NEWS
author haftmann
Wed Dec 25 17:39:07 2013 +0100 (2013-12-25)
changeset 54864 a064732223ad
parent 54850 980817309b78
child 54881 dff57132cf18
permissions -rw-r--r--
abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 
    20 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    21 
    22 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    23 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    24 
    25 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    26 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    27 
    28 
    29 *** HOL ***
    30 
    31 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
    32 
    33 Fact consolidations:
    34     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
    35     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
    36     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
    37     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
    38     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
    39     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
    40     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
    41     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
    42     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
    43     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
    44     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
    45     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
    46     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
    47     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
    48     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
    49     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
    50     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
    51     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
    52     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
    53     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
    54     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
    55     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
    56     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
    57     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
    58     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
    59     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
    60     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
    61     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
    62     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
    63     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
    64     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
    65     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
    66     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
    67     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
    68     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
    69     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
    70     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
    71     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
    72     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
    73     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
    74 
    75 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
    76 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
    77 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
    78 
    79 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
    80 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
    81 
    82 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
    83 
    84 INCOMPATBILITY. 
    85 
    86 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
    87 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    88 
    89 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
    90 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91 
    92 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
    93 operations on records.
    94 
    95 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    96 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    97 
    98 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    99     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   101 
   102 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   103     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   104     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   108   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   109   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   110   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   111     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   112   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   113     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
   114   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   115 INCOMPATBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   118     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   119     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   120     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   121     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Fact name consolidation:
   125     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   126     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   127     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   128     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   129     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   133 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   134 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   135 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   136 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   137 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   138 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   139 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   140 
   141 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   142 
   143 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   144 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   145 
   146 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   147 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
   148 
   149 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   150 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   151 or the brute way with
   152 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   153 
   154 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   155 
   156 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   157 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   158 
   159 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   160 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   161 
   162 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   163 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   164 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   165 INCOMPATIBILITY
   166 
   167 * Nitpick:
   168   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   169     infinite values.
   170 
   171 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   172   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   173   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   174     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   175     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   176     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   177     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   178     intervals.
   179 
   180 
   181 *** ML ***
   182 
   183 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   184 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   186 formal context.
   187 
   188 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   189 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   190 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   191 actually belongs to it).
   192 
   193 
   194 *** System ***
   195 
   196 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   197 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   198 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   199 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   200 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   201 
   202 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   203 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   204 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   205 
   206 
   207 
   208 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   209 -------------------------------------
   210 
   211 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   212 
   213 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   214 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   215 
   216 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   217 after edits surrounding the command location.
   218 
   219 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   220 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   221 e.g. out-of-memory).
   222 
   223 
   224 *** System ***
   225 
   226 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   227 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   228 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   229 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   230 
   231 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   232 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   233 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   234 
   235 
   236 
   237 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   238 -------------------------------------
   239 
   240 *** General ***
   241 
   242 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   243 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   244 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   247 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   250 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   251 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   252 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   253 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   254 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   255 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   256 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   257 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   258 syntax.
   259 
   260 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   261 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   262 
   263 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   264 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   265 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   266 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   267 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   268 
   269 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   271 
   272 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   273 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   274 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   275 
   276 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   277 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   278 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   279 
   280 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   281 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   282 
   283 
   284 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   285 
   286 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   287 Documentation panel.
   288 
   289 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   290 documentation.
   291 
   292 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   293 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   294 
   295 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   296 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   297 normal editing and checking process.
   298 
   299 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   300 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   301 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   302 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   303 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   304 
   305 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   306 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   307 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   308 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   309 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   310 
   311 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   312 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   313 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   314 
   315 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   316 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   317 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   318 to resolve conflict.
   319 
   320 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   321 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   322 
   323 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   324 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   325 such command executions while editing.
   326 
   327 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   328 document content.
   329 
   330 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   331 toplevel theorem statements.
   332 
   333 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   334 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   335 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   336 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   337 
   338 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   339 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   340 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   341 
   342 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   343 / Global Options / Appearance".
   344 
   345 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   346 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   347 
   348 
   349 *** Pure ***
   350 
   351 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   352 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   353 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   354 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   355 details.
   356 
   357 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   358 
   359 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   360 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   361 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   362 
   363 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365 
   366 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   367 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   368 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   369 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   370 
   371 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   372 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   373 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   376 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   377 
   378 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   379 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   380 situations.
   381 
   382 
   383 *** HOL ***
   384 
   385 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   386 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   390 
   391 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   392 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   393 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   394 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   395 
   396   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   397 
   398 * Code generator:
   399   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   400     'code_instance'.
   401   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   402     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   403 
   404 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   405 examples.
   406 
   407 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   408 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   409 to distinguish both when desired.
   410 
   411 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   412 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   413 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   414 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   415 
   416 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   417 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   418 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   419 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   420 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   421 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   422 
   423 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   424 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   425 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   426 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   427 
   428 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   429 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   430 
   431 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   432 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   433 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   434 
   435 * Lifting:
   436   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   437     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   438       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   439       transfer rules
   440     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   441       correspondence relation can be generated
   442     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   443       parametricity
   444     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   445   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   446   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   447     copies
   448   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   449     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   450     anonymous context)
   451   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   452     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   453   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   454     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   455   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   456     INCOMPATIBILITY
   457 
   458 * Transfer:
   459   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   460     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   461   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   462   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   463     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   464   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   465 
   466 * Reification and reflection:
   467   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   468     "Reification".
   469   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   470   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   474   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   475     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   476     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   477   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   478     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   479   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   480     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   481     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   482     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   483     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   484     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   485     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   486     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   487   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   488     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   489   - Fact renames:
   490       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   491       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   495 
   496 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   497 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   498 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   500 
   501 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   502 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   503 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   504 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   505 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   506 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   507 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   508 lemmas.
   509 
   510 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   511 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   512 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   515 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   516 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   517 
   518 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   519 top and bottom elements.
   520 
   521 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   522 
   523 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   524 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   525 
   526  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   527    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   528    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   529 
   530  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   531    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   532    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   533 
   534    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   535    arbitrary filter.
   536 
   537  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   538    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   539    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   540    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   541    on a compact set.
   542 
   543  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   544    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   545    linear_continuum_topology).
   546 
   547  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   548    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   549    on all sequences converging to x.
   550 
   551  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   552    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   553    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   554    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   555    left or right.
   556 
   557  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   558 
   559      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   560 
   561  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   562    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   563 
   564  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   565    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   566    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   567    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   568    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   569    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   570 
   571  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   572 
   573    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   574 
   575    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   576      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   577 
   578    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   579 
   580    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   581      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   582 
   583    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   584 
   585    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   586 
   587  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   588 
   589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   590 
   591 * Nitpick:
   592   - Added option "spy"
   593   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   594 
   595 * Sledgehammer:
   596   - Renamed option:
   597       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   598     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   599   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   600   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   601   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   602 
   603 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   604 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   605 
   606 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   607   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   608   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   609     generated code.
   610   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   611   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   612   - Fact renames:
   613     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   614     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   615     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   616 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   619 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   620 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   621 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   622 
   623 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   624 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   625 
   626 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   629 
   630     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   631     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   632 
   633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   636 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   637 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   638 
   639 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   640 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   641 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   642 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * HOL-BNF:
   645   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   646     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   647     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   648     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   649   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   650     coinduct).
   651   - Renamed keywords:
   652     data ~> datatype_new
   653     codata ~> codatatype
   654     bnf_def ~> bnf
   655   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   656     discs ~> disc
   657     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   658     map_id' ~> map_id
   659     sels ~> sel
   660     set_map' ~> set_map
   661     sets ~> set
   662 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664 
   665 *** ML ***
   666 
   667 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   668 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   669 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   670 Examples.thy in particular.
   671 
   672 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   673 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   674 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   675 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   676 
   677 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   678 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   679 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   680 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   682 
   683 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   684 
   685     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   686     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   687 
   688 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   689 
   690 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   691 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   692 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   693 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   694 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   695 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   696 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   697 
   698 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   699 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   700 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   701 clasets separately from the context.
   702 
   703 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   704 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   705 
   706 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   707 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   708 
   709 
   710 *** System ***
   711 
   712 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   713 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   716 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   717 
   718 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   719 settings variable.
   720 
   721 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   722 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   723 always pdf.
   724 
   725 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   726 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   727 
   728 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   729 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   730 
   731 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   732 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   733 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   734 
   735 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   736 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   737 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   738 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   739 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   740 for HTML presentation of theories.
   741 
   742 
   743 
   744 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   745 -----------------------------------
   746 
   747 *** General ***
   748 
   749 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   750 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   751 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   752 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   753 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   754 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   755 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   756 
   757 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   758 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   759 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   760 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   761 
   762 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   763 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   764 
   765 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   766 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   767 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   768 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   769 dependencies properly.
   770 
   771 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   772 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   773 
   774 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   775 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   776 
   777 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   778 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   779 and "class ... context ...".
   780 
   781 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   782 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   783 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   784 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   785 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   786 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   787 
   788 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   789 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   790 
   791 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   792 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   793 
   794 
   795 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   796 
   797 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   798 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   799 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   800 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   801 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   802 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   803 
   804 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   805 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   806 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   807 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   808 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   809 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   810 
   811 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   812 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   813 browser on demand.
   814 
   815 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   816 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   817 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   818 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   819 
   820 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   821 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   822 
   823 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   824 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   825 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   826 potentially infinite message streams.
   827 
   828 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   829 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   830 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   831 schemes.
   832 
   833 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   834 symbols.
   835 
   836 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   837 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   838 
   839 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   840 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   841 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   842 
   843 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   844 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   845 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   846 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   847 
   848 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   849 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   850 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   851 
   852 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   853 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   854 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   855 Isabelle distribution.
   856 
   857 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   858 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   859 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   860 
   861 
   862 *** Pure ***
   863 
   864 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   865 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   866 
   867 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   868 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   869 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   872 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   873 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   874 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   875 with some care where this is really required.
   876 
   877 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   878 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   879 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   880 
   881   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   882 
   883 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   884 a Hasse diagram.
   885 
   886 
   887 *** HOL ***
   888 
   889 * Sledgehammer:
   890 
   891   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   892     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   893   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   894   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   895   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   896   - Renamed options:
   897       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   898       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   899       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   900       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   901 
   902 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   903 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   904 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   905 
   906 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   908 
   909 * Lifting:
   910   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   911   - quot_del attribute
   912   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   913 
   914 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   915 expressions.
   916 
   917 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   918 pointfree expressions.
   919 
   920 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   921 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   922 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   923 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   925 
   926 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   927 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   928 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   929 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   930 accordingly.
   931 
   932 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   933 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   936 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   937 
   938 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   939 
   940 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   941 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   942 
   943 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   944 
   945 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   946 
   947   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   948   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   949 
   950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   953 
   954   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   955   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   956 
   957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   958 
   959 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   960 
   961   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   962     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   963     output f x converges to G.
   964 
   965   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   966     infinity (at_bot).
   967 
   968   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   969     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   970 
   971   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   972     at_top".
   973 
   974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   977 lattice type classes.
   978 
   979 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   980 
   981     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   982     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   983 
   984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985 
   986 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   987 changes as follows.
   988 
   989   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   990 
   991       prefix ~> prefixeq
   992       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   993 
   994   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   995     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   996     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   997     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   998 
   999   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1000     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1001     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1002 
  1003   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1004     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1005     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1006     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1007 
  1008   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1009     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1010 
  1011       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1012       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1013       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1014       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1015       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1016       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1017       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1018       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1019       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1020       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1021       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1022       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1023       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1024       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1025       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1026       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1027 
  1028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1029 
  1030 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1031 
  1032 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1033 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1034 
  1035 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1036 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1037 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1038 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1039 
  1040   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1041   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1042   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1043   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1044   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1045   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1046   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1047   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1048   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1049   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1050 
  1051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1052 
  1053 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1054 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1055 Data").
  1056 
  1057 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1058 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1059 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1060 code.
  1061 
  1062 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1063 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1064 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1068 
  1069 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1070 
  1071 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1072 
  1073   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1074   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1075 
  1076 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1077 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1078 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1079 
  1080   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1081 
  1082     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1083     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1084     cart_base i  removed
  1085     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1086 
  1087   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1088 
  1089   Renamed lemmas:
  1090 
  1091     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1092     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1093     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1094     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1095     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1096     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1097     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1098     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1099     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1100     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1101 
  1102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * HOL/Probability:
  1105 
  1106   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1107 
  1108   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1109     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1110     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1111 
  1112   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1113     projective family).
  1114 
  1115 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1116 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1117 
  1118 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1119 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1120 datatypes.
  1121 
  1122 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1123 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1124 
  1125 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1126 trees for the code generator.
  1127 
  1128 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1129 Lifting/Transfer.
  1130 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1134 
  1135 
  1136 *** Document preparation ***
  1137 
  1138 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1139 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1140 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1141 
  1142 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1143 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1144 
  1145 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1146 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1147 document/root.tex.
  1148 
  1149 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1150 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1151 
  1152 
  1153 *** ML ***
  1154 
  1155 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1156 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1157 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1158 
  1159 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1160 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1161 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1162 
  1163 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1164 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1165 necessarily printing visible text.
  1166 
  1167 
  1168 *** System ***
  1169 
  1170 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1171 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1172 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1173 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1174 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1175 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1176 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1177 
  1178 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1179 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1180 
  1181   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1182 
  1183 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1184 
  1185 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1186 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1187 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1188 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1189 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1190 
  1191 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1192 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1193 
  1194 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1195 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1196 
  1197 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1199 
  1200 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1201 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1202 version of Isabelle.
  1203 
  1204 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1205 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1206 
  1207 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1208 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1209 for home-made settings.
  1210 
  1211 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1212 
  1213 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1214 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1215 configuration.
  1216 
  1217 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1218 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1219 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1220 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1221 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1222 
  1223 
  1224 
  1225 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1226 ------------------------------
  1227 
  1228 *** General ***
  1229 
  1230 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1231 
  1232   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1233     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1234   - markup for bound variables
  1235   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1236   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1237   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1238     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1239 
  1240 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1241 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1242 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1243 
  1244 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1245 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1246 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1247 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1248 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1249 
  1250   context
  1251     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1252     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1253   begin
  1254 
  1255   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1256 
  1257   end
  1258 
  1259   thm my_trans
  1260 
  1261 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1262 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1263 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1264 
  1265 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1266 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1267 
  1268 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1269 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1270 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1271 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1272 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1273 
  1274 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1275 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1276 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1277 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1278 indices of schematic variables.
  1279 
  1280 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1281 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1282 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1283 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1284 etc. was exploited.
  1285 
  1286 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1287 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1288 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1289 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1290 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1291 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1292 
  1293 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1294 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1295 manual.
  1296 
  1297 
  1298 *** Pure ***
  1299 
  1300 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1301 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1302 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1303 
  1304 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1305 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1306 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1307 undocumented feature.)
  1308 
  1309 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1310 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1311 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1312 
  1313   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1314 
  1315   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1316     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1317 
  1318 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1319 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1320 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1321 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1322 
  1323 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1324 
  1325     num ~> num_token
  1326     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1327     xstr ~> str_token
  1328 
  1329 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1330 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1331 position information via constraints).
  1332 
  1333 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1334 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1335 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1338 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1339 
  1340 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1341 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1342 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1343 
  1344 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1345 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1346 
  1347 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1348 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1349 
  1350   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1351 
  1352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1353 
  1354 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1355 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1358 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1359 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1360 
  1361 
  1362 *** HOL ***
  1363 
  1364 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1365 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1366 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1367 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1368 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1369 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1370 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1371 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1372 possible.
  1373 
  1374 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1375 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1376 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1377 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1378 
  1379 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1380 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1383 
  1384 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1385 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1386 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1387 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1388 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1389 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1390 
  1391   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1392     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1393 
  1394   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1395     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1396     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1397 
  1398   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1399     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1400 
  1401   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1402     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1403     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1404 
  1405   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1406     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1407 
  1408 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1409 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1410 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1411 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1412 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1413 
  1414   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1415     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1416     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1417     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1418     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1419 
  1420     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1421     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1422 
  1423   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1424     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1425     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1426     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1427     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1428     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1429     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1430     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1431 
  1432   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1433     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1434     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1435     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1436 
  1437   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1438     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1439     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1440     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1441 
  1442   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1443     from type nat to type int.
  1444 
  1445 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1446 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1447 
  1448   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1449     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1450     type.  Example syntax:
  1451 
  1452     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1453       is List.insert
  1454 
  1455     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1456     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1457     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1458     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1459     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1460     by the package.
  1461 
  1462   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1463     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1464     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1465     code generation for each constant.
  1466 
  1467   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1468     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1469     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1470     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1471     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1472 
  1473   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1474     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1475     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1476 
  1477 * Quotient package:
  1478 
  1479   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1480     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1481 
  1482   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1483     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1484 
  1485   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1486     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1487     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1490     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1491 
  1492 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1493 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1494 
  1495 * Quickcheck:
  1496 
  1497   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1498     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1499     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1500     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1501     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1502 
  1503     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1504     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1505     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1506 
  1507     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1508     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1509 
  1510     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1511     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1512     show genuine counterexamples.
  1513 
  1514   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1515     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1516 
  1517     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1518     constructors of that type.
  1519 
  1520   - Support for multisets.
  1521 
  1522   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1523 
  1524   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1525     conjectures in a locale context.
  1526 
  1527 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1528 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1529 
  1530 * Sledgehammer:
  1531   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1532     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1533   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1534   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1535     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1536   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1537   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1538   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1539   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1540 
  1541 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1542 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1543 
  1544 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1545 
  1546 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1549 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1550 
  1551   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1552 
  1553 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1554 a list and a nat.
  1555 
  1556 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1557 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1558 
  1559 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1560 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1561 default.
  1562 
  1563 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1564 
  1565   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1566 
  1567 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1568 
  1569 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1570 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1571 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1572 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1573 one_case.
  1574 
  1575 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1576 the result of the fact expression.
  1577 
  1578 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1579 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1580 of some relation theorems:
  1581 
  1582   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1583   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1584   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1585   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1586   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1587   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1588 
  1589 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1590 
  1591 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1592 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1593 
  1594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595 
  1596 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1597 to match the constant's name:
  1598 
  1599   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1600   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1601   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1602   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1603   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1604   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1605   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1606   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1607   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1608   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1609   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1610   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1611   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1612   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1613   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1614   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1615   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1616   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1617   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1618   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1619   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1620   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1621   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1622   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1623 
  1624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1625 
  1626 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1627 and corresponding theorem names:
  1628 
  1629   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1630 
  1631   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1632 
  1633   - Renamed theorems:
  1634 
  1635     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1636     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1637     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1638     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1639     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1640     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1641     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1642     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1643     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1644     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1645     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1646     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1647     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1648     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1649     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1650     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1651     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1652     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1653     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1654     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1655     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1656     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1657     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1658 
  1659     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1660 
  1661     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1662 
  1663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1664 
  1665 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1666 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1667 
  1668   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1669   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1670   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1671   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1672   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1673   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1674   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1675   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1676   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1677   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1678   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1679   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1680   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1681   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1682   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1683   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1684   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1685   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1686   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1687   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1688   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1689 
  1690 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1691 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1696 
  1697   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1698   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1699   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1700   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1701   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1702   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1703   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1704   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1705   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1706   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1707   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1708   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1709   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1710   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1711   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1712   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1713   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1714   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1715 
  1716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1719 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1720 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1721 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1722 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1723 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1724 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1725 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1726 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1727 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1728 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1729 
  1730 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1731 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1732 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1733 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1734 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1735 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1736 
  1737 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1738 through option types.
  1739 
  1740 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1741 relations.
  1742 
  1743 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1746 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1747 
  1748   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1749   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1750   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1751   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1752   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1753   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1754   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1755   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1756   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1757   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1758   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1759   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1760   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1761   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1762   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1763   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1764   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1765   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1766   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1767   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1768   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1769   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1770   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1771   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1772   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1773   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1774   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1775   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1776   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1777   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1778   zless_le ~> less_le
  1779   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1780   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1781   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1782 
  1783 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1784 
  1785   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1786 
  1787 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1788 
  1789 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1790 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1791 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1792 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1796 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1797 
  1798 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1799 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1800 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1801 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1802 follows:
  1803 
  1804   Operations:
  1805   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1806   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1807   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1808   del -> rbt_del
  1809   delete -> rbt_delete
  1810   ins -> rbt_ins
  1811   insert -> rbt_insert
  1812   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1813   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1814   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1815   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1816   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1817   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1818   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1819   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1820   union -> rbt_union
  1821   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1822   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1823 
  1824   Lemmas:
  1825   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1826   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1827   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1828   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1829   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1830   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1831   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1832   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1833   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1834   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1835   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1836   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1837   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1838   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1839   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1840   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1841   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1842   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1843   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1844   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1845   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1846   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1847   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1848   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1849   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1850   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1851   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1852   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1853   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1854   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1855   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1856   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1857   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1858   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1859   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1860   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1861   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1862   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1863   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1864   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1865   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1866   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1867   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1868   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1869   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1870   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1871   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1872   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1873   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1874   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1875   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1876   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1877   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1878   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1879   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1880   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1881   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1882   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1883   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1884   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1885   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1886   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1887   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1888   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1889   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1890   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1891   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1892   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1893   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1894   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1895   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1896   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1897   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1898   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1899   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1900   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1901   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1902   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1903   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1904   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1905   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1906   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1907   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1908 
  1909 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1910 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1911 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913   Changed Operations:
  1914   float_abs -> abs
  1915   float_nprt -> nprt
  1916   float_pprt -> pprt
  1917   pow2 -> use powr
  1918   round_down -> float_round_down
  1919   round_up -> float_round_up
  1920   scale -> exponent
  1921 
  1922   Removed Operations:
  1923   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1924 
  1925   Renamed Lemmas:
  1926   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1927   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1928   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1929   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1930   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1931   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1932   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1933   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1934   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1935   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1936   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1937   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1938   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1939   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1940   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1941   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1942   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1943   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1944   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1945   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1946   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1947   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1948   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1949   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1950   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1951   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1952   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1953   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1954   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1955   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1956   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1957   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1958   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1959   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1960   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1961   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1962 
  1963   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1964   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1965   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1966   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1967   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1968   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1969   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1970   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1971   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1972   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1973 
  1974 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1975 association lists with distinct keys.
  1976 
  1977 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1978 annotated commands.
  1979 
  1980 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1981 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1982 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1983 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1986 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1987 instead.
  1988 
  1989   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1990   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1991   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1992   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1993   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1994   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1995   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1996   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1997   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1998   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1999   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2000   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2001   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2002   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2003   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2004   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2005   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2006   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2007   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2008   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2009   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2010   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2011   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2012   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2013   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2014   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2015   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2016   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2017   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2018   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2019   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2020   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2021   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2022   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2023   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2024   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2025   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2026   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2027   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2028   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2029   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2030 
  2031 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2032 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2033 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2034 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2035 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2036 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2037 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2038 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2039 
  2040 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2041 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2042 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2043 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2044 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2045 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2046 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2047 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2048 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2049 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2050 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2051 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2052 
  2053   Renamed constants:
  2054   measure -> emeasure
  2055   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2056   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2057   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2058   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2059 
  2060   Removed locales:
  2061   completeable_measure_space
  2062   finite_measure_space
  2063   finite_prob_space
  2064   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2065   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2066   finite_sigma_algebra
  2067   measure_space
  2068   pair_finite_prob_space
  2069   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2070   pair_finite_space
  2071   pair_sigma_algebra
  2072   product_sigma_algebra
  2073 
  2074   Removed constants:
  2075   conditional_space
  2076   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2077   image_space
  2078   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2079   pair_measure_generator
  2080   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2081   subvimage
  2082 
  2083   Replacement theorems:
  2084   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2085   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2086   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2087   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2088   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2089   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2090   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2091   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2092   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2093   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2094   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2095   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2096   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2097   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2098   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2099   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2100   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2101   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2102   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2103   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2104   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2105   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2106   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2107   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2108   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2109   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2110   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2111   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2112   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2113   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2114   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2115   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2116   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2117   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2118   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2119   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2120   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2121   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2122   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2123   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2124   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2125   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2126   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2127   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2128   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2129   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2130   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2131   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2132   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2133   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2134   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2135   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2136   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2137   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2138   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2139   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2140   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2141   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2142   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2143   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2144   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2145   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2146   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2147   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2148   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2149   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2150   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2151   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2152   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2153   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2154   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2155   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2156   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2157   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2158   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2159   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2160   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2161   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2162   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2163   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2164   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2165   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2166   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2167   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2168   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2169   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2170   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2171   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2172   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2173   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2174   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2175   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2176   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2177   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2178   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2179   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2180   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2181   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2182   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2183   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2184   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2185   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2186   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2187   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2188   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2189   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2190   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2191   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2192   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2193   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2194   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2195   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2196   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2197   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2198   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2199   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2200   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2201   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2202   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2203   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2204   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2205   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2206   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2207   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2208   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2209   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2210   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2211   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2212 
  2213 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2214 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2215 
  2216 
  2217 *** FOL ***
  2218 
  2219 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2220 
  2221 
  2222 *** ZF ***
  2223 
  2224 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2225 analysis.
  2226 
  2227 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2228 
  2229 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 
  2232 *** ML ***
  2233 
  2234 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2235 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2236 
  2237 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2238 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2239 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2240 
  2241 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2242 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2243 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2244 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2245 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2246 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2247 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2248 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2249 
  2250 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2251 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2252 
  2253 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2254 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2255 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2256 
  2257 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2258 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259 
  2260 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2261 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2262 context as well.
  2263 
  2264 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2265 
  2266   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2267   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2268   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2269   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2270   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2271   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2272   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2273   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2274   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2275   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2276   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2277   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2278 
  2279 
  2280 *** System ***
  2281 
  2282 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2283 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2284 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2285 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2286 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2287 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2288 the generic user home was intended.
  2289 
  2290 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2291 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2292 
  2293 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2294 (not just JRE).
  2295 
  2296 
  2297 
  2298 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2299 ------------------------------------
  2300 
  2301 *** General ***
  2302 
  2303 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2304 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2305 
  2306   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2307     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2308     files for checking).
  2309 
  2310   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2311     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2312     positions.
  2313 
  2314   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2315     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2316     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2317 
  2318   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2319     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2320     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2321 
  2322   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2323     cores.
  2324 
  2325   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2326     versions (garbage collection).
  2327 
  2328 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2329 including some remaining limitations.
  2330 
  2331 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2332 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2333 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2334 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2335 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2339 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2340 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2341 
  2342 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2343 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2344 usedir option -Q.
  2345 
  2346 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2347 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2348 
  2349   long_names   ~> names_long
  2350   short_names  ~> names_short
  2351   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2352 
  2353 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2354 
  2355   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2356 
  2357 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2358 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2359 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2360 
  2361 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2362 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2363 
  2364 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2365   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2366   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2367   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2368     "Classical Reasoner".
  2369 
  2370 
  2371 *** HOL ***
  2372 
  2373 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2374 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2377 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2378 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2379 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2380 class complete_linorder.
  2381 
  2382 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2383 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2384 
  2385 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2386 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2387 
  2388   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2389   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2390   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2391   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2392   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2393   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2394   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2395   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2396   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2397   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2398   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2399 
  2400 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2401 
  2402   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2403   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2404   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2405   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2406   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2407   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2408   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2409   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2410   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2411   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2412   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2413   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2414   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2415   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2416   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2417   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2418 
  2419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2420 
  2421 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2425 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2426 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2427 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2430 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2431 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2435 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2436 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2437 
  2438 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2439 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2440 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2443 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2444 
  2445 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2446 
  2447     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2448     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2449 
  2450 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2451 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2454 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2457 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2458 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2459 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2462   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2463   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2464   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2465   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2466   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2467   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2468 
  2469 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2470 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2473   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2474   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2475   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2476   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2477   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2478   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2479   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2480   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2481   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2482   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2483   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2484   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2485   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2486   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2487   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2488   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2489   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2490   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2491   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2492   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2493   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2494   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2495   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2496   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2497   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2498   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2499   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2500   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2501   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2502   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2503   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2504   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2505   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2506   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2507   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2508   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2509   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2510   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2511   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2512   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2513   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2514   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2515   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2516   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2517   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2518   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2519   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2520   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2521   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2522   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2523   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2524   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2525   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2526   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2527   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2528   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2529   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2530   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2531   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2532   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2533   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2534   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2535   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2536   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2537   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2538   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2539   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2540   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2541   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2542   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2543   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2544   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2545   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2546   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2547   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2548   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2549   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2550   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2551   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2552   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2553   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2554 
  2555 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2556 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2557 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2558 
  2559 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2560 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2561 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2562 
  2563 * Code generation:
  2564 
  2565   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2566     characters in the target language.
  2567 
  2568   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2569     instead.
  2570 
  2571   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2572 
  2573   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2574     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2575 
  2576       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2577 
  2578 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2581 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2582 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2583 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2584 syntax.
  2585 
  2586 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2587 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2588 
  2589 * Nitpick:
  2590   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2591   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2592   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2593     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * Sledgehammer:
  2596   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2597   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2598     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2599   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2600     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2601   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2602     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2604     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2605   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2606     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * Metis:
  2609   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2611     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Command 'try':
  2614   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2615     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2617     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2618 
  2619 * Quickcheck:
  2620   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2621     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2622   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2623     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2624   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2625     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2626     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2627     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2628   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2629     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2630 
  2631 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2632 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2633 
  2634 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2635 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2636 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2637 
  2638 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2639 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2643 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2646 arithmetic.
  2647 
  2648 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2649 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2650 and lattice type classes.
  2651 
  2652 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2653 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2654 
  2655 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2656 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2657 
  2658 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2659 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2660 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2663   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2664   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2665   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2666 
  2667 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2668 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2669 constants:
  2670 
  2671   type inat   ~> type enat
  2672   Fin         ~> enat
  2673   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2674   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2675   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2676 
  2677 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2678 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2679 
  2680 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2681 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2682 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2683 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2684 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2685 
  2686 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2687 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2688 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2689 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2690 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2691 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2692 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2693 
  2694   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2695   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2696   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2697   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2698 
  2699 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2700 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2701 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2704   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2705   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2706   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2707   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2708   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2709   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2710   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2711   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2712   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2713   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2714   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2715   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2716   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2717   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2718   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2719   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2720   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2721   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2722   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2723   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2724   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2725   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2726   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2727   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2728   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2729   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2730   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2731   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2732   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2733   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2734   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2735   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2736   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2737   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2738   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2739   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2740   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2741   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2742   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2743   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2744   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2745   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2746   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2747   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2748   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2749   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2750   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2751   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2752   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2753   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2754 
  2755 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2756   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2757   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2758   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2759   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2760     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763 
  2764   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2765   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2766   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2767   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2768   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2769   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2770   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2771   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2772   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2773   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2774   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2775   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2776   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2777   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2778   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2779   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2780   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2781   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2782   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2783   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2784   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2785   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2786   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2787   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2788   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2789 
  2790 
  2791 *** Document preparation ***
  2792 
  2793 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2794 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2795 same.
  2796 
  2797 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2798 result.
  2799 
  2800 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2801 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2802 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2803 
  2804 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2805 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2806 
  2807 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2808 like this:
  2809 
  2810   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2811   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2812 
  2813 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2814 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2815 layouts.
  2816 
  2817 
  2818 *** ML ***
  2819 
  2820 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2821 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2822 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2823 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2824 under external program control.
  2825 
  2826 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2827 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2828 
  2829 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2830 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2831 (better known as Proof General).
  2832 
  2833 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2834 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2835 
  2836 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2837 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2838 
  2839 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2840 (including quotes etc.).
  2841 
  2842 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2843 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2844 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2845 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2846 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2847 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2848 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2849 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2850 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2851 
  2852 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2853 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2854 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2855 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2856 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2857 
  2858 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2859 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2860 
  2861 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2862 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2863 
  2864 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2865 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2866 
  2867 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2868 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2869 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2870 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2871 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2872 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2873 proper Proof.context.
  2874 
  2875 
  2876 *** System ***
  2877 
  2878 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2879 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2880 
  2881 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2882 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2883 
  2884 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2885 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2886 
  2887   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2888   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2889   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2890   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2891   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2892 
  2893 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2894 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2897 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2898 example:
  2899 
  2900   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2901 
  2902 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2903 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2904 
  2905 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2906 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2907 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2908 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2909 
  2910 
  2911 
  2912 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2913 ----------------------------------
  2914 
  2915 *** General ***
  2916 
  2917 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2918 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2919 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2920 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2921 like this:
  2922 
  2923   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2924 
  2925 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2926 
  2927 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2928 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2929 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2930 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2931 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2932 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2933 
  2934 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2935 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2936 the following package declarations:
  2937 
  2938   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2939   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2940 
  2941 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2942 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2943 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2944 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2945 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2946 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2947 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2948 
  2949 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2950 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2951 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2952 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2953 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2954 
  2955 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2956 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2957 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2958 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2959 
  2960 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2961 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2962 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2963 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2964 
  2965   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2966 
  2967   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2968   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2969   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2970   show_types                    show_types
  2971   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2972   show_consts                   show_consts
  2973   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2974 
  2975   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2976   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2977   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2978 
  2979   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2980   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2981 
  2982   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2983 
  2984   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2985   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2986   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2987   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2988   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2989 
  2990 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2991 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2992 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2993 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2994 
  2995 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2997 
  2998   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2999   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3000 
  3001 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3002 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3003 float_token.
  3004 
  3005 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3006 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3010 DejaVu Sans.
  3011 
  3012 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3013 
  3014 
  3015 *** Pure ***
  3016 
  3017 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3018 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3019 time.
  3020 
  3021 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3022 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3025 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3028 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3029 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3030 command already provided this functionality.
  3031 
  3032 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3033 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3034 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3035 without interpretations.
  3036 
  3037 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3038 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3039 
  3040 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3041 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3042 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3043 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3044 
  3045 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3046 'definition' instead.
  3047 
  3048 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3049 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3050 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3051 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3052 
  3053 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3054 constructors.
  3055 
  3056 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3057 the local file system.
  3058 
  3059 
  3060 *** HOL ***
  3061 
  3062 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3063 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3064 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3065 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3066 
  3067   declare [[coercion f]]
  3068 
  3069 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3070 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3071 
  3072   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3073 
  3074 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3075 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3076 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3077 other theories like this:
  3078 
  3079   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3080 
  3081 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3082 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3083 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3084 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3085 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3086 for examples.
  3087 
  3088 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3089 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3092 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3093 
  3094 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3095 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3096 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3097 
  3098 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3099 functorial structure of types.
  3100 
  3101 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3102 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3103 
  3104 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3105 languages.
  3106 
  3107 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3108 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110 
  3111 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3112 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3115 combinators any longer.
  3116 
  3117 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3118 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3119 
  3120 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3121 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3122 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3123 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3124 
  3125   record 'a foo = ...
  3126   ...
  3127   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3128 
  3129 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3130 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3134 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3135 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3136 
  3137 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3138 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3139 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3140 
  3141 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3142 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3145 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3146 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3147 independently.
  3148 
  3149 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3150 counter example search.
  3151 
  3152 * Sledgehammer:
  3153   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3154     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3155     sledgehammer").
  3156   - Renamed commands:
  3157     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3158     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3159     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3160     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161   - Renamed options:
  3162     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3163     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3164     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3165     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3166     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3167 
  3168 * Nitpick:
  3169   - Renamed options:
  3170     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3171     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3172     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3174   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3175   - Added "whack" option.
  3176   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3177   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3178   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3179   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3180     higher cardinalities.
  3181   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3182 
  3183 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3184 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3185 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3186 
  3187     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3188 
  3189 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3190 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3191 
  3192 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3193 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3194 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3195 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3196 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3197 "smt_solver".
  3198 
  3199 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3200 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3201 
  3202 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3203 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3204 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3205 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206 
  3207 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3208   - Renamed:
  3209     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3210     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3211     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3212   - Added:
  3213     smt_verbose
  3214     smt_random_seed
  3215     smt_datatypes
  3216     smt_infer_triggers
  3217     smt_monomorph_limit
  3218     cvc3_options
  3219     remote_cvc3_options
  3220     remote_z3_options
  3221     yices_options
  3222 
  3223 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3224 header.
  3225 
  3226 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3227 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3228 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3229 
  3230   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3231 
  3232 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3235 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238 
  3239 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3240 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3243 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3244 
  3245 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3246 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3249 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3250 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3258 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3261 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3262 for congruent(2)).
  3263 
  3264 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3265 
  3266   types
  3267     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3268     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3269 
  3270   constants
  3271     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3272     True ~> HOL.True
  3273     False ~> HOL.False
  3274     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3275     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3276     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3277     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3278     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3279     The ~> HOL.The
  3280     All ~> HOL.All
  3281     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3282     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3283     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3284     If ~> HOL.If
  3285     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3286     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3287     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3288     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3289     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3290     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3291     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3292     op : ~> Set.member
  3293     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3294 
  3295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3298 
  3299     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3300     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3301     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3302     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3303     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3304     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3305     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3306     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3307 
  3308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * More stylized fact names:
  3311 
  3312   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3313   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3314   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3315   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3316 
  3317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3320 
  3321   constants
  3322     null ~> List.null
  3323 
  3324   facts
  3325     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3326     null_empty ~> null_def
  3327 
  3328 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3329 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3330 generation.
  3331 
  3332 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3333 Haskell code.
  3334 
  3335 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3336 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3337 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3340 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3343 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3344 
  3345 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3346 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3347 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3350 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3354 
  3355 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3356 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3357 referred to by its qualified name.
  3358 
  3359   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3360   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3361   product ~>  Enum.product
  3362 
  3363 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3364 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3368 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3369 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3373 sort_key.
  3374 
  3375 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3379 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3380 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3381 
  3382   types
  3383     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3384               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3385               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3386         (depends on your needs)
  3387 
  3388   constants
  3389      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3390      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3391      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3392 
  3393 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3394 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3395 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3396 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3397 
  3398 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3399 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3400 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3401 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3402 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3408 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3409 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3410 
  3411 
  3412 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3413 
  3414 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3415 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3416 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3417 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3418 compatibility.
  3419 
  3420 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3421 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3422 
  3423 
  3424 *** HOLCF ***
  3425 
  3426 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3427 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3428 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3432 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3433 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3436   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3437   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3438 
  3439 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3440 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3441 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3444 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3445 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3446 domain definition now works:
  3447 
  3448   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3449 
  3450 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3451 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3452 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3453 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3454 
  3455   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3456     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3457 
  3458   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3459 
  3460 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3461 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3462 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463 
  3464 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3465 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466 
  3467 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3468 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3469 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3470 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3471 
  3472 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3473 
  3474 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3480 
  3481 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3482 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3483 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3484 
  3485 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3486 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3487 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3490 still supported as an input translation.
  3491 
  3492 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3493 
  3494   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3495   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3496   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3497   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3498   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3499   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3500   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3501 
  3502 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3503 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3506   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3507   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3508   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3509   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3510   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3511 
  3512 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3513 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3516 
  3517   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3518   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3519   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3520   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3521 
  3522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3525 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3528 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3531   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3532   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3533   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3534   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3535   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3536   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3537   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3538   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3539   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3540   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3541   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3542   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3543   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3544   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3545   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3546   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3547   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3548   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3549   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3550 
  3551 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3554   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3555   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3556   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3557   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3558   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3559   box_less             ~> box_below
  3560   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3561   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3562   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3563   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3564   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3565   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3566   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3567   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3568   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3569   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3570   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3571   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3572   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3573   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3574   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3575   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3576   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3577   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3578   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3579   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3580   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3581   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3582   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3583   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3584   up_less              ~> up_below
  3585   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3586   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3587   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3588   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3589   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3590   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3591   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3592   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3593   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3594   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3595   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3596   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3597   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3598 
  3599 
  3600 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3601 
  3602 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3603 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 
  3606 *** ML ***
  3607 
  3608 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3609 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3610 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3611 
  3612 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3613 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3614 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3615 
  3616 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3617 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3618 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3619 
  3620 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3621 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3622 
  3623 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3624 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3625 
  3626 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3627 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3628 
  3629 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3630 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3631 
  3632 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3633 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3634 almost all situations.
  3635 
  3636 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3637 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3638 Isabelle/ML.
  3639 
  3640 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3641 meaning.
  3642 
  3643 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3644 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3645 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3646 
  3647 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3648 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3649 
  3650 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3651 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3652 
  3653 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3655 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3656 
  3657 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3658 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3659 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3660 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3661 configuration options.
  3662 
  3663 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3664 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3665 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3666 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3667 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3668 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3669 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3670 
  3671 
  3672 
  3673 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3674 ---------------------------------
  3675 
  3676 *** General ***
  3677 
  3678 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3679 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3680 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3681 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3682 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3683 their full internal name.
  3684 
  3685 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3686 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3687 Some hints on upgrading:
  3688 
  3689   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3690     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3691     which are independent of this issue.
  3692 
  3693   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3694     provides the following special forms:
  3695 
  3696       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3697       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3698       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3699 
  3700     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3701     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3702     extra variables".
  3703 
  3704     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3705     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3706     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3707     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3708     "logic".
  3709 
  3710   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3711     antiquotations:
  3712 
  3713       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3714       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3715       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3716       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3717 
  3718   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3719     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3720     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3721     antiquotations.
  3722 
  3723 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3724 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3725 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3726 diagnose syntax problems.
  3727 
  3728 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3729 
  3730 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3731 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3732 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3733 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3734 
  3735 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3736 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3737 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3738 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3741 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3742 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3743 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3744 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3747 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3748 
  3749 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3750 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3751 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3752 
  3753   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3754 
  3755 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3756 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3757 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3758 
  3759 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3760 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3764 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3765 
  3766 
  3767 *** Pure ***
  3768 
  3769 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3770 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3771 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3772 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3773 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3774 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3775 inspect proof terms.
  3776 
  3777 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3778 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3779 are added internally.  For example:
  3780 
  3781   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3782 
  3783 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3784 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3789 'class' instead.
  3790 
  3791 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3792 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3796 invariants.
  3797 
  3798 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3799 user space functionality any longer.
  3800 
  3801 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3802 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3806 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3807 
  3808 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3809 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3810 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3811 
  3812 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3813 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3814 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3815 
  3816 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3817 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 
  3820 *** HOL ***
  3821 
  3822 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3823 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3824 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3825 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3826 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3827 
  3828 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3829 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3830 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3831 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3832 
  3833   fun
  3834     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3835   where
  3836     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3837 
  3838   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3839     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3840 
  3841   quotient_definition
  3842     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3843 
  3844 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3845 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3846 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3847 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3848 
  3849 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3850 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3851 
  3852 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3853 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3854 
  3855 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3859 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3860 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3861 
  3862 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3863 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3867 
  3868 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3872 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3875 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3876 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3879   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3880   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3881   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3882   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3883   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3884   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3885   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3886   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3887   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3888   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3889   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3890   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3891   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3892   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3893   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3894   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3895   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3896   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3897   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3898   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3899   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3900   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3901   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3902   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3903   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3904   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3905   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3906   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3907   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3908 
  3909 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3910 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3911 
  3912 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3913 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3914 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3915 
  3916 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3917 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3918 
  3919 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3920 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3923 
  3924 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3925 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3928 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3933 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3934 
  3935 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3936 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3937 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3938 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3939 
  3940 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3941   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3942   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3943   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3947 lattices):
  3948 
  3949     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3950     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3951 
  3952     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3953 
  3954     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3955     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3956     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3957     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3958     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3959     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3960     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3961     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3962     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3963     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3964     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3965     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3966     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3967 
  3968     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3969     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3970     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3971     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3972     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3973     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3974     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3975     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3976     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3977     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3978     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3979     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3980     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3981     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3982     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3983     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3984     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3985     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3986 
  3987   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3988   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3989 
  3990     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3991     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3992     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3993     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3994     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3995 
  3996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * Refined field classes:
  3999   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4000     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4001     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4002   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4006   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4007   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4008   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4009     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4010   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4011     equal_neg_zero.
  4012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 
  4014 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4015 sets to lattices:
  4016 
  4017   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4018   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4019   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4020   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4021   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4022   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4023   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4024   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4025   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4026   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4027 
  4028 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4029 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4030 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4031 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4032 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4033 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4036 multiset order:
  4037 
  4038   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4039     <= and <;
  4040   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4041     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4042     multiset_order;
  4043   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4044     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4045     generation;
  4046   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4047     if needed.
  4048 
  4049 Renamed:
  4050 
  4051   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4052   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4053   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4054 
  4055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4058 
  4059 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4060 
  4061 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4062 
  4063 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4064 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4065 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4066 
  4067   Constants:
  4068   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4069   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4070   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4071   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4072   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4073   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4074   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4075   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4076   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4077   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4078   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4079   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4080   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4081 
  4082   Lemmas:
  4083   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4084   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4085   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4086   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4087   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4088   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4089   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4090   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4091   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4092   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4093   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4094   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4095   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4096 
  4097 * Sledgehammer:
  4098   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4099     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4100     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4101     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4102     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4103     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4104     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4106   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4107     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4108   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4109     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4110     is still experimental.)
  4111   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4112     full-typed mode.
  4113   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4114 
  4115 * Nitpick:
  4116   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4117   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4118   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4119     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4120   - Added support for quotient types.
  4121   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4122     constructs.
  4123   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4124     "termination" proofs).
  4125   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4126   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4127   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4128   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4129     record getters.
  4130   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4131   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4132   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4133   - Added "atoms" option.
  4134   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4135     problems.
  4136   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4137     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4138     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4140     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4144   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4145   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4146   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4147   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4148   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4149   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4150   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4151   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4152   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 
  4155 *** HOLCF ***
  4156 
  4157 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4158 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4159 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4162 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4163 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4164 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4167 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4168 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4169 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4170 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4173 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4174 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4177 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4180   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4181 
  4182 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4183 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4184 
  4185   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4186   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4187   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4188   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4189   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4190 
  4191 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4192 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4195   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4196   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4197 
  4198 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4199 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4201 
  4202 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4203 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4206 
  4207 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4208 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 
  4211 *** ML ***
  4212 
  4213 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4214 
  4215     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4216     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4217 
  4218     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4219     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4220     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4221     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4222 
  4223     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4224     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4225     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4226 
  4227 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4228 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4229 
  4230 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4231 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4232 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4233 
  4234 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4235 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4236 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4237 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4238 
  4239 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4240 the context or even global references.
  4241 
  4242 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4243 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4244 
  4245 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4246 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4247 
  4248   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4249   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4250   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4251   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4252   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4253   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4254   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4255   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4256   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4257   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4258 
  4259 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4260 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4261 
  4262 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4263 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4264 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4265 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4266 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4267 
  4268 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4269 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4270 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4271 Theory_Data version.
  4272 
  4273 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4274 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4275 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4276 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4277 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4278 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4279 explicitly in rare situations.
  4280 
  4281 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4282 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4286 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4289 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4290 quite rare).
  4291 
  4292 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4293 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4296 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4297 terms.
  4298 
  4299 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4300 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4301 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4302 
  4303 
  4304 *** System ***
  4305 
  4306 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4307 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4308 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4309 
  4310 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4311 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4312 respectively.
  4313 
  4314 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4315 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4316 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4317 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4318 
  4319   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4320 
  4321 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4322 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4323 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4324 component.
  4325 
  4326 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4327 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4328 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4329 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4330 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4331 the user for manual installation.
  4332 
  4333 
  4334 
  4335 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4336 -------------------------------------
  4337 
  4338 *** General ***
  4339 
  4340 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4341 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4342 
  4343 
  4344 *** Pure ***
  4345 
  4346 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4347 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4348 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4349 
  4350 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4351 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4352 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4353 
  4354 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4355 interpretation.
  4356 
  4357 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4358 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 
  4361 *** Document preparation ***
  4362 
  4363 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4364 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4365 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4366 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4367 
  4368 
  4369 *** HOL ***
  4370 
  4371 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4372 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4373 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4374 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4375 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4376 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4377 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4378 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4379 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4380 
  4381 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4382 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4383 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4384 
  4385 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4386 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4387 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4388 
  4389 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4390 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4391 
  4392 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4393 
  4394 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4395 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4396 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4397 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4398 
  4399 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4400 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4401 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4402 "mirabelle" utility.
  4403 
  4404 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4405 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4406 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4407 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4408 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4409 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4410 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4411 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4412 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4413 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4414 
  4415 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4416 procedure only.
  4417 
  4418 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4419 
  4420 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4421 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4422 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4423 that fail later.
  4424 
  4425 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4426 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4427 
  4428 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4429 the same method as the approximation method.
  4430 
  4431 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4432 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4433 series expansion.
  4434 
  4435 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4436 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4437 
  4438 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4439 reals.
  4440 
  4441 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4442 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4443 
  4444 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4445 fixpoint theorem.
  4446 
  4447 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4448   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4449     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4450   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4451     accordingly
  4452   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4453     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4454   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4455     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4456 
  4457 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4458 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4459 lattice.
  4460 
  4461 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4462 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4463 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4464 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4465 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4466 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4468 
  4469 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4470   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4471     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4472   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4473     le_inf_iff
  4474   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4475     sup_aci)
  4476   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4477   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4478   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4479     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4480     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4481     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4482     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4483     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4484     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4485     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4486     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4487     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4488     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4489   - authentic syntax for
  4490     Set.Pow
  4491     Set.image
  4492   - mere abbreviations:
  4493     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4494     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4495     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4496     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4497     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4498     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4499     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4500     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4501   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4502 
  4503 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4504 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4505 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4506 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4507 
  4508 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4509 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4510 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511 
  4512 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4513 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4516 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4517 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4518 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4519 
  4520 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4521 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4522 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4523 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4524 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4525 
  4526 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4527 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4529 
  4530 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4531 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4532 
  4533 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4534 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4535 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4536 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4537 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4538 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4539 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4541 
  4542 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4543     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4544     code_post       replaces    code post
  4545     etc.
  4546   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Renamed methods:
  4549     sizechange -> size_change
  4550     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4551   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 
  4553 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4554 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4555 
  4556 * Renamed theorems:
  4557     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4558     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4559     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4560     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4561     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4562   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 
  4571 *** HOLCF ***
  4572 
  4573 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4574 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4575 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4576 
  4577 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4578 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4579 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4580 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4581 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4582 
  4583 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4584 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4585 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4586 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4587 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4588 
  4589 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4590 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4591 constructor are pre-configured.
  4592 
  4593 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4594 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4595 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4596 
  4597 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4598 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4599 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4600 as well.)
  4601 
  4602 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4603 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4604 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4605 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4606 examples.
  4607 
  4608 
  4609 *** ML ***
  4610 
  4611 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4612 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4613 
  4614 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4615 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4616 position, logical grouping etc.
  4617 
  4618 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4619 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4620 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4621 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4622 
  4623 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4624 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4625 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4626 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4627 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4628 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4629 
  4630 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4631 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4632 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4633 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4634 experiments with references.
  4635 
  4636 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4637 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4638 
  4639 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4640 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4641 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4642 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4643 
  4644 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4645 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4646 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4647 
  4648 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4649 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4650 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4656 
  4657 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4658 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4659 
  4660 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4661 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4662 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4663 
  4664 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4665 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4666 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4667 
  4668 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4669 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4670 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4672 
  4673 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4674 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4675 instead of global theory.
  4676 
  4677 
  4678 *** System ***
  4679 
  4680 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4681 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4682 usedir option -q.
  4683 
  4684 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4685 also the system manual.
  4686 
  4687 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4688 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4689 
  4690 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4691 this is always enabled.
  4692 
  4693 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4694 
  4695 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4696 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4697 currently supported on Linux only.
  4698 
  4699 
  4700 
  4701 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4702 --------------------------------
  4703 
  4704 *** General ***
  4705 
  4706 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4707 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4708 
  4709   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4710     "isatool."
  4711 
  4712   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4713     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4714 
  4715   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4716     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4717 
  4718 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4719 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4720 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4721 
  4722 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4723 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4724 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4725 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4726 via "isabelle emacs".
  4727 
  4728 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4729 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4730 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4731 
  4732 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4733 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4734 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4735 
  4736 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4737 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4738 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4739 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4740 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4741 
  4742 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4743 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4744 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4745 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4746 
  4747 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4748 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4749 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 *** Pure ***
  4753 
  4754 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4755 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4756 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4757 
  4758 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4759 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4760 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4761 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4762 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4763 
  4764 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4765 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4766 useful in locale declarations.
  4767 
  4768 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4769 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4770 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4771 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4772 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4773 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4774 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4775 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4776 no longer generated.
  4777 
  4778 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4779 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4780 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4781 
  4782 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4783 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4784 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4785 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4786 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4787 
  4788 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4790 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4791 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4792 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4793 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4794 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4795 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4796 
  4797 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4798 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4799 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4800 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4801 
  4802 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4803 
  4804 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4805 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4806 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4807 
  4808 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4809 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4812 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4813 in HOL, write
  4814 
  4815     class foo = ...
  4816 
  4817 instead of
  4818 
  4819     class foo = type + ...
  4820 
  4821 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4822 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4823 
  4824 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4825 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4826 
  4827 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4828 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4829 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4830 
  4831 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4832 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4833 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4834 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4835 directly in regular applications.
  4836 
  4837 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4838 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4839 
  4840 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4841 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4842 
  4843 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4844 theory context.
  4845 
  4846 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4847 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4850 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4851 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4852 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4853 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4854 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4855 
  4856   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4857 
  4858 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4859 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4860 normalization.
  4861 
  4862 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4863 addressing etc.
  4864 
  4865 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4866 
  4867   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4868   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4869 
  4870 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4871 
  4872   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4873      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4874      parts of the code generator framework).
  4875 
  4876   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4877      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4878      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4879 
  4880 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4881 
  4882 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4883 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4886 patterns, e.g.
  4887 
  4888     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4889 
  4890 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4891 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4892 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4893 hyphen:
  4894 
  4895     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4896 
  4897 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4898 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4899 
  4900 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4901 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4902 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4903 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4904 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4905 higher-order unification.
  4906 
  4907 
  4908 *** Document preparation ***
  4909 
  4910 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4911 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4912 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4913 
  4914 
  4915 *** HOL ***
  4916 
  4917 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4918 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4919 
  4920 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4921 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4922 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4923 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4924 Main, as before.
  4925 
  4926 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4927 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4928 
  4929 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4930 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4931 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4932 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4933 
  4934 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4935 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4936 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4937 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4938 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4939 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4940 
  4941 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4942 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4943 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4944 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4945 
  4946 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4947 menu.
  4948 
  4949 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4950 (contains the empty clause).
  4951 
  4952 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4953 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4954 
  4955 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4956 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4957 
  4958 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4959 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4960 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4961 
  4962 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4963 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4964 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4965 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4966 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4967 
  4968 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4969 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4970 
  4971 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4972 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4973 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4974 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4975 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4976 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4977 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4978 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4979 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4980 
  4981 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4982 
  4983 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4984 
  4985 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4986 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4987 
  4988 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4989 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4990 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4991 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4992 
  4993 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4994 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4995 
  4996     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4997     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4998     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4999     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5000     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5001     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5002     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5003     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5004 
  5005 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5006 theory Set.
  5007 
  5008 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5009 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5010 
  5011 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5012 
  5013 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5014 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5015 
  5016 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5017 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5018 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5019 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5020 allowed. For examples see
  5021 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5022 
  5023 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5024 
  5025 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5029 structure:
  5030 
  5031     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5032     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5033     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5034     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5035     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5036     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5037     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5038     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5039     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5040     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5041     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5042     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5043     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5044     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5045     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5046     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5047     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5048     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5049     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5050     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5051     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5052     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5053     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5054     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5055     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5056     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5057     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5058     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5059     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5060     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5061     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5062     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5063     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5064 
  5065     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5066     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5067     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5068     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5069     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5070     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5071     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5072     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5073     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5074     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5075 
  5076     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5077     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5078     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5079     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5080     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5081     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5082 
  5083 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5084 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5085 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5086 
  5087 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5088 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5089 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5090 
  5091 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5092 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5093 
  5094 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5095 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5096 
  5097 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5098 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5099 proofs, e.g.
  5100 
  5101   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5102 
  5103 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5104 
  5105 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5106 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5107 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5108 
  5109 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5110 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5114 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5115 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5117 
  5118 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5119 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5120 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5121 preorder_class.*.
  5122 
  5123 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5124 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5125 
  5126 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5127 
  5128   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5129 
  5130 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5131 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5132 fold_image.
  5133 
  5134 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5135 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5136 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5137 the former will disappear at some point.
  5138 
  5139 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5140 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5141 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5142 
  5143 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5144 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5145 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5146 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5147 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5148 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5149 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5150 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5151 
  5152 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5153 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5154 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5155 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5156 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5157 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5158 
  5159     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5160     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5161     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5162     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5163     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5164     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5165     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5166 
  5167 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5168 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5169 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5170 
  5171 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5172 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5173 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5174 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5175 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5176 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5177 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5178 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5179 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5180 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5181 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5182 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5183 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5184 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5185 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5186 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5187 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5188 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5189 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5190 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5191 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5192 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5193 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5194 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5195 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5196 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5197 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5198 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5199 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5200 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5201 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5202 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5203 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5204 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5205 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5206 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5207 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5208 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5209 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5210 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5211 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5212 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5213 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5214 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5215 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5216 
  5217 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5218 
  5219 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5220 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5221 
  5222 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5223 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5224 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5225 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5226 
  5227 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5228 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5229 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5230 theory RealVector.
  5231 
  5232 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5233 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5234 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5235 and inner products are included.
  5236 
  5237 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5238 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5239 supported.
  5240 
  5241 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5242 first diagonalization argument.
  5243 
  5244 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5245 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5246 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5247 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5248 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5249 
  5250     hide (open) const gcd
  5251     abbreviation gcd where
  5252       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5253     notation (output)
  5254       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5255 
  5256 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5257 
  5258 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5259 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5260 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5261 
  5262 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5263 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5264 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5265 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5266 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5267 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5268 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5269 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5270 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5271 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5272 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5273 cases.
  5274 
  5275 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5276 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5277 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5278 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5279 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5280 
  5281     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5282     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5283     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5284     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5285     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5286 
  5287 
  5288 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5289 
  5290 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5291 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5292 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5293 
  5294 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5295 
  5296 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5297 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5298 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5299 
  5300 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5301 
  5302 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5303 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5304 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5305 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5306 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5307 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5308 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5309 
  5310 
  5311 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5312 
  5313 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5314 
  5315 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5316 theory targets.
  5317 
  5318 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5319 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5320 'inductive' etc.
  5321 
  5322 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5323 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5324 
  5325 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5326 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5327 
  5328 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5329 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5330 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5331 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5332 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5333 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5334 the algorithm W:
  5335 
  5336  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5337  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5338          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5339 
  5340 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5341 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5342 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5343 
  5344 
  5345 *** HOLCF ***
  5346 
  5347 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5348 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5349 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5350 
  5351 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5352 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5353 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5354 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5355 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5356 
  5357 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5358 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5359 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5360 
  5361 
  5362 *** ZF ***
  5363 
  5364 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5365 
  5366 
  5367 *** ML ***
  5368 
  5369 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5370 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5371 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5372 5.2.1!
  5373 
  5374 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5375 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5376 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5377 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5378 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5379 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5380 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5381 
  5382 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5383 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5384 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5385 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5386 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5387 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5388 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5389 
  5390 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5391 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5392 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5393 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5394 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5395 
  5396 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5397 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5398 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5399 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5400 Method.add_method.
  5401 
  5402 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5403 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5404 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5405 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5406 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5407 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5408 
  5409 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5410 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5411 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5412 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5413 examples.
  5414 
  5415 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5416 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5417 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5418 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5419 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5420 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5421 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5422 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5423 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5424 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5425 
  5426 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5427 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5428 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5429 
  5430 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5431 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5432 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5433 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5434 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5435 resort for legacy applications.
  5436 
  5437 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5438 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5439 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5440 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5441 explicit runtime argument.
  5442 
  5443 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5444 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5445 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5446 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5447 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5448 
  5449 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5450 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5451 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5452 theory state.
  5453 
  5454 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5455 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5456 
  5457   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5458   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5459   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5460   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5461   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5462   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5463   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5464   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5465   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5466   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5467 
  5468 
  5469 *** System ***
  5470 
  5471 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5472 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5473 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5474 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5475 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5476 
  5477 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5478 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5479 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5480 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5481 
  5482 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5483 
  5484 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5485 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5486 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5487 prover operations.
  5488 
  5489 
  5490 
  5491 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5492 -------------------------------
  5493 
  5494 *** General ***
  5495 
  5496 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5497 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5498 
  5499 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5500 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5501 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5502 provides a proper context already.
  5503 
  5504 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5505 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5506 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5507 
  5508 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5509 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5510 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5511 swap theory imports.
  5512 
  5513 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5514 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5515 
  5516 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5517 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5518 white space without escapes.
  5519 
  5520 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5521 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5522 "foo_bar".
  5523 
  5524 
  5525 *** Pure ***
  5526 
  5527 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5528 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5529 
  5530 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5531 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5532 
  5533 (1) unused_thms
  5534      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5535 
  5536 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5537      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5538      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5539 
  5540 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5541      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5542      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5543      their ancestors.
  5544 
  5545 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5546 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5547 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5548 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5549 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5550 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5551 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5552 
  5553 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5554 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5555 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5556 
  5557 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5558 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5559 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5560 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5561 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5562 
  5563 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5564 
  5565 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5566 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5567 update of theories within ML code.
  5568 
  5569 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5570 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5571 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5572 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5573 
  5574 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5575 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5576 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5578 
  5579 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5580 
  5581 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5582 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5583 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5584 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5585 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5586 
  5587 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5588 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5589 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5590 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5591 situations.
  5592 
  5593 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5594 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5595 proof text.
  5596 
  5597 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5598 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5599 
  5600 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5601 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5602 predicates.
  5603 
  5604 
  5605 *** Document preparation ***
  5606 
  5607 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5608 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5609 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5610 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5611 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5612 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5613 
  5614 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5615 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5616 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5617 
  5618 
  5619 *** HOL ***
  5620 
  5621 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5622 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5623 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5624 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5625 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5626 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5627 
  5628 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5629 with multithreading.
  5630 
  5631 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5632 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5633 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5634 
  5635 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5636 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5637 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5638 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5639 
  5640 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5641 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5642 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5643 and makes them available separately.  See
  5644 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5645 
  5646 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5647 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5648 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5649 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5650 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5651 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5652 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5653 the declared rules.
  5654 
  5655 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5656 
  5657   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5658 
  5659 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5660 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5661 
  5662 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5663 
  5664   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5665 
  5666   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5667     definitions on => and bool.
  5668 
  5669   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5670     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5671     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5672 
  5673       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5674       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5675       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5676       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5677       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5678       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5679       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5680       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5681 
  5682   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5683     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5684     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5685 
  5686   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5687     The proof pattern
  5688 
  5689       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5690       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5691 
  5692     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5693     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5694 
  5695       have "EX S. P S"
  5696       proof
  5697         show "P S" <...>
  5698       qed
  5699 
  5700   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5701     The proof pattern
  5702 
  5703       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5704       also have "S = T" <...>
  5705       finally have "P T" .
  5706 
  5707     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5708     must be replaced by something like
  5709 
  5710       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5711       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5712       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5713 
  5714   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5715     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5716 
  5717       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5718 
  5719     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5720     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5721     type of the form
  5722 
  5723       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5724 
  5725     rather than
  5726 
  5727       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5728 
  5729 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5730 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5731 
  5732 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5733 
  5734 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5735 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5737 
  5738 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5739 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5740 
  5741 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5742 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5743 
  5744 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5745 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5746 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5747 
  5748 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5749 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5750 
  5751   less_trans
  5752   less_linear
  5753   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5754   le_less_trans
  5755   less_le_trans
  5756   less_not_sym
  5757   less_asym
  5758 
  5759 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5760 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5761 and different variable names.
  5762 
  5763 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5764 
  5765 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5766 finite maps.
  5767 
  5768 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5769 
  5770 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5771 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5772 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5773 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5774 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5775 accordingly.
  5776 
  5777 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5778 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5779 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5780 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5781 
  5782 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5783 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5784 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5785 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5786 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5788 
  5789 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5790 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5791 
  5792 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5793 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5794 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5795 
  5796 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5798 
  5799 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5800 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5801 
  5802 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5803 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5806 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5807 
  5808 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5809 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5811 
  5812 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5813 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5814 
  5815 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5816 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5817 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5818 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5819 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5820 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5821 
  5822 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5823 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5824 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5825 
  5826 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5827 
  5828 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5829 
  5830 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5831 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5832 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5833 
  5834 
  5835 *** ZF ***
  5836 
  5837 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5838 same session:
  5839 
  5840   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5841   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5842   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5843   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5844   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5845   List      -> List_ZF
  5846   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5847 
  5848 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5849 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5850 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5851 
  5852 
  5853 *** ML ***
  5854 
  5855 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5856 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5857 
  5858 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5859 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5860 
  5861 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5862 
  5863 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5864 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5865 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5866 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5867 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5868 
  5869 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5870 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5871 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5872 
  5873 
  5874 *** System ***
  5875 
  5876 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5877 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5878 
  5879 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5880 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5881 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5882 
  5883 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5884 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5885 
  5886 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5887 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5888 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5889 
  5890 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5891 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5892 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5893 
  5894 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5895 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5896 
  5897 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5898 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5899 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5900 script.
  5901 
  5902 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5903 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5904 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5905 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5906 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5907 
  5908 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5909 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5910 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5911 
  5912 
  5913 
  5914 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5915 -----------------------------------
  5916 
  5917 *** General ***
  5918 
  5919 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5920 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5921 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5922 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5923 
  5924 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5925 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5926 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5927 
  5928 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5929 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5930 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5931 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5932 
  5933 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5934 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5935 quotes.
  5936 
  5937 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5938 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5939 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5940 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5941 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5942 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5943 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5944 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5945 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5946 
  5947 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5948 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5949 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5950 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5951 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5952 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5953 
  5954 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5955 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5956 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5957 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5958 
  5959 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5960 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5961 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5962 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5963 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5964 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5965 
  5966 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5967 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5968 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5969 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5970 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5971 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5972 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5973 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5974 
  5975 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5976 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5977 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5978 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5979 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5980 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5981 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5982 
  5983 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5984 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5985 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5986 
  5987 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5988 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5989 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5990 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5991 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5992 limit is imposed.
  5993 
  5994 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5995 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5996 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5997 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5998 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5999 and scalability.
  6000 
  6001 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6002 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6003 
  6004 
  6005 *** Document preparation ***
  6006 
  6007 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6008 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6009 current context.
  6010 
  6011 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6012 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6013 
  6014 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6015 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6016 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6017 
  6018 
  6019 *** Pure ***
  6020 
  6021 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6022 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6023 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6024 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6025 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6026 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6027 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6028 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6029 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6030 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6031 
  6032 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6033 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6034 sketch:
  6035 
  6036     internal compilation:
  6037         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6038     writing SML code to a file:
  6039         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6040     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6041         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6042     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6043         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6044 
  6045     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6046         method ``eval''
  6047 
  6048 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6049 
  6050 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6051 
  6052     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6053     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6054     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6055     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6056 
  6057 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6058 
  6059     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6060       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6061 
  6062     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6063       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6064 
  6065     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6066       {(target)}+
  6067         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6068 
  6069     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6070       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6071         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6072 
  6073 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6074 
  6075 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6076 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6077 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6078 codegen".
  6079 
  6080 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6081 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6082 annotations).
  6083 
  6084 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6085 syntax.
  6086 
  6087 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6088 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6089 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6090 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6091 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6092 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6093 
  6094 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6095 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6096 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6097 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6098 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6099 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6100 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6101 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6102 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6103 equations, see section "definitions".
  6104 
  6105 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6106 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6107 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6108 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6109 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6110 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6111 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6112 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6113 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6114 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6115 
  6116 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6117 configuration options:
  6118 
  6119   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6120   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6121   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6122   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6123   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6124   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6125   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6126   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6127   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6128 
  6129 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6130 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6131 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6132 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6133 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6134 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6135 order.
  6136 
  6137 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6138 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6139 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6140 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6141 context encountered later on.
  6142 
  6143 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6144 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6145 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6146 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6147 
  6148 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6149 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6150 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6151 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6152 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6153 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6154 
  6155 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6156 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6157 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6158 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6159 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6160 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6161 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6162 more permissive.
  6163 
  6164 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6165 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6166 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6167 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6168 maintainability of proof texts.
  6169 
  6170 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6171 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6172 
  6173   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6174   then guess x and y by clarify
  6175 
  6176 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6177 proof tools being involved here.
  6178 
  6179 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6180 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6181 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6182 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6183 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6184 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6185 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6186 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6187 
  6188 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6189 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6190 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6191 
  6192   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6193   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6194   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6195   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6196 
  6197 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6198 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6199 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6200 
  6201 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6202 both named and unnamed ones.
  6203 
  6204 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6205 
  6206   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6207 
  6208 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6209 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6210 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6211 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6212 
  6213 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6214 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6215 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6216 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6217 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6218 
  6219 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6220 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6221 
  6222 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6223 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6224 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6225 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6226 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6227 originally first one.
  6228 
  6229 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6230 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6231 expected.
  6232 
  6233 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6234 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6235 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6236 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6237 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6238 
  6239   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6240     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6241     obtains x where "P x"
  6242 
  6243   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6244     assumes "A & B"
  6245     obtains A and B
  6246 
  6247   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6248     assumes "A | B"
  6249     obtains
  6250       A
  6251     | B
  6252 
  6253 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6254 explicitly:
  6255 
  6256   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6257     obtains "~ thesis"
  6258 
  6259   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6260     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6261 
  6262 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6263 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there