NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Oct 14 15:21:45 2013 +0200 (2013-10-14)
changeset 54332 a38160ad741c
parent 54319 219dd1028399
child 54351 5cbe32533cdb
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    14 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    17 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    18 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    19 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    20 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    21 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    22 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    23 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    24 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    25 syntax.
    26 
    27 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    28 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    31 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    32 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    34 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    35 
    36 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    40 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    41 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    44 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    45 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    46 
    47 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    48 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    52 
    53 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    54 Documentation panel.
    55 
    56 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    57 documentation.
    58 
    59 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    60 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    61 
    62 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    63 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    64 normal editing and checking process.
    65 
    66 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    67 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
    68 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
    69 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
    70 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
    71 
    72 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    73 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    74 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    75 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    76 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    77 
    78 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    79 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    80 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    81 
    82 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
    83 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
    84 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
    85 to resolve conflict.
    86 
    87 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
    88 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
    89 
    90 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
    91 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    92 such command executions while editing.
    93 
    94 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    95 document content.
    96 
    97 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    98 toplevel theorem statements.
    99 
   100 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   101 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
   102 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
   103 
   104 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   105 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
   106 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   107 
   108 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   109 / Global Options / Appearance".
   110 
   111 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   112 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   113 
   114 
   115 *** Pure ***
   116 
   117 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   118 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   119 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   120 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   121 details.
   122 
   123 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   124 
   125 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   126 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   127 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   128 
   129 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   133 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   134 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   135 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   138 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   139 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   140 
   141 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   142 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   143 
   144 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   145 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   146 situations.
   147 
   148 
   149 *** HOL ***
   150 
   151 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   152 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   154 
   155 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   156 
   157 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   158 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   159 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   160 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   161 
   162   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   163 
   164 * Code generator:
   165   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   166     'code_instance'.
   167   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   168     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   169 
   170 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   171 examples.
   172 
   173 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   174 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   175 to distinguish both when desired.
   176 
   177 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   178 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   179 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   180 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   181 
   182 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   183 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   184 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   185 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   186 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   187 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   190 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   191 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   192 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   193 
   194 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   195 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   196 
   197 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   198 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   199 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   200 
   201 * Lifting:
   202   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   203     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in 
   204       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   205       transfer rules
   206     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   207       correspondence relation can be generated
   208     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   209       parametricity
   210     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   211   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   212   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   213     copies
   214   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   215     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   216     anonymous context)
   217   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in 
   218     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   219   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   220     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   221   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps. 
   222     INCOMPATIBILITY
   223 
   224 * Transfer:
   225   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T 
   226     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   227   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   228   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   229     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   230   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   231 
   232 * Reification and reflection:
   233   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   234     "Reification".
   235   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   236   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238 
   239 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   240   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   241     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   242     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   243   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   244     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   245   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   246     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   247     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   248     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   249     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   250     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   251     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   252     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   253   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   254     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   255   - Fact renames:
   256       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   257       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   261 
   262 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   263 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   264 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266 
   267 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   268 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   269 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   270 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   271 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   272 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   273 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   274 lemmas.
   275 
   276 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   277 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   278 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   281 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   282 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   283 
   284 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   285 top and bottom elements.
   286 
   287 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   288 
   289 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   290 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   291 
   292  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   293    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   294    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   295 
   296  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   297    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   298    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   299 
   300    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   301    arbitrary filter.
   302 
   303  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   304    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   305    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   306    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   307    on a compact set.
   308 
   309  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   310    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   311    linear_continuum_topology).
   312 
   313  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   314    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   315    on all sequences converging to x.
   316 
   317  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   318    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   319    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   320    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   321    left or right.
   322 
   323  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   324 
   325      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   326 
   327  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   328    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   329 
   330  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   331    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   332    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   333    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   334    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   335    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   336 
   337  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   338 
   339    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   340 
   341    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   342      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   343 
   344    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   345 
   346    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   347      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   348 
   349    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   350 
   351    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   352 
   353  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   354 
   355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * Nitpick:
   358   - Added option "spy"
   359   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   360 
   361 * Sledgehammer:
   362   - Renamed option:
   363       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   364     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   366   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   367   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   368 
   369 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   370 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   371 
   372 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   373   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   374   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   375     generated code.
   376   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   377   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   378   - Fact renames:
   379     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   380     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   381     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   382 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   385 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   386 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   387 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   388 
   389 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   390 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   391 
   392 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   395 
   396     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   397     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   398 
   399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   400 
   401 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   402 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   403 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   404 
   405 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   406 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   407 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   408 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 
   410 * HOL-BNF:
   411   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   412     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   413     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   414     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   415   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   416     coinduct).
   417   - Renamed keywords:
   418     data ~> datatype_new
   419     codata ~> codatatype
   420     bnf_def ~> bnf
   421   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   422     discs ~> disc
   423     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   424     map_id' ~> map_id
   425     sels ~> sel
   426     set_map' ~> set_map
   427     sets ~> set
   428 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 
   431 *** ML ***
   432 
   433 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   434 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   435 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   436 Examples.thy in particular.
   437 
   438 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   439 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   440 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   441 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   442 
   443 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   444 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   445 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   446 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   450 
   451     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   452     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   453 
   454 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   457 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   458 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   459 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   460 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   461 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   462 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   463 
   464 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   465 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   466 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   467 clasets separately from the context.
   468 
   469 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   470 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   471 
   472 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   473 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   474 
   475 
   476 *** System ***
   477 
   478 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   479 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   482 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   485 settings variable.
   486 
   487 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   488 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   489 always pdf.
   490 
   491 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   492 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   493 
   494 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   495 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   496 
   497 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   498 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   499 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   500 
   501 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   502 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   503 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   504 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   505 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   506 for HTML presentation of theories.
   507 
   508 
   509 
   510 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   511 -----------------------------------
   512 
   513 *** General ***
   514 
   515 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   516 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   517 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   518 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   519 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   520 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   521 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   522 
   523 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   524 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   525 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   526 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   527 
   528 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   529 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   530 
   531 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   532 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   533 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   534 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   535 dependencies properly.
   536 
   537 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   538 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   539 
   540 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   541 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   542 
   543 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   544 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   545 and "class ... context ...".
   546 
   547 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   548 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   549 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   550 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   551 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   552 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   553 
   554 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   555 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   556 
   557 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   558 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   559 
   560 
   561 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   562 
   563 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   564 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   565 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   566 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   567 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   568 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   569 
   570 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   571 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   572 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   573 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   574 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   575 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   576 
   577 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   578 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   579 browser on demand.
   580 
   581 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   582 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   583 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   584 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   585 
   586 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   587 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   588 
   589 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   590 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   591 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   592 potentially infinite message streams.
   593 
   594 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   595 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   596 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   597 schemes.
   598 
   599 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   600 symbols.
   601 
   602 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   603 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   604 
   605 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   606 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   607 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   608 
   609 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   610 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   611 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   612 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   613 
   614 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   615 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   616 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   617 
   618 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   619 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   620 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   621 Isabelle distribution.
   622 
   623 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   624 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   625 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   626 
   627 
   628 *** Pure ***
   629 
   630 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   631 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   632 
   633 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   634 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   635 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   638 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   639 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   640 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   641 with some care where this is really required.
   642 
   643 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   644 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   645 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   646 
   647   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   648 
   649 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   650 a Hasse diagram.
   651 
   652 
   653 *** HOL ***
   654 
   655 * Sledgehammer:
   656 
   657   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   658     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   659   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   660   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   661   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   662   - Renamed options:
   663       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   664       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   665       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   666       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   667 
   668 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   669 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   670 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   671 
   672 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * Lifting:
   676   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   677   - quot_del attribute
   678   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   679 
   680 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   681 expressions.
   682 
   683 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   684 pointfree expressions.
   685 
   686 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   687 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   688 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   689 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   693 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   694 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   695 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   696 accordingly.
   697 
   698 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   699 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   700 
   701 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   702 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   707 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   708 
   709 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   710 
   711 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   712 
   713   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   714   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   715 
   716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   717 
   718 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   719 
   720   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   721   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   722 
   723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   724 
   725 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   726 
   727   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   728     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   729     output f x converges to G.
   730 
   731   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   732     infinity (at_bot).
   733 
   734   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   735     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   736 
   737   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   738     at_top".
   739 
   740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741 
   742 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   743 lattice type classes.
   744 
   745 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   746 
   747     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   748     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   749 
   750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   753 changes as follows.
   754 
   755   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   756 
   757       prefix ~> prefixeq
   758       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   759 
   760   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   761     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   762     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   763     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   764 
   765   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   766     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   767     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   768 
   769   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   770     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   771     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   772     Library/Prefix_Order.
   773 
   774   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   775     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   776 
   777       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   778       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   779       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   780       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   781       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   782       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   783       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   784       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   785       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   786       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   787       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   788       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   789       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   790       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   791       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   792       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   793 
   794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   797 
   798 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   799 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   800 
   801 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   802 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   803 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   804 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   805 
   806   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   807   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   808   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   809   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   810   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   811   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   812   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   813   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   814   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   815   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   816 
   817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   820 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   821 Data").
   822 
   823 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   824 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   825 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   826 code.
   827 
   828 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   829 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   830 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   832 
   833 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   834 
   835 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   836 
   837 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   838 
   839   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   840   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   841 
   842 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   843 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   844 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   845 
   846   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   847 
   848     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   849     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   850     cart_base i  removed
   851     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   852 
   853   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   854 
   855   Renamed lemmas:
   856 
   857     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   858     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   859     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   860     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   861     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   862     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   863     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   864     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   865     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   866     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   867 
   868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 * HOL/Probability:
   871 
   872   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   873 
   874   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   875     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   876     (borel_measurable_induct).
   877 
   878   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   879     projective family).
   880 
   881 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   882 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   883 
   884 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   885 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   886 datatypes.
   887 
   888 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   889 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   890 
   891 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   892 trees for the code generator.
   893 
   894 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   895 Lifting/Transfer.
   896 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897 
   898 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   900 
   901 
   902 *** Document preparation ***
   903 
   904 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   905 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   906 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   907 
   908 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   909 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   910 
   911 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   912 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   913 document/root.tex.
   914 
   915 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   916 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 
   919 *** ML ***
   920 
   921 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   922 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   923 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   924 
   925 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   926 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   927 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   928 
   929 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   930 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   931 necessarily printing visible text.
   932 
   933 
   934 *** System ***
   935 
   936 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   937 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   938 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   939 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   940 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   941 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   942 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   943 
   944 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   945 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   946 
   947   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   948 
   949 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   950 
   951 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   952 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   953 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   954 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   955 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   956 
   957 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   958 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   959 
   960 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   961 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   962 
   963 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   967 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   968 version of Isabelle.
   969 
   970 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   971 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   972 
   973 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   974 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   975 for home-made settings.
   976 
   977 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   978 
   979 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   980 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   981 configuration.
   982 
   983 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   984 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   985 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   986 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   987 bundled as Isabelle component.
   988 
   989 
   990 
   991 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   992 ------------------------------
   993 
   994 *** General ***
   995 
   996 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   997 
   998   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   999     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1000   - markup for bound variables
  1001   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1002   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1003   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1004     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1005 
  1006 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1007 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1008 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1009 
  1010 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1011 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1012 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1013 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1014 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1015 
  1016   context
  1017     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1018     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1019   begin
  1020 
  1021   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1022 
  1023   end
  1024 
  1025   thm my_trans
  1026 
  1027 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1028 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1029 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1030 
  1031 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1032 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1033 
  1034 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1035 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1036 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1037 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1038 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1039 
  1040 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1041 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1042 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1043 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1044 indices of schematic variables.
  1045 
  1046 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1047 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1048 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1049 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1050 etc. was exploited.
  1051 
  1052 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1053 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1054 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1055 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1056 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1057 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1058 
  1059 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1060 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1061 manual.
  1062 
  1063 
  1064 *** Pure ***
  1065 
  1066 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1067 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1068 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1069 
  1070 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1071 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1072 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1073 undocumented feature.)
  1074 
  1075 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1076 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1077 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1078 
  1079   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1080 
  1081   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1082     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1083 
  1084 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1085 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1086 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1087 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1088 
  1089 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1090 
  1091     num ~> num_token
  1092     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1093     xstr ~> str_token
  1094 
  1095 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1096 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1097 position information via constraints).
  1098 
  1099 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1100 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1101 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1104 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1105 
  1106 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1107 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1108 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1109 
  1110 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1111 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1112 
  1113 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1114 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1115 
  1116   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1117 
  1118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1121 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1124 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1125 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1126 
  1127 
  1128 *** HOL ***
  1129 
  1130 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1131 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1132 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1133 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1134 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1135 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1136 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1137 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1138 possible.
  1139 
  1140 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1141 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1142 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1143 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1144 
  1145 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1146 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1147 
  1148 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1149 
  1150 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1151 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1152 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1153 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1154 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1155 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1156 
  1157   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1158     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1159 
  1160   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1161     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1162     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1163 
  1164   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1165     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1166 
  1167   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1168     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1169     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1170 
  1171   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1172     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1173 
  1174 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1175 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1176 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1177 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1178 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1179 
  1180   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1181     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1182     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1183     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1184     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1185 
  1186     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1187     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1188 
  1189   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1190     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1191     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1192     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1193     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1194     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1195     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1196     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1197 
  1198   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1199     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1200     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1201     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1202 
  1203   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1204     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1205     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1206     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1207 
  1208   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1209     from type nat to type int.
  1210 
  1211 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1212 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1213 
  1214   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1215     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1216     type.  Example syntax:
  1217 
  1218     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1219       is List.insert
  1220 
  1221     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1222     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1223     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1224     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1225     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1226     by the package.
  1227 
  1228   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1229     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1230     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1231     code generation for each constant.
  1232 
  1233   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1234     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1235     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1236     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1237     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1238 
  1239   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1240     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1241     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1242 
  1243 * Quotient package:
  1244 
  1245   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1246     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1247 
  1248   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1249     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1250 
  1251   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1252     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1253     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1256     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1257 
  1258 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1259 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1260 
  1261 * Quickcheck:
  1262 
  1263   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1264     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1265     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1266     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1267     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1268 
  1269     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1270     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1271     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1272 
  1273     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1274     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1275 
  1276     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1277     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1278     show genuine counterexamples.
  1279 
  1280   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1281     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1282 
  1283     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1284     constructors of that type.
  1285 
  1286   - Support for multisets.
  1287 
  1288   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1289 
  1290   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1291     conjectures in a locale context.
  1292 
  1293 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1294 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1295 
  1296 * Sledgehammer:
  1297   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1298     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1299   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1300   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1301     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1302   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1303   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1304   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1305   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1306 
  1307 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1308 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1309 
  1310 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1311 
  1312 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1313 
  1314 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1315 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1316 
  1317   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1318 
  1319 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1320 a list and a nat.
  1321 
  1322 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1323 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1324 
  1325 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1326 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1327 default.
  1328 
  1329 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1330 
  1331   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1332 
  1333 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1334 
  1335 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1336 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1337 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1338 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1339 one_case.
  1340 
  1341 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1342 the result of the fact expression.
  1343 
  1344 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1345 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1346 of some relation theorems:
  1347 
  1348   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1349   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1350   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1351   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1352   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1353   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1354 
  1355 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1356 
  1357 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1358 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1359 
  1360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1361 
  1362 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1363 to match the constant's name:
  1364 
  1365   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1366   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1367   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1368   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1369   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1370   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1371   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1372   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1373   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1374   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1375   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1376   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1377   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1378   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1379   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1380   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1381   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1382   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1383   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1384   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1385   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1386   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1387   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1388   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1389 
  1390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1391 
  1392 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1393 and corresponding theorem names:
  1394 
  1395   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1396 
  1397   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1398 
  1399   - Renamed theorems:
  1400 
  1401     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1402     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1403     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1404     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1405     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1406     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1407     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1408     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1409     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1410     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1411     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1412     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1413     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1414     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1415     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1416     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1417     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1418     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1419     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1420     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1421     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1422     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1423     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1424 
  1425     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1426 
  1427     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1428 
  1429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430 
  1431 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1432 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1433 
  1434   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1435   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1436   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1437   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1438   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1439   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1440   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1441   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1442   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1443   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1444   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1445   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1446   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1447   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1448   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1449   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1450   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1451   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1452   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1453   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1454   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1455 
  1456 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1457 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1462 
  1463   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1464   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1465   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1466   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1467   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1468   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1469   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1470   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1471   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1472   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1473   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1474   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1475   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1476   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1477   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1478   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1479   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1480   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1481 
  1482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1485 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1486 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1487 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1488 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1489 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1490 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1491 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1492 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1493 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1494 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1495 
  1496 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1497 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1498 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1499 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1500 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1501 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1502 
  1503 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1504 through option types.
  1505 
  1506 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1507 relations.
  1508 
  1509 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1512 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1513 
  1514   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1515   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1516   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1517   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1518   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1519   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1520   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1521   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1522   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1523   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1524   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1525   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1526   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1527   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1528   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1529   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1530   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1531   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1532   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1533   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1534   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1535   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1536   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1537   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1538   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1539   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1540   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1541   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1542   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1543   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1544   zless_le ~> less_le
  1545   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1546   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1547   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1548 
  1549 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1550 
  1551   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1552 
  1553 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1554 
  1555 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1556 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1557 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1558 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1562 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1563 
  1564 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1565 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1566 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1567 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1568 follows:
  1569 
  1570   Operations:
  1571   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1572   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1573   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1574   del -> rbt_del
  1575   delete -> rbt_delete
  1576   ins -> rbt_ins
  1577   insert -> rbt_insert
  1578   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1579   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1580   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1581   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1582   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1583   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1584   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1585   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1586   union -> rbt_union
  1587   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1588   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1589 
  1590   Lemmas:
  1591   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1592   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1593   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1594   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1595   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1596   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1597   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1598   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1599   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1600   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1601   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1602   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1603   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1604   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1605   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1606   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1607   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1608   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1609   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1610   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1611   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1612   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1613   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1614   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1615   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1616   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1617   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1618   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1619   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1620   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1621   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1622   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1623   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1624   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1625   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1626   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1627   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1628   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1629   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1630   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1631   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1632   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1633   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1634   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1635   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1636   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1637   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1638   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1639   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1640   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1641   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1642   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1643   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1644   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1645   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1646   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1647   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1648   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1649   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1650   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1651   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1652   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1653   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1654   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1655   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1656   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1657   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1658   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1659   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1660   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1661   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1662   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1663   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1664   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1665   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1666   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1667   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1668   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1669   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1670   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1671   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1672   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1673   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1674 
  1675 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1676 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1677 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1678 
  1679   Changed Operations:
  1680   float_abs -> abs
  1681   float_nprt -> nprt
  1682   float_pprt -> pprt
  1683   pow2 -> use powr
  1684   round_down -> float_round_down
  1685   round_up -> float_round_up
  1686   scale -> exponent
  1687 
  1688   Removed Operations:
  1689   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1690 
  1691   Renamed Lemmas:
  1692   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1693   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1694   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1695   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1696   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1697   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1698   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1699   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1700   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1701   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1702   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1703   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1704   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1705   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1706   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1707   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1708   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1709   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1710   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1711   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1712   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1713   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1714   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1715   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1716   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1717   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1718   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1719   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1720   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1721   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1722   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1723   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1724   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1725   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1726   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1727   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1728 
  1729   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1730   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1731   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1732   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1733   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1734   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1735   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1736   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1737   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1738   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1739 
  1740 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1741 association lists with distinct keys.
  1742 
  1743 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1744 annotated commands.
  1745 
  1746 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1747 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1748 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1749 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1750 
  1751 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1752 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1753 instead.
  1754 
  1755   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1756   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1757   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1758   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1759   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1760   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1761   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1762   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1763   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1764   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1765   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1766   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1767   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1768   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1769   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1770   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1771   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1772   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1773   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1774   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1775   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1776   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1777   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1778   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1779   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1780   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1781   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1782   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1783   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1784   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1785   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1786   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1787   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1788   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1789   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1790   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1791   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1792   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1793   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1794   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1795   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1796 
  1797 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1798 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1799 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1800 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1801 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1802 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1803 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1804 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1805 
  1806 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1807 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1808 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1809 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1810 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1811 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1812 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1813 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1814 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1815 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1816 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1817 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819   Renamed constants:
  1820   measure -> emeasure
  1821   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1822   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1823   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1824   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1825 
  1826   Removed locales:
  1827   completeable_measure_space
  1828   finite_measure_space
  1829   finite_prob_space
  1830   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1831   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1832   finite_sigma_algebra
  1833   measure_space
  1834   pair_finite_prob_space
  1835   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1836   pair_finite_space
  1837   pair_sigma_algebra
  1838   product_sigma_algebra
  1839 
  1840   Removed constants:
  1841   conditional_space
  1842   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1843   image_space
  1844   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1845   pair_measure_generator
  1846   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1847   subvimage
  1848 
  1849   Replacement theorems:
  1850   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1851   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1852   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1853   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1854   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1855   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1856   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1857   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1858   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1859   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1860   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1861   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1862   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1863   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1864   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1865   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1866   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1867   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1868   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1869   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1870   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1871   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1872   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1873   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1874   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1875   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1876   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1877   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1878   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1879   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1880   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1881   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1882   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1883   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1884   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1885   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1886   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1887   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1888   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1889   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1890   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1891   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1892   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1893   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1894   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1895   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1896   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1897   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1898   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1899   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1900   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1901   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1902   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1903   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1904   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1905   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1906   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1907   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1908   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1909   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1910   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1911   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1912   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1913   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1914   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1915   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1916   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1917   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1918   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1919   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1920   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1921   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1922   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1923   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1924   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1925   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1926   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1927   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1928   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1929   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1930   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1931   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1932   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1933   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1934   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1935   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1936   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1937   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1938   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1939   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1940   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1941   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1942   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1943   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1944   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1945   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1946   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1947   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1948   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1949   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1950   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1951   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1952   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1953   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1954   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1955   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1956   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1957   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1958   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1959   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1960   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1961   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1962   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1963   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1964   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1965   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1966   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1967   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1968   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1969   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1970   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1971   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1972   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1973   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1974   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1975   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1976   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1977   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1978 
  1979 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1980 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1981 
  1982 
  1983 *** FOL ***
  1984 
  1985 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1986 
  1987 
  1988 *** ZF ***
  1989 
  1990 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1991 analysis.
  1992 
  1993 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1994 
  1995 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1996 
  1997 
  1998 *** ML ***
  1999 
  2000 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2001 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2002 
  2003 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2004 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2005 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2006 
  2007 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2008 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2009 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2010 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2011 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2012 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2013 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2014 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2015 
  2016 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2017 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2018 
  2019 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2020 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2021 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2022 
  2023 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2024 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2025 
  2026 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2027 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2028 context as well.
  2029 
  2030 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2031 
  2032   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2033   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2034   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2035   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2036   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2037   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2038   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2039   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2040   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2041   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2042   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2043   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2044 
  2045 
  2046 *** System ***
  2047 
  2048 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2049 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2050 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2051 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2052 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2053 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2054 the generic user home was intended.
  2055 
  2056 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2057 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2058 
  2059 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2060 (not just JRE).
  2061 
  2062 
  2063 
  2064 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2065 ------------------------------------
  2066 
  2067 *** General ***
  2068 
  2069 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2070 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2071 
  2072   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2073     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2074     files for checking).
  2075 
  2076   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2077     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2078     positions.
  2079 
  2080   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2081     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2082     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2083 
  2084   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2085     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2086     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2087 
  2088   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2089     cores.
  2090 
  2091   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2092     versions (garbage collection).
  2093 
  2094 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2095 including some remaining limitations.
  2096 
  2097 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2098 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2099 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2100 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2101 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2105 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2106 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2107 
  2108 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2109 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2110 usedir option -Q.
  2111 
  2112 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2113 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2114 
  2115   long_names   ~> names_long
  2116   short_names  ~> names_short
  2117   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2118 
  2119 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2120 
  2121   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2122 
  2123 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2124 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2125 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2126 
  2127 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2128 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2129 
  2130 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2131   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2132   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2133   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2134     "Classical Reasoner".
  2135 
  2136 
  2137 *** HOL ***
  2138 
  2139 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2140 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2141 
  2142 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2143 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2144 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2145 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2146 class complete_linorder.
  2147 
  2148 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2149 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2150 
  2151 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2152 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2153 
  2154   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2155   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2156   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2157   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2158   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2159   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2160   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2161   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2162   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2163   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2164   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2165 
  2166 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2167 
  2168   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2169   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2170   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2171   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2172   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2173   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2174   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2175   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2176   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2177   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2178   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2179   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2180   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2181   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2182   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2183   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2184 
  2185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2191 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2192 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2193 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194 
  2195 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2196 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2197 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2201 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2202 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2203 
  2204 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2205 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2206 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2209 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2210 
  2211 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2212 
  2213     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2214     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2215 
  2216 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2217 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2220 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2223 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2224 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2225 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2228   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2229   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2230   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2231   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2232   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2233   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2234 
  2235 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2236 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2239   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2240   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2241   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2242   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2243   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2244   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2245   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2246   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2247   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2248   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2249   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2250   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2251   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2252   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2253   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2254   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2255   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2256   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2257   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2258   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2259   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2260   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2261   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2262   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2263   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2264   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2265   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2266   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2267   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2268   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2269   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2270   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2271   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2272   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2273   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2274   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2275   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2276   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2277   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2278   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2279   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2280   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2281   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2282   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2283   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2284   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2285   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2286   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2287   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2288   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2289   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2290   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2291   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2292   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2293   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2294   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2295   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2296   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2297   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2298   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2299   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2300   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2301   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2302   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2303   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2304   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2305   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2306   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2307   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2308   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2309   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2310   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2311   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2312   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2313   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2314   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2315   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2316   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2317   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2318   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2319   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2320 
  2321 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2322 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2323 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2324 
  2325 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2326 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2327 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2328 
  2329 * Code generation:
  2330 
  2331   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2332     characters in the target language.
  2333 
  2334   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2335     instead.
  2336 
  2337   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2338 
  2339   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2340     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2341 
  2342       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2343 
  2344 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2347 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2348 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2349 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2350 syntax.
  2351 
  2352 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2353 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2354 
  2355 * Nitpick:
  2356   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2357   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2358   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2359     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * Sledgehammer:
  2362   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2363   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2364     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2365   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2366     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2367   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2368     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2370     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2371   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2372     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Metis:
  2375   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2377     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * Command 'try':
  2380   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2381     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2383     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2384 
  2385 * Quickcheck:
  2386   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2387     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2388   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2389     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2390   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2391     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2392     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2393     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2394   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2395     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2396 
  2397 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2398 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2399 
  2400 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2401 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2402 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2403 
  2404 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2405 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2409 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2410 
  2411 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2412 arithmetic.
  2413 
  2414 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2415 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2416 and lattice type classes.
  2417 
  2418 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2419 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2420 
  2421 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2422 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2423 
  2424 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2425 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2426 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2429   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2430   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2431   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2432 
  2433 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2434 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2435 constants:
  2436 
  2437   type inat   ~> type enat
  2438   Fin         ~> enat
  2439   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2440   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2441   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2442 
  2443 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2444 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2447 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2448 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2449 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2450 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2451 
  2452 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2453 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2454 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2455 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2456 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2457 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2458 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2459 
  2460   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2461   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2462   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2463   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2464 
  2465 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2466 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2467 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2468 
  2469   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2470   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2471   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2472   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2473   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2474   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2475   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2476   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2477   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2478   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2479   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2480   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2481   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2482   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2483   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2484   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2485   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2486   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2487   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2488   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2489   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2490   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2491   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2492   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2493   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2494   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2495   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2496   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2497   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2498   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2499   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2500   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2501   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2502   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2503   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2504   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2505   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2506   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2507   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2508   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2509   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2510   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2511   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2512   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2513   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2514   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2515   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2516   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2517   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2518   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2519   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2520 
  2521 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2522   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2523   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2524   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2525   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2526     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527 
  2528 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2531   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2532   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2533   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2534   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2535   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2536   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2537   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2538   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2539   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2540   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2541   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2542   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2543   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2544   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2545   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2546   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2547   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2548   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2549   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2550   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2551   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2552   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2553   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2554   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2555 
  2556 
  2557 *** Document preparation ***
  2558 
  2559 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2560 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2561 same.
  2562 
  2563 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2564 result.
  2565 
  2566 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2567 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2568 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2569 
  2570 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2571 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2572 
  2573 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2574 like this:
  2575 
  2576   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2577   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2578 
  2579 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2580 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2581 layouts.
  2582 
  2583 
  2584 *** ML ***
  2585 
  2586 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2587 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2588 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2589 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2590 under external program control.
  2591 
  2592 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2593 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2594 
  2595 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2596 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2597 (better known as Proof General).
  2598 
  2599 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2600 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2601 
  2602 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2603 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2604 
  2605 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2606 (including quotes etc.).
  2607 
  2608 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2609 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2610 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2611 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2612 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2613 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2614 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2615 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2616 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2617 
  2618 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2619 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2620 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2621 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2622 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2623 
  2624 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2625 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2626 
  2627 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2628 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2629 
  2630 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2631 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2632 
  2633 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2634 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2635 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2636 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2637 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2638 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2639 proper Proof.context.
  2640 
  2641 
  2642 *** System ***
  2643 
  2644 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2645 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2646 
  2647 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2648 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2649 
  2650 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2651 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2652 
  2653   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2654   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2655   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2656   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2657   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2658 
  2659 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2660 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2663 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2664 example:
  2665 
  2666   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2667 
  2668 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2669 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2670 
  2671 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2672 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2673 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2674 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2675 
  2676 
  2677 
  2678 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2679 ----------------------------------
  2680 
  2681 *** General ***
  2682 
  2683 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2684 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2685 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2686 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2687 like this:
  2688 
  2689   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2690 
  2691 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2692 
  2693 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2694 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2695 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2696 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2697 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2698 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2699 
  2700 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2701 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2702 the following package declarations:
  2703 
  2704   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2705   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2706 
  2707 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2708 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2709 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2710 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2711 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2712 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2713 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2714 
  2715 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2716 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2717 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2718 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2719 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2720 
  2721 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2722 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2723 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2724 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2725 
  2726 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2727 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2728 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2729 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2730 
  2731   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2732 
  2733   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2734   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2735   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2736   show_types                    show_types
  2737   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2738   show_consts                   show_consts
  2739   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2740 
  2741   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2742   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2743   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2744 
  2745   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2746   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2747 
  2748   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2749 
  2750   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2751   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2752   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2753   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2754   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2755 
  2756 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2757 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2758 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2759 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2760 
  2761 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763 
  2764   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2765   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2766 
  2767 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2768 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2769 float_token.
  2770 
  2771 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2772 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2776 DejaVu Sans.
  2777 
  2778 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2779 
  2780 
  2781 *** Pure ***
  2782 
  2783 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2784 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2785 time.
  2786 
  2787 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2788 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2789 
  2790 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2791 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2792 
  2793 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2794 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2795 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2796 command already provided this functionality.
  2797 
  2798 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2799 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2800 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2801 without interpretations.
  2802 
  2803 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2804 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2805 
  2806 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2807 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2808 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2809 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2810 
  2811 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2812 'definition' instead.
  2813 
  2814 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2815 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2816 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2817 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2818 
  2819 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2820 constructors.
  2821 
  2822 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2823 the local file system.
  2824 
  2825 
  2826 *** HOL ***
  2827 
  2828 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2829 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2830 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2831 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2832 
  2833   declare [[coercion f]]
  2834 
  2835 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2836 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2837 
  2838   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2839 
  2840 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2841 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2842 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2843 other theories like this:
  2844 
  2845   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2846 
  2847 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2848 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2849 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2850 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2851 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2852 for examples.
  2853 
  2854 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2855 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2856 
  2857 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2858 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2859 
  2860 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2861 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2862 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2863 
  2864 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2865 functorial structure of types.
  2866 
  2867 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2868 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2869 
  2870 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2871 languages.
  2872 
  2873 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2874 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2876 
  2877 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2878 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2879 
  2880 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2881 combinators any longer.
  2882 
  2883 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2884 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2885 
  2886 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2887 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2888 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2889 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2890 
  2891   record 'a foo = ...
  2892   ...
  2893   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2894 
  2895 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2896 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2898 
  2899 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2900 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2901 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2902 
  2903 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2904 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2905 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2906 
  2907 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2908 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909 
  2910 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2911 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2912 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2913 independently.
  2914 
  2915 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2916 counter example search.
  2917 
  2918 * Sledgehammer:
  2919   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2920     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2921     sledgehammer").
  2922   - Renamed commands:
  2923     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2924     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2925     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2926     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927   - Renamed options:
  2928     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2929     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2930     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2931     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2932     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Nitpick:
  2935   - Renamed options:
  2936     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2937     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2938     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2940   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2941   - Added "whack" option.
  2942   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2943   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2944   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2945   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2946     higher cardinalities.
  2947   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2948 
  2949 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2950 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2951 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2952 
  2953     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2954 
  2955 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2956 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2957 
  2958 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2959 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2960 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2961 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2962 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2963 "smt_solver".
  2964 
  2965 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2966 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2967 
  2968 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2969 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2970 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2971 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972 
  2973 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2974   - Renamed:
  2975     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2976     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2977     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2978   - Added:
  2979     smt_verbose
  2980     smt_random_seed
  2981     smt_datatypes
  2982     smt_infer_triggers
  2983     smt_monomorph_limit
  2984     cvc3_options
  2985     remote_cvc3_options
  2986     remote_z3_options
  2987     yices_options
  2988 
  2989 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2990 header.
  2991 
  2992 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2993 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2994 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2995 
  2996   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2997 
  2998 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3001 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3006 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007 
  3008 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3009 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3010 
  3011 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3012 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3015 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3016 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3024 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3027 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3028 for congruent(2)).
  3029 
  3030 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3031 
  3032   types
  3033     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3034     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3035 
  3036   constants
  3037     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3038     True ~> HOL.True
  3039     False ~> HOL.False
  3040     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3041     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3042     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3043     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3044     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3045     The ~> HOL.The
  3046     All ~> HOL.All
  3047     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3048     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3049     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3050     If ~> HOL.If
  3051     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3052     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3053     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3054     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3055     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3056     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3057     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3058     op : ~> Set.member
  3059     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3060 
  3061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3064 
  3065     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3066     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3067     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3068     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3069     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3070     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3071     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3072     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3073 
  3074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * More stylized fact names:
  3077 
  3078   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3079   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3080   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3081   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3082 
  3083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3086 
  3087   constants
  3088     null ~> List.null
  3089 
  3090   facts
  3091     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3092     null_empty ~> null_def
  3093 
  3094 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3095 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3096 generation.
  3097 
  3098 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3099 Haskell code.
  3100 
  3101 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3102 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3103 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3106 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3107 
  3108 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3109 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3110 
  3111 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3112 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3113 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3114 
  3115 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3116 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3117 
  3118 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3122 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3123 referred to by its qualified name.
  3124 
  3125   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3126   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3127   product ~>  Enum.product
  3128 
  3129 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3130 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3134 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3135 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3137 
  3138 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3139 sort_key.
  3140 
  3141 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3145 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3146 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3147 
  3148   types
  3149     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3150               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3151               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3152         (depends on your needs)
  3153 
  3154   constants
  3155      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3156      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3157      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3158 
  3159 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3160 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3161 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3162 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3165 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3166 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3167 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3168 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172 
  3173 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3174 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3175 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3176 
  3177 
  3178 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3179 
  3180 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3181 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3182 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3183 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3184 compatibility.
  3185 
  3186 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3187 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3188 
  3189 
  3190 *** HOLCF ***
  3191 
  3192 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3193 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3194 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3198 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3199 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3200 
  3201   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3202   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3203   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3204 
  3205 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3206 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3207 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3210 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3211 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3212 domain definition now works:
  3213 
  3214   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3215 
  3216 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3217 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3218 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3219 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3220 
  3221   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3222     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3223 
  3224   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3225 
  3226 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3227 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3228 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3231 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3234 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3235 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3236 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3237 
  3238 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3239 
  3240 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3248 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3249 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3250 
  3251 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3252 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3253 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3256 still supported as an input translation.
  3257 
  3258 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3259 
  3260   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3261   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3262   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3263   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3264   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3265   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3266   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3267 
  3268 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3269 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3272   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3273   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3274   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3275   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3276   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3277 
  3278 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3279 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3282 
  3283   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3284   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3285   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3286   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3287 
  3288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3291 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3294 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3297   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3298   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3299   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3300   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3301   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3302   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3303   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3304   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3305   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3306   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3307   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3308   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3309   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3310   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3311   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3312   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3313   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3314   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3315   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3316 
  3317 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3320   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3321   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3322   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3323   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3324   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3325   box_less             ~> box_below
  3326   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3327   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3328   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3329   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3330   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3331   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3332   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3333   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3334   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3335   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3336   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3337   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3338   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3339   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3340   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3341   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3342   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3343   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3344   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3345   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3346   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3347   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3348   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3349   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3350   up_less              ~> up_below
  3351   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3352   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3353   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3354   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3355   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3356   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3357   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3358   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3359   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3360   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3361   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3362   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3363   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3364 
  3365 
  3366 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3367 
  3368 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3369 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 
  3372 *** ML ***
  3373 
  3374 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3375 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3376 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3377 
  3378 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3379 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3380 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3381 
  3382 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3383 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3384 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3385 
  3386 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3387 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3388 
  3389 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3390 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3391 
  3392 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3393 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3394 
  3395 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3396 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3397 
  3398 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3399 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3400 almost all situations.
  3401 
  3402 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3403 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3404 Isabelle/ML.
  3405 
  3406 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3407 meaning.
  3408 
  3409 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3410 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3411 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3412 
  3413 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3414 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3415 
  3416 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3417 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3418 
  3419 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3420 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3421 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3422 
  3423 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3424 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3425 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3426 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3427 configuration options.
  3428 
  3429 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3430 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3431 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3432 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3433 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3434 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3435 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3436 
  3437 
  3438 
  3439 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3440 ---------------------------------
  3441 
  3442 *** General ***
  3443 
  3444 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3445 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3446 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3447 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3448 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3449 their full internal name.
  3450 
  3451 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3452 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3453 Some hints on upgrading:
  3454 
  3455   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3456     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3457     which are independent of this issue.
  3458 
  3459   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3460     provides the following special forms:
  3461 
  3462       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3463       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3464       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3465 
  3466     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3467     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3468     extra variables".
  3469 
  3470     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3471     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3472     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3473     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3474     "logic".
  3475 
  3476   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3477     antiquotations:
  3478 
  3479       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3480       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3481       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3482       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3483 
  3484   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3485     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3486     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3487     antiquotations.
  3488 
  3489 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3490 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3491 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3492 diagnose syntax problems.
  3493 
  3494 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3495 
  3496 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3497 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3498 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3499 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3500 
  3501 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3502 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3503 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3504 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3507 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3508 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3509 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3510 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3513 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3514 
  3515 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3516 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3517 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3518 
  3519   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3520 
  3521 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3522 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3523 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3524 
  3525 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3526 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3530 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3531 
  3532 
  3533 *** Pure ***
  3534 
  3535 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3536 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3537 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3538 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3539 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3540 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3541 inspect proof terms.
  3542 
  3543 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3544 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3545 are added internally.  For example:
  3546 
  3547   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3548 
  3549 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3550 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3555 'class' instead.
  3556 
  3557 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3558 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3560 
  3561 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3562 invariants.
  3563 
  3564 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3565 user space functionality any longer.
  3566 
  3567 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3568 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3572 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3573 
  3574 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3575 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3576 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3577 
  3578 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3579 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3580 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3581 
  3582 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3583 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 
  3586 *** HOL ***
  3587 
  3588 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3589 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3590 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3591 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3592 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3593 
  3594 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3595 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3596 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3597 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3598 
  3599   fun
  3600     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3601   where
  3602     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3603 
  3604   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3605     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3606 
  3607   quotient_definition
  3608     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3609 
  3610 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3611 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3612 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3613 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3614 
  3615 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3616 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3617 
  3618 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3619 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3620 
  3621 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3625 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3626 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3627 
  3628 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3629 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3638 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3641 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3642 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3645   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3646   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3647   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3648   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3649   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3650   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3651   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3652   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3653   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3654   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3655   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3656   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3657   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3658   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3659   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3660   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3661   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3662   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3663   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3664   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3665   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3666   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3667   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3668   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3669   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3670   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3671   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3672   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3673   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3674 
  3675 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3676 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3677 
  3678 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3679 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3680 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3681 
  3682 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3683 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3684 
  3685 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3686 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3689 
  3690 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3691 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3694 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3699 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3700 
  3701 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3702 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3703 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3704 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3707   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3708   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3709   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3713 lattices):
  3714 
  3715     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3716     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3717 
  3718     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3719 
  3720     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3721     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3722     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3723     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3724     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3725     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3726     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3727     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3728     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3729     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3730     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3731     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3732     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3733 
  3734     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3735     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3736     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3737     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3738     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3739     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3740     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3741     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3742     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3743     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3744     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3745     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3746     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3747     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3748     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3749     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3750     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3751     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3752 
  3753   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3754   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3755 
  3756     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3757     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3758     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3759     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3760     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3761 
  3762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * Refined field classes:
  3765   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3766     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3767     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3768   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3772   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3773   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3774   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3775     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3776   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3777     equal_neg_zero.
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3781 sets to lattices:
  3782 
  3783   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3784   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3785   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3786   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3787   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3788   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3789   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3790   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3791   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3792   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3793 
  3794 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3795 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3796 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3797 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3798 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3799 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3802 multiset order:
  3803 
  3804   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3805     <= and <;
  3806   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3807     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3808     multiset_order;
  3809   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3810     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3811     generation;
  3812   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3813     if needed.
  3814 
  3815 Renamed:
  3816 
  3817   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3818   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3819   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3820 
  3821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3822 
  3823 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3824 
  3825 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3826 
  3827 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3828 
  3829 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3830 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3831 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833   Constants:
  3834   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3835   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3836   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3837   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3838   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3839   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3840   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3841   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3842   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3843   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3844   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3845   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3846   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3847 
  3848   Lemmas:
  3849   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3850   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3851   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3852   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3853   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3854   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3855   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3856   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3857   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3858   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3859   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3860   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3861   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3862 
  3863 * Sledgehammer:
  3864   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3865     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3866     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3867     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3868     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3869     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3870     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3872   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3873     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3874   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3875     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3876     is still experimental.)
  3877   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3878     full-typed mode.
  3879   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3880 
  3881 * Nitpick:
  3882   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3883   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3884   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3885     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3886   - Added support for quotient types.
  3887   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3888     constructs.
  3889   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3890     "termination" proofs).
  3891   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3892   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3893   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3894   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3895     record getters.
  3896   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3897   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3898   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3899   - Added "atoms" option.
  3900   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3901     problems.
  3902   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3903     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3904     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3905   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3906     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3910   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3911   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3912   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3913   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3914   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3915   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3916   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3917   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3918   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 
  3921 *** HOLCF ***
  3922 
  3923 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3924 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3925 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3928 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3929 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3930 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3933 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3934 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3935 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3936 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3939 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3940 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3943 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3944 
  3945   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3946   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3947 
  3948 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3949 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3952   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3953   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3954   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3955   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3956 
  3957 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3958 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3961   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3962   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3963 
  3964 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3965 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3969 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3972 
  3973 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3974 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976 
  3977 *** ML ***
  3978 
  3979 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3980 
  3981     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3982     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3983 
  3984     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3985     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3986     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3987     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3988 
  3989     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3990     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3991     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3992 
  3993 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3994 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3995 
  3996 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3997 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3998 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3999 
  4000 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4001 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4002 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4003 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4004 
  4005 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4006 the context or even global references.
  4007 
  4008 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4009 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4010 
  4011 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4012 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4013 
  4014   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4015   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4016   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4017   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4018   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4019   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4020   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4021   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4022   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4023   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4024 
  4025 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4026 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4027 
  4028 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4029 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4030 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4031 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4032 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4033 
  4034 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4035 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4036 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4037 Theory_Data version.
  4038 
  4039 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4040 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4041 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4042 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4043 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4044 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4045 explicitly in rare situations.
  4046 
  4047 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4048 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4052 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4055 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4056 quite rare).
  4057 
  4058 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4059 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060 
  4061 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4062 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4063 terms.
  4064 
  4065 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4066 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4067 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4068 
  4069 
  4070 *** System ***
  4071 
  4072 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4073 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4074 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4075 
  4076 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4077 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4078 respectively.
  4079 
  4080 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4081 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4082 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4083 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4084 
  4085   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4086 
  4087 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4088 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4089 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4090 component.
  4091 
  4092 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4093 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4094 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4095 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4096 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4097 the user for manual installation.
  4098 
  4099 
  4100 
  4101 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4102 -------------------------------------
  4103 
  4104 *** General ***
  4105 
  4106 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4107 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4108 
  4109 
  4110 *** Pure ***
  4111 
  4112 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4113 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4114 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4115 
  4116 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4117 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4118 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4119 
  4120 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4121 interpretation.
  4122 
  4123 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4124 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4125 
  4126 
  4127 *** Document preparation ***
  4128 
  4129 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4130 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4131 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4132 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4133 
  4134 
  4135 *** HOL ***
  4136 
  4137 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4138 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4139 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4140 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4141 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4142 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4143 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4144 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4145 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4146 
  4147 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4148 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4149 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4150 
  4151 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4152 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4153 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4154 
  4155 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4156 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4157 
  4158 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4159 
  4160 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4161 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4162 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4163 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4164 
  4165 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4166 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4167 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4168 "mirabelle" utility.
  4169 
  4170 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4171 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4172 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4173 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4174 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4175 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4176 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4177 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4178 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4179 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4180 
  4181 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4182 procedure only.
  4183 
  4184 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4185 
  4186 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4187 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4188 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4189 that fail later.
  4190 
  4191 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4192 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4193 
  4194 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4195 the same method as the approximation method.
  4196 
  4197 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4198 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4199 series expansion.
  4200 
  4201 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4202 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4203 
  4204 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4205 reals.
  4206 
  4207 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4208 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4209 
  4210 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4211 fixpoint theorem.
  4212 
  4213 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4214   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4215     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4216   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4217     accordingly
  4218   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4219     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4220   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4221     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4222 
  4223 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4224 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4225 lattice.
  4226 
  4227 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4228 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4229 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4230 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4231 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4232 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4236   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4237     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4238   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4239     le_inf_iff
  4240   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4241     sup_aci)
  4242   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4243   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4244   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4245     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4246     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4247     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4248     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4249     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4250     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4251     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4252     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4253     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4254     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4255   - authentic syntax for
  4256     Set.Pow
  4257     Set.image
  4258   - mere abbreviations:
  4259     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4260     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4261     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4262     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4263     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4264     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4265     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4266     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4267   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4268 
  4269 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4270 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4271 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4272 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4273 
  4274 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4275 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4276 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4277 
  4278 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4279 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4282 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4283 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4284 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4285 
  4286 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4287 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4288 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4289 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4290 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4291 
  4292 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4293 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4297 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4300 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4301 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4302 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4303 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4304 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4305 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4309     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4310     code_post       replaces    code post
  4311     etc.
  4312   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4313 
  4314 * Renamed methods:
  4315     sizechange -> size_change
  4316     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4317   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4318 
  4319 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4320 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4321 
  4322 * Renamed theorems:
  4323     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4324     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4325     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4326     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4327     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4328   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4335 
  4336 
  4337 *** HOLCF ***
  4338 
  4339 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4340 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4341 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4342 
  4343 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4344 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4345 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4346 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4347 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4348 
  4349 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4350 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4351 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4352 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4353 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4354 
  4355 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4356 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4357 constructor are pre-configured.
  4358 
  4359 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4360 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4361 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4362 
  4363 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4364 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4365 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4366 as well.)
  4367 
  4368 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4369 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4370 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4371 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4372 examples.
  4373 
  4374 
  4375 *** ML ***
  4376 
  4377 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4378 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4379 
  4380 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4381 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4382 position, logical grouping etc.
  4383 
  4384 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4385 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4386 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4387 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4388 
  4389 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4390 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4391 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4392 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4393 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4394 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4395 
  4396 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4397 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4398 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4399 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4400 experiments with references.
  4401 
  4402 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4403 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4404 
  4405 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4406 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4407 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4408 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4409 
  4410 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4411 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4412 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4413 
  4414 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4415 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4416 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4419 
  4420 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4422 
  4423 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4424 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4425 
  4426 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4427 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4428 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4429 
  4430 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4431 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4432 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4433 
  4434 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4435 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4436 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4440 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4441 instead of global theory.
  4442 
  4443 
  4444 *** System ***
  4445 
  4446 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4447 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4448 usedir option -q.
  4449 
  4450 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4451 also the system manual.
  4452 
  4453 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4454 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4455 
  4456 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4457 this is always enabled.
  4458 
  4459 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4460 
  4461 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4462 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4463 currently supported on Linux only.
  4464 
  4465 
  4466 
  4467 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4468 --------------------------------
  4469 
  4470 *** General ***
  4471 
  4472 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4473 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4474 
  4475   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4476     "isatool."
  4477 
  4478   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4479     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4480 
  4481   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4482     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4483 
  4484 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4485 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4486 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4487 
  4488 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4489 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4490 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4491 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4492 via "isabelle emacs".
  4493 
  4494 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4495 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4496 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4497 
  4498 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4499 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4500 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4501 
  4502 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4503 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4504 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4505 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4506 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4507 
  4508 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4509 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4510 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4511 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4512 
  4513 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4514 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4515 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4516 
  4517 
  4518 *** Pure ***
  4519 
  4520 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4521 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4522 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4523 
  4524 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4525 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4526 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4527 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4528 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4529 
  4530 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4531 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4532 useful in locale declarations.
  4533 
  4534 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4535 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4536 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4537 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4538 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4539 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4540 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4541 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4542 no longer generated.
  4543 
  4544 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4545 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4546 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4547 
  4548 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4549 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4550 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4551 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4552 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4553 
  4554 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4555 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4556 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4557 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4558 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4559 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4560 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4561 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4562 
  4563 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4564 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4565 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4566 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4567 
  4568 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4571 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4572 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4573 
  4574 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4575 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4576 
  4577 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4578 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4579 in HOL, write
  4580 
  4581     class foo = ...
  4582 
  4583 instead of
  4584 
  4585     class foo = type + ...
  4586 
  4587 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4588 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4591 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4592 
  4593 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4594 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4595 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4596 
  4597 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4598 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4599 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4600 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4601 directly in regular applications.
  4602 
  4603 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4604 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4605 
  4606 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4607 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4608 
  4609 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4610 theory context.
  4611 
  4612 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4613 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4616 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4617 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4618 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4619 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4620 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4621 
  4622   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4623 
  4624 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4625 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4626 normalization.
  4627 
  4628 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4629 addressing etc.
  4630 
  4631 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4632 
  4633   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4634   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4635 
  4636 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4637 
  4638   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4639      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4640      parts of the code generator framework).
  4641 
  4642   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4643      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4644      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4645 
  4646 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4647 
  4648 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4649 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 
  4651 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4652 patterns, e.g.
  4653 
  4654     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4655 
  4656 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4657 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4658 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4659 hyphen:
  4660 
  4661     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4662 
  4663 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4664 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4665 
  4666 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4667 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4668 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4669 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4670 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4671 higher-order unification.
  4672 
  4673 
  4674 *** Document preparation ***
  4675 
  4676 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4677 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4678 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4679 
  4680 
  4681 *** HOL ***
  4682 
  4683 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4684 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4685 
  4686 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4687 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4688 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4689 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4690 Main, as before.
  4691 
  4692 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4693 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4694 
  4695 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4696 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4697 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4698 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4699 
  4700 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4701 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4702 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4703 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4704 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4705 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4706 
  4707 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4708 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4709 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4710 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4711 
  4712 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4713 menu.
  4714 
  4715 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4716 (contains the empty clause).
  4717 
  4718 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4719 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4720 
  4721 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4722 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4723 
  4724 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4725 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4726 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4727 
  4728 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4729 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4730 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4731 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4732 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4733 
  4734 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4735 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4736 
  4737 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4738 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4739 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4740 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4741 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4742 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4743 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4744 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4745 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4746 
  4747 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4748 
  4749 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4750 
  4751 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4752 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4755 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4756 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4757 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4758 
  4759 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4760 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4761 
  4762     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4763     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4764     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4765     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4766     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4767     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4768     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4769     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4770 
  4771 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4772 theory Set.
  4773 
  4774 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4775 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4776 
  4777 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4778 
  4779 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4780 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4781 
  4782 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4783 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4784 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4785 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4786 allowed. For examples see
  4787 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4788 
  4789 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4790 
  4791 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4795 structure:
  4796 
  4797     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4798     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4799     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4800     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4801     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4802     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4803     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4804     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4805     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4806     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4807     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4808     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4809     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4810     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4811     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4812     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4813     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4814     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4815     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4816     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4817     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4818     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4819     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4820     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4821     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4822     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4823     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4824     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4825     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4826     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4827     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4828     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4829     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4830 
  4831     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4832     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4833     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4834     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4835     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4836     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4837     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4838     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4839     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4840     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4841 
  4842     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4843     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4844     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4845     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4846     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4847     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4848 
  4849 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4850 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4851 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4852 
  4853 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4854 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4855 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4856 
  4857 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4858 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4861 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4862 
  4863 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4864 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4865 proofs, e.g.
  4866 
  4867   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4868 
  4869 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4870 
  4871 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4872 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4873 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4874 
  4875 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4876 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4878 
  4879 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4880 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4881 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4885 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4886 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4887 preorder_class.*.
  4888 
  4889 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4890 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4891 
  4892 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4893 
  4894   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4895 
  4896 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4897 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4898 fold_image.
  4899 
  4900 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4901 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4902 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4903 the former will disappear at some point.
  4904 
  4905 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4906 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4907 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4908 
  4909 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4910 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4911 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4912 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4913 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4914 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4915 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4916 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4917 
  4918 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4919 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4920 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4921 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4922 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4923 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4924 
  4925     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4926     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4927     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4928     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4929     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4930     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4931     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4932 
  4933 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4934 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4935 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4936 
  4937 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4938 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4939 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4940 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4941 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4942 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4943 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4944 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4945 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4946 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4947 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4948 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4949 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4950 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4951 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4952 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4953 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4954 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4955 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4956 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4957 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4958 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4959 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4960 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4961 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4962 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4963 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4964 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4965 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4966 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4967 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4968 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4969 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4970 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4971 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4972 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4973 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4974 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4975 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4976 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4977 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4978 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4979 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4980 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4981 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4982 
  4983 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4984 
  4985 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4986 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4987 
  4988 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4989 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4990 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4991 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4992 
  4993 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4994 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4995 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4996 theory RealVector.
  4997 
  4998 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4999 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5000 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5001 and inner products are included.
  5002 
  5003 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5004 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5005 supported.
  5006 
  5007 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5008 first diagonalization argument.
  5009 
  5010 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5011 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5012 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5013 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5014 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5015 
  5016     hide (open) const gcd
  5017     abbreviation gcd where
  5018       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5019     notation (output)
  5020       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5021 
  5022 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5023 
  5024 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5025 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5026 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5029 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5030 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5031 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5032 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5033 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5034 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5035 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5036 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5037 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5038 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5039 cases.
  5040 
  5041 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5042 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5043 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5044 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5045 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5046 
  5047     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5048     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5049     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5050     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5051     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5052 
  5053 
  5054 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5055 
  5056 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5057 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5058 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5059 
  5060 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5061 
  5062 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5063 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5064 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5065 
  5066 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5067 
  5068 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5069 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5070 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5071 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5072 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5073 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5074 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5075 
  5076 
  5077 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5078 
  5079 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5080 
  5081 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5082 theory targets.
  5083 
  5084 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5085 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5086 'inductive' etc.
  5087 
  5088 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5089 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5090 
  5091 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5092 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5093 
  5094 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5095 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5096 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5097 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5098 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5099 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5100 the algorithm W:
  5101 
  5102  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5103  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5104          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5105 
  5106 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5107 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5108 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5109 
  5110 
  5111 *** HOLCF ***
  5112 
  5113 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5114 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5115 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5116 
  5117 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5118 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5119 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5120 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5121 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5122 
  5123 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5124 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5125 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5126 
  5127 
  5128 *** ZF ***
  5129 
  5130 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5131 
  5132 
  5133 *** ML ***
  5134 
  5135 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5136 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5137 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5138 5.2.1!
  5139 
  5140 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5141 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5142 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5143 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5144 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5145 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5146 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5147 
  5148 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5149 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5150 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5151 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5152 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5153 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5154 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5155 
  5156 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5157 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5158 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5159 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5160 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5161 
  5162 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5163 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5164 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5165 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5166 Method.add_method.
  5167 
  5168 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5169 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5170 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5171 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5172 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5173 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5174 
  5175 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5176 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5177 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5178 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5179 examples.
  5180 
  5181 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5182 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5183 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5184 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5185 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5186 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5187 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5188 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5189 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5190 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5191 
  5192 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5193 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5194 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5195 
  5196 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5197 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5198 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5199 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5200 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5201 resort for legacy applications.
  5202 
  5203 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5204 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5205 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5206 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5207 explicit runtime argument.
  5208 
  5209 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5210 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5211 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5212 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5213 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5214 
  5215 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5216 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5217 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5218 theory state.
  5219 
  5220 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5221 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5222 
  5223   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5224   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5225   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5226   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5227   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5228   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5229   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5230   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5231   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5232   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5233 
  5234 
  5235 *** System ***
  5236 
  5237 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5238 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5239 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5240 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5241 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5242 
  5243 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5244 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5245 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5246 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5247 
  5248 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5249 
  5250 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5251 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5252 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5253 prover operations.
  5254 
  5255 
  5256 
  5257 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5258 -------------------------------
  5259 
  5260 *** General ***
  5261 
  5262 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5263 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5264 
  5265 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5266 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5267 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5268 provides a proper context already.
  5269 
  5270 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5271 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5272 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5273 
  5274 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5275 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5276 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5277 swap theory imports.
  5278 
  5279 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5280 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5281 
  5282 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5283 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5284 white space without escapes.
  5285 
  5286 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5287 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5288 "foo_bar".
  5289 
  5290 
  5291 *** Pure ***
  5292 
  5293 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5294 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5295 
  5296 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5297 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5298 
  5299 (1) unused_thms
  5300      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5301 
  5302 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5303      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5304      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5305 
  5306 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5307      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5308      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5309      their ancestors.
  5310 
  5311 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5312 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5313 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5314 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5315 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5316 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5317 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5318 
  5319 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5320 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5321 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5322 
  5323 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5324 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5325 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5326 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5327 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5328 
  5329 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5330 
  5331 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5332 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5333 update of theories within ML code.
  5334 
  5335 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5336 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5337 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5338 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5339 
  5340 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5341 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5342 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5344 
  5345 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5346 
  5347 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5348 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5349 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5350 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5351 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5352 
  5353 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5354 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5355 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5356 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5357 situations.
  5358 
  5359 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5360 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5361 proof text.
  5362 
  5363 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5364 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5365 
  5366 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5367 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5368 predicates.
  5369 
  5370 
  5371 *** Document preparation ***
  5372 
  5373 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5374 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5375 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5376 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5377 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5378 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5379 
  5380 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5381 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5382 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5383 
  5384 
  5385 *** HOL ***
  5386 
  5387 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5388 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5389 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5390 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5391 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5392 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5393 
  5394 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5395 with multithreading.
  5396 
  5397 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5398 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5399 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5400 
  5401 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5402 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5403 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5404 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5405 
  5406 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5407 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5408 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5409 and makes them available separately.  See
  5410 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5411 
  5412 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5413 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5414 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5415 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5416 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5417 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5418 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5419 the declared rules.
  5420 
  5421 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5422 
  5423   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5424 
  5425 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5426 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5427 
  5428 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5429 
  5430   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5431 
  5432   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5433     definitions on => and bool.
  5434 
  5435   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5436     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5437     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5438 
  5439       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5440       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5441       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5442       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5443       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5444       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5445       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5446       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5447 
  5448   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5449     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5450     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5451 
  5452   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5453     The proof pattern
  5454 
  5455       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5456       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5457 
  5458     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5459     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5460 
  5461       have "EX S. P S"
  5462       proof
  5463         show "P S" <...>
  5464       qed
  5465 
  5466   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5467     The proof pattern
  5468 
  5469       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5470       also have "S = T" <...>
  5471       finally have "P T" .
  5472 
  5473     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5474     must be replaced by something like
  5475 
  5476       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5477       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5478       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5479 
  5480   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5481     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5482 
  5483       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5484 
  5485     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5486     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5487     type of the form
  5488 
  5489       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5490 
  5491     rather than
  5492 
  5493       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5494 
  5495 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5496 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5497 
  5498 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5499 
  5500 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5501 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5503 
  5504 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5505 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5506 
  5507 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5508 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5509 
  5510 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5511 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5512 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5513 
  5514 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5515 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5516 
  5517   less_trans
  5518   less_linear
  5519   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5520   le_less_trans
  5521   less_le_trans
  5522   less_not_sym
  5523   less_asym
  5524 
  5525 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5526 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5527 and different variable names.
  5528 
  5529 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5530 
  5531 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5532 finite maps.
  5533 
  5534 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5535 
  5536 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5537 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5538 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5539 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5540 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5541 accordingly.
  5542 
  5543 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5544 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5545 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5546 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5547 
  5548 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5549 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5550 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5551 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5552 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5554 
  5555 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5556 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5559 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5560 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5561 
  5562 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5564 
  5565 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5566 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5567 
  5568 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5569 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5570 
  5571 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5572 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5573 
  5574 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5575 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5577 
  5578 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5579 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5580 
  5581 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5582 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5583 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5584 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5585 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5586 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5587 
  5588 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5589 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5590 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5591 
  5592 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5593 
  5594 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5595 
  5596 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5597 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5598 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5599 
  5600 
  5601 *** ZF ***
  5602 
  5603 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5604 same session:
  5605 
  5606   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5607   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5608   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5609   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5610   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5611   List      -> List_ZF
  5612   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5613 
  5614 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5615 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5616 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5617 
  5618 
  5619 *** ML ***
  5620 
  5621 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5622 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5623 
  5624 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5625 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5626 
  5627 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5628 
  5629 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5630 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5631 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5632 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5633 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5634 
  5635 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5636 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5637 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5638 
  5639 
  5640 *** System ***
  5641 
  5642 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5643 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5644 
  5645 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5646 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5647 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5648 
  5649 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5650 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5651 
  5652 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5653 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5654 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5655 
  5656 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5657 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5658 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5659 
  5660 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5661 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5662 
  5663 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5664 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5665 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5666 script.
  5667 
  5668 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5669 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5670 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5671 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5672 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5673 
  5674 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5675 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5676 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5677 
  5678 
  5679 
  5680 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5681 -----------------------------------
  5682 
  5683 *** General ***
  5684 
  5685 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5686 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5687 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5688 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5689 
  5690 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5691 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5692 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5695 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5696 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5697 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5698 
  5699 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5700 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5701 quotes.
  5702 
  5703 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5704 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5705 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5706 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5707 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5708 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5709 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5710 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5711 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5712 
  5713 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5714 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5715 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5716 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5717 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5718 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5719 
  5720 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5721 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5722 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5723 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5724 
  5725 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5726 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5727 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5728 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5729 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5730 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5731 
  5732 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5733 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5734 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5735 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5736 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5737 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5738 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5739 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5740 
  5741 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5742 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5743 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5744 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5745 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5746 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5747 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5748 
  5749 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5750 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5751 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5752 
  5753 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5754 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5755 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5756 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5757 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5758 limit is imposed.
  5759 
  5760 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5761 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5762 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5763 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5764 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5765 and scalability.
  5766 
  5767 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5768 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5769 
  5770 
  5771 *** Document preparation ***
  5772 
  5773 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5774 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5775 current context.
  5776 
  5777 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5778 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5779 
  5780 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5781 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5782 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5783 
  5784 
  5785 *** Pure ***
  5786 
  5787 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5788 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5789 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5790 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5791 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5792 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5793 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5794 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5795 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5796 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5797 
  5798 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5799 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5800 sketch:
  5801 
  5802     internal compilation:
  5803         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5804     writing SML code to a file:
  5805         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5806     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5807         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5808     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5809         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5810 
  5811     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5812         method ``eval''
  5813 
  5814 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5815 
  5816 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5817 
  5818     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5819     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5820     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5821     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5822 
  5823 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5824 
  5825     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5826       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5827 
  5828     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5829       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5830 
  5831     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5832       {(target)}+
  5833         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5834 
  5835     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5836       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5837         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5838 
  5839 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5840 
  5841 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5842 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5843 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5844 codegen".
  5845 
  5846 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5847 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5848 annotations).
  5849 
  5850 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5851 syntax.
  5852 
  5853 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5854 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5855 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5856 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5857 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5858 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5859 
  5860 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5861 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5862 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5863 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5864 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5865 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5866 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5867 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5868 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5869 equations, see section "definitions".
  5870 
  5871 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5872 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5873 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5874 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5875 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5876 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5877 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5878 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5879 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5880 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5881 
  5882 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5883 configuration options:
  5884 
  5885   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5886   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5887   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5888   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5889   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5890   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5891   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5892   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5893   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5894 
  5895 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5896 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5897 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5898 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5899 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5900 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5901 order.
  5902 
  5903 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5904 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5905 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5906 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5907 context encountered later on.
  5908 
  5909 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5910 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5911 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5912 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5913 
  5914 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5915 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5916 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5917 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5918 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5919 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5920 
  5921 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5922 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5923 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5924 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5925 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5926 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5927 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5928 more permissive.
  5929 
  5930 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5931 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5932 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5933 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5934 maintainability of proof texts.
  5935 
  5936 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5937 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5938 
  5939   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5940   then guess x and y by clarify
  5941 
  5942 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5943 proof tools being involved here.
  5944 
  5945 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5946 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5947 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5948 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5949 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5950 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5951 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5952 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5953 
  5954 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5955 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5956 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5957 
  5958   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5959   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5960   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5961   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5962 
  5963 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5964 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5965 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5966 
  5967 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5968 both named and unnamed ones.
  5969 
  5970 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5971 
  5972   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5973 
  5974 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5975 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5976 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5977 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5978 
  5979 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5980 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5981 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5982 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5983 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5984 
  5985 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5986 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5987 
  5988 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5989 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5990 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5991 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5992 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5993 originally first one.
  5994 
  5995 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5996 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5997 expected.
  5998 
  5999 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6000 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6001 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6002 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6003 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6004 
  6005   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6006     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6007     obtains x where "P x"
  6008 
  6009   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6010     assumes "A & B"
  6011     obtains A and B
  6012 
  6013   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6014     assumes "A | B"
  6015     obtains
  6016       A
  6017     | B
  6018 
  6019 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6020 explicitly:
  6021 
  6022   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6023     obtains "~ thesis"
  6024 
  6025   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6026     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6027 
  6028 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6029 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6030 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6031 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6032 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6033 case_names).
  6034 
  6035 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6036 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6037 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6038 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6039 
  6040 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6041 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6042 top-level lemma.
  6043 
  6044 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6045 introduction rule (default "that").
  6046 
  6047 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6048 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6049 to occur.
  6050 
  6051 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6052 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6053 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6054 representations independently of name spaces.
  6055 
  6056 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6057 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6058 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6059 
  6060 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6061 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6062 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6063 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6064 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6065 current context.
  6066 
  6067 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6068 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6069 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6070 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6071 
  6072   axiomatization
  6073     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6074     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6075 
  6076   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6077   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6078 
  6079   abbreviation
  6080     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6081     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6082 
  6083 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6084 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6085 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6086 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6087 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6088 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6089 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6090 
  6091 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6092 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6093 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6094 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6095 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6096 
  6097 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6098 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6099 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6100 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6101 
  6102 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6103 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6104 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6105 
  6106   definition "K x _ = x"
  6107 
  6108   inductive conj for A B
  6109   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6110 
  6111 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6112 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6113 abbreviations on output.
  6114 
  6115 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6116 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6117 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6118 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6119 
  6120 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6121 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6122 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6123 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6124 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6125 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6126 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6127 
  6128 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6129 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6130 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6131 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6132 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6133 
  6134 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6135 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6136 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6137 
  6138 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6139 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6140 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6141 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6142 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6143 
  6144   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6145     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6146 
  6147 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6148 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6149 partial_order.
  6150 
  6151 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6152 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6153 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6154 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6155 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6156 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6157 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6158 examples.
  6159 
  6160 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6161 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6162 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6163 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6164 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6165 
  6166 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6167 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6168 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6169 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6170 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6171 
  6172   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6173   (induct set: foo bar)
  6174   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6175   (induct type: foo bar)
  6176 
  6177 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6178 new format.
  6179 
  6180 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6181 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6182 
  6183 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6184 considered a legacy feature.
  6185 
  6186 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6187 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6188 
  6189 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6190 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6191 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6192 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6193   
  6194 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6195 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6196 manipulating the claset.
  6197 
  6198 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6199 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6200 least one premise.
  6201 
  6202 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6203 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6204 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6205 rule steps.
  6206 
  6207 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6208 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6209 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6210 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6211 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6212 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6213 
  6214 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6215 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6216 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6217 
  6218 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6219 the graph browser tool.
  6220 
  6221 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6222 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6223 
  6224 
  6225 *** HOL ***
  6226 
  6227 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6228 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6229 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6230 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6231 multi-threading.
  6232   
  6233 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6234 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6235 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6236 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6237 work with multi-threading.
  6238 
  6239 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6240 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6241 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6242 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6243 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6244 
  6245 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6246 
  6247 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6248 equality.
  6249 
  6250 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6251 the new 'class' package:
  6252 
  6253     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs