48 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    49 
    50 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    51 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    52 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    53 ongoing document processing.
    54 
    55 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    56 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    57 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    58 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    59 
    60 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    61 overview column.
    62 
    63 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    64 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    65 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    66 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    67 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    68 defaults to 0.
    69 
    70 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    71 OpenJDK 11.
    72 
    73 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    74 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    75 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    76 Isabelle component).
    77 
    78 
    79 *** Isar ***
    80 
    81 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    82 precedence over goal/proof.
    83 
    84 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    85 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    86 
    87 
    88 *** HOL ***
    89 
    90 * more material on residue rings in HOL-Number_Theory:
    91 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord"
    92 
    93 * the functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter>
    94 (not the corresponding binding operators) now have the same precedence
    95 as any other prefix function symbol.
    96 
    97 * Slightly more conventional naming schema in structure Inductive.
    98 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100 * Code generation: command 'export_code' without file keyword exports
   101 code as regular theory export, which can be materialized using the
   102 command-line tool "isabelle export" or 'export_files' in the session
   103 ROOT, or browsed in Isabelle/jEdit via the "isabelle-export:"
   104 file-system. To get generated code dumped into output, use "file \<open>\<close>".
   105 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   108 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   111 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for
   115 'code_stmts' antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   118 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*,
   119 are not used by default any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using
   120 declare image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   121 
   122 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   123 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   124 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   125 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   126 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   127 
   128 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   129 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   130 
   131 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
   132 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   133 
   134 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
   135 
   136 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
   137 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   141 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   142 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144 * Sledgehammer:
   145   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has
   146     been updated.
   147   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   148     less time (in most cases).
   149 
   150 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   151 
   152 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
   153 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   154 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   155 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   156 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   158 
   159 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   160 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   161 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   162 
   163   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   164 
   165 
   166 *** ML ***
   167 
   168 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   169 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   170 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead,
   171 or the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   174 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   175 
   176 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   177 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   178 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   179 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   180 ">" as separator. For example:
   181 
   182   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   183   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   184 
   185   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   186   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   187 
   188   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   189   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   190 
   191 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   192 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   193 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   194 observes the official standard).
   195 
   196 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   197 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   198 
   199 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   200 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   201 useful.
   202 
   203 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   204 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   205 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   206 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   207 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   208 
   209   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   210   module Isabelle.Pure where
   211     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   212     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   213     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   214     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   215   \<close>
   216 
   217 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   218 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   219 external compiler is applied.
   220 
   221 
   222 *** System ***
   223 
   224 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   225 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   226 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   227 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   228 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   229 dump".
   230 
   231 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   232 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   233 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   234 
   235 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   236 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   237 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   238 component).
   239 
   240 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   241 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   242 Isabelle/PIDE.
   243 
   244 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   245 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   246 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   247 
   248 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   249 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   250 is no longer required.
   251 
   252 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   253 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   254 
   255   isabelle ghc_setup
   256   isabelle ghc_stack
   257 
   258   isabelle ocaml_setup
   259   isabelle ocaml_opam
   260 
   261 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   262 (and corresponding directory contents):
   263 
   264   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   265   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   266   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   267 
   268   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   269   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   270 
   271 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   272 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   273 
   274   ISABELLE_GHC
   275 
   276   ISABELLE_OCAML
   277   ISABELLE_OCAMLC
   278 
   279 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   280 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   281 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT.
   282 
   283 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   284 
   285 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   286 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   287 
   288 
   289 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   290 ---------------------------------
   291 
   292 *** General ***
   293 
   294 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   295 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   296 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   297 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   298 
   299 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   300 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   301 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   302 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   303 
   304 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   305 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   308 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   309 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   310 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   311 avoid this.
   312 
   313 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   314 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   315 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   316 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   317 
   318 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   319 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   320 instead.
   321 
   322 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   323 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   324 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   325 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   326 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   327 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   328 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   329 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   330 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   331 syntax), use option "-m".
   332 
   333 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   337 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   338 without specific Prover IDE management.
   339 
   340 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   341 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   342 context.
   343 
   344 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   345 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   346 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   347 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   348 
   349   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   350 
   351 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   352 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   353 
   354 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   355 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   356 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   357 output.
   358 
   359 
   360 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   361 
   362 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   363 for session management:
   364 
   365   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   366     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   367 
   368   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   369     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   370 
   371   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   372     and -S
   373 
   374   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   375     theories
   376 
   377   Examples:
   378     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   379     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   380     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   381     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   382     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   383 
   384 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   385 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   386 
   387 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   388 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   389 
   390 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   391 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   392 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   393 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   394 arguments into this format.
   395 
   396 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   397 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   398 
   399 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   400 functions (e.g. State output).
   401 
   402 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   403 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   404 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   405 
   406 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   407 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   408 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 
   410 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   411 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   412 
   413 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   414 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   415 Isabelle".
   416 
   417 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   418 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   419 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   420 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   421 Unicode content when saving the file.
   422 
   423 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   424 
   425 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   426 
   427 
   428 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   429 
   430 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   431 Isabelle/jEdit.
   432 
   433 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   434 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   435 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   436 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   437 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   438 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   439 
   440 
   441 *** Document preparation ***
   442 
   443 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   444 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   445 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   446 are supported:
   447 
   448   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   449   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   450   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   451 
   452 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   453 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   454 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   455 
   456 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   457 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   458 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   459 
   460 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   461 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   462 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   463 
   464 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   465 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   466 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   467 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   468 
   469 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   470 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   471 
   472 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   473 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   474 normally need to import.
   475 
   476 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   477 session name verbatim.
   478 
   479 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   480 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   481 
   482 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   483 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   484 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   485 
   486 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   487 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   488 anymore.
   489 
   490 
   491 *** Isar ***
   492 
   493 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   494 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   495 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   496 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   497 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   498 
   499 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   500 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   501 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   502 
   503 
   504 *** Pure ***
   505 
   506 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   507 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   508 
   509 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   510 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   511 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   512 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   513 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   514 
   515 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   516 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   517 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   518 duplicate constant declarations.
   519 
   520 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   521 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   522 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   523 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   524 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   525 
   526 
   527 *** HOL ***
   528 
   529 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   530 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   531 
   532 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   533 
   534   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   535 
   536   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   537     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   538     constraints instead.
   539 
   540   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   541 
   542   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   543     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   544     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   545     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   546 
   547   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   548     standard target languages.
   549 
   550   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   551     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   552     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   553     HOL string values and vice versa.
   554 
   555   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   556     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   557 
   558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   561 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   562 
   563 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   564 
   565 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   566 former axioms:
   567 
   568   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   569 
   570 are replaced by:
   571 
   572   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   573 
   574 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   575 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   576 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   577 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   578 
   579 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   580 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   581 
   582 * Clarifed theorem names:
   583 
   584   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   585   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   586 
   587 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * SMT module:
   590 
   591   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   592     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   595     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   596     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   597 
   598 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   599 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   600 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   601 
   602 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   604 
   605 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   609 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   611 
   612 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   613 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   614 Renamed:
   615 
   616   span_inc ~> span_superset
   617   span_superset ~> span_base
   618   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   619 
   620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   621 
   622 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   623 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   626 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   627 
   628 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   629 
   630   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   631     input syntax
   632 
   633   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   634 
   635 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   636 
   637 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   640 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   644   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   645   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   646   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   647 
   648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 
   650 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   651 
   652   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   653   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   654   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   655   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   656   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   657 
   658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   661 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   662 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   663 broken proofs.
   664 
   665 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   666 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   667 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   668 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   669 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   670 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   671 
   672 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   673 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   674 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   675 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   676 examples.
   677 
   678 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   679 
   680 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   681 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   682 
   683 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   684 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   685 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   689 infix/prefix notation.
   690 
   691 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   692 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   694 
   695 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   696 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   700 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   704 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   705 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   706 
   707 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   708 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   709 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   710 
   711 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   712 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   713 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   714 
   715 
   716 *** ML ***
   717 
   718 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   719 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   720 
   721 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   722 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   723 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   724 "isabelle process".
   725 
   726 
   727 *** System ***
   728 
   729 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   730 longer supported.
   731 
   732 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   733 support has been discontinued.
   734 
   735 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   736 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   737 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   740 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   741 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   742 quotes):
   743 
   744   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   745   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   746 
   747   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   748   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   749 
   750   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   751   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   752 
   753 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   754   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   755   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   756   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   757 
   758 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   759 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   761 only.
   762 
   763 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   764 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   765 up-to-date status of a session.
   766 
   767 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   768 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   769 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   770 directory.
   771 
   772 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   773 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   774 
   775 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   776 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   777 
   778 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   779 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   780 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   781 See also the "system" manual.
   782 
   783 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   784 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   785 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   786 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   787 been discontinued.
   788 
   789 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   790 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   791 
   792 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   793 repository for the generated session files.
   794 
   795 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   796 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   797 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   798 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   799 ISABELLE_HOME).
   800 
   801 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   802 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   803 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   804 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   805 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   806 
   807 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   808 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   809 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   810 
   811 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   812 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   813 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   814 32/64 bit.
   815 
   816 
   817 
   818 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   819 ----------------------------------
   820 
   821 *** General ***
   822 
   823 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   824 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   825 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   826 
   827 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   828 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   829 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   830 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   831 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   832 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   833 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   834 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   835 
   836 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   837 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   838 just the theory base name as before).
   839 
   840 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   841 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   842 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   843 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   844 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   845 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   846 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   847 
   848 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   849 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   850 leads to the follow renamings:
   851 
   852   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   853   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   854   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   855   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   856   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   857 
   858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   859 
   860 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   861 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   862 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   863 
   864 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   865 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   866 
   867 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   868 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   869 antiquotations:
   870 
   871   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   872     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   873   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   874     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   875   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   876 
   877 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   878 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   879 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   880 tutorial on code generation.
   881 
   882 
   883 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   884 
   885 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   886 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   887 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   888 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   889 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   890 
   891 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   892 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   893 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   894 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   895 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   896 effectively always enabled.
   897 
   898 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   899 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   900 buffers.
   901 
   902 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   903 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   904 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   905 represented by a different border color.
   906 
   907 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   908 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   909 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   910 
   911 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   912 document in the default web browser.
   913 
   914 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   915 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   916 used for formal checking.
   917 
   918 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   919 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   920 enabled at all times.
   921 
   922 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   923 
   924 
   925 *** Pure ***
   926 
   927 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   928 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   929 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   930 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   931 
   932 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   933   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   934     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   935   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   936     malformed.
   937   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   938     malformed.
   939 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   940 
   941 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   942 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   943 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 
   946 *** HOL ***
   947 
   948 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   949 
   950 * SMT module:
   951   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   952     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   953     disabled by default.
   954   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   955   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   956 
   957 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   958 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   959 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   961 
   962 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   963 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   964 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   966 
   967 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
   968 of "Complex_Main").
   969 
   970 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
   971 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972 
   973 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
   974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
   977 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
   980 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   981 
   982 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
   983 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
   984 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
   985 
   986 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
   987 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
   990 
   991 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
   992 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
   995 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
   996 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
   997 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * Generalized some facts:
  1000     measure_induct_rule
  1001     measure_induct
  1002     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1003     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1004     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1005     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1009 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1010 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1011 euclidean size.
  1012 
  1013 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1014   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1015   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1016     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1017     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1018   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1019     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1023 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1024 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1025 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1028   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1029   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1030 
  1031 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1032 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1035 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1036 
  1037 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1038 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1039 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043 
  1044 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1045 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1046 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1047 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1048 
  1049 syntax (ASCII)
  1050   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1051   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1052   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1053 
  1054 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1055 multisets have been renamed:
  1056 
  1057   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1058   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1059 
  1060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1063 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1064 
  1065 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1066 
  1067 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1068 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1069 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1070 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1071 
  1072 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1073 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1074 
  1075 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1076 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1077 
  1078 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1079 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1080 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1081 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1083 
  1084 
  1085 *** System ***
  1086 
  1087 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1088 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1089 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1090 
  1091 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1092 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1093 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1094 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1095 
  1096 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1097 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1098 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1099 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1100 
  1101 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1102 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1103 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1104 unchanged.
  1105 
  1106 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1107 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1110 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1111 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1112 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1113 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1114 
  1115 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1116 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1117 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1118 
  1119 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1120 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1121 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1122 
  1123 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1124 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1125 
  1126   isabelle imports -I -a
  1127   isabelle imports -U -a
  1128   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1129   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1130 
  1131 
  1132 
  1133 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1134 -------------------------------------
  1135 
  1136 *** General ***
  1137 
  1138 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1139   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1140     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1142     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1143     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1144     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1145     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1146 
  1147 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1148 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1149 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1150 
  1151 bundle foo
  1152 begin
  1153   declare a [simp]
  1154   declare b [intro]
  1155 end
  1156 
  1157 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1158 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1159 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1160 
  1161 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1162 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1163 discontinued.
  1164 
  1165 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1166 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1167 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1168 
  1169 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1170 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1171 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1172 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1173 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1176 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1177 
  1178 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1179 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1180 
  1181 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1182 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1183 examples.
  1184 
  1185 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1186 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1187 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1188 
  1189 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1190 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1191 
  1192 
  1193 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1194 
  1195 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1196 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1197 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1198 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1199 
  1200 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1201 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1202 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1203 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1204 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1205 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1206 
  1207 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1208 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1209 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1210 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1211 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1212 
  1213 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1214 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1215 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1216 
  1217 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1218 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1219 
  1220 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1221 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1222 
  1223 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1224 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1225 
  1226 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1227 
  1228 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1229 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1230 systematic renaming.
  1231 
  1232 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1233 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1234 theorem statement.
  1235 
  1236 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1237 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1238 
  1239 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1240 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1241 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1242 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1243 
  1244 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1245 following independent stages:
  1246 
  1247   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1248   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1249   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1250   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1251 
  1252 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1253 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1254 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1255 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1256 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1257 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1258 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1259 
  1260 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1261 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1262 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1263 
  1264 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1265 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1266 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1267 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1268 
  1269 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1270 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1271 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1272 
  1273 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1274 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1275 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1276 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1277 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1278 old keymaps.
  1279 
  1280 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1281 and diverse:
  1282 
  1283   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1284   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1285   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1286 
  1287 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1288 have to be changed.
  1289 
  1290 
  1291 *** Document preparation ***
  1292 
  1293 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1294 
  1295 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1296 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1297 
  1298 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1299 this allows special forms of document output.
  1300 
  1301 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1302 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1303 derivatives.
  1304 
  1305 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1306 
  1307 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1308 Isabelle2015).
  1309 
  1310 
  1311 *** Isar ***
  1312 
  1313 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1314 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1315 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1316 
  1317 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1318 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1319 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1320 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1321 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1324 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1325 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1326 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1327 
  1328 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1329 context.
  1330 
  1331 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1332 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1333 
  1334 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1335 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1336 
  1337 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1338 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1339 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1340 
  1341 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1342 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1344 
  1345 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1346 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1347 definitions.
  1348 
  1349 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1350 expression, e.g.
  1351 
  1352   (use facts in simp)
  1353   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1354 
  1355 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1356 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1357 
  1358 
  1359 *** Pure ***
  1360 
  1361 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1362 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1363 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1364 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1365 
  1366 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1367 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1368 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1369 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1370 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1371 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1372 
  1373 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1374 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1375 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1376 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1377 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1378 types where this is really intended.
  1379 
  1380 
  1381 *** HOL ***
  1382 
  1383 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1384 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1385 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1386 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1387 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1388 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1389 
  1390 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1391 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1392 
  1393 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1394 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1395 
  1396 * Sledgehammer:
  1397   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1398   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1399 
  1400 * (Co)datatype package:
  1401   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1402     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1403     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1404     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1405   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1406     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1407   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1408     to the map function.
  1409   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1410   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1411        terms of map and set
  1412        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1413   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1414        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1415     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1416   - Renamed lemmas:
  1417       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1418       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1419     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1421   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1422     equivalent) form.
  1423     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1424 
  1425 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1426 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1427 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1428 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1431 
  1432   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1433   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1434 
  1435 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1436 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1437 eliminated altogether.
  1438 
  1439 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1440 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1441 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1442 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1443 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1444 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1445 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1446 
  1447 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1451 
  1452     setsum ~> sum
  1453     setprod ~> prod
  1454     listsum ~> sum_list
  1455     listprod ~> prod_list
  1456 
  1457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1460     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1461     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1462     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1463     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1464     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1465     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1466     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1467     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1468     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1469     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1470     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1471     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1472     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1473     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1474     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1475     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1476     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1477     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1478     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1479     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1480     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1481     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1482     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1483     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1484     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1485     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1486     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1487     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1488     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1492 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1493 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1496 
  1497 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1498 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1499 
  1500   - Logical representation:
  1501     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1502     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1503       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1504     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1505       are non-canonical.
  1506   - Printing and parsing:
  1507     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1508       (as before).
  1509     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1510     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1511       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1512       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1513     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1514       printed as their logical representation.
  1515   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1516     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1517   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1518 
  1519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1520 
  1521 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1522 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1523 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1524 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1527 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1528 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1529 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1530 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1533 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534 
  1535 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1536 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1537 
  1538 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1539 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1540 interface for the generated code.
  1541 
  1542 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1543 spelt out explicitly.
  1544 
  1545 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1546 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1547 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1548 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1549 
  1550 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1551 products.
  1552 
  1553 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1554 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1555 
  1556 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1557 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1558 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1559 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1560 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1561 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1562 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1564 
  1565 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1566 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1567 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1573   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1574   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1575 
  1576 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1577   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1578     le_add_same_cancel1
  1579     le_add_same_cancel2
  1580     less_add_same_cancel1
  1581     less_add_same_cancel2
  1582     add_le_same_cancel1
  1583     add_le_same_cancel2
  1584     add_less_same_cancel1
  1585     add_less_same_cancel2
  1586 
  1587 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1588   superseeded by a more general version:
  1589     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1590     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1591     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1592     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1593     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1594     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1595     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1596     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1600 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1601 
  1602 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1603 
  1604 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1605 
  1606   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1607   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1608 
  1609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1610 
  1611 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1615 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1616 A)".
  1617 
  1618 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1621 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1622 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1623 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1626 dioid.
  1627 
  1628 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1629 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1630 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1631 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1634 of a more general type also:
  1635   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1636   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1637   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1638   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1639   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1640   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1641   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1642   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1643   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1644   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1645   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1646   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1647   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1648   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1649   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1650   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1651   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1652   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1653   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1654   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1655   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1656   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1657   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1658   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1659   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1660   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1661   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1662   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1663   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1664   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1665   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1666   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1667   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1668   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1669   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1670   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1671   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1672   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1673   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1674   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1675   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1676   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1677   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1678   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1679   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1680   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1681   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1682   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1683   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1684   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1685   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1686   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1687   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1688   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1689   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1690   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1691   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1692   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1693   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1694   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1695   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1696   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1697   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1698   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1699   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1700   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1701   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1702   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1703   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1704   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1705   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1706   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1707   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1708   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1709   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1710   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1711   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1712   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1713   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1714   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1715   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1716   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1717   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1718   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1719   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1720   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1721   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1722   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1726 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1729 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1730 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1731 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1732 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1733 
  1734 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1735 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1736 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1737 once.
  1738 
  1739 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1740 set_mset rather than count.
  1741 
  1742   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1743     by default.
  1744 
  1745   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1746     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1747 
  1748   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1749     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1750 
  1751   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1752     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1753 
  1754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755 
  1756 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1757 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1758 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1759 underscores.
  1760 
  1761 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1762 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1763 relation.
  1764 
  1765 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1766 everywhere fix bijections.
  1767 
  1768 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1769 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1770 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1771 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1772 
  1773 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1774 
  1775 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1776 
  1777 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1778 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1779 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1782 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1783 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1784 
  1785 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1786 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1787 
  1788 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1789 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1790 domain.
  1791 
  1792 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1793 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1796   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1797 
  1798 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1799 Probability Mass Functions.
  1800 
  1801 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1802 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1803 folding over a list in random order.
  1804 
  1805 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1806 subprobability distributions.
  1807 
  1808 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1809 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1810 
  1811     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1812     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1813     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1814     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1815     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1816     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1817     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1818     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1819     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1820     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1821     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1822     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1823     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1824     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1825     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1826     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1827     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1828     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1829     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1830     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1831     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1832     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1833 
  1834 Some functions have been renamed:
  1835     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1836 
  1837 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1838     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1839     #\<subset># ~> <
  1840     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1841     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1845 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1846 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1847 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1848 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1851 been renamed:
  1852 
  1853     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1854     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1855     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1856     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1857     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1858     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1859     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1860     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1861     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1862 
  1863     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1864     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1865     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1866     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1867     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1868     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1869     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1870     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1871     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1872     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1873     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1875 
  1876 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1880 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1881 
  1882     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1883     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1884     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1885     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1886     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1887     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1888     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1889     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1890     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1891     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1892     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1893     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1894     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1895     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1896     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1897     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1898     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1899 
  1900 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1901 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1902 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1903 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1904 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1905 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1906 
  1907 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1908 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1910 
  1911 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1912 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1913 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1914 
  1915 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1916 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1917 removed or changed:
  1918 
  1919   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1920   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1921   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1922   union_single_eq_diff
  1923   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1924   diff_single_eq_union
  1925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1928 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1929 
  1930   mset_add
  1931   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1932   diff_single_eq_union
  1933   union_single_eq_diff
  1934   union_single_eq_member
  1935   add_eq_conv_diff
  1936   insert_noteq_member
  1937   add_eq_conv_ex
  1938   multi_member_split
  1939   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1940   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1941   mset_subset_insertD
  1942   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1943   insert_union_subset_iff
  1944   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1945   inter_add_left1
  1946   inter_add_left2
  1947   inter_add_right1
  1948   inter_add_right2
  1949   sup_union_left1
  1950   sup_union_left2
  1951   sup_union_right1
  1952   sup_union_right2
  1953   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1954   multi_nonempty_split
  1955   mset_insort
  1956   mset_update
  1957   mult1I
  1958   less_add
  1959   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1960   rel_mset_Zero
  1961   msed_map_invL
  1962   msed_map_invR
  1963   msed_rel_invL
  1964   msed_rel_invR
  1965   le_multiset_right_total
  1966   multiset_induct
  1967   multiset_induct2_size
  1968   multiset_induct2
  1969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1970 
  1971 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  1972 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  1973 element:
  1974 
  1975   image_mset
  1976   mset
  1977   replicate_mset
  1978   mult1
  1979   pred_mset
  1980   rel_mset'
  1981   mset_insort
  1982 
  1983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  1986 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  1987 
  1988   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  1989   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  1990   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  1991   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  1992   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  1993   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1994   count_single [simp] ~> []
  1995   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1996   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  1997   size_single [simp] ~> []
  1998   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1999   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2000   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2001   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2002   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2003   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2004   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2005   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2006   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2010 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2011 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2015 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2016 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2017 
  2018 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2019 multisets:
  2020 
  2021   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2022   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2023 
  2024 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2025 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2026 
  2027   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2028   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2029 
  2030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2033 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2034 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2035 
  2036 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2037 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2038 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2039 
  2040 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2041 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2042 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2043 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2044 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2045 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2048 the following renaming
  2049 
  2050   prefixeq -> prefix
  2051   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2052   suffixeq -> suffix
  2053   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2054 
  2055 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2056 
  2057 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2058 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2059 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2060 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2061 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2062 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2063 
  2064 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2065 theories.
  2066 
  2067 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2068 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2069 
  2070 
  2071 *** ML ***
  2072 
  2073 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2074 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2075 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2076 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2078 
  2079 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2080 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2081 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2082 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2083 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2084 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2085 superseded by General.Div.
  2086 
  2087 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2088 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2089 
  2090 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2091 with approximative output quality.
  2092 
  2093 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2094 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2095 
  2096 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2097 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2098 requiring separate files.
  2099 
  2100 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2101 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2102 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2103 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2104 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2105 
  2106 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2107 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2108 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2109 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2110 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2111 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2112 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113 
  2114 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2115 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2119 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2120 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2121 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2124 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 
  2127 *** System ***
  2128 
  2129 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2130 
  2131 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2132 much less disk space.
  2133 
  2134 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2135 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2136 particular:
  2137 
  2138   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2139     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2140   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2141   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2142 
  2143 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2144 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2145 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2148 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2149 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2150 return code 1.
  2151 
  2152 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2153 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2154 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2155 
  2156 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2157 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2158 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2159 
  2160 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2161 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2162 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2163 by default).
  2164 
  2165 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2166 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2167 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2168 resulting log files.
  2169 
  2170 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2171 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2172 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2173 implicit default via option -p.
  2174 
  2175 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2176 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2177 
  2178 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2179 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2180 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2181 
  2182 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2183 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2184 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2185 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2186 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2189 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2190 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2191 
  2192 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2193 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2194 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2195 
  2196 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2197 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2198 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2199 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2200 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2201 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2202 been discontinued.
  2203 
  2204 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2205 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2206 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2207 
  2208 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2209 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2210 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2211 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2212 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2213 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2214 
  2215 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2216 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2217 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2218 connection).
  2219 
  2220 
  2221 
  2222 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2223 -----------------------------------
  2224 
  2225 *** General ***
  2226 
  2227 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2228 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2229 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2230 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2231 examples that do require HOL.
  2232 
  2233 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2234 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2235 
  2236 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2237 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2238 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2239 has been removed (see below).
  2240 
  2241 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2242 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2243 
  2244 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2245 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2246 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2247 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2248 
  2249 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2250 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2251 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2252 meaning.
  2253 
  2254 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2255 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2256 to update old sources.
  2257 
  2258 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2259 
  2260   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2261   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2262   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2263   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2264 
  2265 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2266 accordingly.
  2267 
  2268 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2269 'theorem'.
  2270 
  2271 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2272 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2273 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2274 
  2275 
  2276 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2277 
  2278 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2279 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2280 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2281 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2282 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2283 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2284 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2285 any effect on the running ML program.
  2286 
  2287 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2288 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2289 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2290 update.
  2291 
  2292 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2293 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2294 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2295 
  2296 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2297 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2298 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2299 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2300 visibility.
  2301 
  2302 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2303 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2304 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2305 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2306 panel.
  2307 
  2308 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2309 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2310 
  2311 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2312 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2313 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2314 
  2315 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2316 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2317 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2318 
  2319 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2320 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2321 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2322 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2323 
  2324 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2325 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2326 the editor.
  2327 
  2328 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2329 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2330 
  2331 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2332 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2333 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2334 instead.
  2335 
  2336 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2337 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2338 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2339 
  2340 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2341 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2342 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2343 
  2344 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2345 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2346 
  2347 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2348 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2349 
  2350 
  2351 *** Document preparation ***
  2352 
  2353 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2354 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2355 
  2356 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2357 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2358 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2359 
  2360 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2361 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2362 follows:
  2363 
  2364   \<^item>  itemize
  2365   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2366   \<^descr>  description
  2367 
  2368 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2369 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2370 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2371 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2372 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2373 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2374 
  2375 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2376 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2377 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2378 
  2379 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2380 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2381 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2382 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2383 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2384 
  2385 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2386 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2387 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2388 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2389 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2390 
  2391 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2392 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2393 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2394 
  2395 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2396 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2397 
  2398 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2399 
  2400 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2401 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2402 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2403 
  2404 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2405 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2406 
  2407 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2408 entities of the Isar language.
  2409 
  2410 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2411 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2412 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2413 
  2414 
  2415 *** Isar ***
  2416 
  2417 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2418 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2419 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2420 example:
  2421 
  2422   have result: "C x y"
  2423     if "A x" and "B y"
  2424     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2425     <proof>
  2426 
  2427 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2428 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2429 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2430 
  2431   {
  2432     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2433     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2434     have "C x y" <proof>
  2435   }
  2436   note result = this
  2437 
  2438 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2439 instead of 'assume' above.
  2440 
  2441 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2442 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2443 
  2444   assume result: "C x y"
  2445     if "A x" and "B y"
  2446     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2447 
  2448 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2449 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2450 
  2451 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2452 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2453 example:
  2454 
  2455   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2456 
  2457 is equivalent to:
  2458 
  2459   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2460 
  2461 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2462 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2463 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2464 follows:
  2465 
  2466   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2467 
  2468 or:
  2469 
  2470   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2471 
  2472 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2473 
  2474   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2475 
  2476 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2477 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2478 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2479 of the local context elements yet.
  2480 
  2481 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2482 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2483 
  2484   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2485   then have something
  2486   proof cases
  2487     case a
  2488     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2489   next
  2490     case b
  2491     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2492   next
  2493     case c
  2494     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2495   qed
  2496 
  2497 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2498 
  2499   case a: (c xs)
  2500   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2501 
  2502 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2503 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2504 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2505 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2506 and always put attributes in front.
  2507 
  2508 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2509 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2510 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2511 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2512 
  2513 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2514 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2515 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2516 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2517 
  2518   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2519     supply [simp] = a
  2520   proof
  2521     show A by simp
  2522   next
  2523     show A by simp
  2524   qed
  2525 
  2526 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2527 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2528 
  2529 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2530 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2531 
  2532 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2533 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2534 
  2535 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2536 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2537 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2538 manual.
  2539 
  2540 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2541 ('apply' scripts).
  2542 
  2543 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2544 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2545 example:
  2546 
  2547 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2548   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2549 proof goal_cases
  2550   case (1 x)
  2551   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2552 next
  2553   case (2 y z)
  2554   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2555 qed
  2556 
  2557 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2558   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2559 proof goal_cases
  2560   case prems: 1
  2561   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2562 next
  2563   case prems: 2
  2564   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2565 qed
  2566 
  2567 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2568 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2569 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2570 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2571 
  2572 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2573 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2574 
  2575 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2576 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2577 
  2578 
  2579 *** Pure ***
  2580 
  2581 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2582 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2583 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2584 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2585 
  2586 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2587 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2590 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2591 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2592 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2593 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2594 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2595 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2596 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2597 
  2598   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2599   begin
  2600     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2601   end
  2602 
  2603   locale morphism =
  2604     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2605     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2606   begin
  2607     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2608   end
  2609 
  2610 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2611 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2612 
  2613 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2614 'defines'.
  2615 
  2616 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2617 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2620 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2621 
  2622 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2623 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2624 
  2625 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2627 exploited.
  2628 
  2629 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2630 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2632 
  2633 
  2634 *** HOL ***
  2635 
  2636 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2637 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2638 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2639 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2640 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2641 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2644 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2645 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2646 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2647 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2648 
  2649 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2650 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2651 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2652 simplify porting old theories:
  2653 
  2654   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2655 
  2656   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2657 
  2658   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2659   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2660 
  2661   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2662 
  2663   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2664   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2665 
  2666   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2667 
  2668   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2669     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2670 
  2671   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2672   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2673   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2674 
  2675   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2676   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2677   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2678 
  2679 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2680 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2681 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2682 
  2683 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2684 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2685 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2686 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2687 
  2688 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2689 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2690 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2691 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2692 
  2693 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2694 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2695 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2696 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2699 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2700 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2704 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2705 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2706 
  2707 Consolidated facts:
  2708   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2709   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2710   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2711   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2712   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2713   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2714   split_split ~> prod.split
  2715   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2716   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2717   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2718   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2719   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2720   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2721   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2722   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2723   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2724   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2725   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2726   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2727   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2728   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2729   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2730   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2731   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2732   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2733   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2734   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2735   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2736   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2737   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2738   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2739   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2740   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2741   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2742   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2743 
  2744 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2745   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2746   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2747   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2748   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2749 
  2750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2753 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2754 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2755 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2756 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2757 
  2758 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2759   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2760   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2761   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2762   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2763   real_of_one of_int_1
  2764   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2765   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2766   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2767   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2768   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2769   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2770   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2771   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2772   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2773   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2774   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2775   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2776   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2777   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2778   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2779   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2780   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2781 
  2782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2785 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2788 
  2789 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791 * Sledgehammer:
  2792   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2793   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2794     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2795   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2796   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2797   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2798     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2800 
  2801 * Nitpick:
  2802   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2803   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2804   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2805   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2806   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2807 
  2808 * (Co)datatype package:
  2809   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2810     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2811   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2812   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2813     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2814   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2815     being defined.
  2816   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2817 
  2818 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2819 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2820 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2821 
  2822 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2823 
  2824 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2825 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2826 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2827 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2828 
  2829 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2833 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2834 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2835 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2836 
  2837 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2838 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2839 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2840 
  2841 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2842 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2843 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2844 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2845 
  2846 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2847 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2848 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2849 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2850 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2851 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2852 during instantiation.
  2853 
  2854 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2855 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2856 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2859 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2860 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2861 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2862 
  2863   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2864   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2865 
  2866 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867 
  2868 * Library/Multiset:
  2869   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2870       < ~> <#
  2871       > ~> >#
  2872       <= ~> <=#
  2873       >= ~> >=#
  2874       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2875       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2876     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2878       \<subset>#
  2879       \<subseteq>#
  2880       \<supset>#
  2881       \<supseteq>#
  2882   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2883     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2884     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2885     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2886     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2887     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2888     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2889   - Renamed conversions:
  2890       multiset_of ~> mset
  2891       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2892       set_of ~> set_mset
  2893     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2894   - Renamed lemmas:
  2895       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2896       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2897       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2898     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2899   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2900     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2901     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2902     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2903 
  2904 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2905 
  2906 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2907 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2908 chain-complete partial orders.
  2909 
  2910 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2911 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2912 
  2913 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2914 periodic functions.
  2915 
  2916 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2917 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2918 GCD.
  2919 
  2920 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2921 
  2922 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2923 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2924 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2925 
  2926 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2927 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2928 
  2929 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2930 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2931 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2932 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2933 
  2934 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2935 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2936 
  2937 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2938 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2939 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2940 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2941 properties.
  2942 
  2943 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2944 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2945 
  2946 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2947 structures.
  2948 
  2949 
  2950 *** ML ***
  2951 
  2952 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2953 system are available:
  2954 
  2955   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2956   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2957   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2958 
  2959 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2960 
  2961 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2962 Isar proof method.
  2963 
  2964 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2965 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  2966 breaks.
  2967 
  2968 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  2969 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  2970 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  2973 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  2974 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  2975 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  2976 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  2979 
  2980   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  2981   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  2982 
  2983   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  2984   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  2985 
  2986 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  2987 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  2988 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  2989 
  2990 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  2991 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  2992 instead (with proper context).
  2993 
  2994 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  2995 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  2996 
  2997 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  2998 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  2999 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3000 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3001 the proof context discipline.
  3002 
  3003 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3004 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3005 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3006 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3007 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 
  3010 *** System ***
  3011 
  3012 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3013 
  3014 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3015 conflations:
  3016 
  3017     hence  ~>  then have
  3018     thus   ~>  then show
  3019 
  3020 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3021 maintainability of proofs.
  3022 
  3023 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3024 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3025 performance.
  3026 
  3027 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3028 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3029 
  3030     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3031 
  3032 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3033 space.
  3034 
  3035 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3036 platforms as follows.
  3037 
  3038   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3039     associated with the main app bundle
  3040 
  3041   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3042     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3043     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3044 
  3045   - isabelle build: settings
  3046     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3047 
  3048 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3049 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3050 
  3051 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3052 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3053 required after change.
  3054 
  3055 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3056 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3057 
  3058 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3059 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3060 
  3061 
  3062 
  3063 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3064 ------------------------------
  3065 
  3066 *** General ***
  3067 
  3068 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3069 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3070 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3071 
  3072   context
  3073   begin
  3074 
  3075   private definition ...
  3076   private lemma ...
  3077 
  3078   qualified definition ...
  3079   qualified lemma ...
  3080 
  3081   lemma ...
  3082   theorem ...
  3083 
  3084   end
  3085 
  3086 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3087 naming policy.
  3088 
  3089 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3090 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3091 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3092 
  3093 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3094 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3095 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3096 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3097 
  3098 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3099 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3100 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3104 theory context.
  3105 
  3106 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3107 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3108 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3109 
  3110 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3111 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3112 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3113 sources.
  3114 
  3115 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3116 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3117 
  3118 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3119 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3120 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3121 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3122 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3123 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3124 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3125 
  3126 
  3127 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3128 
  3129 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3130 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3131 
  3132 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3133 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3134 in the buffer.
  3135 
  3136 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3137 marker, SideKick parser.
  3138 
  3139 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3140 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3141 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3142 
  3143 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3144 Options / Text Area).
  3145 
  3146 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3147 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3148 
  3149 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3150 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3151 
  3152 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3153 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3154 
  3155 
  3156 *** Document preparation ***
  3157 
  3158 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3159 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3160 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3161 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3162 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3163 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3164 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3165 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3168 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3169 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3170 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3171 
  3172 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3173 style.
  3174 
  3175 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3176 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3177 
  3178 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3179 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3180 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3181 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3182 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3183 
  3184 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3185 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3186 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3187 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3188 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3189 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3190 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3193 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3194 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 
  3198 *** Pure ***
  3199 
  3200 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3201 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3202 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3203 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3204 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3205 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3206 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3207 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3208 
  3209 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3210 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3211 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3212 
  3213 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3214 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3215 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3216 different index.
  3217 
  3218 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3219 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3220 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3221 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3222 
  3223 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3224 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3225 token category instead.
  3226 
  3227 
  3228 *** HOL ***
  3229 
  3230 * New (co)datatype package:
  3231   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3232     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3233     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3234     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3235     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236   - Renamed theorems:
  3237       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3238       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3239       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3240       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3241       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3242       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3243       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3244       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3245       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3246       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3247       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3248       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3249       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3250     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3252     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3255     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3258     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3259     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3260     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3261     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3262     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3263     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264   - Renamed theories:
  3265       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3266       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3267       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3268       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3269       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3270       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3271     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3273     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3274     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3275     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3276     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3277     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3278     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3279     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3280     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3281   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3282     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3283     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3284     rules.
  3285 
  3286 * Old datatype package:
  3287   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3288     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3289     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3290     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3291     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292   - Renamed theorems:
  3293       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3294     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295   - Renamed theory:
  3296       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 * Nitpick:
  3300   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3301     operations.
  3302 
  3303 * Sledgehammer:
  3304   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3305     default.
  3306   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3307     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3308   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3309     Removed sub-command:
  3310       min
  3311   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3312     dramatically improved.
  3313   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3314 
  3315 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3316   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3317     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3318     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3319     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3320     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3321     point to it.
  3322     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3323   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3324     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3326     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3327   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3328     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3329 
  3330 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3331 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3332 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3333 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3334 
  3335 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3336 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3337 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3340 
  3341 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3342 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3343 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3344 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3347 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3353 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3354 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3357 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358 
  3359 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3360 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3361 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3362 
  3363 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3364 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3365 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3366 needed.
  3367 
  3368 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3369 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3370 
  3371 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3372 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3373 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3374 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3375 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3376 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3377 
  3378 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3379 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3380 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3381 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3382 
  3383 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3384 type class hierarchy:
  3385   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3386   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3387   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3388   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3389 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3390 
  3391 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3392   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3393   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3394 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3397 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3398 
  3399 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3400   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3401   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3402   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3403 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3406 and part of theory Main.
  3407   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3414 Fact rename:
  3415     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3419 
  3420 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3421 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3422 
  3423 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3424 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3425 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3426 
  3427 * Library/Multiset:
  3428   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3429   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3430     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3431   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3432       <# ~> #<#
  3433       <=# ~> #<=#
  3434       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3435       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3436     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3438       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3439       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3440     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441   - Renamed
  3442       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3443       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3444       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3445     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3447   - Added attributes:
  3448       image_mset.id [simp]
  3449       image_mset_id [simp]
  3450       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3451       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3452       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3453       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3454       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3455       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3456     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3459 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3460 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3461 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3464 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3465 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3466 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3467 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3468 examples.
  3469 
  3470 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3471   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3472   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3473   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3474     projection
  3475 
  3476 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3477 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3478 
  3479 
  3480 *** ML ***
  3481 
  3482 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3483 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3484 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3485 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3486 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3487 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3488 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3489 
  3490 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3491 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3492 
  3493 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3494 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3495 
  3496 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3500 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3501 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3502 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3503 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3504 nested.
  3505 
  3506 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3507 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3510 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3511 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3515 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3516 Thm.term_of etc.
  3517 
  3518 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3519 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3520 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3521 
  3522 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3523 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3524 
  3525 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3526 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3527 
  3528 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3529 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3530 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3533 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3534 
  3535 
  3536 *** System ***
  3537 
  3538 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3539 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3540 
  3541 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3542 
  3543 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3544 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3545 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3546 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3550 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3551 
  3552 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3553 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3554 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3555 
  3556 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3557 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3558 
  3559 
  3560 
  3561 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3562 ---------------------------------
  3563 
  3564 *** General ***
  3565 
  3566 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3567 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3568 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3569 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3570 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3571 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3572 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3573 some examples.
  3574 
  3575 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3576 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3577 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3578 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3579 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3580 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3581 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3582 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3583 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3584 
  3585 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3586 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3587 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3588 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3589 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3590 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3591 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3592 proof tools.
  3593 
  3594 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3595 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3596 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3597 
  3598 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3599 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3600 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3601 
  3602 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3603 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3604 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3605 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3606 
  3607 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3608 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3609 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3613 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3614 
  3615 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3616 not check existence within the file-system.
  3617 
  3618 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3619 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3620 
  3621 
  3622 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3623 
  3624 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3625 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3626 buffer.
  3627 
  3628 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3629 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3630 
  3631 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3632 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3633 
  3634 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3635 auxiliary ML files.
  3636 
  3637 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3638 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3639 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3640 
  3641 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3642 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3643 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3644 
  3645 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3646 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3647 
  3648 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3649 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3650 caret".
  3651 
  3652 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3653 completion popup and context-menu.
  3654 
  3655 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3656 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3657 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3658 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3659 
  3660 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3661 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3662 
  3663 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3664 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3665 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3666 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3667 
  3668 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3669 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3670 
  3671 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3672 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3673 
  3674 * Improved monitor panel.
  3675 
  3676 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3677 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3678 
  3679 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3680 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3681 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3682 
  3683 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3684 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3685 within the context.
  3686 
  3687 
  3688 *** Pure ***
  3689 
  3690 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3691 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3692 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3693 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3694 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3695 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3696 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3697 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3698 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3699 
  3700 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3701 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3702 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3703 renaming needs to be applied:
  3704 
  3705   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3706   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3707   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3708   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3709   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3710 
  3711 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3712 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3713 old constants:
  3714 
  3715 setup {*
  3716   fn thy => thy
  3717     |> Sign.root_path
  3718     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3719     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3720     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3721     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3722 *}
  3723 
  3724 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3725 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3726 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3727 
  3728 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3729 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3730 instantiated theorem.
  3731 
  3732 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3733 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3734 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3735 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3736 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3737 
  3738   attribute_setup standard =
  3739     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3740 
  3741 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3742 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3743 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3744 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3745 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3746 
  3747 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3748 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3749 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3750 
  3751 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3752 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3753 
  3754 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3755 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3756 
  3757 
  3758 *** HOL ***
  3759 
  3760 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3761 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3770 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3776 with the given constants.
  3777 
  3778 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3779 operations on records.
  3780 
  3781 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3782 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3787 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3788 
  3789 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3792 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3793 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3794 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3795 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3798 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3801   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3802   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3803   part of theory "Main".
  3804 
  3805   Theory renamings:
  3806     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3807     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3808     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3809     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3810     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3811     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3812     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3813     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3814     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3815     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3816     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3817     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3818     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3819     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3820     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3821     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3822     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3823     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3824     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3825     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3826     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3827     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3828 
  3829   New theories:
  3830     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3831     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3832     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3833     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3834     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3835 
  3836   Discontinued theories:
  3837     BNF/BNF.thy
  3838     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3839 
  3840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 * New (co)datatype package:
  3843   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3844   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3845     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3846   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3847     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3848   - Renamed commands:
  3849       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3850       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3851       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3852     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3854     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3855     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3857     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3858     using "prim(co)rec".
  3859     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3861     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3862     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3864     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3865     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3866     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3867 
  3868 * Old datatype package:
  3869   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3870     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3871     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3873     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3874     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3877   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3878   BNF-based datatype package.
  3879 
  3880   Renamed constants:
  3881     Option.set ~> set_option
  3882     Option.map ~> map_option
  3883     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3884 
  3885   Renamed theorems:
  3886     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3887     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3888     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3889     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3890     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3891     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3892     map.simps ~> list.map
  3893     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3894     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3895     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3896 
  3897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3900     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3901     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3902     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3903     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3904     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3905     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3906     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3907     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3908     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3909     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3910 
  3911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3914   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3915   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3916   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3917   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3918     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3919     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3920       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3921       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3922       automatically
  3923     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3924     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3925       automatically for datatypes
  3926   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3927     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3928       more
  3929       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3931       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3932       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3934       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3935       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3937     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3939     form
  3940     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3942     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3944     Code_Numeral.natural
  3945     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3947     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3948 
  3949 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3950 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3951 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3952 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3953 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3954 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3955 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3958 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3959 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3960 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3961 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3962 
  3963 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3964 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3965 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  3966 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  3967 
  3968 * Sledgehammer:
  3969   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  3970   - MaSh overhaul:
  3971     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  3972       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  3973     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  3974       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  3975       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  3976       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  3977   - New option:
  3978       smt_proofs
  3979   - Renamed options:
  3980       isar_compress ~> compress
  3981       isar_try0 ~> try0
  3982 
  3983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  3986 
  3987 * Nitpick:
  3988   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  3989     take infinite values.
  3990   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  3991     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  3992   - Removed "std" option.
  3993   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  3994     "hide_types".
  3995 
  3996 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  3997 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998 
  3999 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4000 
  4001 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4002   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4003   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4004     SUP instead uniformly.
  4005   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4006     or SUP and Sup.
  4007   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4008   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4009   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4010     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4011     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4012 
  4013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014 
  4015 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4016 
  4017 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4018 
  4019   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4020   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4021   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4022   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4023 
  4024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4027 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4028 
  4029 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4030 
  4031     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4032     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4033     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4034     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4035     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4036     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4037     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4038     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4039     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4040     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4041     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4042     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4043     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4044     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4045     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4046     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4047     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4048     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4049     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4050     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4051     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4052     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4053     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4054     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4055     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4056     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4057     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4058     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4059     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4060     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4061     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4062     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4063     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4064     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4065     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4066     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4067     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4068     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4069     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4070     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4071     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4072     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4073     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4074     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4075     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4076     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4077     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4078     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4079     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4080     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4081     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4082     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4083     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4084     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4085     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4086     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4087     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4088     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4089     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4090 
  4091   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4092   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4093   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4094     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4095 
  4096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4099 
  4100   Fact consolidations:
  4101     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4102     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4103     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4104     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4105     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4106     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4107     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4108     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4109     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4110     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4111     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4112     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4113     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4114     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4115     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4116     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4117     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4118     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4119     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4120     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4121     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4122     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4123     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4124     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4125     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4126     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4127     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4128     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4129     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4130     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4131     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4132     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4133     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4134     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4135     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4136     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4137     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4138     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4139     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4140     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4141 
  4142 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4143 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4144 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4145 
  4146 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4147 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4148 
  4149 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4150 
  4151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4152 
  4153 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4154 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4155 
  4156 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4158 
  4159 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4160     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4161 
  4162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4163 
  4164 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4165   consolidation:
  4166     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4167     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4168 
  4169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4172   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4173   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4174   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4175     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4176   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4177     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4178   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4179 
  4180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4181 
  4182 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4183 
  4184     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4185     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4186     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4187     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4188     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4189     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4190     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4191     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4192     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4193     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4194     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4195     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4196     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4197 
  4198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4201 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4202 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4203 
  4204 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4205     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4206     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4207     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4208     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4209 
  4210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4211 
  4212 * Fact name consolidation:
  4213     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4214     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4215     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4216     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4217     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4218 
  4219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4222 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4223 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4224 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4225 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4226 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4227 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4231 
  4232 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4233 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4234 
  4235 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4236 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4237 
  4238 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4239 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4240 or the brute way with
  4241 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4242 
  4243 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4244 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4245 stating boundedness of sets.
  4246 
  4247 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4248 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4249 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4252   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4253   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4254   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4255   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4256   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4257   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4258   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4259   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4260   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4261   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4262   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4263 
  4264   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4265 
  4266   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4267 
  4268     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4269     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4270     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4271     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4272     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4273 
  4274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4275 
  4276 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4277   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4278 
  4279   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4280 
  4281   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4282 
  4283   - removed constant isDiff
  4284 
  4285   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4286     input syntax.
  4287 
  4288   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4289 
  4290   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4291 
  4292   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4293 
  4294   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4295 
  4296   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4297     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4298     has_vector_derivative.
  4299 
  4300   - Other renamings:
  4301     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4302     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4303     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4304     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4305     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4306     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4307     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4308 
  4309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4312 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4313 in continuous_intros.
  4314 
  4315 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4316 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4317 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4318 
  4319 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4320 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4321 especially removes
  4322 
  4323     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4324 
  4325 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4326     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4327 
  4328 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4329 
  4330   Renamings:
  4331     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4332     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4333     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4334     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4335     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4336     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4337     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4338     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4339     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4340     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4341     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4342     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4343 
  4344     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4345     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4346     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4347 
  4348   Removed theorems:
  4349     complex_zero_def
  4350     complex_add_def
  4351     complex_minus_def
  4352     complex_diff_def
  4353     complex_one_def
  4354     complex_mult_def
  4355     complex_inverse_def
  4356     complex_scaleR_def
  4357 
  4358 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4361 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4364 
  4365 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4366 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4367 
  4368 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4369 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4372 
  4373 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375 
  4376 * HOL-Word:
  4377   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4378     of "word_arith_wis".
  4379   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4380     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4381     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4382 
  4383 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4384   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4385   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4386   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4387     (except the AFP)
  4388 
  4389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4390 
  4391 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4392   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4393   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4394     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4395   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4396     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4397     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4398     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4399     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4400     intervals.
  4401   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4402     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4403     - renamed theorems:
  4404         interval ~> box
  4405         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4406         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4407         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4408         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4409         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4410         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4411         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4412         open_interval ~> open_box
  4413         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4414         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4415         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4416         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4417         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4418         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4419         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4420         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4421         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4422         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4423         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4424         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4425         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4426         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4427         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4428         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4429         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4430         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4431         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4432         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4433         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4434         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4435         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4436         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4437 
  4438     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4439         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4440         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4441         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4442         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4443         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4444         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4445         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4446         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4447         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4448         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4449         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4450         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4451         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4452         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4453         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4454         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4455         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4456 
  4457   - renamed theorems:
  4458     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4459     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4460     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4461 
  4462 * HOL-Probability:
  4463   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4464 
  4465     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4466       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4467 
  4468     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4469 
  4470   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4471     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4472 
  4473     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4474     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4475     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4476     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4477     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4478     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4479     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4480     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4481     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4482     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4483     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4484     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4485     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4486     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4487     integral_indicator          ~>
  4488          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4489     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4490     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4491     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4492 
  4493     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4494          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4495 
  4496     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4497          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4498 
  4499     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4500          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4501 
  4502     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4503          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4504          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4505 
  4506     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4507          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4508 
  4509     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4510          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4511 
  4512     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4513          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4514          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4515 
  4516     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4517          nn_integral_real_affine
  4518 
  4519     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4520          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4521 
  4522     The following theorems where removed:
  4523 
  4524     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4525     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4526     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4527     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4528     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4529     integral_cmul_indicator
  4530     integral_real
  4531 
  4532   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4533     distributed random variables.
  4534 
  4535 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4536 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4538 
  4539 
  4540 *** Scala ***
  4541 
  4542 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4543 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4544 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4545 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4546 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4549 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 
  4552 *** ML ***
  4553 
  4554 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4555 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4556 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4557 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4558 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4559 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4560 
  4561 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4562 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4563 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4564 actually belongs to it).
  4565 
  4566 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4567 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4568 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4569 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4570 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4571 of schematic variables.
  4572 
  4573 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4574 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4577 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4578 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4579 
  4580 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4584 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4585 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4589 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4591 formal context.
  4592 
  4593 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4594 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4597 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4598 
  4599 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4600 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4601 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4602 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4603 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4604 
  4605 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4606 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4607 purposes.
  4608 
  4609 
  4610 *** System ***
  4611 
  4612 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4613 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4614 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4615 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4616 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4617 
  4618 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4619 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4620 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4621 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4622 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4623 settings variable.
  4624 
  4625 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4626 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4627 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4628 
  4629 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4630 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4631 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4632 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4633 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4634 
  4635 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4636 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4637 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4638 
  4639 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4640 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4641 
  4642 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4643 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4644 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4645 
  4646 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4647 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4648 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4649 processing is started.
  4650 
  4651 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4652 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4653 
  4654 
  4655 
  4656 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4657 -------------------------------------
  4658 
  4659 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4660 
  4661 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4662 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4663 
  4664 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4665 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4666 
  4667 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4668 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4669 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4670 
  4671 
  4672 *** System ***
  4673 
  4674 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4675 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4676 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4677 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4678 
  4679 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4680 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4681 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4682 
  4683 
  4684 
  4685 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4686 -------------------------------------
  4687 
  4688 *** General ***
  4689 
  4690 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4691 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4692 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4695 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4698 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4699 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4700 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4701 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4702 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4703 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4704 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4705 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4706 syntax.
  4707 
  4708 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4709 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4712 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4713 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4714 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4715 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4716 
  4717 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 
  4720 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4721 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4722 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4723 
  4724 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4725 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4726 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4727 
  4728 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4729 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4730 
  4731 
  4732 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4733 
  4734 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4735 Documentation panel.
  4736 
  4737 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4738 documentation.
  4739 
  4740 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4741 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4742 
  4743 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4744 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4745 normal editing and checking process.
  4746 
  4747 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4748 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4749 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4750 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4751 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4752 
  4753 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4754 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4755 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4756 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4757 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4758 
  4759 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4760 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4761 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4762 
  4763 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4764 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4765 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4766 to resolve conflict.
  4767 
  4768 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4769 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4770 
  4771 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4772 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4773 such command executions while editing.
  4774 
  4775 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4776 document content.
  4777 
  4778 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4779 toplevel theorem statements.
  4780 
  4781 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4782 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4783 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4784 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4785 
  4786 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4787 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4788 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4789 
  4790 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4791 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4792 
  4793 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4794 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4795 
  4796 
  4797 *** Pure ***
  4798 
  4799 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4800 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4801 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4802 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4803 details.
  4804 
  4805 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4806 
  4807 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4808 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4809 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4810 
  4811 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4815 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4816 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4817 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4820 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4821 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4824 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4825 
  4826 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4827 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4828 situations.
  4829 
  4830 
  4831 *** HOL ***
  4832 
  4833 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4834 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4838 
  4839 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4840 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4841 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4842 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4843 
  4844   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4845 
  4846 * Code generator:
  4847   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4848     'code_instance'.
  4849   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4850     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4851 
  4852 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4853 examples.
  4854 
  4855 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4856 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4857 to distinguish both when desired.
  4858 
  4859 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4860 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4861 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4862 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4863 
  4864 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4865 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4866 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4867 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4868 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4869 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4872 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4873 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4874 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4875 
  4876 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4877 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4878 
  4879 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4880 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4881 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4882 
  4883 * Lifting:
  4884   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4885     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4886       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4887       transfer rules
  4888     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4889       correspondence relation can be generated
  4890     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4891       parametricity
  4892     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4893   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4894   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4895     copies
  4896   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4897     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4898     anonymous context)
  4899   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4900     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4901   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4902     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4903   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4904     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4905 
  4906 * Transfer:
  4907   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4908     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4909   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4910   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4911     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4912   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4913 
  4914 * Reification and reflection:
  4915   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4916     "Reification".
  4917   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4918   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4920 
  4921 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4922   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4923     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4924     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4925   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4926     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4927   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4928     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4929     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4930     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4931     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4932     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4933     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4934     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4935   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4936     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4937   - Fact renames:
  4938       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4939       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4941 
  4942 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4943 
  4944 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4945 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4946 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4948 
  4949 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4950 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4951 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4952 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4953 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4954 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4955 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4956 lemmas.
  4957 
  4958 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4959 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4960 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4961 
  4962 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4963 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4964 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4965 
  4966 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  4967 top and bottom elements.
  4968 
  4969 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  4970 
  4971 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  4972 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  4973 
  4974  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  4975    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  4976    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  4977 
  4978  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  4979    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  4980    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  4981 
  4982    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  4983    arbitrary filter.
  4984 
  4985  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  4986    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  4987    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  4988    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  4989    on a compact set.
  4990 
  4991  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  4992    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  4993    linear_continuum_topology).
  4994 
  4995  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  4996    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  4997    on all sequences converging to x.
  4998 
  4999  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5000    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5001    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5002    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5003    left or right.
  5004 
  5005  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5006 
  5007      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5008 
  5009  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5010    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5011 
  5012  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5013    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5014    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5015    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5016    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5017    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5018 
  5019  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5020 
  5021    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5022 
  5023    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5024      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5025 
  5026    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5027 
  5028    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5029      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5030 
  5031    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5032 
  5033    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5034 
  5035  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5036 
  5037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Nitpick:
  5040   - Added option "spy".
  5041   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5042 
  5043 * Sledgehammer:
  5044   - Renamed option:
  5045       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5046     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5048   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5049   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5050 
  5051 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5052 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5053 
  5054 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5055   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5056   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5057     generated code.
  5058   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5059   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5060   - Fact renames:
  5061     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5062     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5063     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5064 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5065 
  5066 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5067 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5068 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5069 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5070 
  5071 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5072 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5073 
  5074 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5075 
  5076 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5077 
  5078     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5079     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5080 
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5084 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5085 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5086 
  5087 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5088 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5089 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5090 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5091 
  5092 * HOL-BNF:
  5093   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5094     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5095     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5096     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5097   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5098     coinduct).
  5099   - Renamed keywords:
  5100     data ~> datatype_new
  5101     codata ~> codatatype
  5102     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5103   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5104     discs ~> disc
  5105     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5106     map_id' ~> map_id
  5107     sels ~> sel
  5108     set_map' ~> set_map
  5109     sets ~> set
  5110 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5111 
  5112 
  5113 *** ML ***
  5114 
  5115 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5116 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5117 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5118 Examples.thy in particular.
  5119 
  5120 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5121 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5122 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5123 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5124 
  5125 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5126 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5127 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5128 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5130 
  5131 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5132 
  5133     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5134     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5135 
  5136 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5137 
  5138 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5139 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5140 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5141 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5142 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5143 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5144 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5145 
  5146 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5147 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5148 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5149 clasets separately from the context.
  5150 
  5151 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5152 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5153 
  5154 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5155 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5156 
  5157 
  5158 *** System ***
  5159 
  5160 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5161 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5162 
  5163 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5164 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5165 
  5166 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5167 settings variable.
  5168 
  5169 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5170 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5171 always pdf.
  5172 
  5173 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5174 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5175 
  5176 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5177 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5178 
  5179 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5180 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5181 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5182 
  5183 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5184 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5185 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5186 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5187 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5188 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5189 
  5190 
  5191 
  5192 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5193 -----------------------------------
  5194 
  5195 *** General ***
  5196 
  5197 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5198 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5199 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5200 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5201 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5202 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5203 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5204 
  5205 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5206 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5207 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5208 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5209 
  5210 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5211 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5212 
  5213 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5214 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5215 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5216 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5217 dependencies properly.
  5218 
  5219 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5220 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5221 
  5222 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5223 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5224 
  5225 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5226 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5227 and "class ... context ...".
  5228 
  5229 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5230 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5231 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5232 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5233 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5234 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5235 
  5236 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5237 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5238 
  5239 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5240 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5241 
  5242 
  5243 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5244 
  5245 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5246 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5247 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5248 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5249 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5250 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5251 
  5252 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5253 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5254 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5255 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5256 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5257 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5258 
  5259 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5260 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5261 browser on demand.
  5262 
  5263 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5264 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5265 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5266 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5267 
  5268 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5269 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5270 
  5271 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5272 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5273 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5274 potentially infinite message streams.
  5275 
  5276 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5277 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5278 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5279 schemes.
  5280 
  5281 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5282 symbols.
  5283 
  5284 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5285 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5286 
  5287 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5288 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5289 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5290 
  5291 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5292 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5293 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5294 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5295 
  5296 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5297 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5298 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5299 
  5300 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5301 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5302 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5303 Isabelle distribution.
  5304 
  5305 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5306 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5307 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5308 
  5309 
  5310 *** Pure ***
  5311 
  5312 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5313 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5314 
  5315 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5316 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5317 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5318 
  5319 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5320 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5321 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5322 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5323 with some care where this is really required.
  5324 
  5325 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5326 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5327 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5328 
  5329   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5330 
  5331 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5332 a Hasse diagram.
  5333 
  5334 
  5335 *** HOL ***
  5336 
  5337 * Sledgehammer:
  5338 
  5339   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5340     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5341   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5342   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5343   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5344   - Renamed options:
  5345       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5346       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5347       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5348       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5349 
  5350 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5351 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5352 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5353 
  5354 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5356 
  5357 * Lifting:
  5358   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5359   - quot_del attribute
  5360   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5361 
  5362 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5363 expressions.
  5364 
  5365 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5366 pointfree expressions.
  5367 
  5368 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5369 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5370 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5371 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5373 
  5374 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5375 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5376 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5377 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5378 accordingly.
  5379 
  5380 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5381 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5382 
  5383 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5384 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5385 
  5386 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5387 
  5388 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5389 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5390 
  5391 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5392 
  5393 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5394 
  5395   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5396   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5397 
  5398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5399 
  5400 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5401 
  5402   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5403   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5404 
  5405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5408 
  5409   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5410     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5411     output f x converges to G.
  5412 
  5413   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5414     infinity (at_bot).
  5415 
  5416   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5417     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5418 
  5419   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5420     at_top".
  5421 
  5422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5423 
  5424 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5425 lattice type classes.
  5426 
  5427 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5428 
  5429     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5430     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5431 
  5432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5433 
  5434 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5435 changes as follows.
  5436 
  5437   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5438 
  5439       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5440       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5441 
  5442   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5443     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5444     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5445     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5446 
  5447   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5448     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5449     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5450 
  5451   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5452     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5453     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5454     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5455 
  5456   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5457     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5458 
  5459       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5460       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5461       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5462       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5463       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5464       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5465       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5466       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5467       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5468       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5469       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5470       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5471       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5472       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5473       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5474       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5475 
  5476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5479 
  5480 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5481 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5482 
  5483 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5484 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5485 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5486 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5487 
  5488   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5489   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5490   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5491   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5492   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5493   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5494   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5495   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5496   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5497   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5498 
  5499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5502 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5503 Data").
  5504 
  5505 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5506 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5507 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5508 code.
  5509 
  5510 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5511 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5512 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5516 
  5517 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5518 
  5519 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5520 
  5521   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5522   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5523 
  5524 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5525 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5526 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5527 
  5528   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5529 
  5530     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5531     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5532     cart_base i  removed
  5533     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5534 
  5535   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5536 
  5537   Renamed lemmas:
  5538 
  5539     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5540     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5541     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5542     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5543     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5544     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5545     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5546     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5547     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5548     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5549 
  5550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 * HOL/Probability:
  5553 
  5554   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5555 
  5556   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5557     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5558     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5559 
  5560   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5561     projective family).
  5562 
  5563 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5564 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5565 
  5566 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5567 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5568 datatypes.
  5569 
  5570 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5571 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5572 
  5573 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5574 trees for the code generator.
  5575 
  5576 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5577 Lifting/Transfer.
  5578 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5579 
  5580 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5582 
  5583 
  5584 *** Document preparation ***
  5585 
  5586 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5587 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5588 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5589 
  5590 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5591 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5592 
  5593 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5594 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5595 document/root.tex.
  5596 
  5597 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5598 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5599 
  5600 
  5601 *** ML ***
  5602 
  5603 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5604 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5605 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5606 
  5607 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5608 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5609 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5610 
  5611 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5612 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5613 necessarily printing visible text.
  5614 
  5615 
  5616 *** System ***
  5617 
  5618 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5619 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5620 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5621 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5622 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5623 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5624 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5625 
  5626 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5627 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5628 
  5629   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5630 
  5631 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5632 
  5633 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5634 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5635 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5636 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5637 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5638 
  5639 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5640 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5641 
  5642 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5643 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5644 
  5645 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5647 
  5648 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5649 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5650 version of Isabelle.
  5651 
  5652 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5653 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5654 
  5655 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5656 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5657 for home-made settings.
  5658 
  5659 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5660 
  5661 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5662 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5663 configuration.
  5664 
  5665 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5666 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5667 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5668 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5669 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5670 
  5671 
  5672 
  5673 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5674 ------------------------------
  5675 
  5676 *** General ***
  5677 
  5678 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5679 
  5680   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5681     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5682   - markup for bound variables
  5683   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5684   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5685   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5686     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5687 
  5688 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5689 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5690 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5691 
  5692 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5693 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5694 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5695 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5696 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5697 
  5698   context
  5699     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5700     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5701   begin
  5702 
  5703   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5704 
  5705   end
  5706 
  5707   thm my_trans
  5708 
  5709 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5710 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5711 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5712 
  5713 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5714 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5715 
  5716 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5717 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5718 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5719 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5720 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5721 
  5722 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5723 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5724 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5725 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5726 indices of schematic variables.
  5727 
  5728 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5729 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5730 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5731 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5732 etc. was exploited.
  5733 
  5734 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5735 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5736 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5737 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5738 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5739 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5740 
  5741 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5742 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5743 manual.
  5744 
  5745 
  5746 *** Pure ***
  5747 
  5748 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5749 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5750 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5751 
  5752 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5753 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5754 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5755 undocumented feature.)
  5756 
  5757 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5758 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5759 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5760 
  5761   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5762 
  5763   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5764     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5765 
  5766 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5767 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5768 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5769 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5770 
  5771 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5772 
  5773     num ~> num_token
  5774     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5775     xstr ~> str_token
  5776 
  5777 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5778 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5779 position information via constraints).
  5780 
  5781 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5782 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5783 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5784 
  5785 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5786 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5787 
  5788 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5789 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5790 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5791 
  5792 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5793 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5794 
  5795 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5796 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5797 
  5798   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5799 
  5800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5801 
  5802 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5803 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5806 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5807 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5808 
  5809 
  5810 *** HOL ***
  5811 
  5812 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5813 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5814 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5815 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5816 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5817 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5818 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5819 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5820 possible.
  5821 
  5822 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5823 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5824 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5825 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5826 
  5827 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5828 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5829 
  5830 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5831 
  5832 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5833 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5834 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5835 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5836 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5837 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5838 
  5839   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5840     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5841 
  5842   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5843     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5844     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5845 
  5846   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5847     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5848 
  5849   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5850     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5851     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5852 
  5853   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5854     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5855 
  5856 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5857 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5858 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5859 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5860 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5861 
  5862   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5863     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5864     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5865     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5866     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5867 
  5868     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5869     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5870 
  5871   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5872     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5873     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5874     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5875     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5876     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5877     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5878     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5879 
  5880   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5881     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5882     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5883     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5884 
  5885   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5886     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5887     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5888     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5889 
  5890   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5891     from type nat to type int.
  5892 
  5893 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5894 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5895 
  5896   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5897     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5898     type.  Example syntax:
  5899 
  5900     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5901       is List.insert
  5902 
  5903     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5904     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5905     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5906     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5907     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5908     by the package.
  5909 
  5910   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5911     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5912     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5913     code generation for each constant.
  5914 
  5915   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5916     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5917     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5918     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5919     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5920 
  5921   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5922     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5923     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5924 
  5925 * Quotient package:
  5926 
  5927   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5928     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5929 
  5930   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5931     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5932 
  5933   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5934     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5935     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5938     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5939 
  5940 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5941 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5942 
  5943 * Quickcheck:
  5944 
  5945   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5946     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5947     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5948     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5949     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5950 
  5951     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5952     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5953     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5954 
  5955     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5956     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5957 
  5958     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5959     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5960     show genuine counterexamples.
  5961 
  5962   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5963     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5964 
  5965     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  5966     constructors of that type.
  5967 
  5968   - Support for multisets.
  5969 
  5970   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  5971 
  5972   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  5973     conjectures in a locale context.
  5974 
  5975 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  5976 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  5977 
  5978 * Sledgehammer:
  5979   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  5980     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  5981   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  5982   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  5983     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  5984   - Sped up the minimizer.
  5985   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  5986   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  5987   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  5988 
  5989 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  5990 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  5991 
  5992 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  5993 
  5994 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5995 
  5996 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  5997 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  5998 
  5999   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6000 
  6001 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6002 a list and a nat.
  6003 
  6004 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6005 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6006 
  6007 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6008 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6009 default.
  6010 
  6011 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6012 
  6013   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6014 
  6015 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6016 
  6017 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6018 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6019 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6020 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6021 one_case.
  6022 
  6023 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6024 the result of the fact expression.
  6025 
  6026 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6027 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6028 of some relation theorems:
  6029 
  6030   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6031   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6032   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6033   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6034   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6035   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6036 
  6037 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6038 
  6039 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6040 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6041 
  6042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6043 
  6044 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6045 to match the constant's name:
  6046 
  6047   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6048   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6049   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6050   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6051   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6052   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6053   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6054   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6055   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6056   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6057   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6058   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6059   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6060   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6061   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6062   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6063   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6064   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6065   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6066   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6067   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6068   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6069   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6070   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6071 
  6072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6073 
  6074 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6075 and corresponding theorem names:
  6076 
  6077   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6078 
  6079   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6080 
  6081   - Renamed theorems:
  6082 
  6083     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6084     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6085     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6086     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6087     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6088     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6089     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6090     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6091     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6092     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6093     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6094     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6095     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6096     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6097     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6098     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6099     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6100     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6101     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6102     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6103     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6104     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6105     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6106 
  6107     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6108 
  6109     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6110 
  6111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6112 
  6113 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6114 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6115 
  6116   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6117   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6118   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6119   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6120   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6121   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6122   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6123   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6124   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6125   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6126   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6127   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6128   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6129   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6130   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6131   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6132   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6133   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6134   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6135   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6136   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6137 
  6138 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6139 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6140 
  6141 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6142 
  6143 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6144 
  6145   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6146   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6147   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6148   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6149   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6150   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6151   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6152   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6153   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6154   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6155   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6156   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6157   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6158   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6159   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6160   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6161   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6162   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6163 
  6164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6165 
  6166 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6167 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6168 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6169 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6170 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6171 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6172 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6173 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6174 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6175 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6176 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6177 
  6178 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6179 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6180 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6181 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6182 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6183 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6184 
  6185 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6186 through option types.
  6187 
  6188 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6189 relations.
  6190 
  6191 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6194 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6195 
  6196   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6197   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6198   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6199   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6200   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6201   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6202   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6203   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6204   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6205   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6206   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6207   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6208   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6209   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6210   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6211   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6212   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6213   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6214   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6215   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6216   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6217   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6218   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6219   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6220   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6221   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6222   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6223   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6224   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6225   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6226   zless_le ~> less_le
  6227   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6228   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6229   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6230 
  6231 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  6232 
  6233   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  6234 
  6235 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  6236 
  6237 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  6238 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  6239 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  6240 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  6241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6242 
  6243 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6244 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  6245 
  6246 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  6247 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  6248 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  6249 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  6250 follows:
  6251 
  6252   Operations:
  6253   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  6254   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  6255   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  6256   del -> rbt_del
  6257   delete -> rbt_delete
  6258   ins -> rbt_ins
  6259   insert -> rbt_insert
  6260   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  6261   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  6262   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  6263   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  6264   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  6265   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  6266   tree_less -> rbt_less
  6267   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  6268   union -> rbt_union
  6269   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  6270   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  6271