src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Type.thy
 author wenzelm Sun, 28 Dec 2014 12:37:03 +0100 changeset 59192 a1d6d6db781b parent 58881 b9556a055632 child 61260 e6f03fae14d5 permissions -rw-r--r--
modernized historic example;

(*  Title:      HOL/Library/Quotient_Type.thy
Author:     Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen
*)

section \<open>Quotient types\<close>

theory Quotient_Type
imports Main
begin

text \<open>We introduce the notion of quotient types over equivalence relations
via type classes.\<close>

subsection \<open>Equivalence relations and quotient types\<close>

text \<open>Type class @{text equiv} models equivalence relations
@{text "\<sim> :: 'a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool"}.\<close>

class eqv =
fixes eqv :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool"  (infixl "\<sim>" 50)

class equiv = eqv +
assumes equiv_refl [intro]: "x \<sim> x"
and equiv_trans [trans]: "x \<sim> y \<Longrightarrow> y \<sim> z \<Longrightarrow> x \<sim> z"
and equiv_sym [sym]: "x \<sim> y \<Longrightarrow> y \<sim> x"
begin

lemma equiv_not_sym [sym]: "\<not> x \<sim> y \<Longrightarrow> \<not> y \<sim> x"
proof -
assume "\<not> x \<sim> y"
then show "\<not> y \<sim> x" by (rule contrapos_nn) (rule equiv_sym)
qed

lemma not_equiv_trans1 [trans]: "\<not> x \<sim> y \<Longrightarrow> y \<sim> z \<Longrightarrow> \<not> x \<sim> z"
proof -
assume "\<not> x \<sim> y" and "y \<sim> z"
show "\<not> x \<sim> z"
proof
assume "x \<sim> z"
also from \<open>y \<sim> z\<close> have "z \<sim> y" ..
finally have "x \<sim> y" .
with \<open>\<not> x \<sim> y\<close> show False by contradiction
qed
qed

lemma not_equiv_trans2 [trans]: "x \<sim> y \<Longrightarrow> \<not> y \<sim> z \<Longrightarrow> \<not> x \<sim> z"
proof -
assume "\<not> y \<sim> z"
then have "\<not> z \<sim> y" ..
also
assume "x \<sim> y"
then have "y \<sim> x" ..
finally have "\<not> z \<sim> x" .
then show "\<not> x \<sim> z" ..
qed

end

text \<open>The quotient type @{text "'a quot"} consists of all \emph{equivalence
classes} over elements of the base type @{typ 'a}.\<close>

definition (in eqv) "quot = {{x. a \<sim> x} | a. True}"

typedef 'a quot = "quot :: 'a::eqv set set"
unfolding quot_def by blast

lemma quotI [intro]: "{x. a \<sim> x} \<in> quot"
unfolding quot_def by blast

lemma quotE [elim]:
assumes "R \<in> quot"
obtains a where "R = {x. a \<sim> x}"
using assms unfolding quot_def by blast

text \<open>Abstracted equivalence classes are the canonical representation of
elements of a quotient type.\<close>

definition "class" :: "'a::equiv \<Rightarrow> 'a quot"  ("\<lfloor>_\<rfloor>")
where "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = Abs_quot {x. a \<sim> x}"

theorem quot_exhaust: "\<exists>a. A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>"
proof (cases A)
fix R
assume R: "A = Abs_quot R"
assume "R \<in> quot"
then have "\<exists>a. R = {x. a \<sim> x}" by blast
with R have "\<exists>a. A = Abs_quot {x. a \<sim> x}" by blast
then show ?thesis unfolding class_def .
qed

lemma quot_cases [cases type: quot]:
obtains a where "A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>"
using quot_exhaust by blast

subsection \<open>Equality on quotients\<close>

text \<open>Equality of canonical quotient elements coincides with the original
relation.\<close>

theorem quot_equality [iff?]: "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> \<longleftrightarrow> a \<sim> b"
proof
assume eq: "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>"
show "a \<sim> b"
proof -
from eq have "{x. a \<sim> x} = {x. b \<sim> x}"
by (simp only: class_def Abs_quot_inject quotI)
moreover have "a \<sim> a" ..
ultimately have "a \<in> {x. b \<sim> x}" by blast
then have "b \<sim> a" by blast
then show ?thesis ..
qed
next
assume ab: "a \<sim> b"
show "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>"
proof -
have "{x. a \<sim> x} = {x. b \<sim> x}"
proof (rule Collect_cong)
fix x show "(a \<sim> x) = (b \<sim> x)"
proof
from ab have "b \<sim> a" ..
also assume "a \<sim> x"
finally show "b \<sim> x" .
next
note ab
also assume "b \<sim> x"
finally show "a \<sim> x" .
qed
qed
then show ?thesis by (simp only: class_def)
qed
qed

subsection \<open>Picking representing elements\<close>

definition pick :: "'a::equiv quot \<Rightarrow> 'a"
where "pick A = (SOME a. A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>)"

theorem pick_equiv [intro]: "pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<sim> a"
proof (unfold pick_def)
show "(SOME x. \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x\<rfloor>) \<sim> a"
proof (rule someI2)
show "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>" ..
fix x assume "\<lfloor>a\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x\<rfloor>"
then have "a \<sim> x" ..
then show "x \<sim> a" ..
qed
qed

theorem pick_inverse [intro]: "\<lfloor>pick A\<rfloor> = A"
proof (cases A)
fix a assume a: "A = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>"
then have "pick A \<sim> a" by (simp only: pick_equiv)
then have "\<lfloor>pick A\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>" ..
with a show ?thesis by simp
qed

text \<open>The following rules support canonical function definitions on quotient
types (with up to two arguments). Note that the stripped-down version
without additional conditions is sufficient most of the time.\<close>

theorem quot_cond_function:
assumes eq: "\<And>X Y. P X Y \<Longrightarrow> f X Y \<equiv> g (pick X) (pick Y)"
and cong: "\<And>x x' y y'. \<lfloor>x\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x'\<rfloor> \<Longrightarrow> \<lfloor>y\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>y'\<rfloor>
\<Longrightarrow> P \<lfloor>x\<rfloor> \<lfloor>y\<rfloor> \<Longrightarrow> P \<lfloor>x'\<rfloor> \<lfloor>y'\<rfloor> \<Longrightarrow> g x y = g x' y'"
and P: "P \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>"
shows "f \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> = g a b"
proof -
from eq and P have "f \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> = g (pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>) (pick \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>)" by (simp only:)
also have "... = g a b"
proof (rule cong)
show "\<lfloor>pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>" ..
moreover
show "\<lfloor>pick \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>" ..
moreover
show "P \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>" by (rule P)
ultimately show "P \<lfloor>pick \<lfloor>a\<rfloor>\<rfloor> \<lfloor>pick \<lfloor>b\<rfloor>\<rfloor>" by (simp only:)
qed
finally show ?thesis .
qed

theorem quot_function:
assumes "\<And>X Y. f X Y \<equiv> g (pick X) (pick Y)"
and "\<And>x x' y y'. \<lfloor>x\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>x'\<rfloor> \<Longrightarrow> \<lfloor>y\<rfloor> = \<lfloor>y'\<rfloor> \<Longrightarrow> g x y = g x' y'"
shows "f \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> = g a b"
using assms and TrueI
by (rule quot_cond_function)

theorem quot_function':
"(\<And>X Y. f X Y \<equiv> g (pick X) (pick Y)) \<Longrightarrow>
(\<And>x x' y y'. x \<sim> x' \<Longrightarrow> y \<sim> y' \<Longrightarrow> g x y = g x' y') \<Longrightarrow>
f \<lfloor>a\<rfloor> \<lfloor>b\<rfloor> = g a b"
by (rule quot_function) (simp_all only: quot_equality)

end