NEWS
author blanchet
Tue May 22 16:59:27 2012 +0200 (2012-05-22)
changeset 47955 a2a821abab83
parent 47887 4e9c06c194d9
child 47958 c5f7be4a1734
permissions -rw-r--r--
added one slice with configurable simplification turned off
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 
     8 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     9 ------------------------------
    10 
    11 *** General ***
    12 
    13 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    14 
    15   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    16     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    17   - markup for bound variables
    18   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
    19   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    20   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    21     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    22 
    23 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    24 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    25 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    26 
    27 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    28 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    29 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    30 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    31 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    32 
    33   context
    34     fixes x y z :: 'a
    35     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    36   begin
    37 
    38   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    39 
    40   end
    41 
    42   thm my_trans
    43 
    44 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    45 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    46 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    47 
    48 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    49 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    50 
    51 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    52 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    53 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    54 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
    55 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
    56 
    57 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    58 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    59 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    60 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    61 indices of schematic variables.
    62 
    63 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    64 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    65 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    66 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    67 etc. was exploited.
    68 
    69 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
    70 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
    71 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
    72 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
    73 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
    74 of the material of that old tutorial.
    75 
    76 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
    77 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
    78 manual.
    79 
    80 
    81 *** Pure ***
    82 
    83 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    84 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    85 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    86 
    87 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    88 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    89 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    90 undocumented feature.)
    91 
    92 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
    93 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    94 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
    95 
    96   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
    97 
    98   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
    99     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   100 
   101 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   102 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   103 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   104 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   105 
   106 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   107 
   108     num ~> num_token
   109     xnum ~> xnum_token
   110     xstr ~> str_token
   111 
   112 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   113 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   114 position information via constraints).
   115 
   116 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   117 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   118 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   121 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   122 
   123 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   124 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   125 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   128 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   131 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   132 
   133   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   134 
   135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   138 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   141 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   142 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   143 
   144 
   145 *** HOL ***
   146 
   147 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   148 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   149 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   150 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   151 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   152 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   153 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   154 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   155 possible.
   156 
   157 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   158 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   159 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   160 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   161 
   162 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   163 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   166 
   167 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   168 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   169 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   170 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   171 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   172 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   173 
   174   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   175     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   176 
   177   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   178     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   179     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   180 
   181   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   182     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   183 
   184   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   185     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   186     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   187 
   188   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   189     Redefine using other integer operations.
   190 
   191 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   192 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   193 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   194 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   195 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   196 
   197   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   198     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   199     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   200     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   201     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   202 
   203     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   204     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   205 
   206   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   207     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   208     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   209     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   210     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   211     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   212     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   213     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   214 
   215   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   216     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   217     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   218     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   219 
   220   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   221     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   222     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   223     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   224 
   225   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   226     from type nat to type int.
   227 
   228 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   229 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   230 
   231   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   232     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   233     type.  Example syntax:
   234 
   235     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   236       is List.insert
   237 
   238     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   239     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   240     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   241     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   242     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   243     by the package.
   244 
   245   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   246     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   247     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   248     code generation for each constant.
   249 
   250   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   251     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   252     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   253     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   254     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   255 
   256   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   257     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   258     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   259 
   260 * Quotient package:
   261 
   262   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   263     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   264 
   265   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   266     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   267 
   268   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   269     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   270     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   271 
   272   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   273     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   276 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   277 
   278 * Quickcheck:
   279 
   280   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   281     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   282     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   283     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   284     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   285 
   286     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   287     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   288     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   289 
   290     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   291     continues searching for genuine ones.
   292 
   293     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   294     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   295     show genuine counterexamples.
   296 
   297   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   298     value generators for a given type and operations.
   299 
   300     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   301     constructors of that type.
   302 
   303   - Support for multisets.
   304 
   305   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   306 
   307   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   308     conjectures in a locale context.
   309 
   310 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   311 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   312 
   313 * Sledgehammer:
   314   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   315     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   316   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   317   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   318     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   319   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   320   - Sped up the minimizer.
   321   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   322   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   323   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   324 
   325 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   326 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   327 
   328 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   329 
   330 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   333 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   334 
   335   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   336 
   337 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   338 a list and a nat.
   339 
   340 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   341 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   342 
   343 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   344 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   345 default.
   346 
   347 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   348 
   349   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   350 
   351 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   352 
   353 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   354 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   355 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   356 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   357 one_case.
   358 
   359 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   360 the result of the fact expression.
   361 
   362 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   363 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   364 of some relation theorems:
   365 
   366   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   367   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   368   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   369   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   370   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   371   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   372 
   373 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   374 
   375 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   376 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   377 
   378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   381 to match the constant's name:
   382 
   383   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   384   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   385   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   386   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   387   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   388   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   389   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   390   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   391   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   392   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   393   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   394   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   395   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   396   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   397   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   398   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   399   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   400   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   401   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   402   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   403   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   404   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   405   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   406   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   407 
   408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 
   410 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   411 and corresponding theorem names:
   412 
   413   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   414 
   415   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   416 
   417   - Renamed theorems:
   418 
   419     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   420     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   421     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   422     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   423     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   424     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   425     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   426     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   427     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   428     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   429     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   430     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   431     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   432     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   433     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   434     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   435     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   436     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   437     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   438     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   439     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   440     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   441     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   442 
   443     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   444 
   445     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   446 
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   450 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   451 
   452   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   453   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   454   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   455   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   456   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   457   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   458   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   459   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   460   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   461   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   462   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   463   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   464   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   465   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   466   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   467   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   468   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   469   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   470   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   471   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   472   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   473 
   474 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   475 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   476 
   477 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   480 
   481   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   482   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   483   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   484   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   485   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   486   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   487   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   488   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   489   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   490   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   491   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   492   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   493   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   494   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   495   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   496   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   497   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   498   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   499 
   500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   503 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   504 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   505 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   506 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   507 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   508 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   509 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   510 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   511 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   512 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   513 
   514 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   515 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   516 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   517 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   518 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   519 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   520 
   521 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   522 through option types.
   523 
   524 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   525 relations.
   526 
   527 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528 
   529 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   530 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   531 
   532   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   533   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   534   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   535   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   536   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   537   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   538   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   539   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   540   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   541   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   542   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   543   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   544   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   545   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   546   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   547   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   548   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   549   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   550   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   551   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   552   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   553   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   554   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   555   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   556   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   557   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   558   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   559   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   560   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   561   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   562   zless_le ~> less_le
   563   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   564   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   565   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   566 
   567 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   568 
   569   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   570 
   571 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   572 
   573 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   574 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   575 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   576 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   578 
   579 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   580 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   581 
   582 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   583 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   584 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   585 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   586 follows:
   587 
   588   Operations:
   589   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   590   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   591   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   592   del -> rbt_del
   593   delete -> rbt_delete
   594   ins -> rbt_ins
   595   insert -> rbt_insert
   596   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   597   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   598   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   599   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   600   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   601   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   602   tree_less -> rbt_less
   603   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   604   union -> rbt_union
   605   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   606   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   607 
   608   Lemmas:
   609   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   610   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   611   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   612   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   613   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   614   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   615   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   616   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   617   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   618   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   619   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   620   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   621   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   622   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   623   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   624   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   625   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   626   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   627   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   628   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   629   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   630   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   631   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   632   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   633   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   634   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   635   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   636   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   637   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   638   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   639   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   640   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   641   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   642   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   643   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   644   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   645   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   646   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   647   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   648   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   649   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   650   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   651   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   652   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   653   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   654   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   655   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   656   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   657   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   658   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   659   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   660   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   661   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   662   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   663   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   664   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   665   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   666   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   667   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   668   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   669   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   670   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   671   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   672   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   673   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   674   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   675   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   676   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   677   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   678   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   679   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   680   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   681   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   682   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   683   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   684   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   685   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   686   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   687   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   688   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   689   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   690   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   691   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   692 
   693 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   694 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   695 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   696 
   697   Changed Operations:
   698   float_abs -> abs
   699   float_nprt -> nprt
   700   float_pprt -> pprt
   701   pow2 -> use powr
   702   round_down -> float_round_down
   703   round_up -> float_round_up
   704   scale -> exponent
   705 
   706   Removed Operations:
   707   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   708 
   709   Renamed Lemmas:
   710   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   711   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   712   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   713   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   714   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   715   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   716   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   717   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   718   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   719   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   720   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   721   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   722   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   723   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   724   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   725   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   726   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   727   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   728   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   729   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   730   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   731   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   732   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   733   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   734   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   735   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   736   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   737   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   738   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   739   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   740   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   741   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   742   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   743   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   744   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   745   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   746 
   747   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   748   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   749   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   750   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   751   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   752   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   753   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   754   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   755   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   756   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   757 
   758 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   759 association lists with distinct keys.
   760 
   761 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   762 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   763 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   764 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   767 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   768 instead.
   769 
   770   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   771   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   772   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   773   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   774   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   775   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   776   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   777   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   778   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   779   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   780   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   781   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   782   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   783   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   784   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   785   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   786   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   787   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   788   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   789   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   790   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   791   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   792   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   793   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   794   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   795   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   796   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   797   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   798   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   799   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   800   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   801   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   802   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   803   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   804   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   805   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   806   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   807   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   808   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   809   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   810   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   811 
   812 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   813 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   814 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   815 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   816 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   817 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   818 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   819 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   820 
   821 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   822 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   823 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   824 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   825 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   826 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   827 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   828 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   829 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   830 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   831 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   832 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834   Renamed constants:
   835   measure -> emeasure
   836   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   837   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   838   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   839   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   840 
   841   Removed locales:
   842   completeable_measure_space
   843   finite_measure_space
   844   finite_prob_space
   845   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   846   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   847   finite_sigma_algebra
   848   measure_space
   849   pair_finite_prob_space
   850   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   851   pair_finite_space
   852   pair_sigma_algebra
   853   product_sigma_algebra
   854 
   855   Removed constants:
   856   conditional_space
   857   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   858   image_space
   859   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   860   pair_measure_generator
   861   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   862   subvimage
   863 
   864   Replacement theorems:
   865   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   866   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   867   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   868   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   869   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   870   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   871   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   872   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   873   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   874   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   875   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   876   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   877   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   878   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   879   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   880   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   881   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   882   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   883   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   884   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   885   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   886   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   887   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   888   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   889   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   890   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   891   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   892   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   893   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   894   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   895   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   896   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   897   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   898   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   899   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   900   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   901   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   902   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   903   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   904   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   905   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   906   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   907   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   908   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   909   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
   910   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
   911   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
   912   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
   913   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
   914   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
   915   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
   916   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
   917   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   918   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
   919   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
   920   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
   921   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
   922   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
   923   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   924   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
   925   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
   926   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
   927   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   928   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
   929   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
   930   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
   931   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
   932   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
   933   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
   934   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
   935   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
   936   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
   937   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
   938   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
   939   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   940   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
   941   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
   942   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
   943   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
   944   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   945   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   946   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   947   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   948   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
   949   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
   950   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
   951   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
   952   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
   953   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
   954   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
   955   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
   956   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
   957   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
   958   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
   959   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
   960   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
   961   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
   962   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
   963   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
   964   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
   965   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
   966   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
   967   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
   968   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
   969   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
   970   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
   971   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   972   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
   973   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
   974   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
   975   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
   976   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
   977   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
   978   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
   979   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
   980   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
   981   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
   982   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
   983   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   984   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
   985   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   986   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
   987   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
   988   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
   989   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
   990   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
   991   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
   992   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
   993 
   994 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
   995 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
   996 
   997 
   998 *** FOL ***
   999 
  1000 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1001 
  1002 
  1003 *** ZF ***
  1004 
  1005 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1006 analysis.
  1007 
  1008 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1009 
  1010 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011 
  1012 
  1013 *** ML ***
  1014 
  1015 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1016 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1017 
  1018 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1019 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1020 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1021 
  1022 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1023 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1024 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1025 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1026 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1027 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1028 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1029 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1030 
  1031 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1032 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1033 
  1034 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1035 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1036 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1037 
  1038 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1039 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1042 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1043 context as well.
  1044 
  1045 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1046 
  1047   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1048   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1049   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1050   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1051   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1052   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1053   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1054   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1055   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1056   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1057   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1058   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1059 
  1060 
  1061 *** System ***
  1062 
  1063 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1064 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1065 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1066 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1067 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1068 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1069 the generic user home was intended.
  1070 
  1071 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1072 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1073 
  1074 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1075 (not just JRE).
  1076 
  1077 
  1078 
  1079 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1080 ------------------------------------
  1081 
  1082 *** General ***
  1083 
  1084 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1085 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1086 
  1087   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1088     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1089     files for checking).
  1090 
  1091   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1092     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1093     positions.
  1094 
  1095   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1096     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1097     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1098 
  1099   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1100     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1101     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1102 
  1103   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1104     cores.
  1105 
  1106   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1107     versions (garbage collection).
  1108 
  1109 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1110 including some remaining limitations.
  1111 
  1112 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1113 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1114 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1115 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1116 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1118 
  1119 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1120 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1121 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1122 
  1123 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1124 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1125 usedir option -Q.
  1126 
  1127 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1128 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1129 
  1130   long_names   ~> names_long
  1131   short_names  ~> names_short
  1132   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1133 
  1134 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1135 
  1136   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1137 
  1138 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1139 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1140 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1141 
  1142 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1143 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1144 
  1145 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1146   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1147   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1148   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1149     "Classical Reasoner".
  1150 
  1151 
  1152 *** HOL ***
  1153 
  1154 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1155 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1156 
  1157 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1158 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1159 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1160 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1161 class complete_linorder.
  1162 
  1163 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1164 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1165 
  1166 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1167 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1168 
  1169   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1170   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1171   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1172   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1173   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1174   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1175   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1176   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1177   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1178   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1179   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1180 
  1181 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1182 
  1183   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1184   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1185   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1186   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1187   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1188   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1189   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1190   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1191   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1192   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1193   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1194   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1195   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1196   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1197   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1198   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1199 
  1200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1206 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1207 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1208 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1211 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1212 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1216 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1217 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1218 
  1219 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1220 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1221 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1222 
  1223 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1224 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1225 
  1226 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1227 
  1228     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1229     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1230 
  1231 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1232 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1233 
  1234 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1235 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1236 
  1237 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1238 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1239 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1240 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1243   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1244   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1245   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1246   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1247   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1248   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1249 
  1250 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1251 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1252 
  1253   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1254   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1255   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1256   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1257   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1258   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1259   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1260   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1261   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1262   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1263   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1264   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1265   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1266   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1267   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1268   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1269   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1270   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1271   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1272   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1273   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1274   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1275   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1276   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1277   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1278   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1279   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1280   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1281   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1282   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1283   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1284   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1285   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1286   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1287   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1288   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1289   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1290   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1291   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1292   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1293   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1294   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1295   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1296   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1297   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1298   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1299   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1300   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1301   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1302   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1303   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1304   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1305   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1306   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1307   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1308   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1309   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1310   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1311   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1312   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1313   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1314   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1315   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1316   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1317   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1318   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1319   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1320   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1321   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1322   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1323   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1324   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1325   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1326   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1327   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1328   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1329   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1330   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1331   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1332   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1333   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1334   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1335 
  1336 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1337 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1338 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1339 
  1340 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1341 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1342 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1343 
  1344 * Code generation:
  1345 
  1346   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1347     characters in the target language.
  1348 
  1349   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1350     instead.
  1351 
  1352   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1353 
  1354   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1355     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1356 
  1357       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1358 
  1359 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1360 
  1361 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1362 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1363 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1364 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1365 syntax.
  1366 
  1367 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1368 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1369 
  1370 * Nitpick:
  1371   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1372   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1373   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Sledgehammer:
  1377   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1378   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1379     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1380   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1381     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1382   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1383     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1385     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1386   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1387     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1388 
  1389 * Metis:
  1390   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1391   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1392     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1393 
  1394 * Command 'try':
  1395   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1396     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1397   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1398     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1399 
  1400 * Quickcheck:
  1401   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1402     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1403   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1404     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1405   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1406     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1407     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1408     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1409   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1410     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1411 
  1412 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1413 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1414 
  1415 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1416 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1417 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1418 
  1419 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1420 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1422 
  1423 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1424 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425 
  1426 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1427 arithmetic.
  1428 
  1429 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1430 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1431 and lattice type classes.
  1432 
  1433 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1434 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1435 
  1436 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1437 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1438 
  1439 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1440 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1441 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1444   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1445   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1446   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1447 
  1448 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1449 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1450 constants:
  1451 
  1452   type inat   ~> type enat
  1453   Fin         ~> enat
  1454   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1455   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1456   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1457 
  1458 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1459 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1462 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1463 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1464 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1465 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1466 
  1467 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1468 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1469 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1470 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1471 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1472 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1473 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1474 
  1475   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1476   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1477   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1478   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1479 
  1480 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1481 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1482 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1485   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1486   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1487   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1488   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1489   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1490   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1491   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1492   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1493   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1494   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1495   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1496   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1497   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1498   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1499   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1500   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1501   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1502   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1503   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1504   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1505   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1506   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1507   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1508   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1509   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1510   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1511   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1512   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1513   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1514   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1515   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1516   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1517   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1518   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1519   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1520   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1521   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1522   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1523   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1524   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1525   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1526   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1527   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1528   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1529   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1530   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1531   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1532   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1533   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1534   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1535 
  1536 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1537   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1538   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1539   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1540   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1541     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1542 
  1543 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1546   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1547   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1548   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1549   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1550   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1551   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1552   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1553   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1554   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1555   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1556   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1557   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1558   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1559   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1560   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1561   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1562   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1563   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1564   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1565   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1566   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1567   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1568   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1569   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1570 
  1571 
  1572 *** Document preparation ***
  1573 
  1574 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1575 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1576 same.
  1577 
  1578 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1579 result.
  1580 
  1581 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1582 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1583 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1584 
  1585 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1586 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1587 
  1588 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1589 like this:
  1590 
  1591   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1592   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1593 
  1594 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1595 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1596 layouts.
  1597 
  1598 
  1599 *** ML ***
  1600 
  1601 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1602 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1603 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1604 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1605 under external program control.
  1606 
  1607 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1608 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1609 
  1610 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1611 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1612 (better known as Proof General).
  1613 
  1614 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1615 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1616 
  1617 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1618 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1619 
  1620 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1621 (including quotes etc.).
  1622 
  1623 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1624 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1625 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1626 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1627 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1628 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1629 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1630 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1631 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1632 
  1633 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1634 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1635 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1636 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1637 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1638 
  1639 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1640 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1641 
  1642 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1643 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1644 
  1645 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1646 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1647 
  1648 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1649 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1650 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1651 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1652 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1653 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1654 proper Proof.context.
  1655 
  1656 
  1657 *** System ***
  1658 
  1659 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1660 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1661 
  1662 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1663 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1664 
  1665 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1666 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1667 
  1668   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1669   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1670   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1671   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1672   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1673 
  1674 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1675 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1678 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1679 example:
  1680 
  1681   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1682 
  1683 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1684 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1685 
  1686 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1687 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1688 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1689 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1690 
  1691 
  1692 
  1693 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1694 ----------------------------------
  1695 
  1696 *** General ***
  1697 
  1698 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1699 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1700 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1701 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1702 like this:
  1703 
  1704   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1705 
  1706 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1707 
  1708 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1709 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1710 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1711 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1712 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1713 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1714 
  1715 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1716 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1717 the following package declarations:
  1718 
  1719   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1720   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1721 
  1722 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1723 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1724 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1725 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1726 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1727 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1728 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1729 
  1730 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1731 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1732 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1733 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1734 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1735 
  1736 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1737 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1738 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1739 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1740 
  1741 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1742 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1743 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1744 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1745 
  1746   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1747 
  1748   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1749   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1750   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1751   show_types                    show_types
  1752   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1753   show_consts                   show_consts
  1754   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1755 
  1756   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1757   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1758   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1759 
  1760   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1761   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1762 
  1763   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1764 
  1765   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1766   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1767   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1768   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1769   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1770 
  1771 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1772 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1773 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1774 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1775 
  1776 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1780   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1781 
  1782 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1783 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1784 float_token.
  1785 
  1786 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1787 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1789 
  1790 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1791 DejaVu Sans.
  1792 
  1793 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1794 
  1795 
  1796 *** Pure ***
  1797 
  1798 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1799 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1800 time.
  1801 
  1802 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1803 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1804 
  1805 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1806 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1807 
  1808 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1809 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1810 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1811 command already provided this functionality.
  1812 
  1813 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1814 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1815 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1816 without interpretations.
  1817 
  1818 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1819 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1820 
  1821 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1822 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1823 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1824 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1825 
  1826 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1827 'definition' instead.
  1828 
  1829 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1830 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1831 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1832 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1833 
  1834 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1835 constructors.
  1836 
  1837 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1838 the local file system.
  1839 
  1840 
  1841 *** HOL ***
  1842 
  1843 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1844 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1845 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1846 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1847 
  1848   declare [[coercion f]]
  1849 
  1850 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1851 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1852 
  1853   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1854 
  1855 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1856 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1857 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1858 other theories like this:
  1859 
  1860   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1861 
  1862 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1863 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1864 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1865 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1866 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1867 for examples.
  1868 
  1869 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1870 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871 
  1872 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1873 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1874 
  1875 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1876 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1877 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1878 
  1879 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1880 functorial structure of types.
  1881 
  1882 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1883 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1884 
  1885 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1886 languages.
  1887 
  1888 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1889 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1891 
  1892 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1893 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1896 combinators any longer.
  1897 
  1898 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1899 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1900 
  1901 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1902 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1903 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1904 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1905 
  1906   record 'a foo = ...
  1907   ...
  1908   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1909 
  1910 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1911 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1913 
  1914 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1915 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1916 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1917 
  1918 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1919 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1920 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1921 
  1922 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1923 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1924 
  1925 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1926 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1927 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1928 independently.
  1929 
  1930 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1931 counter example search.
  1932 
  1933 * Sledgehammer:
  1934   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1935     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1936     sledgehammer").
  1937   - Renamed commands:
  1938     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1939     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1940     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1941     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1942   - Renamed options:
  1943     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1944     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1945     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1946     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1947     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1948 
  1949 * Nitpick:
  1950   - Renamed options:
  1951     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1952     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1953     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1954   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1955   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1956   - Added "whack" option.
  1957   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1958   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1959   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1960   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1961     higher cardinalities.
  1962   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1963 
  1964 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1965 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1966 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1967 
  1968     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1969 
  1970 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1971 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1972 
  1973 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1974 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1975 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1976 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1977 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1978 "smt_solver".
  1979 
  1980 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1981 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1982 
  1983 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1984 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1985 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1986 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1989   - Renamed:
  1990     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1991     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1992     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993   - Added:
  1994     smt_verbose
  1995     smt_random_seed
  1996     smt_datatypes
  1997     smt_infer_triggers
  1998     smt_monomorph_limit
  1999     cvc3_options
  2000     remote_cvc3_options
  2001     remote_z3_options
  2002     yices_options
  2003 
  2004 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2005 header.
  2006 
  2007 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2008 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2009 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2010 
  2011   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2012 
  2013 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2014 
  2015 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2016 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2017 
  2018 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2019 
  2020 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2021 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2024 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2025 
  2026 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2027 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2030 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2031 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2034 
  2035 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2037 
  2038 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2039 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2040 
  2041 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2042 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2043 for congruent(2)).
  2044 
  2045 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2046 
  2047   types
  2048     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2049     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2050 
  2051   constants
  2052     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2053     True ~> HOL.True
  2054     False ~> HOL.False
  2055     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2056     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2057     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2058     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2059     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2060     The ~> HOL.The
  2061     All ~> HOL.All
  2062     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2063     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2064     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2065     If ~> HOL.If
  2066     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2067     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2068     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2069     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2070     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2071     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2072     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2073     op : ~> Set.member
  2074     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2075 
  2076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2079 
  2080     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2081     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2082     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2083     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2084     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2085     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2086     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2087     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2088 
  2089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * More stylized fact names:
  2092 
  2093   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2094   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2095   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2096   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2097 
  2098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2099 
  2100 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2101 
  2102   constants
  2103     null ~> List.null
  2104 
  2105   facts
  2106     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2107     null_empty ~> null_def
  2108 
  2109 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2110 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2111 generation.
  2112 
  2113 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2114 Haskell code.
  2115 
  2116 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2117 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2118 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2119 
  2120 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2121 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2124 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2125 
  2126 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2127 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2128 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2129 
  2130 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2131 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2135 
  2136 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2137 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2138 referred to by its qualified name.
  2139 
  2140   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2141   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2142   product ~>  Enum.product
  2143 
  2144 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2145 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2147 
  2148 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2149 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2150 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2154 sort_key.
  2155 
  2156 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2160 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2161 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2162 
  2163   types
  2164     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2165               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2166               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2167         (depends on your needs)
  2168 
  2169   constants
  2170      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2171      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2172      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2173 
  2174 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2175 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2176 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2177 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2178 
  2179 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2180 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2181 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2182 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2183 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2184 
  2185 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2189 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2190 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2191 
  2192 
  2193 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2194 
  2195 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2196 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2197 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2198 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2199 compatibility.
  2200 
  2201 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2202 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2203 
  2204 
  2205 *** HOLCF ***
  2206 
  2207 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2208 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2209 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2213 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2214 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2217   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2218   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2219 
  2220 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2221 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2222 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2225 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2226 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2227 domain definition now works:
  2228 
  2229   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2230 
  2231 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2232 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2233 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2234 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2235 
  2236   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2237     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2238 
  2239   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2240 
  2241 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2242 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2243 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244 
  2245 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2246 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2249 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2250 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2251 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2252 
  2253 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2254 
  2255 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2261 
  2262 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2263 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2264 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2265 
  2266 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2267 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2268 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2269 
  2270 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2271 still supported as an input translation.
  2272 
  2273 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2274 
  2275   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2276   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2277   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2278   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2279   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2280   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2281   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2282 
  2283 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2284 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2285 
  2286   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2287   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2288   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2289   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2290   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2291   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2292 
  2293 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2294 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2295 
  2296 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2297 
  2298   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2299   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2300   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2301   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2302 
  2303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2304 
  2305 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2306 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2307 
  2308 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2309 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2310 
  2311   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2312   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2313   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2314   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2315   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2316   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2317   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2318   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2319   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2320   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2321   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2322   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2323   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2324   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2325   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2326   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2327   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2328   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2329   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2330   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2331 
  2332 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2335   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2336   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2337   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2338   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2339   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2340   box_less             ~> box_below
  2341   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2342   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2343   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2344   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2345   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2346   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2347   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2348   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2349   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2350   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2351   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2352   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2353   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2354   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2355   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2356   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2357   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2358   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2359   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2360   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2361   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2362   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2363   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2364   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2365   up_less              ~> up_below
  2366   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2367   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2368   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2369   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2370   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2371   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2372   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2373   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2374   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2375   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2376   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2377   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2378   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2379 
  2380 
  2381 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2382 
  2383 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2384 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 
  2387 *** ML ***
  2388 
  2389 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2390 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2391 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2392 
  2393 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2394 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2395 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2396 
  2397 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2398 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2399 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2400 
  2401 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2402 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2403 
  2404 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2405 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2406 
  2407 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2408 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2409 
  2410 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2411 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2412 
  2413 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2414 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2415 almost all situations.
  2416 
  2417 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2418 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2419 Isabelle/ML.
  2420 
  2421 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2422 meaning.
  2423 
  2424 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2425 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2426 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2427 
  2428 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2429 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2430 
  2431 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2432 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2433 
  2434 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2435 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2436 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2437 
  2438 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2439 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2440 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2441 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2442 configuration options.
  2443 
  2444 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2445 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2446 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2447 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2448 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2449 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2450 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2451 
  2452 
  2453 
  2454 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2455 ---------------------------------
  2456 
  2457 *** General ***
  2458 
  2459 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2460 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2461 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2462 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2463 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2464 their full internal name.
  2465 
  2466 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2467 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2468 Some hints on upgrading:
  2469 
  2470   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2471     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2472     which are independent of this issue.
  2473 
  2474   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2475     provides the following special forms:
  2476 
  2477       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2478       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2479       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2480 
  2481     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2482     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2483     extra variables".
  2484 
  2485     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2486     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2487     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2488     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2489     "logic".
  2490 
  2491   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2492     antiquotations:
  2493 
  2494       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2495       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2496       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2497       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2498 
  2499   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2500     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2501     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2502     antiquotations.
  2503 
  2504 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2505 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2506 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2507 diagnose syntax problems.
  2508 
  2509 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2510 
  2511 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2512 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2513 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2514 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2515 
  2516 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2517 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2518 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2519 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2522 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2523 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2524 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2525 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2526 
  2527 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2528 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2529 
  2530 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2531 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2532 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2533 
  2534   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2535 
  2536 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2537 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2538 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2539 
  2540 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2541 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2545 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2546 
  2547 
  2548 *** Pure ***
  2549 
  2550 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2551 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2552 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2553 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2554 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2555 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2556 inspect proof terms.
  2557 
  2558 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2559 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2560 are added internally.  For example:
  2561 
  2562   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2563 
  2564 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2565 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2570 'class' instead.
  2571 
  2572 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2573 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2575 
  2576 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2577 invariants.
  2578 
  2579 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2580 user space functionality any longer.
  2581 
  2582 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2583 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2587 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2588 
  2589 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2590 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2591 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2592 
  2593 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2594 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2595 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2596 
  2597 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2598 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2599 
  2600 
  2601 *** HOL ***
  2602 
  2603 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2604 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2605 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2606 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2607 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2608 
  2609 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2610 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2611 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2612 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2613 
  2614   fun
  2615     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2616   where
  2617     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2618 
  2619   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2620     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2621 
  2622   quotient_definition
  2623     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2624 
  2625 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2626 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2627 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2628 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2629 
  2630 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2631 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2632 
  2633 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2634 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2635 
  2636 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2640 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2641 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2642 
  2643 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2644 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648 
  2649 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2651 
  2652 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2653 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2656 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2657 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2660   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2661   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2662   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2663   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2664   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2665   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2666   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2667   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2668   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2669   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2670   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2671   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2672   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2673   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2674   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2675   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2676   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2677   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2678   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2679   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2680   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2681   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2682   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2683   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2684   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2685   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2686   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2687   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2688   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2689 
  2690 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2691 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2692 
  2693 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2694 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2695 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2696 
  2697 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2698 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2699 
  2700 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2701 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2704 
  2705 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2706 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2709 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2710 
  2711 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2714 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2715 
  2716 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2717 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2718 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2719 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2720 
  2721 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2722   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2723   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2724   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2728 lattices):
  2729 
  2730     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2731     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2732 
  2733     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2734 
  2735     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2736     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2737     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2738     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2739     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2740     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2741     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2742     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2743     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2744     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2745     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2746     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2747     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2748 
  2749     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2750     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2751     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2752     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2753     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2754     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2755     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2756     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2757     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2758     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2759     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2760     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2761     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2762     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2763     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2764     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2765     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2766     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2767 
  2768   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2769   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2770 
  2771     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2772     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2773     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2774     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2775     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2776 
  2777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2778 
  2779 * Refined field classes:
  2780   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2781     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2782     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2783   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2787   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2788   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2789   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2790     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2791   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2792     equal_neg_zero.
  2793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2796 sets to lattices:
  2797 
  2798   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2799   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2800   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2801   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2802   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2803   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2804   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2805   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2806   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2807   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2808 
  2809 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2810 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2811 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2812 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2813 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2814 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2815 
  2816 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2817 multiset order:
  2818 
  2819   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2820     <= and <;
  2821   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2822     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2823     multiset_order;
  2824   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2825     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2826     generation;
  2827   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2828     if needed.
  2829 
  2830 Renamed:
  2831 
  2832   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2833   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2834   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2835 
  2836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2839 
  2840 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2841 
  2842 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2843 
  2844 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2845 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2846 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848   Constants:
  2849   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2850   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2851   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2852   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2853   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2854   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2855   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2856   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2857   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2858   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2859   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2860   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2861   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2862 
  2863   Lemmas:
  2864   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2865   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2866   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2867   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2868   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2869   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2870   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2871   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2872   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2873   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2874   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2875   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2876   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2877 
  2878 * Sledgehammer:
  2879   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2880     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2881     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2882     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2883     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2884     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2885     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2887   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2888     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2889   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2890     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2891     is still experimental.)
  2892   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2893     full-typed mode.
  2894   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2895 
  2896 * Nitpick:
  2897   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2898   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2899   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2900     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2901   - Added support for quotient types.
  2902   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2903     constructs.
  2904   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2905     "termination" proofs).
  2906   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2907   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2908   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2909   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2910     record getters.
  2911   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2912   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2913   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2914   - Added "atoms" option.
  2915   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2916     problems.
  2917   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2918     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2919     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2921     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2922   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2925   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2926   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2927   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2928   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2929   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2930   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2931   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2932   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2933   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2934 
  2935 
  2936 *** HOLCF ***
  2937 
  2938 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2939 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2940 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2943 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2944 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2945 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2948 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2949 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2950 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2951 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952 
  2953 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2954 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2955 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2958 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959 
  2960   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2961   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2962 
  2963 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2964 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965 
  2966   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2967   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2968   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2969   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2970   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2971 
  2972 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2973 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2976   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2977   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2978 
  2979 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2980 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2982 
  2983 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2984 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2989 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2990 
  2991 
  2992 *** ML ***
  2993 
  2994 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2995 
  2996     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2997     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2998 
  2999     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3000     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3001     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3002     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3003 
  3004     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3005     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3006     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3007 
  3008 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3009 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3010 
  3011 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3012 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3013 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3014 
  3015 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3016 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3017 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3018 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3019 
  3020 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3021 the context or even global references.
  3022 
  3023 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3024 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3025 
  3026 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3027 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3028 
  3029   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3030   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3031   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3032   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3033   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3034   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3035   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3036   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3037   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3038   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3039 
  3040 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3041 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3042 
  3043 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3044 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3045 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3046 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3047 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3048 
  3049 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3050 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3051 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3052 Theory_Data version.
  3053 
  3054 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3055 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3056 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3057 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3058 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3059 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3060 explicitly in rare situations.
  3061 
  3062 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3063 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3067 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3068 
  3069 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3070 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3071 quite rare).
  3072 
  3073 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3074 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3077 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3078 terms.
  3079 
  3080 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3081 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3082 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3083 
  3084 
  3085 *** System ***
  3086 
  3087 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3088 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3089 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3090 
  3091 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3092 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3093 respectively.
  3094 
  3095 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3096 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3097 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3098 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3099 
  3100   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3101 
  3102 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3103 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3104 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3105 component.
  3106 
  3107 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3108 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3109 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3110 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3111 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3112 the user for manual installation.
  3113 
  3114 
  3115 
  3116 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3117 -------------------------------------
  3118 
  3119 *** General ***
  3120 
  3121 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3122 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3123 
  3124 
  3125 *** Pure ***
  3126 
  3127 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3128 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3129 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3130 
  3131 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3132 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3133 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3134 
  3135 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3136 interpretation.
  3137 
  3138 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3139 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3140 
  3141 
  3142 *** Document preparation ***
  3143 
  3144 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3145 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3146 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3147 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3148 
  3149 
  3150 *** HOL ***
  3151 
  3152 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3153 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3154 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3155 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3156 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3157 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3158 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3159 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3160 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3161 
  3162 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3163 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3164 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3165 
  3166 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3167 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3168 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3169 
  3170 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3171 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3172 
  3173 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3174 
  3175 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3176 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3177 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3178 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3179 
  3180 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3181 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3182 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3183 "mirabelle" utility.
  3184 
  3185 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3186 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3187 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3188 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3189 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3190 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3191 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3192 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3193 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3194 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3195 
  3196 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3197 procedure only.
  3198 
  3199 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3200 
  3201 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3202 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3203 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3204 that fail later.
  3205 
  3206 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3207 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3208 
  3209 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3210 the same method as the approximation method.
  3211 
  3212 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3213 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3214 series expansion.
  3215 
  3216 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3217 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3218 
  3219 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3220 reals.
  3221 
  3222 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3223 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3224 
  3225 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3226 fixpoint theorem.
  3227 
  3228 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3229   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3230     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3231   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3232     accordingly
  3233   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3234     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3235   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3236     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3237 
  3238 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3239 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3240 lattice.
  3241 
  3242 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3243 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3244 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3245 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3246 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3247 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3251   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3252     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3253   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3254     le_inf_iff
  3255   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3256     sup_aci)
  3257   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3258   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3259   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3260     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3261     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3262     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3263     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3264     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3265     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3266     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3267     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3268     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3269     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3270   - authentic syntax for
  3271     Set.Pow
  3272     Set.image
  3273   - mere abbreviations:
  3274     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3275     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3276     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3277     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3278     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3279     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3280     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3281     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3282   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3283 
  3284 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3285 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3286 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3287 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3288 
  3289 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3290 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3291 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3294 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3297 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3298 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3299 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300 
  3301 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3302 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3303 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3304 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3305 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3306 
  3307 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3308 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310 
  3311 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3312 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3313 
  3314 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3315 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3316 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3317 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3318 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3319 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3320 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3324     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3325     code_post       replaces    code post
  3326     etc.
  3327   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * Renamed methods:
  3330     sizechange -> size_change
  3331     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3332   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3335 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3336 
  3337 * Renamed theorems:
  3338     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3339     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3340     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3341     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3342     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3343   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344 
  3345 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3347 
  3348 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351 
  3352 *** HOLCF ***
  3353 
  3354 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3355 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3356 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3357 
  3358 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3359 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3360 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3361 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3362 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3363 
  3364 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3365 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3366 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3367 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3368 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3369 
  3370 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3371 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3372 constructor are pre-configured.
  3373 
  3374 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3375 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3376 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3377 
  3378 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3379 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3380 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3381 as well.)
  3382 
  3383 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3384 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3385 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3386 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3387 examples.
  3388 
  3389 
  3390 *** ML ***
  3391 
  3392 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3393 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3394 
  3395 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3396 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3397 position, logical grouping etc.
  3398 
  3399 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3400 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3401 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3402 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3403 
  3404 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3405 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3406 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3407 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3408 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3409 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3410 
  3411 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3412 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3413 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3414 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3415 experiments with references.
  3416 
  3417 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3418 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3419 
  3420 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3421 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3422 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3423 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3424 
  3425 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3426 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3427 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3428 
  3429 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3430 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3431 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3439 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3440 
  3441 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3442 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3443 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3444 
  3445 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3446 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3447 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3450 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3451 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3455 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3456 instead of global theory.
  3457 
  3458 
  3459 *** System ***
  3460 
  3461 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3462 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3463 usedir option -q.
  3464 
  3465 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3466 also the system manual.
  3467 
  3468 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3469 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3470 
  3471 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3472 this is always enabled.
  3473 
  3474 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3475 
  3476 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3477 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3478 currently supported on Linux only.
  3479 
  3480 
  3481 
  3482 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3483 --------------------------------
  3484 
  3485 *** General ***
  3486 
  3487 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3488 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3489 
  3490   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3491     "isatool."
  3492 
  3493   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3494     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3495 
  3496   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3497     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3498 
  3499 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3500 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3501 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3502 
  3503 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3504 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3505 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3506 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3507 via "isabelle emacs".
  3508 
  3509 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3510 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3511 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3512 
  3513 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3514 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3515 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3516 
  3517 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3518 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3519 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3520 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3521 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3522 
  3523 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3524 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3525 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3526 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3527 
  3528 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3529 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3530 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3531 
  3532 
  3533 *** Pure ***
  3534 
  3535 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3536 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3537 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3538 
  3539 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3540 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3541 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3542 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3543 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3544 
  3545 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3546 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3547 useful in locale declarations.
  3548 
  3549 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3550 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3551 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3552 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3553 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3554 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3555 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3556 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3557 no longer generated.
  3558 
  3559 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3560 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3561 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3562 
  3563 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3564 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3565 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3566 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3567 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3568 
  3569 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3571 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3572 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3573 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3574 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3575 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3576 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3577 
  3578 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3579 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3580 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3581 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3582 
  3583 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3586 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3587 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3588 
  3589 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3590 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591 
  3592 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3593 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3594 in HOL, write
  3595 
  3596     class foo = ...
  3597 
  3598 instead of
  3599 
  3600     class foo = type + ...
  3601 
  3602 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3603 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3606 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3607 
  3608 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3609 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3610 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3611 
  3612 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3613 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3614 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3615 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3616 directly in regular applications.
  3617 
  3618 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3619 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3620 
  3621 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3622 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3623 
  3624 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3625 theory context.
  3626 
  3627 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3628 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3631 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3632 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3633 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3634 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3635 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3636 
  3637   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3638 
  3639 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3640 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3641 normalization.
  3642 
  3643 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3644 addressing etc.
  3645 
  3646 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3647 
  3648   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3649   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3650 
  3651 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3652 
  3653   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3654      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3655      parts of the code generator framework).
  3656 
  3657   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3658      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3659      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3660 
  3661 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3664 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3667 patterns, e.g.
  3668 
  3669     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3670 
  3671 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3672 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3673 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3674 hyphen:
  3675 
  3676     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3677 
  3678 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3679 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3680 
  3681 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3682 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3683 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3684 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3685 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3686 higher-order unification.
  3687 
  3688 
  3689 *** Document preparation ***
  3690 
  3691 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3692 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3693 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3694 
  3695 
  3696 *** HOL ***
  3697 
  3698 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3699 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3700 
  3701 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3702 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3703 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3704 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3705 Main, as before.
  3706 
  3707 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3708 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3709 
  3710 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3711 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3712 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3713 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3714 
  3715 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3716 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3717 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3718 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3719 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3720 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3721 
  3722 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3723 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3724 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3725 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3726 
  3727 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3728 menu.
  3729 
  3730 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3731 (contains the empty clause).
  3732 
  3733 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3734 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3735 
  3736 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3737 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3738 
  3739 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3740 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3741 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3744 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3745 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3746 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3747 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3748 
  3749 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3750 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3751 
  3752 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3753 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3754 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3755 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3756 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3757 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3758 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3759 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3760 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3761 
  3762 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3763 
  3764 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3765 
  3766 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3767 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3770 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3771 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3772 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3773 
  3774 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3775 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3776 
  3777     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3778     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3779     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3780     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3781     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3782     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3783     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3784     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3785 
  3786 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3787 theory Set.
  3788 
  3789 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3790 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3791 
  3792 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3793 
  3794 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3795 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3796 
  3797 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3798 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3799 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3800 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3801 allowed. For examples see
  3802 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3803 
  3804 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3805 
  3806 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3810 structure:
  3811 
  3812     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3813     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3814     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3815     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3816     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3817     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3818     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3819     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3820     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3821     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3822     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3823     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3824     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3825     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3826     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3827     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3828     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3829     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3830     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3831     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3832     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3833     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3834     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3835     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3836     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3837     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3838     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3839     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3840     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3841     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3842     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3843     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3844     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3845 
  3846     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3847     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3848     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3849     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3850     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3851     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3852     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3853     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3854     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3855     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3856 
  3857     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3858     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3859     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3860     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3861     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3862     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3863 
  3864 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3865 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3866 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3867 
  3868 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3869 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3870 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3871 
  3872 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3873 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3876 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3877 
  3878 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3879 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3880 proofs, e.g.
  3881 
  3882   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3883 
  3884 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3885 
  3886 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3887 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3888 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3891 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3895 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3896 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3900 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3901 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3902 preorder_class.*.
  3903 
  3904 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3905 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3906 
  3907 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3908 
  3909   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3910 
  3911 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3912 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3913 fold_image.
  3914 
  3915 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3916 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3917 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3918 the former will disappear at some point.
  3919 
  3920 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3921 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3922 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3923 
  3924 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3925 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3926 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3927 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3928 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3929 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3930 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3931 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3932 
  3933 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3934 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3935 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3936 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3937 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3938 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3939 
  3940     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3941     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3942     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3943     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3944     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3945     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3946     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3947 
  3948 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3949 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3950 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3951 
  3952 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3953 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3954 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3955 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3956 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3957 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3958 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3959 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3960 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3961 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3962 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3963 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3964 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3965 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3966 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3967 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3968 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3969 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3970 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3971 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3972 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3973 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3974 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3975 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3976 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3977 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3978 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3979 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3980 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3981 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3982 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3983 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3984 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3985 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3986 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3987 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3988 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3989 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3990 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3991 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3992 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3993 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3994 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3995 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3996 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3997 
  3998 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4001 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4002 
  4003 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4004 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4005 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4006 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4007 
  4008 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4009 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4010 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4011 theory RealVector.
  4012 
  4013 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4014 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4015 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4016 and inner products are included.
  4017 
  4018 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4019 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4020 supported.
  4021 
  4022 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4023 first diagonalization argument.
  4024 
  4025 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4026 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4027 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4028 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4029 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4030 
  4031     hide (open) const gcd
  4032     abbreviation gcd where
  4033       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4034     notation (output)
  4035       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4036 
  4037 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4038 
  4039 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4040 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4041 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4044 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4045 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4046 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4047 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4048 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4049 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4050 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4051 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4052 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4053 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4054 cases.
  4055 
  4056 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4057 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4058 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4059 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4060 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4061 
  4062     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4063     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4064     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4065     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4066     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4067 
  4068 
  4069 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4070 
  4071 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4072 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4073 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4074 
  4075 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4076 
  4077 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4078 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4079 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4080 
  4081 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4082 
  4083 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4084 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4085 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4086 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4087 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4088 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4089 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4090 
  4091 
  4092 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4093 
  4094 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4095 
  4096 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4097 theory targets.
  4098 
  4099 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4100 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4101 'inductive' etc.
  4102 
  4103 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4104 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4105 
  4106 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4107 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4108 
  4109 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4110 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4111 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4112 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4113 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4114 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4115 the algorithm W:
  4116 
  4117  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4118  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4119          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4120 
  4121 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4122 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4123 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4124 
  4125 
  4126 *** HOLCF ***
  4127 
  4128 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4129 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4130 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4131 
  4132 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4133 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4134 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4135 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4136 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4137 
  4138 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4139 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4140 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 
  4143 *** ZF ***
  4144 
  4145 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4146 
  4147 
  4148 *** ML ***
  4149 
  4150 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4151 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4152 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4153 5.2.1!
  4154 
  4155 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4156 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4157 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4158 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4159 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4160 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4161 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4162 
  4163 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4164 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4165 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4166 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4167 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4168 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4169 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4170 
  4171 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4172 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4173 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4174 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4175 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4176 
  4177 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4178 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4179 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4180 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4181 Method.add_method.
  4182 
  4183 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4184 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4185 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4186 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4187 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4188 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4189 
  4190 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4191 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4192 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4193 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4194 examples.
  4195 
  4196 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4197 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4198 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4199 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4200 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4201 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4202 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4203 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4204 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4205 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4206 
  4207 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4208 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4209 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4210 
  4211 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4212 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4213 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4214 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4215 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4216 resort for legacy applications.
  4217 
  4218 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4219 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4220 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4221 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4222 explicit runtime argument.
  4223 
  4224 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4225 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4226 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4227 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4228 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4231 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4232 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4233 theory state.
  4234 
  4235 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4236 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4237 
  4238   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4239   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4240   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4241   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4242   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4243   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4244   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4245   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4246   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4247   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4248 
  4249 
  4250 *** System ***
  4251 
  4252 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4253 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4254 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4255 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4256 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4257 
  4258 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4259 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4260 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4261 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4262 
  4263 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4264 
  4265 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4266 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4267 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4268 prover operations.
  4269 
  4270 
  4271 
  4272 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4273 -------------------------------
  4274 
  4275 *** General ***
  4276 
  4277 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4278 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4279 
  4280 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4281 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4282 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4283 provides a proper context already.
  4284 
  4285 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4286 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4287 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4288 
  4289 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4290 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4291 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4292 swap theory imports.
  4293 
  4294 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4295 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4296 
  4297 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4298 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4299 white space without escapes.
  4300 
  4301 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4302 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4303 "foo_bar".
  4304 
  4305 
  4306 *** Pure ***
  4307 
  4308 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4309 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4310 
  4311 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4312 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4313 
  4314 (1) unused_thms
  4315      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4316 
  4317 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4318      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4319      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4320 
  4321 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4322      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4323      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4324      their ancestors.
  4325 
  4326 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4327 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4328 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4329 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4330 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4331 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4332 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4333 
  4334 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4335 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4336 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4337 
  4338 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4339 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4340 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4341 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4342 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4343 
  4344 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4345 
  4346 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4347 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4348 update of theories within ML code.
  4349 
  4350 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4351 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4352 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4353 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4354 
  4355 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4356 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4357 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4358 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4361 
  4362 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4363 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4364 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4365 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4366 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4367 
  4368 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4369 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4370 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4371 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4372 situations.
  4373 
  4374 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4375 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4376 proof text.
  4377 
  4378 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4379 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4380 
  4381 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4382 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4383 predicates.
  4384 
  4385 
  4386 *** Document preparation ***
  4387 
  4388 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4389 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4390 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4391 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4392 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4393 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4394 
  4395 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4396 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4397 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4398 
  4399 
  4400 *** HOL ***
  4401 
  4402 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4403 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4404 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4405 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4406 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4407 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4408 
  4409 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4410 with multithreading.
  4411 
  4412 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4413 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4414 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4415 
  4416 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4417 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4418 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4419 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4422 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4423 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4424 and makes them available separately.  See
  4425 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4426 
  4427 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4428 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4429 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4430 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4431 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4432 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4433 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4434 the declared rules.
  4435 
  4436 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4437 
  4438   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4439 
  4440 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4441 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4442 
  4443 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4444 
  4445   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4446 
  4447   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4448     definitions on => and bool.
  4449 
  4450   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4451     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4452     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4453 
  4454       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4455       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4456       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4457       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4458       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4459       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4460       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4461       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4462 
  4463   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4464     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4465     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4466 
  4467   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4468     The proof pattern
  4469 
  4470       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4471       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4472 
  4473     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4474     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4475 
  4476       have "EX S. P S"
  4477       proof
  4478         show "P S" <...>
  4479       qed
  4480 
  4481   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4482     The proof pattern
  4483 
  4484       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4485       also have "S = T" <...>
  4486       finally have "P T" .
  4487 
  4488     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4489     must be replaced by something like
  4490 
  4491       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4492       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4493       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4494 
  4495   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4496     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4497 
  4498       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4499 
  4500     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4501     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4502     type of the form
  4503 
  4504       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4505 
  4506     rather than
  4507 
  4508       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4509 
  4510 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4511 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4512 
  4513 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4516 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518 
  4519 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4520 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4523 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4526 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4527 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4528 
  4529 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4530 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4531 
  4532   less_trans
  4533   less_linear
  4534   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4535   le_less_trans
  4536   less_le_trans
  4537   less_not_sym
  4538   less_asym
  4539 
  4540 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4541 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4542 and different variable names.
  4543 
  4544 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4545 
  4546 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4547 finite maps.
  4548 
  4549 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4550 
  4551 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4552 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4553 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4554 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4555 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4556 accordingly.
  4557 
  4558 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4559 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4560 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4561 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4562 
  4563 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4564 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4565 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4566 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4567 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4571 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4574 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4575 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4576 
  4577 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4579 
  4580 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4581 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4582 
  4583 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4584 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4587 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4590 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4594 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4597 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4598 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4599 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4600 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4601 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4602 
  4603 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4604 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4605 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4606 
  4607 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4608 
  4609 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4610 
  4611 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4612 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4613 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4614 
  4615 
  4616 *** ZF ***
  4617 
  4618 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4619 same session:
  4620 
  4621   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4622   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4623   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4624   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4625   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4626   List      -> List_ZF
  4627   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4628 
  4629 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4630 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4631 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4632 
  4633 
  4634 *** ML ***
  4635 
  4636 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4637 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4638 
  4639 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4640 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4641 
  4642 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4643 
  4644 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4645 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4646 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4647 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4648 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4649 
  4650 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4651 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4652 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4653 
  4654 
  4655 *** System ***
  4656 
  4657 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4658 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4659 
  4660 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4661 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4662 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4663 
  4664 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4665 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4666 
  4667 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4668 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4669 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4670 
  4671 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4672 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4673 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4674 
  4675 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4676 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4677 
  4678 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4679 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4680 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4681 script.
  4682 
  4683 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4684 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4685 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4686 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4687 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4688 
  4689 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4690 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4691 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4692 
  4693 
  4694 
  4695 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4696 -----------------------------------
  4697 
  4698 *** General ***
  4699 
  4700 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4701 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4702 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4703 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4704 
  4705 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4706 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4707 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4710 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4711 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4712 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4715 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4716 quotes.
  4717 
  4718 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4719 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4720 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4721 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4722 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4723 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4724 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4725 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4726 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4727 
  4728 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4729 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4730 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4731 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4732 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4733 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4734 
  4735 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4736 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4737 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4738 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4739 
  4740 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4741 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4742 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4743 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4744 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4745 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4746 
  4747 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4748 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4749 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4750 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4751 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4752 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4753 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4754 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4755 
  4756 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4757 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4758 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4759 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4760 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4761 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4762 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4763 
  4764 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4765 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4766 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4767 
  4768 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4769 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4770 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4771 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4772 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4773 limit is imposed.
  4774 
  4775 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4776 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4777 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4778 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4779 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4780 and scalability.
  4781 
  4782 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4783 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4784 
  4785 
  4786 *** Document preparation ***
  4787 
  4788 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4789 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4790 current context.
  4791 
  4792 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4793 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4794 
  4795 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4796 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4797 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4798 
  4799 
  4800 *** Pure ***
  4801 
  4802 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4803 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4804 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4805 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4806 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4807 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4808 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4809 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4810 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4811 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4812 
  4813 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4814 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4815 sketch:
  4816 
  4817     internal compilation:
  4818         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4819     writing SML code to a file:
  4820         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4821     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4822         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4823     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4824         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4825 
  4826     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4827         method ``eval''
  4828 
  4829 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4830 
  4831 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4832 
  4833     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4834     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4835     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4836     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4837 
  4838 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4839 
  4840     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4841       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4842 
  4843     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4844       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4845 
  4846     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4847       {(target)}+
  4848         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4849 
  4850     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4851       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4852         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4853 
  4854 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4855 
  4856 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4857 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4858 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4859 codegen".
  4860 
  4861 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4862 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4863 annotations).
  4864 
  4865 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4866 syntax.
  4867 
  4868 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4869 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4870 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4871 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4872 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4873 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4874 
  4875 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4876 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4877 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4878 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4879 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4880 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4881 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4882 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4883 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4884 equations, see section "definitions".
  4885 
  4886 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4887 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4888 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4889 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4890 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4891 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4892 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4893 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4894 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4895 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4896 
  4897 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4898 configuration options:
  4899 
  4900   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4901   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4902   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4903   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4904   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4905   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4906   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4907   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4908   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4909 
  4910 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4911 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4912 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4913 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4914 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4915 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4916 order.
  4917 
  4918 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4919 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4920 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4921 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4922 context encountered later on.
  4923 
  4924 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4925 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4926 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4927 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4928 
  4929 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4930 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4931 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4932 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4933 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4934 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4935 
  4936 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4937 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4938 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4939 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4940 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4941 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4942 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4943 more permissive.
  4944 
  4945 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4946 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4947 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4948 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4949 maintainability of proof texts.
  4950 
  4951 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4952 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4953 
  4954   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4955   then guess x and y by clarify
  4956 
  4957 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4958 proof tools being involved here.
  4959 
  4960 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4961 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4962 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4963 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4964 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4965 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4966 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4967 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4968 
  4969 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4970 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4971 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4972 
  4973   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4974   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4975   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4976   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4977 
  4978 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4979 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4980 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4981 
  4982 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4983 both named and unnamed ones.
  4984 
  4985 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4986 
  4987   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4988 
  4989 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4990 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4991 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4992 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4993 
  4994 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4995 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4996 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4997 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4998 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4999 
  5000 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5001 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5002 
  5003 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5004 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5005 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5006 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5007 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5008 originally first one.
  5009 
  5010 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5011 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5012 expected.
  5013 
  5014 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5015 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5016 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5017 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5018 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5019 
  5020   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5021     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5022     obtains x where "P x"
  5023 
  5024   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5025     assumes "A & B"
  5026     obtains A and B
  5027 
  5028   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5029     assumes "A | B"
  5030     obtains
  5031       A
  5032     | B
  5033 
  5034 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5035 explicitly:
  5036 
  5037   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5038     obtains "~ thesis"
  5039 
  5040   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5041     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5042 
  5043 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5044 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5045 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5046 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5047 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5048 case_names).
  5049 
  5050 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5051 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5052 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5053 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5054 
  5055 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5056 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5057 top-level lemma.
  5058 
  5059 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5060 introduction rule (default "that").
  5061 
  5062 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5063 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5064 to occur.
  5065 
  5066 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5067 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5068 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5069 representations independently of name spaces.
  5070 
  5071 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5072 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5073 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5074 
  5075 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5076 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5077 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5078 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5079 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5080 current context.
  5081 
  5082 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5083 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5084 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5085 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5086 
  5087   axiomatization
  5088     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5089     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5090 
  5091   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5092   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5093 
  5094   abbreviation
  5095     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5096     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5097 
  5098 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5099 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5100 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5101 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5102 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5103 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5104 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5105 
  5106 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5107 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5108 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5109 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5110 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5111 
  5112 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5113 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5114 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5115 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5116 
  5117 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5118 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5119 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5120 
  5121   definition "K x _ = x"
  5122 
  5123   inductive conj for A B
  5124   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5125 
  5126 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5127 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5128 abbreviations on output.
  5129 
  5130 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5131 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5132 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5133 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5134 
  5135 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5136 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5137 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5138 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5139 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5140 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5141 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5142 
  5143 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5144 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5145 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5146 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5147 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5148 
  5149 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5150 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5151 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5152 
  5153 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5154 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5155 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5156 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5157 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5158 
  5159   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5160     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5161 
  5162 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5163 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5164 partial_order.
  5165 
  5166 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5167 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5168 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5169 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5170 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5171 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5172 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5173 examples.
  5174 
  5175 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5176 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5177 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5178 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5179 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5180 
  5181 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5182 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5183 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5184 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5185 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5186 
  5187   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5188   (induct set: foo bar)
  5189   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5190   (induct type: foo bar)
  5191 
  5192 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5193 new format.
  5194 
  5195 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5196 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5197 
  5198 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5199 considered a legacy feature.
  5200 
  5201 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5202 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5205 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5206 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5207 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5208   
  5209 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5210 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5211 manipulating the claset.
  5212 
  5213 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5214 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5215 least one premise.
  5216 
  5217 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5218 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5219 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5220 rule steps.
  5221 
  5222 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5223 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5224 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5225 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5226 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5227 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5228 
  5229 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5230 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5231 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5232 
  5233 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5234 the graph browser tool.
  5235 
  5236 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5237 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5238 
  5239 
  5240 *** HOL ***
  5241 
  5242 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5243 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5244 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5245 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5246 multi-threading.
  5247   
  5248 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5249 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5250 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5251 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5252 work with multi-threading.
  5253 
  5254 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5255 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5256 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5257 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5258 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5259 
  5260 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5261 
  5262 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5263 equality.
  5264 
  5265 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5266 the new 'class' package:
  5267 
  5268     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5269     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5270     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5271     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5272     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5273     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5274     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5275     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5276     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5277     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5278     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5279     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5280     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5281     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5282     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5283     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5284     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5285     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5286     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5287     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5288 
  5289 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5290 
  5291 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5292 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5293 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5294 names.
  5295 
  5296 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5297 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5298 
  5299 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5300 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5301 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5302 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5303 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5304 
  5305 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5306 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5307 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5308 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5309 
  5310 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5311 
  5312 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5313 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5314 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5315 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5317 
  5318 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5319 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5320 
  5321 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5322 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5323 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5324 
  5325 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5326 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5327 
  5328 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5329 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5330 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5331 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5332 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5333 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5334 in the current context.
  5335 
  5336 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5337 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5339 
  5340 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5341 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5342 
  5343 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5344 
  5345     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5346     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5347 
  5348     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5349       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5350     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5351     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5352 
  5353     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5354     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5355 
  5356   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5357 
  5358     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5359     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5360     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5361     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5362     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5363     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5364     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5365     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5366     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5367     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5368     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5369     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5370     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5371     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5372     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5373     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5374     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5375     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5376     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5377     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5378     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5379     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5380     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5381     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5382     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5383     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5384     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5385     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5386     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5387     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5388     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5389     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5390     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5391     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5392     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5393 
  5394     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5395     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5396     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5397     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5398     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5399     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5400     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5401     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5402     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5403     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5404     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5405     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5406     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5407     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5408     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5409     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5410     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5411 
  5412     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5413     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5414     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5415     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5416     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5417     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5418     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5419     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5420     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5421     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5422     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5423     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5424     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5425     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5426     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5427     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5428     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5429     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5430     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5431     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5432     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5433     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5434     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5435     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5436     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5437     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5438     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5439     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5440 
  5441     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5442     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5443     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5444     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5445     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5446     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5447 
  5448     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5449     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5450     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5451     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5452 
  5453     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5454     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5455 
  5456     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5457     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5458 
  5459 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5460 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5461 
  5462 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5463 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5464 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5465 "*.size".
  5466 
  5467 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5469 
  5470 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5471 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5472 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5473 
  5474 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5475 
  5476 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5477 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5478 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5479 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5480 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5481 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5482 numerals on all operations.
  5483 
  5484 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5485 
  5486 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5487 
  5488 * Code generator library theories:
  5489   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5490     languages.
  5491   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5492     languages.
  5493   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5494     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5495   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5496   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5497     denominator).
  5498   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5499     representable by rational numbers.
  5500   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5501     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5502     includes Code_Integer.
  5503   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5504     target-language built-in integers.
  5505   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5506     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5507 
  5508 * New package for inductive predicates
  5509 
  5510   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5511 
  5512     inductive
  5513       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5514       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5515     where
  5516       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5517     | ...
  5518 
  5519   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5520 
  5521     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5522 
  5523     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5524     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5525 
  5526     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5527     intros
  5528       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5529       ...
  5530 
  5531   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5532   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5533 
  5534     inductive_set
  5535       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5536       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5537     where
  5538       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5539     | ...
  5540 
  5541   or
  5542 
  5543     inductive_set
  5544       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5545       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5546       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5547     where
  5548       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5549     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5550     | ...
  5551 
  5552   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5553 
  5554   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5555   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5556 
  5557   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5558 
  5559   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5560     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5561     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5562     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5563     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5564 
  5565   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5566     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5567     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5568     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5569     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5570     statements of the form
  5571 
  5572       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5573 
  5574     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5575     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5576 
  5577       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5578 
  5579   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5580 
  5581       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5582         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5583         ==> ... ==> P
  5584 
  5585     for predicates and
  5586 
  5587       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5588         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5589         ==> ... ==> P
  5590 
  5591     for sets rather than
  5592 
  5593       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5594         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5595         ==> ... ==> P
  5596 
  5597     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5598     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5599     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5600 
  5601   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5602     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5603     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5604 
  5605 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5606 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5607 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5608 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5609 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5610 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5611 
  5612 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5613 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5614 
  5615 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5616 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5617 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5618 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5619 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5620 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5621 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5622 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5623 variable.
  5624 
  5625 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5626 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5627 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5628 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5629   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5630   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5631 
  5632 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5633 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5634 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5635 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5636 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5637 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5638 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5639 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5640 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5641 
  5642 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5643 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5644 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5645 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5646 rat, etc.
  5647 
  5648 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5649 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5650 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5651 
  5652 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5653 
  5654 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5655 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5656 
  5657 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5658 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5659 
  5660 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5661 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5662 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5663 
  5664 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5665 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5667 
  5668 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5669 
  5670 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5671 
  5672 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5673 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5674 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5675 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5676 
  5677 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5678 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5679 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5680 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5681 
  5682 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5683 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5684 algebraic operations.
  5685 
  5686 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5688 
  5689 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5691 
  5692 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5693 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5694 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5695 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5696 adapted.
  5697  
  5698 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5699 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5700 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5701 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5702 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5703 
  5704 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5705 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5706 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5707 
  5708 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5709 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5710 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5711 
  5712 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5715 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5716 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5717   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5718       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5719   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5720   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5721   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5722 
  5723 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5724 
  5725 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5726 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5727 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5728 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5729 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5730 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5731 
  5732 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5733 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5734 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5735 
  5736 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5737 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5738 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5740 
  5741 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5742 
  5743 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5744 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5745 
  5746 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5747 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5748 
  5749 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5750 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5751 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5752 
  5753 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5754 True/False.
  5755 
  5756 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5757 
  5758 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5759 
  5760 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5761 ``rule'' method.
  5762 
  5763 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5764 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5765 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5766 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5767 
  5768 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5769 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5770 
  5771 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5772 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5773 
  5774 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5775 Library.
  5776 
  5777 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5778 
  5779 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5780 as greatest fixed-point.
  5781 
  5782 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5783 association lists.
  5784 
  5785 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5786 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5787 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5788 
  5789 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5790 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5791 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5792 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5793 behavior.
  5794 
  5795 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5796 
  5797 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5798 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5799 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5800 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5801 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5802 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5803 
  5804 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5805 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5806 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5807 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5808 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5809 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5810 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5811 
  5812 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5813 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5814 
  5815 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5816 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5817 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5818 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5819 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5820 
  5821 
  5822 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5823 
  5824 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5825 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5826 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5827 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5829 
  5830 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5831 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5832 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5833 
  5834 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5835 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5836 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5837 
  5838 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5839 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5840 
  5841 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5842 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5843 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5845 
  5846   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5847   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5848   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5849   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5850   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5851   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5852   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5853   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5854   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5855   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5856   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5857   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5858   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5859   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5860   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5861 
  5862 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5863 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5864 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5865 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5866 
  5867   approx        <-- capprox
  5868   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5869   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5870   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5871   monad         <-- cmonad
  5872   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5873   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5874   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5875   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5876 
  5877 
  5878 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5879 
  5880 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5881 
  5882 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5884 
  5885 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5886 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5887 
  5888 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5889 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5890 of algebraic structures.
  5891 
  5892 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5893 
  5894 
  5895 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5896 
  5897 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5898 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5899 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5900 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5901 
  5902 
  5903 *** ML ***
  5904 
  5905 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5906 (even on SML/NJ).
  5907 
  5908 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5909 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5910 compile-time.  For example:
  5911 
  5912 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5913 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5914 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5915 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5916 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5917 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5918 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5919 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5920 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5921 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5922 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5923 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5924 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5925 ML {* @{context} *}
  5926 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5927 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5928 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5929 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5930 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5931 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5932 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5933 
  5934 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5935 
  5936 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5937 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5938 
  5939 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5940 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5941 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5942 
  5943 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5944 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5945 
  5946 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5947 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5948 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5949 
  5950 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5951 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5952 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5953 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5954 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5955 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5956 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5957 declarations and definitions.
  5958 
  5959 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5960 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5961 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5962 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5963 
  5964 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5965 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5966 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5967 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5968 
  5969 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5970 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5971 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5972 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5973 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5974 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5975 
  5976 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5977 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5978 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5979 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5980 attributes, methods, etc.
  5981 
  5982 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5983 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5984 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5985 fold_map combinators.
  5986 
  5987 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5988 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5989 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5990 derivation.
  5991 
  5992 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5993 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5994 achieve the old behaviour.
  5995 
  5996 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5997 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5998 statements.
  5999 
  6000 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6001 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6002 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6003 
  6004 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6005 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6006 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6007 
  6008   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6009   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6010   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6011 
  6012 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6013 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6014 
  6015 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6016 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6017 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6018 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6019 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6020 
  6021 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6022 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6023 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6024 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6025 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6026 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6027 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6028 in a locale context).
  6029 
  6030 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6031 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6032 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6033 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6034 
  6035 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6036 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6037 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6038 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6039 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6040 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6041 
  6042 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6043 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6044 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6045 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6046 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6047 
  6048   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6049 
  6050 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6051 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6052 this:
  6053 
  6054   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6055 
  6056 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6057 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6058 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6059 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6060 
  6061 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6062 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6063 
  6064 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6065 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6066 
  6067 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6068 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6069 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6070 batch mode.
  6071 
  6072 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6073 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6074 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6075 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6076 
  6077 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6078 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6079 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6080 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6081 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6082 
  6083 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6084 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6085 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6086 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6087 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6088 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6089 
  6090 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6091 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6092 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6094 
  6095 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6096 "Trueprop" etc.
  6097 
  6098 
  6099 *** System ***
  6100 
  6101 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6102 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6103 Isabelle installations.
  6104 
  6105 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6106 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6107 code.
  6108 
  6109 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6110 
  6111 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6112 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6113 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6114 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6115 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6116 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6117 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6118 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6119 Implementation manual.
  6120 
  6121 
  6122 
  6123 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6124 ----------------------------------
  6125 
  6126 *** General ***
  6127 
  6128 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6129 
  6130   theory <name>
  6131   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6132   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6133   begin
  6134 
  6135 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6136 
  6137   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6138 
  6139 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6140 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6141 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6142 
  6143 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6144 relative and absolute paths.
  6145 
  6146 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6147 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6148 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6149 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6150 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  6151 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  6152 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  6153 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  6154 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  6155 
  6156   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  6157 
  6158 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  6159 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  6160 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  6161 
  6162 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  6163 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6164 
  6165 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  6166 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  6167 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  6168 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  6169 
  6170   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  6171   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  6172 
  6173 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  6174 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  6175 faster.
  6176 
  6177 
  6178 *** Document preparation ***
  6179 
  6180 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  6181 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  6182 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  6183 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  6184 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  6185 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  6186 
  6187 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  6188 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  6189 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  6190 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  6191 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  6192 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  6193 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  6194 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  6195 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  6196 \isadroptag.
  6197 
  6198 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  6199 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  6200 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  6201 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  6202 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  6203 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  6204 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  6205 specified above.
  6206 
  6207 * Several new antiquotations:
  6208 
  6209   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  6210 
  6211   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  6212 
  6213   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  6214   argument is a known logical constant;
  6215 
  6216   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  6217   theorem applying a "style" to it
  6218 
  6219   @{ML text}
  6220 
  6221 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  6222 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  6223 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  6224 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  6225 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  6226 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  6227 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  6228 
  6229 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  6230 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  6231 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  6232 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  6233 
  6234 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative