NEWS
author Andreas Lochbihler
Wed Nov 20 11:10:05 2013 +0100 (2013-11-20)
changeset 54594 a2d1522cdd54
parent 54502 e7c9a14632d0
child 54533 05738b7d8191
permissions -rw-r--r--
setup lifting/transfer for String.literal
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** HOL ***
     8 
     9 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    10 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    11 
    12 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    13     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    14 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    17     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    18     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    20 
    21 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    22   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    23   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    24   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    25     following cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    26   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    27 INCOMPATBILITY.
    28 
    29 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    30     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    31     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    32 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    33 
    34 * Fact name consolidation:
    35     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    36     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    37     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    38     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    39     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    40 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    43 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    44 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    45 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    46 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    47 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    48 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    49 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    50 
    51 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    52 
    53 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    54 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    55 
    56 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    57 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    58 
    59 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    60 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    61 or the brute way with
    62 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    63 
    64 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    65 
    66 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    67 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    68 
    69 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    70 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    71 
    72 
    73 *** ML ***
    74 
    75 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
    76 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
    78 formal context.
    79 
    80 
    81 
    82 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
    83 -------------------------------------
    84 
    85 *** General ***
    86 
    87 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    88 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    89 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    90 
    91 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    92 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    93 
    94 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    95 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    96 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    97 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    98 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    99 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   100 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   101 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   102 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   103 syntax.
   104 
   105 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   106 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   109 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   110 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   111 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   112 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   113 
   114 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   118 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   119 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   120 
   121 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   122 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   123 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   124 
   125 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   126 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   127 
   128 
   129 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   130 
   131 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   132 Documentation panel.
   133 
   134 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   135 documentation.
   136 
   137 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   138 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   139 
   140 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   141 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   142 normal editing and checking process.
   143 
   144 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   145 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   146 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   147 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   148 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   149 
   150 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   151 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   152 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   153 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   154 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   155 
   156 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   157 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   158 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   159 
   160 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   161 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   162 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   163 to resolve conflict.
   164 
   165 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   166 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   167 
   168 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   169 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   170 such command executions while editing.
   171 
   172 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   173 document content.
   174 
   175 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   176 toplevel theorem statements.
   177 
   178 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   179 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   180 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   181 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   182 
   183 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   184 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   185 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   186 
   187 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   188 / Global Options / Appearance".
   189 
   190 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   191 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   192 
   193 
   194 *** Pure ***
   195 
   196 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   197 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   198 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   199 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   200 details.
   201 
   202 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   203 
   204 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   205 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   206 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   207 
   208 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   212 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   213 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   214 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   217 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   218 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   219 
   220 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   221 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   222 
   223 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   224 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   225 situations.
   226 
   227 
   228 *** HOL ***
   229 
   230 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   231 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   235 
   236 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   237 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   238 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   239 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   240 
   241   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   242 
   243 * Code generator:
   244   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   245     'code_instance'.
   246   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   247     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   248 
   249 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   250 examples.
   251 
   252 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   253 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   254 to distinguish both when desired.
   255 
   256 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   257 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   258 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   259 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   262 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   263 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   264 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   265 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   266 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   269 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   270 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   271 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   272 
   273 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   274 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   275 
   276 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   277 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   278 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   279 
   280 * Lifting:
   281   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   282     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   283       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   284       transfer rules
   285     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   286       correspondence relation can be generated
   287     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   288       parametricity
   289     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   290   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   291   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   292     copies
   293   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   294     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   295     anonymous context)
   296   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   297     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   298   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   299     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   300   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   301     INCOMPATIBILITY
   302 
   303 * Transfer:
   304   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   305     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   306   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   307   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   308     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   309   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   310 
   311 * Reification and reflection:
   312   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   313     "Reification".
   314   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   315   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   319   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   320     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   321     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   322   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   323     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   324   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   325     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   326     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   327     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   328     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   329     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   330     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   331     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   332   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   333     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   334   - Fact renames:
   335       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   336       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   340 
   341 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   342 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   343 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345 
   346 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   347 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   348 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   349 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   350 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   351 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   352 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   353 lemmas.
   354 
   355 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   356 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   357 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   358 
   359 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   360 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   361 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   362 
   363 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   364 top and bottom elements.
   365 
   366 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   367 
   368 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   369 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   370 
   371  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   372    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   373    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   374 
   375  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   376    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   377    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   378 
   379    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   380    arbitrary filter.
   381 
   382  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   383    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   384    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   385    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   386    on a compact set.
   387 
   388  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   389    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   390    linear_continuum_topology).
   391 
   392  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   393    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   394    on all sequences converging to x.
   395 
   396  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   397    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   398    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   399    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   400    left or right.
   401 
   402  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   403 
   404      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   405 
   406  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   407    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   408 
   409  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   410    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   411    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   412    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   413    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   414    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   415 
   416  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   417 
   418    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   419 
   420    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   421      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   422 
   423    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   424 
   425    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   426      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   427 
   428    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   429 
   430    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   431 
   432  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   433 
   434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * Nitpick:
   437   - Added option "spy"
   438   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   439 
   440 * Sledgehammer:
   441   - Renamed option:
   442       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   443     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   444   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   445   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   446   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   447 
   448 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   449 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   450 
   451 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   452   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   453   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   454     generated code.
   455   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   456   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   457   - Fact renames:
   458     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   459     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   460     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   461 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   464 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   465 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   466 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   467 
   468 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   469 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   470 
   471 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   474 
   475     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   476     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   477 
   478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   479 
   480 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   481 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   482 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   483 
   484 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   485 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   486 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   487 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   488 
   489 * HOL-BNF:
   490   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   491     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   492     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   493     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   494   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   495     coinduct).
   496   - Renamed keywords:
   497     data ~> datatype_new
   498     codata ~> codatatype
   499     bnf_def ~> bnf
   500   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   501     discs ~> disc
   502     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   503     map_id' ~> map_id
   504     sels ~> sel
   505     set_map' ~> set_map
   506     sets ~> set
   507 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 
   510 *** ML ***
   511 
   512 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   513 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   514 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   515 Examples.thy in particular.
   516 
   517 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   518 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   519 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   520 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   521 
   522 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   523 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   524 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   525 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   527 
   528 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   529 
   530     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   531     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   532 
   533 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   534 
   535 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   536 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   537 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   538 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   539 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   540 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   541 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   542 
   543 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   544 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   545 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   546 clasets separately from the context.
   547 
   548 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   549 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   550 
   551 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   552 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   553 
   554 
   555 *** System ***
   556 
   557 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   558 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   561 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   564 settings variable.
   565 
   566 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   567 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   568 always pdf.
   569 
   570 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   571 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   572 
   573 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   574 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   575 
   576 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   577 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   578 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   579 
   580 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   581 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   582 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   583 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   584 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   585 for HTML presentation of theories.
   586 
   587 
   588 
   589 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   590 -----------------------------------
   591 
   592 *** General ***
   593 
   594 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   595 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   596 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   597 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   598 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   599 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   600 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   601 
   602 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   603 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   604 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   605 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   606 
   607 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   608 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   609 
   610 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   611 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   612 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   613 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   614 dependencies properly.
   615 
   616 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   617 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   618 
   619 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   620 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   621 
   622 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   623 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   624 and "class ... context ...".
   625 
   626 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   627 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   628 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   629 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   630 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   631 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   632 
   633 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   634 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   635 
   636 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   637 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   638 
   639 
   640 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   641 
   642 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   643 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   644 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   645 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   646 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   647 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   648 
   649 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   650 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   651 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   652 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   653 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   654 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   655 
   656 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   657 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   658 browser on demand.
   659 
   660 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   661 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   662 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   663 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   664 
   665 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   666 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   667 
   668 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   669 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   670 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   671 potentially infinite message streams.
   672 
   673 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   674 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   675 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   676 schemes.
   677 
   678 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   679 symbols.
   680 
   681 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   682 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   683 
   684 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   685 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   686 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   687 
   688 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   689 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   690 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   691 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   692 
   693 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   694 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   695 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   696 
   697 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   698 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   699 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   700 Isabelle distribution.
   701 
   702 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   703 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   704 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   705 
   706 
   707 *** Pure ***
   708 
   709 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   710 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   711 
   712 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   713 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   714 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   715 
   716 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   717 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   718 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   719 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   720 with some care where this is really required.
   721 
   722 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   723 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   724 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   725 
   726   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   727 
   728 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   729 a Hasse diagram.
   730 
   731 
   732 *** HOL ***
   733 
   734 * Sledgehammer:
   735 
   736   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   737     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   738   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   739   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   740   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   741   - Renamed options:
   742       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   743       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   744       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   745       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   746 
   747 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   748 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   749 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   750 
   751 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Lifting:
   755   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   756   - quot_del attribute
   757   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   758 
   759 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   760 expressions.
   761 
   762 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   763 pointfree expressions.
   764 
   765 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   766 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   767 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   768 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   772 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   773 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   774 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   775 accordingly.
   776 
   777 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   778 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   781 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   786 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   787 
   788 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   789 
   790 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   791 
   792   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   793   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   794 
   795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   798 
   799   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   800   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   801 
   802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   805 
   806   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   807     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   808     output f x converges to G.
   809 
   810   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   811     infinity (at_bot).
   812 
   813   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   814     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   815 
   816   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   817     at_top".
   818 
   819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   820 
   821 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   822 lattice type classes.
   823 
   824 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   825 
   826     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   827     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   828 
   829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   830 
   831 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   832 changes as follows.
   833 
   834   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   835 
   836       prefix ~> prefixeq
   837       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   838 
   839   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   840     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   841     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   842     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   843 
   844   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   845     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   846     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   847 
   848   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   849     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   850     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   851     Library/Prefix_Order.
   852 
   853   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   854     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   855 
   856       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   857       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   858       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   859       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   860       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   861       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   862       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   863       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   864       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   865       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   866       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   867       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   868       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   869       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   870       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   871       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   872 
   873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   874 
   875 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   876 
   877 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   878 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   879 
   880 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   881 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   882 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   883 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   884 
   885   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   886   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   887   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   888   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   889   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   890   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   891   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   892   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   893   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   894   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   895 
   896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897 
   898 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   899 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   900 Data").
   901 
   902 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   903 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   904 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   905 code.
   906 
   907 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   908 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   909 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911 
   912 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   913 
   914 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   915 
   916 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   917 
   918   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   919   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   920 
   921 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   922 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   923 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   924 
   925   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   926 
   927     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   928     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   929     cart_base i  removed
   930     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   931 
   932   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   933 
   934   Renamed lemmas:
   935 
   936     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   937     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   938     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   939     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   940     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   941     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   942     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   943     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   944     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   945     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   946 
   947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   948 
   949 * HOL/Probability:
   950 
   951   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   952 
   953   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   954     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   955     (borel_measurable_induct).
   956 
   957   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   958     projective family).
   959 
   960 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   961 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   962 
   963 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   964 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   965 datatypes.
   966 
   967 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   968 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   969 
   970 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   971 trees for the code generator.
   972 
   973 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   974 Lifting/Transfer.
   975 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 
   981 *** Document preparation ***
   982 
   983 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   984 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   985 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   986 
   987 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   988 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   989 
   990 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   991 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   992 document/root.tex.
   993 
   994 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   995 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 
   998 *** ML ***
   999 
  1000 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1001 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1002 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1003 
  1004 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1005 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1006 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1007 
  1008 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1009 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1010 necessarily printing visible text.
  1011 
  1012 
  1013 *** System ***
  1014 
  1015 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1016 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1017 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1018 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1019 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1020 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1021 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1022 
  1023 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1024 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1025 
  1026   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1027 
  1028 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1029 
  1030 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1031 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1032 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1033 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1034 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1035 
  1036 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1037 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1038 
  1039 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1040 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1041 
  1042 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1046 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1047 version of Isabelle.
  1048 
  1049 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1050 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1051 
  1052 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1053 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1054 for home-made settings.
  1055 
  1056 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1057 
  1058 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1059 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1060 configuration.
  1061 
  1062 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1063 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1064 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1065 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1066 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1067 
  1068 
  1069 
  1070 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1071 ------------------------------
  1072 
  1073 *** General ***
  1074 
  1075 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1076 
  1077   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1078     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1079   - markup for bound variables
  1080   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1081   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1082   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1083     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1084 
  1085 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1086 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1087 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1088 
  1089 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1090 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1091 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1092 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1093 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1094 
  1095   context
  1096     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1097     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1098   begin
  1099 
  1100   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1101 
  1102   end
  1103 
  1104   thm my_trans
  1105 
  1106 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1107 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1108 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1109 
  1110 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1111 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1112 
  1113 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1114 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1115 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1116 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1117 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1118 
  1119 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1120 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1121 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1122 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1123 indices of schematic variables.
  1124 
  1125 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1126 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1127 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1128 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1129 etc. was exploited.
  1130 
  1131 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1132 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1133 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1134 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1135 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1136 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1137 
  1138 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1139 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1140 manual.
  1141 
  1142 
  1143 *** Pure ***
  1144 
  1145 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1146 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1147 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1148 
  1149 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1150 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1151 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1152 undocumented feature.)
  1153 
  1154 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1155 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1156 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1157 
  1158   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1159 
  1160   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1161     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1162 
  1163 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1164 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1165 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1166 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1167 
  1168 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1169 
  1170     num ~> num_token
  1171     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1172     xstr ~> str_token
  1173 
  1174 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1175 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1176 position information via constraints).
  1177 
  1178 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1179 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1180 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1181 
  1182 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1183 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1184 
  1185 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1186 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1187 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1188 
  1189 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1190 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1193 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1194 
  1195   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1196 
  1197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1200 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1203 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1204 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1205 
  1206 
  1207 *** HOL ***
  1208 
  1209 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1210 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1211 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1212 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1213 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1214 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1215 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1216 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1217 possible.
  1218 
  1219 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1220 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1221 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1222 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1223 
  1224 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1225 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1228 
  1229 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1230 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1231 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1232 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1233 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1234 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1235 
  1236   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1237     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1238 
  1239   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1240     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1241     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1242 
  1243   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1244     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1245 
  1246   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1247     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1248     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1249 
  1250   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1251     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1252 
  1253 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1254 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1255 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1256 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1257 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1258 
  1259   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1260     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1261     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1262     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1263     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1264 
  1265     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1266     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1267 
  1268   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1269     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1270     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1271     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1272     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1273     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1274     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1275     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1276 
  1277   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1278     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1279     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1280     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1281 
  1282   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1283     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1284     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1285     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1286 
  1287   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1288     from type nat to type int.
  1289 
  1290 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1291 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1292 
  1293   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1294     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1295     type.  Example syntax:
  1296 
  1297     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1298       is List.insert
  1299 
  1300     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1301     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1302     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1303     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1304     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1305     by the package.
  1306 
  1307   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1308     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1309     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1310     code generation for each constant.
  1311 
  1312   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1313     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1314     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1315     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1316     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1317 
  1318   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1319     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1320     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1321 
  1322 * Quotient package:
  1323 
  1324   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1325     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1326 
  1327   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1328     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1329 
  1330   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1331     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1332     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1333 
  1334   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1335     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1338 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1339 
  1340 * Quickcheck:
  1341 
  1342   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1343     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1344     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1345     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1346     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1347 
  1348     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1349     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1350     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1351 
  1352     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1353     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1354 
  1355     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1356     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1357     show genuine counterexamples.
  1358 
  1359   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1360     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1361 
  1362     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1363     constructors of that type.
  1364 
  1365   - Support for multisets.
  1366 
  1367   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1368 
  1369   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1370     conjectures in a locale context.
  1371 
  1372 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1373 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1374 
  1375 * Sledgehammer:
  1376   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1377     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1378   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1379   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1380     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1381   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1382   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1383   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1384   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1385 
  1386 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1387 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1388 
  1389 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1390 
  1391 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1392 
  1393 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1394 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1395 
  1396   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1397 
  1398 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1399 a list and a nat.
  1400 
  1401 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1402 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1403 
  1404 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1405 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1406 default.
  1407 
  1408 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1409 
  1410   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1411 
  1412 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1413 
  1414 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1415 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1416 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1417 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1418 one_case.
  1419 
  1420 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1421 the result of the fact expression.
  1422 
  1423 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1424 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1425 of some relation theorems:
  1426 
  1427   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1428   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1429   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1430   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1431   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1432   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1433 
  1434 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1435 
  1436 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1437 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1438 
  1439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1442 to match the constant's name:
  1443 
  1444   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1445   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1446   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1447   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1448   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1449   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1450   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1451   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1452   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1453   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1454   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1455   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1456   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1457   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1458   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1459   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1460   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1461   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1462   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1463   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1464   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1465   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1466   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1467   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1468 
  1469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470 
  1471 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1472 and corresponding theorem names:
  1473 
  1474   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1475 
  1476   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1477 
  1478   - Renamed theorems:
  1479 
  1480     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1481     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1482     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1483     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1484     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1485     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1486     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1487     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1488     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1489     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1490     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1491     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1492     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1493     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1494     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1495     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1496     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1497     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1498     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1499     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1500     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1501     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1502     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1503 
  1504     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1505 
  1506     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1507 
  1508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1511 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1512 
  1513   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1514   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1515   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1516   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1517   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1518   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1519   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1520   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1521   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1522   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1523   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1524   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1525   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1526   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1527   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1528   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1529   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1530   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1531   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1532   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1533   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1534 
  1535 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1536 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1537 
  1538 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1541 
  1542   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1543   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1544   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1545   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1546   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1547   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1548   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1549   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1550   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1551   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1552   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1553   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1554   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1555   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1556   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1557   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1558   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1559   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1560 
  1561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1564 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1565 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1566 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1567 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1568 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1569 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1570 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1571 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1572 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1573 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1574 
  1575 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1576 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1577 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1578 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1579 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1580 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1581 
  1582 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1583 through option types.
  1584 
  1585 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1586 relations.
  1587 
  1588 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1589 
  1590 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1591 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1592 
  1593   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1594   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1595   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1596   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1597   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1598   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1599   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1600   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1601   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1602   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1603   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1604   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1605   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1606   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1607   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1608   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1609   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1610   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1611   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1612   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1613   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1614   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1615   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1616   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1617   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1618   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1619   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1620   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1621   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1622   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1623   zless_le ~> less_le
  1624   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1625   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1626   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1627 
  1628 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1629 
  1630   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1631 
  1632 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1633 
  1634 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1635 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1636 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1637 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639 
  1640 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1641 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1642 
  1643 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1644 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1645 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1646 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1647 follows:
  1648 
  1649   Operations:
  1650   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1651   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1652   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1653   del -> rbt_del
  1654   delete -> rbt_delete
  1655   ins -> rbt_ins
  1656   insert -> rbt_insert
  1657   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1658   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1659   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1660   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1661   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1662   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1663   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1664   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1665   union -> rbt_union
  1666   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1667   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1668 
  1669   Lemmas:
  1670   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1671   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1672   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1673   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1674   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1675   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1676   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1677   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1678   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1679   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1680   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1681   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1682   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1683   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1684   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1685   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1686   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1687   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1688   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1689   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1690   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1691   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1692   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1693   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1694   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1695   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1696   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1697   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1698   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1699   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1700   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1701   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1702   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1703   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1704   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1705   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1706   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1707   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1708   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1709   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1710   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1711   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1712   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1713   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1714   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1715   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1716   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1717   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1718   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1719   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1720   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1721   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1722   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1723   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1724   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1725   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1726   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1727   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1728   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1729   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1730   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1731   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1732   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1733   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1734   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1735   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1736   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1737   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1738   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1739   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1740   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1741   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1742   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1743   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1744   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1745   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1746   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1747   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1748   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1749   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1750   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1751   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1752   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1753 
  1754 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1755 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1756 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1757 
  1758   Changed Operations:
  1759   float_abs -> abs
  1760   float_nprt -> nprt
  1761   float_pprt -> pprt
  1762   pow2 -> use powr
  1763   round_down -> float_round_down
  1764   round_up -> float_round_up
  1765   scale -> exponent
  1766 
  1767   Removed Operations:
  1768   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1769 
  1770   Renamed Lemmas:
  1771   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1772   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1773   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1774   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1775   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1776   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1777   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1778   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1779   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1780   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1781   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1782   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1783   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1784   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1785   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1786   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1787   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1788   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1789   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1790   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1791   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1792   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1793   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1794   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1795   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1796   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1797   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1798   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1799   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1800   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1801   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1802   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1803   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1804   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1805   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1806   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1807 
  1808   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1809   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1810   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1811   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1812   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1813   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1814   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1815   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1816   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1817   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1818 
  1819 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1820 association lists with distinct keys.
  1821 
  1822 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1823 annotated commands.
  1824 
  1825 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1826 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1827 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1828 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1831 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1832 instead.
  1833 
  1834   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1835   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1836   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1837   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1838   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1839   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1840   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1841   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1842   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1843   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1844   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1845   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1846   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1847   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1848   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1849   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1850   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1851   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1852   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1853   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1854   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1855   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1856   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1857   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1858   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1859   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1860   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1861   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1862   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1863   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1864   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1865   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1866   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1867   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1868   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1869   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1870   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1871   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1872   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1873   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1874   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1875 
  1876 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1877 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1878 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1879 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1880 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1881 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1882 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1883 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1884 
  1885 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1886 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1887 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1888 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1889 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1890 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1891 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1892 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1893 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1894 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1895 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1896 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1897 
  1898   Renamed constants:
  1899   measure -> emeasure
  1900   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1901   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1902   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1903   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1904 
  1905   Removed locales:
  1906   completeable_measure_space
  1907   finite_measure_space
  1908   finite_prob_space
  1909   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1910   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1911   finite_sigma_algebra
  1912   measure_space
  1913   pair_finite_prob_space
  1914   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1915   pair_finite_space
  1916   pair_sigma_algebra
  1917   product_sigma_algebra
  1918 
  1919   Removed constants:
  1920   conditional_space
  1921   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1922   image_space
  1923   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1924   pair_measure_generator
  1925   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1926   subvimage
  1927 
  1928   Replacement theorems:
  1929   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1930   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1931   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1932   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1933   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1934   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1935   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1936   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1937   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1938   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1939   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1940   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1941   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1942   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1943   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1944   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1945   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1946   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1947   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1948   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1949   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1950   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1951   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1952   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1953   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1954   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1955   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1956   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1957   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1958   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1959   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1960   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1961   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1962   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1963   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1964   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1965   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1966   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1967   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1968   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1969   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1970   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1971   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1972   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1973   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1974   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1975   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1976   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1977   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1978   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1979   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1980   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1981   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1982   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1983   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1984   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1985   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1986   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1987   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1988   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1989   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1990   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1991   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1992   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1993   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1994   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1995   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1996   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1997   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1998   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1999   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2000   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2001   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2002   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2003   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2004   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2005   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2006   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2007   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2008   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2009   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2010   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2011   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2012   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2013   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2014   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2015   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2016   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2017   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2018   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2019   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2020   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2021   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2022   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2023   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2024   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2025   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2026   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2027   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2028   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2029   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2030   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2031   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2032   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2033   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2034   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2035   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2036   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2037   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2038   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2039   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2040   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2041   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2042   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2043   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2044   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2045   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2046   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2047   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2048   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2049   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2050   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2051   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2052   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2053   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2054   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2055   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2056   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2057 
  2058 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2059 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2060 
  2061 
  2062 *** FOL ***
  2063 
  2064 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2065 
  2066 
  2067 *** ZF ***
  2068 
  2069 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2070 analysis.
  2071 
  2072 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2073 
  2074 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076 
  2077 *** ML ***
  2078 
  2079 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2080 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2081 
  2082 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2083 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2084 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2085 
  2086 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2087 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2088 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2089 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2090 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2091 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2092 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2093 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2094 
  2095 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2096 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2097 
  2098 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2099 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2100 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2101 
  2102 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2103 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2104 
  2105 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2106 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2107 context as well.
  2108 
  2109 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2110 
  2111   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2112   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2113   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2114   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2115   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2116   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2117   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2118   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2119   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2120   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2121   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2122   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2123 
  2124 
  2125 *** System ***
  2126 
  2127 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2128 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2129 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2130 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2131 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2132 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2133 the generic user home was intended.
  2134 
  2135 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2136 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2137 
  2138 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2139 (not just JRE).
  2140 
  2141 
  2142 
  2143 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2144 ------------------------------------
  2145 
  2146 *** General ***
  2147 
  2148 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2149 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2150 
  2151   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2152     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2153     files for checking).
  2154 
  2155   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2156     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2157     positions.
  2158 
  2159   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2160     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2161     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2162 
  2163   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2164     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2165     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2166 
  2167   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2168     cores.
  2169 
  2170   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2171     versions (garbage collection).
  2172 
  2173 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2174 including some remaining limitations.
  2175 
  2176 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2177 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2178 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2179 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2180 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2184 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2185 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2186 
  2187 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2188 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2189 usedir option -Q.
  2190 
  2191 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2192 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2193 
  2194   long_names   ~> names_long
  2195   short_names  ~> names_short
  2196   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2197 
  2198 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2199 
  2200   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2201 
  2202 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2203 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2204 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2205 
  2206 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2207 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2208 
  2209 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2210   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2211   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2212   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2213     "Classical Reasoner".
  2214 
  2215 
  2216 *** HOL ***
  2217 
  2218 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2219 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2222 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2223 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2224 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2225 class complete_linorder.
  2226 
  2227 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2228 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2229 
  2230 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2231 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2232 
  2233   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2234   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2235   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2236   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2237   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2238   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2239   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2240   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2241   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2242   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2243   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2244 
  2245 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2246 
  2247   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2248   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2249   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2250   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2251   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2252   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2253   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2254   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2255   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2256   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2257   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2258   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2259   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2260   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2261   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2262   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2263 
  2264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2270 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2271 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2272 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2275 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2276 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2280 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2281 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2282 
  2283 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2284 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2285 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2288 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2289 
  2290 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2291 
  2292     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2293     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2294 
  2295 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2296 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2299 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2300 
  2301 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2302 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2303 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2304 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2307   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2308   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2309   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2310   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2311   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2312   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2313 
  2314 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2315 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316 
  2317   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2318   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2319   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2320   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2321   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2322   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2323   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2324   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2325   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2326   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2327   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2328   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2329   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2330   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2331   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2332   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2333   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2334   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2335   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2336   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2337   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2338   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2339   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2340   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2341   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2342   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2343   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2344   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2345   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2346   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2347   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2348   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2349   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2350   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2351   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2352   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2353   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2354   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2355   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2356   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2357   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2358   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2359   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2360   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2361   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2362   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2363   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2364   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2365   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2366   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2367   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2368   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2369   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2370   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2371   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2372   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2373   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2374   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2375   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2376   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2377   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2378   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2379   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2380   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2381   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2382   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2383   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2384   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2385   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2386   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2387   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2388   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2389   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2390   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2391   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2392   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2393   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2394   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2395   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2396   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2397   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2398   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2399 
  2400 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2401 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2402 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2403 
  2404 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2405 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2406 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2407 
  2408 * Code generation:
  2409 
  2410   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2411     characters in the target language.
  2412 
  2413   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2414     instead.
  2415 
  2416   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2417 
  2418   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2419     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2420 
  2421       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2422 
  2423 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2426 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2427 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2428 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2429 syntax.
  2430 
  2431 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2432 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2433 
  2434 * Nitpick:
  2435   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2436   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2437   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2438     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Sledgehammer:
  2441   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2442   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2443     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2444   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2445     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2446   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2447     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2449     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2450   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2451     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2452 
  2453 * Metis:
  2454   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2456     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Command 'try':
  2459   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2460     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2462     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2463 
  2464 * Quickcheck:
  2465   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2466     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2467   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2468     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2469   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2470     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2471     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2472     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2473   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2474     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2475 
  2476 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2477 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2478 
  2479 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2480 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2481 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2482 
  2483 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2484 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2488 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2489 
  2490 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2491 arithmetic.
  2492 
  2493 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2494 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2495 and lattice type classes.
  2496 
  2497 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2498 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2499 
  2500 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2501 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2502 
  2503 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2504 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2505 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2508   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2509   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2510   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2511 
  2512 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2513 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2514 constants:
  2515 
  2516   type inat   ~> type enat
  2517   Fin         ~> enat
  2518   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2519   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2520   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2521 
  2522 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2523 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2526 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2527 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2528 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2529 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2530 
  2531 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2532 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2533 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2534 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2535 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2536 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2537 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2538 
  2539   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2540   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2541   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2542   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2543 
  2544 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2545 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2546 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547 
  2548   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2549   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2550   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2551   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2552   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2553   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2554   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2555   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2556   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2557   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2558   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2559   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2560   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2561   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2562   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2563   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2564   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2565   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2566   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2567   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2568   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2569   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2570   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2571   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2572   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2573   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2574   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2575   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2576   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2577   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2578   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2579   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2580   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2581   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2582   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2583   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2584   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2585   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2586   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2587   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2588   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2589   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2590   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2591   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2592   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2593   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2594   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2595   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2596   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2597   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2598   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2599 
  2600 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2601   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2602   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2603   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2604   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2605     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2610   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2611   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2612   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2613   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2614   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2615   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2616   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2617   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2618   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2619   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2620   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2621   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2622   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2623   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2624   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2625   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2626   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2627   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2628   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2629   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2630   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2631   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2632   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2633   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2634 
  2635 
  2636 *** Document preparation ***
  2637 
  2638 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2639 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2640 same.
  2641 
  2642 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2643 result.
  2644 
  2645 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2646 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2647 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2648 
  2649 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2650 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2651 
  2652 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2653 like this:
  2654 
  2655   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2656   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2657 
  2658 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2659 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2660 layouts.
  2661 
  2662 
  2663 *** ML ***
  2664 
  2665 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2666 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2667 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2668 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2669 under external program control.
  2670 
  2671 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2672 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2673 
  2674 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2675 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2676 (better known as Proof General).
  2677 
  2678 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2679 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2680 
  2681 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2682 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2683 
  2684 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2685 (including quotes etc.).
  2686 
  2687 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2688 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2689 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2690 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2691 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2692 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2693 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2694 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2695 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2696 
  2697 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2698 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2699 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2700 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2701 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2702 
  2703 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2704 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2705 
  2706 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2707 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2708 
  2709 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2710 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2711 
  2712 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2713 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2714 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2715 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2716 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2717 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2718 proper Proof.context.
  2719 
  2720 
  2721 *** System ***
  2722 
  2723 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2724 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2725 
  2726 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2727 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2728 
  2729 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2730 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2731 
  2732   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2733   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2734   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2735   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2736   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2737 
  2738 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2739 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2742 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2743 example:
  2744 
  2745   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2746 
  2747 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2748 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2749 
  2750 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2751 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2752 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2753 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2754 
  2755 
  2756 
  2757 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2758 ----------------------------------
  2759 
  2760 *** General ***
  2761 
  2762 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2763 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2764 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2765 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2766 like this:
  2767 
  2768   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2769 
  2770 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2771 
  2772 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2773 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2774 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2775 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2776 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2777 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2778 
  2779 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2780 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2781 the following package declarations:
  2782 
  2783   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2784   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2785 
  2786 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2787 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2788 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2789 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2790 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2791 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2792 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2793 
  2794 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2795 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2796 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2797 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2798 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2799 
  2800 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2801 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2802 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2803 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2804 
  2805 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2806 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2807 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2808 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2809 
  2810   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2811 
  2812   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2813   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2814   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2815   show_types                    show_types
  2816   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2817   show_consts                   show_consts
  2818   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2819 
  2820   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2821   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2822   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2823 
  2824   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2825   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2826 
  2827   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2828 
  2829   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2830   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2831   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2832   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2833   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2834 
  2835 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2836 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2837 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2838 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2839 
  2840 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2844   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2845 
  2846 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2847 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2848 float_token.
  2849 
  2850 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2851 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2853 
  2854 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2855 DejaVu Sans.
  2856 
  2857 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2858 
  2859 
  2860 *** Pure ***
  2861 
  2862 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2863 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2864 time.
  2865 
  2866 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2867 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868 
  2869 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2870 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2871 
  2872 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2873 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2874 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2875 command already provided this functionality.
  2876 
  2877 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2878 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2879 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2880 without interpretations.
  2881 
  2882 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2883 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2884 
  2885 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2886 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2887 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2888 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2889 
  2890 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2891 'definition' instead.
  2892 
  2893 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2894 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2895 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2896 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2897 
  2898 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2899 constructors.
  2900 
  2901 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2902 the local file system.
  2903 
  2904 
  2905 *** HOL ***
  2906 
  2907 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2908 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2909 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2910 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2911 
  2912   declare [[coercion f]]
  2913 
  2914 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2915 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2916 
  2917   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2918 
  2919 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2920 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2921 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2922 other theories like this:
  2923 
  2924   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2925 
  2926 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2927 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2928 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2929 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2930 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2931 for examples.
  2932 
  2933 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2934 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2935 
  2936 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2937 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2938 
  2939 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2940 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2941 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2942 
  2943 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2944 functorial structure of types.
  2945 
  2946 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2947 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2948 
  2949 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2950 languages.
  2951 
  2952 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2953 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2957 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2958 
  2959 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2960 combinators any longer.
  2961 
  2962 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2963 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2964 
  2965 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2966 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2967 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2968 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2969 
  2970   record 'a foo = ...
  2971   ...
  2972   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2973 
  2974 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2975 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2979 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2980 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2981 
  2982 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2983 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2984 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2985 
  2986 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2987 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2988 
  2989 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2990 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2991 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2992 independently.
  2993 
  2994 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2995 counter example search.
  2996 
  2997 * Sledgehammer:
  2998   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2999     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3000     sledgehammer").
  3001   - Renamed commands:
  3002     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3003     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3004     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3005     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006   - Renamed options:
  3007     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3008     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3009     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3010     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3011     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Nitpick:
  3014   - Renamed options:
  3015     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3016     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3017     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3019   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3020   - Added "whack" option.
  3021   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3022   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3023   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3024   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3025     higher cardinalities.
  3026   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3027 
  3028 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3029 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3030 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3031 
  3032     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3033 
  3034 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3035 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3036 
  3037 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3038 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3039 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3040 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3041 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3042 "smt_solver".
  3043 
  3044 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3045 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3046 
  3047 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3048 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3049 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3050 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3053   - Renamed:
  3054     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3055     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3056     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057   - Added:
  3058     smt_verbose
  3059     smt_random_seed
  3060     smt_datatypes
  3061     smt_infer_triggers
  3062     smt_monomorph_limit
  3063     cvc3_options
  3064     remote_cvc3_options
  3065     remote_z3_options
  3066     yices_options
  3067 
  3068 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3069 header.
  3070 
  3071 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3072 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3074 
  3075   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3076 
  3077 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3080 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3085 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3088 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3089 
  3090 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3091 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3094 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3095 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3103 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3106 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3107 for congruent(2)).
  3108 
  3109 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3110 
  3111   types
  3112     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3113     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3114 
  3115   constants
  3116     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3117     True ~> HOL.True
  3118     False ~> HOL.False
  3119     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3120     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3121     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3122     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3123     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3124     The ~> HOL.The
  3125     All ~> HOL.All
  3126     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3127     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3128     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3129     If ~> HOL.If
  3130     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3131     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3132     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3133     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3134     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3135     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3136     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3137     op : ~> Set.member
  3138     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3139 
  3140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3143 
  3144     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3145     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3146     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3147     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3148     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3149     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3150     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3151     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3152 
  3153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * More stylized fact names:
  3156 
  3157   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3158   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3159   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3160   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3161 
  3162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3165 
  3166   constants
  3167     null ~> List.null
  3168 
  3169   facts
  3170     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3171     null_empty ~> null_def
  3172 
  3173 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3174 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3175 generation.
  3176 
  3177 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3178 Haskell code.
  3179 
  3180 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3181 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3182 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3185 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3188 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3189 
  3190 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3191 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3192 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3195 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3202 referred to by its qualified name.
  3203 
  3204   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3205   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3206   product ~>  Enum.product
  3207 
  3208 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3209 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3213 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3214 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3216 
  3217 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3218 sort_key.
  3219 
  3220 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3222 
  3223 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3224 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3225 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3226 
  3227   types
  3228     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3229               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3230               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3231         (depends on your needs)
  3232 
  3233   constants
  3234      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3235      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3236      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3237 
  3238 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3239 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3240 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3241 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3244 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3245 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3246 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3247 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3253 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3254 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3255 
  3256 
  3257 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3258 
  3259 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3260 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3261 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3262 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3263 compatibility.
  3264 
  3265 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3266 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3267 
  3268 
  3269 *** HOLCF ***
  3270 
  3271 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3272 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3273 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3277 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3278 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3281   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3282   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3283 
  3284 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3285 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3286 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3289 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3290 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3291 domain definition now works:
  3292 
  3293   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3294 
  3295 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3296 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3297 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3298 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3299 
  3300   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3301     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3302 
  3303   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3304 
  3305 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3306 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3307 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3310 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3313 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3314 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3315 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3316 
  3317 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3318 
  3319 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3327 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3328 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3329 
  3330 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3331 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3332 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3335 still supported as an input translation.
  3336 
  3337 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3338 
  3339   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3340   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3341   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3342   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3343   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3344   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3345   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3346 
  3347 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3348 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3349 
  3350   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3351   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3352   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3353   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3354   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3355   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3356 
  3357 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3358 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359 
  3360 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3361 
  3362   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3363   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3364   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3365   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3366 
  3367 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3368 
  3369 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3370 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3373 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3376   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3377   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3378   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3379   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3380   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3381   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3382   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3383   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3384   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3385   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3386   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3387   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3388   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3389   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3390   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3391   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3392   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3393   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3394   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3395 
  3396 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3397 
  3398   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3399   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3400   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3401   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3402   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3403   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3404   box_less             ~> box_below
  3405   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3406   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3407   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3408   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3409   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3410   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3411   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3412   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3413   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3414   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3415   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3416   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3417   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3418   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3419   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3420   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3421   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3422   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3423   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3424   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3425   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3426   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3427   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3428   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3429   up_less              ~> up_below
  3430   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3431   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3432   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3433   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3434   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3435   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3436   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3437   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3438   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3439   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3440   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3441   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3442   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3443 
  3444 
  3445 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3446 
  3447 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3448 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 
  3451 *** ML ***
  3452 
  3453 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3454 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3455 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3456 
  3457 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3458 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3459 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3460 
  3461 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3462 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3463 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3464 
  3465 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3466 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3467 
  3468 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3469 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3470 
  3471 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3472 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3473 
  3474 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3475 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3476 
  3477 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3478 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3479 almost all situations.
  3480 
  3481 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3482 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3483 Isabelle/ML.
  3484 
  3485 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3486 meaning.
  3487 
  3488 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3489 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3490 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3491 
  3492 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3493 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3494 
  3495 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3496 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3497 
  3498 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3499 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3500 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3501 
  3502 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3503 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3504 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3505 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3506 configuration options.
  3507 
  3508 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3509 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3510 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3511 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3512 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3513 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3514 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3515 
  3516 
  3517 
  3518 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3519 ---------------------------------
  3520 
  3521 *** General ***
  3522 
  3523 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3524 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3525 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3526 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3527 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3528 their full internal name.
  3529 
  3530 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3531 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3532 Some hints on upgrading:
  3533 
  3534   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3535     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3536     which are independent of this issue.
  3537 
  3538   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3539     provides the following special forms:
  3540 
  3541       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3542       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3543       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3544 
  3545     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3546     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3547     extra variables".
  3548 
  3549     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3550     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3551     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3552     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3553     "logic".
  3554 
  3555   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3556     antiquotations:
  3557 
  3558       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3559       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3560       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3561       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3562 
  3563   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3564     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3565     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3566     antiquotations.
  3567 
  3568 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3569 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3570 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3571 diagnose syntax problems.
  3572 
  3573 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3574 
  3575 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3576 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3577 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3578 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3579 
  3580 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3581 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3582 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3583 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3586 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3587 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3588 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3589 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3592 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3593 
  3594 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3595 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3596 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3597 
  3598   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3599 
  3600 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3601 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3602 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3603 
  3604 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3605 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3609 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3610 
  3611 
  3612 *** Pure ***
  3613 
  3614 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3615 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3616 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3617 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3618 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3619 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3620 inspect proof terms.
  3621 
  3622 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3623 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3624 are added internally.  For example:
  3625 
  3626   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3627 
  3628 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3629 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3634 'class' instead.
  3635 
  3636 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3637 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3641 invariants.
  3642 
  3643 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3644 user space functionality any longer.
  3645 
  3646 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3647 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3651 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3652 
  3653 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3654 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3655 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3656 
  3657 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3658 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3659 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3660 
  3661 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3662 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 
  3665 *** HOL ***
  3666 
  3667 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3668 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3669 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3670 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3671 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3672 
  3673 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3674 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3675 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3676 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3677 
  3678   fun
  3679     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3680   where
  3681     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3682 
  3683   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3684     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3685 
  3686   quotient_definition
  3687     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3688 
  3689 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3690 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3691 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3692 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3693 
  3694 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3695 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3696 
  3697 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3698 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3699 
  3700 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3702 
  3703 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3704 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3705 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3706 
  3707 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3708 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709 
  3710 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3717 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3718 
  3719 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3720 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3721 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3724   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3725   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3726   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3727   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3728   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3729   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3730   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3731   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3732   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3733   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3734   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3735   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3736   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3737   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3738   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3739   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3740   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3741   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3742   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3743   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3744   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3745   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3746   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3747   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3748   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3749   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3750   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3751   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3752   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3753 
  3754 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3755 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3756 
  3757 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3758 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3759 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3760 
  3761 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3762 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3763 
  3764 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3765 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3768 
  3769 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3770 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3773 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3778 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3779 
  3780 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3781 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3782 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3783 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3786   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3787   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3788   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3792 lattices):
  3793 
  3794     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3795     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3796 
  3797     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3798 
  3799     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3800     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3801     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3802     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3803     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3804     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3805     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3806     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3807     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3808     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3809     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3810     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3811     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3812 
  3813     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3814     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3815     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3816     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3817     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3818     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3819     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3820     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3821     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3822     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3823     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3824     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3825     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3826     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3827     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3828     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3829     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3830     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3831 
  3832   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3833   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3834 
  3835     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3836     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3837     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3838     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3839     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3840 
  3841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3842 
  3843 * Refined field classes:
  3844   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3845     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3846     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3847   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3849 
  3850 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3851   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3852   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3853   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3854     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3855   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3856     equal_neg_zero.
  3857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3860 sets to lattices:
  3861 
  3862   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3863   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3864   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3865   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3866   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3867   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3868   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3869   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3870   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3871   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3872 
  3873 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3874 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3875 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3876 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3877 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3878 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879 
  3880 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3881 multiset order:
  3882 
  3883   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3884     <= and <;
  3885   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3886     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3887     multiset_order;
  3888   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3889     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3890     generation;
  3891   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3892     if needed.
  3893 
  3894 Renamed:
  3895 
  3896   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3897   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3898   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3899 
  3900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3903 
  3904 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3905 
  3906 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3907 
  3908 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3909 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3910 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912   Constants:
  3913   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3914   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3915   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3916   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3917   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3918   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3919   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3920   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3921   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3922   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3923   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3924   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3925   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3926 
  3927   Lemmas:
  3928   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3929   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3930   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3931   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3932   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3933   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3934   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3935   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3936   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3937   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3938   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3939   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3940   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3941 
  3942 * Sledgehammer:
  3943   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3944     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3945     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3946     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3947     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3948     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3949     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3951   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3952     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3953   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3954     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3955     is still experimental.)
  3956   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3957     full-typed mode.
  3958   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3959 
  3960 * Nitpick:
  3961   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3962   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3963   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3964     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3965   - Added support for quotient types.
  3966   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3967     constructs.
  3968   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3969     "termination" proofs).
  3970   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3971   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3972   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3973   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3974     record getters.
  3975   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3976   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3977   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3978   - Added "atoms" option.
  3979   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3980     problems.
  3981   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3982     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3983     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3985     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3989   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3990   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3991   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3992   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3993   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3994   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3995   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3996   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3997   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998 
  3999 
  4000 *** HOLCF ***
  4001 
  4002 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4003 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4004 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005 
  4006 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4007 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4008 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4009 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4012 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4013 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4014 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4015 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4018 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4019 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4022 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4025   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4026 
  4027 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4028 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4031   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4032   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4033   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4034   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4035 
  4036 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4037 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4040   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4041   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4042 
  4043 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4044 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4046 
  4047 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4048 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4053 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055 
  4056 *** ML ***
  4057 
  4058 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4059 
  4060     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4061     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4062 
  4063     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4064     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4065     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4066     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4067 
  4068     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4069     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4070     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4071 
  4072 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4073 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4074 
  4075 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4076 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4077 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4078 
  4079 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4080 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4081 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4082 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4083 
  4084 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4085 the context or even global references.
  4086 
  4087 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4088 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4089 
  4090 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4091 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4092 
  4093   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4094   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4095   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4096   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4097   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4098   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4099   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4100   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4101   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4102   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4103 
  4104 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4105 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4106 
  4107 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4108 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4109 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4110 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4111 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4112 
  4113 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4114 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4115 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4116 Theory_Data version.
  4117 
  4118 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4119 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4120 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4121 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4122 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4123 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4124 explicitly in rare situations.
  4125 
  4126 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4127 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4129 
  4130 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4131 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4132 
  4133 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4134 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4135 quite rare).
  4136 
  4137 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4138 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4141 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4142 terms.
  4143 
  4144 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4145 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4146 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4147 
  4148 
  4149 *** System ***
  4150 
  4151 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4152 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4153 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4154 
  4155 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4156 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4157 respectively.
  4158 
  4159 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4160 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4161 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4162 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4163 
  4164   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4165 
  4166 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4167 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4168 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4169 component.
  4170 
  4171 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4172 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4173 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4174 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4175 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4176 the user for manual installation.
  4177 
  4178 
  4179 
  4180 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4181 -------------------------------------
  4182 
  4183 *** General ***
  4184 
  4185 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4186 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4187 
  4188 
  4189 *** Pure ***
  4190 
  4191 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4192 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4193 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4194 
  4195 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4196 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4197 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4198 
  4199 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4200 interpretation.
  4201 
  4202 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4203 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 
  4206 *** Document preparation ***
  4207 
  4208 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4209 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4210 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4211 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4212 
  4213 
  4214 *** HOL ***
  4215 
  4216 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4217 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4218 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4219 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4220 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4221 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4222 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4223 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4224 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4225 
  4226 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4227 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4228 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4229 
  4230 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4231 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4232 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4233 
  4234 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4235 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4236 
  4237 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4238 
  4239 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4240 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4241 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4242 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4243 
  4244 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4245 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4246 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4247 "mirabelle" utility.
  4248 
  4249 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4250 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4251 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4252 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4253 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4254 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4255 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4256 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4257 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4258 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4259 
  4260 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4261 procedure only.
  4262 
  4263 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4264 
  4265 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4266 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4267 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4268 that fail later.
  4269 
  4270 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4271 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4272 
  4273 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4274 the same method as the approximation method.
  4275 
  4276 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4277 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4278 series expansion.
  4279 
  4280 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4281 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4282 
  4283 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4284 reals.
  4285 
  4286 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4287 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4288 
  4289 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4290 fixpoint theorem.
  4291 
  4292 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4293   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4294     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4295   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4296     accordingly
  4297   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4298     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4299   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4300     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4301 
  4302 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4303 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4304 lattice.
  4305 
  4306 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4307 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4308 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4309 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4310 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4311 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4313 
  4314 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4315   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4316     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4317   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4318     le_inf_iff
  4319   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4320     sup_aci)
  4321   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4322   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4323   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4324     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4325     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4326     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4327     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4328     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4329     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4330     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4331     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4332     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4333     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4334   - authentic syntax for
  4335     Set.Pow
  4336     Set.image
  4337   - mere abbreviations:
  4338     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4339     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4340     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4341     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4342     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4343     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4344     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4345     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4346   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4347 
  4348 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4349 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4350 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4351 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4352 
  4353 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4354 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4355 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4358 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4359 
  4360 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4361 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4362 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4363 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4366 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4367 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4368 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4369 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4370 
  4371 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4372 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4376 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4379 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4380 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4381 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4382 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4383 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4384 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4386 
  4387 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4388     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4389     code_post       replaces    code post
  4390     etc.
  4391   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * Renamed methods:
  4394     sizechange -> size_change
  4395     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4396   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4397 
  4398 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4399 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4400 
  4401 * Renamed theorems:
  4402     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4403     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4404     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4405     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4406     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4407   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4408 
  4409 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411 
  4412 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 
  4416 *** HOLCF ***
  4417 
  4418 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4419 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4420 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4421 
  4422 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4423 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4424 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4425 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4426 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4427 
  4428 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4429 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4430 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4431 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4432 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4433 
  4434 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4435 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4436 constructor are pre-configured.
  4437 
  4438 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4439 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4440 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4441 
  4442 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4443 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4444 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4445 as well.)
  4446 
  4447 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4448 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4449 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4450 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4451 examples.
  4452 
  4453 
  4454 *** ML ***
  4455 
  4456 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4457 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4458 
  4459 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4460 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4461 position, logical grouping etc.
  4462 
  4463 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4464 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4465 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4466 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4467 
  4468 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4469 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4470 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4471 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4472 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4473 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4474 
  4475 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4476 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4477 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4478 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4479 experiments with references.
  4480 
  4481 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4482 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4483 
  4484 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4485 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4486 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4487 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4488 
  4489 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4490 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4491 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4492 
  4493 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4494 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4495 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4498 
  4499 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4501 
  4502 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4503 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4504 
  4505 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4506 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4507 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4508 
  4509 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4510 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4511 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4512 
  4513 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4514 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4515 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4519 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4520 instead of global theory.
  4521 
  4522 
  4523 *** System ***
  4524 
  4525 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4526 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4527 usedir option -q.
  4528 
  4529 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4530 also the system manual.
  4531 
  4532 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4533 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4534 
  4535 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4536 this is always enabled.
  4537 
  4538 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4539 
  4540 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4541 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4542 currently supported on Linux only.
  4543 
  4544 
  4545 
  4546 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4547 --------------------------------
  4548 
  4549 *** General ***
  4550 
  4551 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4552 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4553 
  4554   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4555     "isatool."
  4556 
  4557   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4558     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4559 
  4560   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4561     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4562 
  4563 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4564 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4565 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4566 
  4567 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4568 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4569 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4570 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4571 via "isabelle emacs".
  4572 
  4573 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4574 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4575 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4576 
  4577 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4578 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4579 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4580 
  4581 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4582 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4583 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4584 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4585 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4586 
  4587 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4588 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4589 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4590 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4591 
  4592 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4593 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4594 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4595 
  4596 
  4597 *** Pure ***
  4598 
  4599 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4600 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4601 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4602 
  4603 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4604 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4605 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4606 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4607 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4608 
  4609 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4610 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4611 useful in locale declarations.
  4612 
  4613 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4614 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4615 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4616 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4617 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4618 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4619 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4620 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4621 no longer generated.
  4622 
  4623 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4624 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4625 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4626 
  4627 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4628 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4629 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4630 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4631 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4632 
  4633 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4634 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4635 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4636 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4637 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4638 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4639 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4640 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4641 
  4642 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4643 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4644 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4645 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4646 
  4647 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4650 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4651 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4652 
  4653 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4654 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4657 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4658 in HOL, write
  4659 
  4660     class foo = ...
  4661 
  4662 instead of
  4663 
  4664     class foo = type + ...
  4665 
  4666 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4667 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4668 
  4669 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4670 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4671 
  4672 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4673 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4674 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4675 
  4676 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4677 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4678 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4679 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4680 directly in regular applications.
  4681 
  4682 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4683 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4684 
  4685 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4686 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4687 
  4688 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4689 theory context.
  4690 
  4691 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4692 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4695 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4696 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4697 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4698 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4699 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4700 
  4701   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4702 
  4703 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4704 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4705 normalization.
  4706 
  4707 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4708 addressing etc.
  4709 
  4710 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4711 
  4712   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4713   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4714 
  4715 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4716 
  4717   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4718      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4719      parts of the code generator framework).
  4720 
  4721   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4722      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4723      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4724 
  4725 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4728 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4731 patterns, e.g.
  4732 
  4733     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4734 
  4735 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4736 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4737 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4738 hyphen:
  4739 
  4740     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4741 
  4742 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4743 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4744 
  4745 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4746 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4747 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4748 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4749 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4750 higher-order unification.
  4751 
  4752 
  4753 *** Document preparation ***
  4754 
  4755 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4756 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4757 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4758 
  4759 
  4760 *** HOL ***
  4761 
  4762 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4763 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4764 
  4765 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4766 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4767 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4768 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4769 Main, as before.
  4770 
  4771 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4772 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4773 
  4774 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4775 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4776 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4777 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4778 
  4779 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4780 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4781 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4782 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4783 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4784 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4785 
  4786 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4787 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4788 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4789 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4790 
  4791 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4792 menu.
  4793 
  4794 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4795 (contains the empty clause).
  4796 
  4797 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4798 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4799 
  4800 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4801 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4802 
  4803 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4804 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4805 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4806 
  4807 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4808 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4809 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4810 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4811 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4812 
  4813 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4814 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4815 
  4816 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4817 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4818 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4819 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4820 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4821 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4822 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4823 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4824 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4825 
  4826 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4827 
  4828 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4829 
  4830 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4831 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4832 
  4833 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4834 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4835 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4836 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4837 
  4838 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4839 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4840 
  4841     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4842     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4843     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4844     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4845     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4846     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4847     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4848     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4849 
  4850 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4851 theory Set.
  4852 
  4853 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4854 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4855 
  4856 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4857 
  4858 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4859 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4860 
  4861 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4862 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4863 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4864 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4865 allowed. For examples see
  4866 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4867 
  4868 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4869 
  4870 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4872 
  4873 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4874 structure:
  4875 
  4876     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4877     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4878     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4879     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4880     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4881     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4882     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4883     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4884     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4885     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4886     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4887     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4888     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4889     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4890     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4891     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4892     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4893     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4894     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4895     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4896     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4897     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4898     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4899     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4900     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4901     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4902     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4903     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4904     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4905     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4906     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4907     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4908     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4909 
  4910     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4911     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4912     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4913     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4914     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4915     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4916     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4917     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4918     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4919     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4920 
  4921     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4922     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4923     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4924     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4925     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4926     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4927 
  4928 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4929 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4930 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4931 
  4932 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4933 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4934 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4935 
  4936 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4937 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4938 
  4939 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4940 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4941 
  4942 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4943 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4944 proofs, e.g.
  4945 
  4946   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4947 
  4948 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4949 
  4950 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4951 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4952 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4955 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4959 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4960 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4962 
  4963 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4964 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4965 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4966 preorder_class.*.
  4967 
  4968 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4969 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4970 
  4971 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4972 
  4973   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4974 
  4975 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4976 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4977 fold_image.
  4978 
  4979 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4980 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4981 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4982 the former will disappear at some point.
  4983 
  4984 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4985 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4986 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4987 
  4988 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4989 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4990 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4991 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4992 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4993 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4994 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4995 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4996 
  4997 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4998 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4999 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5000 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5001 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5002 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5003 
  5004     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5005     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5006     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5007     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5008     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5009     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5010     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5011 
  5012 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5013 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5014 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5015 
  5016 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5017 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5018 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5019 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5020 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5021 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5022 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5023 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5024 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5025 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5026 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5027 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5028 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5029 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5030 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5031 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5032 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5033 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5034 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5035 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5036 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5037 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5038 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5039 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5040 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5041 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5042 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5043 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5044 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5045 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5046 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5047 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5048 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5049 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5050 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5051 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5052 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5053 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5054 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5055 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5056 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5057 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5058 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5059 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5060 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5061 
  5062 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5063 
  5064 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5065 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5066 
  5067 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5068 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5069 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5070 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5071 
  5072 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5073 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5074 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5075 theory RealVector.
  5076 
  5077 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5078 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5079 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5080 and inner products are included.
  5081 
  5082 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5083 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5084 supported.
  5085 
  5086 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5087 first diagonalization argument.
  5088 
  5089 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5090 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5091 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5092 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5093 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5094 
  5095     hide (open) const gcd
  5096     abbreviation gcd where
  5097       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5098     notation (output)
  5099       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5100 
  5101 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5102 
  5103 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5104 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5105 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5106 
  5107 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5108 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5109 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5110 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5111 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5112 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5113 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5114 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5115 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5116 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5117 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5118 cases.
  5119 
  5120 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5121 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5122 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5123 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5124 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5125 
  5126     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5127     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5128     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5129     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5130     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5131 
  5132 
  5133 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5134 
  5135 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5136 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5137 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5138 
  5139 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5140 
  5141 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5142 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5143 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5144 
  5145 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5146 
  5147 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5148 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5149 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5150 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5151 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5152 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5153 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5154 
  5155 
  5156 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5157 
  5158 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5159 
  5160 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5161 theory targets.
  5162 
  5163 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5164 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5165 'inductive' etc.
  5166 
  5167 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5168 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5169 
  5170 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5171 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5172 
  5173 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5174 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5175 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5176 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5177 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5178 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5179 the algorithm W:
  5180 
  5181  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5182  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5183          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5184 
  5185 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5186 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5187 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5188 
  5189 
  5190 *** HOLCF ***
  5191 
  5192 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5193 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5194 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5195 
  5196 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5197 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5198 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5199 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5200 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5201 
  5202 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5203 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5204 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5205 
  5206 
  5207 *** ZF ***
  5208 
  5209 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5210 
  5211 
  5212 *** ML ***
  5213 
  5214 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5215 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5216 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5217 5.2.1!
  5218 
  5219 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5220 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5221 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5222 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5223 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5224 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5225 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5226 
  5227 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5228 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5229 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5230 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5231 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5232 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5233 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5234 
  5235 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5236 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5237 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5238 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5239 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5240 
  5241 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5242 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5243 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5244 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5245 Method.add_method.
  5246 
  5247 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5248 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5249 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5250 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5251 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5252 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5253 
  5254 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5255 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5256 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5257 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5258 examples.
  5259 
  5260 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5261 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5262 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5263 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5264 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5265 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5266 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5267 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5268 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5269 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5270 
  5271 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5272 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5273 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5274 
  5275 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5276 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5277 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5278 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5279 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5280 resort for legacy applications.
  5281 
  5282 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5283 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5284 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5285 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5286 explicit runtime argument.
  5287 
  5288 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5289 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5290 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5291 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5292 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5293 
  5294 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5295 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5296 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5297 theory state.
  5298 
  5299 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5300 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5301 
  5302   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5303   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5304   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5305   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5306   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5307   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5308   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5309   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5310   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5311   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5312 
  5313 
  5314 *** System ***
  5315 
  5316 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5317 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5318 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5319 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5320 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5321 
  5322 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5323 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5324 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5325 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5326 
  5327 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5328 
  5329 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5330 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5331 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5332 prover operations.
  5333 
  5334 
  5335 
  5336 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5337 -------------------------------
  5338 
  5339 *** General ***
  5340 
  5341 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5342 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5343 
  5344 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5345 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5346 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5347 provides a proper context already.
  5348 
  5349 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5350 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5351 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5352 
  5353 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5354 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5355 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5356 swap theory imports.
  5357 
  5358 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5359 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5360 
  5361 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5362 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5363 white space without escapes.
  5364 
  5365 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5366 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5367 "foo_bar".
  5368 
  5369 
  5370 *** Pure ***
  5371 
  5372 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5373 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5374 
  5375 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5376 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5377 
  5378 (1) unused_thms
  5379      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5380 
  5381 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5382      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5383      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5384 
  5385 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5386      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5387      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5388      their ancestors.
  5389 
  5390 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5391 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5392 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5393 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5394 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5395 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5396 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5397 
  5398 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5399 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5400 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5401 
  5402 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5403 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5404 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5405 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5406 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5407 
  5408 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5409 
  5410 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5411 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5412 update of theories within ML code.
  5413 
  5414 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5415 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5416 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5417 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5418 
  5419 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5420 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5421 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5423 
  5424 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5425 
  5426 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5427 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5428 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5429 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5430 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5431 
  5432 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5433 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5434 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5435 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5436 situations.
  5437 
  5438 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5439 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5440 proof text.
  5441 
  5442 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5443 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5444 
  5445 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5446 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5447 predicates.
  5448 
  5449 
  5450 *** Document preparation ***
  5451 
  5452 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5453 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5454 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5455 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5456 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5457 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5458 
  5459 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5460 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5461 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5462 
  5463 
  5464 *** HOL ***
  5465 
  5466 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5467 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5468 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5469 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5470 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5471 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5472 
  5473 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5474 with multithreading.
  5475 
  5476 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5477 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5478 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5479 
  5480 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5481 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5482 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5483 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5484 
  5485 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5486 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5487 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5488 and makes them available separately.  See
  5489 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5490 
  5491 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5492 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5493 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5494 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5495 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5496 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5497 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5498 the declared rules.
  5499 
  5500 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5501 
  5502   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5503 
  5504 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5505 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5506 
  5507 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5508 
  5509   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5510 
  5511   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5512     definitions on => and bool.
  5513 
  5514   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5515     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5516     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5517 
  5518       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5519       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5520       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5521       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5522       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5523       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5524       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5525       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5526 
  5527   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5528     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5529     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5530 
  5531   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5532     The proof pattern
  5533 
  5534       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5535       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5536 
  5537     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5538     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5539 
  5540       have "EX S. P S"
  5541       proof
  5542         show "P S" <...>
  5543       qed
  5544 
  5545   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5546     The proof pattern
  5547 
  5548       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5549       also have "S = T" <...>
  5550       finally have "P T" .
  5551 
  5552     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5553     must be replaced by something like
  5554 
  5555       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5556       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5557       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5558 
  5559   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5560     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5561 
  5562       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5563 
  5564     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5565     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5566     type of the form
  5567 
  5568       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5569 
  5570     rather than
  5571 
  5572       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5573 
  5574 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5575 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5576 
  5577 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5578 
  5579 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5580 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5582 
  5583 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5584 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5587 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5590 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5591 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5592 
  5593 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5594 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5595 
  5596   less_trans
  5597   less_linear
  5598   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5599   le_less_trans
  5600   less_le_trans
  5601   less_not_sym
  5602   less_asym
  5603 
  5604 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5605 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5606 and different variable names.
  5607 
  5608 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5609 
  5610 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5611 finite maps.
  5612 
  5613 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5614 
  5615 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5616 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5617 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5618 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5619 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5620 accordingly.
  5621 
  5622 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5623 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5624 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5625 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5626 
  5627 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5628 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5629 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5630 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5631 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5633 
  5634 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5635 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5636 
  5637 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5638 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5639 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5640 
  5641 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5645 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5646 
  5647 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5648 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5649 
  5650 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5651 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5652 
  5653 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5654 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5656 
  5657 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5658 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5659 
  5660 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5661 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5662 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5663 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5664 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5665 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5666 
  5667 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5668 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5669 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5670 
  5671 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5672 
  5673 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5674 
  5675 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5676 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5677 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5678 
  5679 
  5680 *** ZF ***
  5681 
  5682 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5683 same session:
  5684 
  5685   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5686   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5687   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5688   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5689   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5690   List      -> List_ZF
  5691   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5692 
  5693 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5694 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5695 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5696 
  5697 
  5698 *** ML ***
  5699 
  5700 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5701 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5702 
  5703 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5704 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5705 
  5706 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5707 
  5708 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5709 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5710 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5711 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5712 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5715 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5716 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5717 
  5718 
  5719 *** System ***
  5720 
  5721 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5722 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5723 
  5724 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5725 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5726 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5727 
  5728 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5729 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5730 
  5731 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5732 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5733 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5734 
  5735 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5736 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5737 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5738 
  5739 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5740 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5741 
  5742 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5743 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5744 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5745 script.
  5746 
  5747 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5748 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5749 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5750 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5751 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5752 
  5753 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5754 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5755 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5756 
  5757 
  5758 
  5759 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5760 -----------------------------------
  5761 
  5762 *** General ***
  5763 
  5764 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5765 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5766 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5767 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5768 
  5769 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5770 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5771 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5772 
  5773 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5774 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5775 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5776 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5779 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5780 quotes.
  5781 
  5782 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5783 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5784 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5785 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5786 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5787 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5788 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5789 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5790 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5791 
  5792 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5793 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5794 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5795 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5796 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5797 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5798 
  5799 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5800 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5801 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5802 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5803 
  5804 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5805 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5806 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5807 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5808 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5809 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5810 
  5811 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5812 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5813 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5814 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5815 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5816 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5817 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5818 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5819 
  5820 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5821 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5822 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5823 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5824 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5825 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5826 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5827 
  5828 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5829 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5830 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5831 
  5832 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5833 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5834 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5835 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5836 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5837 limit is imposed.
  5838 
  5839 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5840 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5841 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5842 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5843 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5844 and scalability.
  5845 
  5846 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5847 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5848 
  5849 
  5850 *** Document preparation ***
  5851 
  5852 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5853 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5854 current context.
  5855 
  5856 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5857 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5858 
  5859 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5860 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5861 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5862 
  5863 
  5864 *** Pure ***
  5865 
  5866 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5867 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5868 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5869 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5870 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5871 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5872 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5873 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5874 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5875 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5876 
  5877 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5878 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5879 sketch:
  5880 
  5881     internal compilation:
  5882         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5883     writing SML code to a file:
  5884         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5885     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5886         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5887     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5888         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5889 
  5890     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5891         method ``eval''
  5892 
  5893 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5894 
  5895 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5896 
  5897     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5898     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5899     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5900     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5901 
  5902 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5903 
  5904     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5905       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5906 
  5907     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5908       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5909 
  5910     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5911       {(target)}+
  5912         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5913 
  5914     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5915       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5916         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5917 
  5918 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5919 
  5920 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5921 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5922 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5923 codegen".
  5924 
  5925 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5926 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5927 annotations).
  5928 
  5929 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5930 syntax.
  5931 
  5932 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5933 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5934 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5935 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5936 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5937 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5938 
  5939 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5940 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5941 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5942 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5943 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5944 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5945 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5946 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5947 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5948 equations, see section "definitions".
  5949 
  5950 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5951 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5952 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5953 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5954 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5955 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5956 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5957 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5958 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5959 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5960 
  5961 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5962 configuration options:
  5963 
  5964   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5965   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5966   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5967   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5968   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5969   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5970   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5971   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5972   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5973 
  5974 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5975 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5976 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5977 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5978 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5979 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5980 order.
  5981 
  5982 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5983 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5984 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5985 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5986 context encountered later on.
  5987 
  5988 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5989 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5990 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5991 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5992 
  5993 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5994 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5995 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5996 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5997 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5998 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5999 
  6000 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6001 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6002 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6003 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6004 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6005 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6006 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6007 more permissive.
  6008 
  6009 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6010 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6011 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6012 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6013 maintainability of proof texts.
  6014 
  6015 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6016 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6017 
  6018   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6019   then guess x and y by clarify
  6020 
  6021 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6022 proof tools being involved here.
  6023 
  6024 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6025 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6026 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6027 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6028 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6029 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6030 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6031 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6032 
  6033 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6034 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6035 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6036 
  6037   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6038   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6039   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6040   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6041 
  6042 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6043 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6044 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6045 
  6046 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6047 both named and unnamed ones.
  6048 
  6049 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6050 
  6051   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6052 
  6053 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6054 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6055 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6056 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6057 
  6058 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6059 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6060 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6061 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6062 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6063 
  6064 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6065 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6066 
  6067 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6068 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6069 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6070 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6071 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6072 originally first one.
  6073 
  6074 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6075 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6076 expected.
  6077 
  6078 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6079 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6080 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6081 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6082 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6083 
  6084   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6085     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6086     obtains x where "P x"
  6087 
  6088   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6089     assumes "A & B"
  6090     obtains A and B
  6091 
  6092   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6093     assumes "A | B"
  6094     obtains
  6095       A
  6096     | B
  6097 
  6098 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6099 explicitly:
  6100 
  6101   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6102     obtains "~ thesis"
  6103 
  6104   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6105     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6106 
  6107 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6108 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6109 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6110 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6111 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6112 case_names).
  6113 
  6114 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6115 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6116 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6117 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6118 
  6119 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6120 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6121 top-level lemma.
  6122 
  6123 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6124 introduction rule (default "that").
  6125 
  6126 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6127 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6128 to occur.
  6129 
  6130 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6131 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6132 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6133 representations independently of name spaces.
  6134 
  6135 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6136 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6137 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6138 
  6139 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6140 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6141 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6142 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6143 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6144 current context.
  6145 
  6146 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6147 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6148 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6149 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6150 
  6151   axiomatization
  6152     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6153     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6154 
  6155   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6156   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6157 
  6158   abbreviation
  6159     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6160     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6161 
  6162 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6163 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6164 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6165 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6166 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6167 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6168 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6169 
  6170 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6171 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6172 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6173 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6174 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6175 
  6176 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6177 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6178 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6179 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6180 
  6181 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6182 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6183 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6184 
  6185   definition "K x _ = x"
  6186 
  6187   inductive conj for A B
  6188   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6189 
  6190 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6191 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6192 abbreviations on output.
  6193 
  6194 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6195 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6196 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6197 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6198 
  6199 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6200 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6201 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6202 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6203 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6204 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6205 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6206 
  6207 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6208 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6209 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6210 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6211 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6212 
  6213 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6214 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6215 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6216 
  6217 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6218 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6219 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6220 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6221 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6222 
  6223   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6224     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6225 
  6226 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6227 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6228 partial_order.
  6229 
  6230 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6231 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6232 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6233 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6234 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6235 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6236 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6237 examples.
  6238 
  6239 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6240 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6241 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6242 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6243 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6244 
  6245 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6246 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6247 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6248 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6249 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6250 
  6251   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6252   (induct set: foo bar)
  6253   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6254   (induct type: foo bar)
  6255