NEWS
author paulson <lp15@cam.ac.uk>
Tue Feb 28 13:51:47 2017 +0000 (2017-02-28)
changeset 65064 a4abec71279a
parent 65057 799bbbb3a395
child 65072 36c650d1a90d
permissions -rw-r--r--
Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable name. Also replaced some legacy def commands
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
    13 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
    14 
    15 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
    16 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
    17 antiquotations:
    18 
    19   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
    20     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
    21   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
    22     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
    23   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
    24 
    25 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
    26 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
    27 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
    28 tutorial on code generation.
    29 
    30 
    31 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    32 
    33 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
    34 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
    35 used for formal checking.
    36 
    37 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
    38 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
    39 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
    40 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
    41 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
    42 effectively always enabled.
    43 
    44 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
    45 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
    46 buffers.
    47 
    48 
    49 *** HOL ***
    50 
    51 * Theory Library/FinFun has been moved to AFP (again).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
    54 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
    55 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
    56 simplify porting old theories:
    57 
    58 syntax (ASCII)
    59   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
    60   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
    61   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
    62 
    63 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
    64 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    65 
    66 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable name.
    67 The syntax \<i> remains available.
    68 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    69 
    70 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP;
    71 use constants transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead.
    72 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    73 
    74 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
    75 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
    76 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires
    77 provision of a euclidean size.
    78 
    79 * Reworking of theory Euclidean_Algorithm in session HOL-Number_Theory:
    80   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct;
    81   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
    82     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
    83     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
    84   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
    85     available as "bezout_coefficients".
    86 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    87 
    88 * Named collection mod_simps covers various congruence rules
    89 concerning mod, replacing former zmod_simps.
    90 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91 
    92 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
    93 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
    94 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
    95 mod_diff_eq.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 
    97 * Generalized some facts:
    98     measure_induct_rule
    99     measure_induct
   100     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
   101     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
   102     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
   103     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
   104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * (Co)datatype package:
   107   - The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer generated for datatypes
   108     with type class annotations. As a result, the tactic that derives
   109     it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
   110 
   111 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
   112 spaces, innessential maps, retracts. Major results include the Jordan
   113 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
   114 
   115 * The theorem in Permutations has been renamed:
   116   bij_swap_ompose_bij ~> bij_swap_compose_bij
   117 
   118 * Session HOL-Library: The simprocs on subsets operators of multisets
   119 have been renamed:
   120   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
   121   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
   122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Session HOL-Library: The suffix _numerals has been removed from the
   125 name of the simprocs on multisets. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 
   128 *** System ***
   129 
   130 * Option parallel_proofs is 1 by default (instead of more aggressive 2).
   131 This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel CPU cycles,
   132 while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated builds
   133 (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
   134 
   135 * Prover IDE support for the Visual Studio Code editor and language
   136 server protocol, via the "isabelle vscode_server" tool (see also
   137 src/Tools/VSCode/README.md). The example application within the VS code
   138 editor is called "Isabelle" and available from its online repository
   139 (the "Marketplace"). It serves as example for further potential IDE
   140 front-ends.
   141 
   142 * ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been renamed to
   143 ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 
   146 
   147 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
   148 -------------------------------------
   149 
   150 *** General ***
   151 
   152 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
   153   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
   154     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
   156     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
   157     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
   158     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
   159     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
   160 
   161 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
   162 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
   163 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
   164 
   165 bundle foo
   166 begin
   167   declare a [simp]
   168   declare b [intro]
   169 end
   170 
   171 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
   172 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
   173 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
   174 
   175 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
   176 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
   177 discontinued.
   178 
   179 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
   180 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
   181 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
   182 
   183 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
   184 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
   185 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
   186 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
   187 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
   190 statements without object-logic judgment.
   191 
   192 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
   193 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
   194 
   195 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
   196 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
   197 examples.
   198 
   199 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
   200 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
   201 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
   202 
   203 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
   204 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
   205 
   206 
   207 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   208 
   209 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
   210 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
   211 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
   212 reactivity and CPU usage.
   213 
   214 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
   215 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
   216 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
   217 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
   218 according to command keywords only; see also option
   219 "jedit_indent_newline".
   220 
   221 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
   222 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
   223 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
   224 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
   225 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
   226 
   227 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
   228 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
   229 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
   230 
   231 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
   232 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
   233 
   234 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
   235 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
   236 
   237 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
   238 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
   239 
   240 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
   241 
   242 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
   243 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
   244 systematic renaming.
   245 
   246 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
   247 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
   248 theorem statement.
   249 
   250 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
   251 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
   252 
   253 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
   254 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
   255 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
   256 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
   257 
   258 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
   259 following independent stages:
   260 
   261   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
   262   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
   263   src/Pure/Pure.thy
   264   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
   265 
   266 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
   267 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
   268 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
   269 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
   270 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
   271 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
   272 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
   273 
   274 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
   275 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
   276 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
   277 
   278 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
   279 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
   280 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
   281 new 'abbrevs' section.
   282 
   283 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
   284 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
   285 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
   286 
   287 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
   288 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
   289 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
   290 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
   291 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
   292 old keymaps.
   293 
   294 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
   295 and diverse:
   296 
   297   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
   298   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
   299   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
   300 
   301 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
   302 have to be changed.
   303 
   304 
   305 *** Document preparation ***
   306 
   307 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
   308 
   309 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
   310 existing antiquotation @{class}.
   311 
   312 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
   313 this allows special forms of document output.
   314 
   315 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
   316 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
   317 derivatives.
   318 
   319 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
   320 
   321 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
   322 Isabelle2015).
   323 
   324 
   325 *** Isar ***
   326 
   327 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
   328 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
   329 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
   330 
   331 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
   332 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
   333 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
   334 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
   335 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
   338 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
   339 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
   340 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
   341 
   342 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
   343 context.
   344 
   345 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
   346 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
   347 
   348 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
   349 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   350 
   351 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
   352 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
   353 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
   354 
   355 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
   356 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
   357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   358 
   359 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
   360 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
   361 definitions.
   362 
   363 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
   364 expression, e.g.
   365 
   366   (use facts in simp)
   367   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
   368 
   369 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
   370 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
   371 
   372 
   373 *** Pure ***
   374 
   375 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
   376 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
   377 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
   378 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
   379 
   380 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
   381 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
   382 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
   383 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
   384 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
   385 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
   386 
   387 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
   388 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
   389 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
   390 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
   391 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
   392 types where this is really intended.
   393 
   394 
   395 *** HOL ***
   396 
   397 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
   398 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
   399 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
   400 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
   401 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
   402 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
   403 
   404 * The new "nunchaku" program integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
   405 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
   406 
   407 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
   408 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 
   410 * Sledgehammer:
   411   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
   412   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
   413 
   414 * (Co)datatype package:
   415   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
   416     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
   417     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
   418     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
   419   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
   420     citizen in bounded natural functors.
   421   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
   422     to the map function.
   423   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
   424   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
   425        terms of map and set
   426        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
   427   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
   428        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
   429     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
   430   - Renamed lemmas:
   431       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
   432       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
   433     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
   435   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
   436     equivalent) form.
   437     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438 
   439 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
   440 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
   441 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
   442 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
   445 
   446   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
   447   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
   448 
   449 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
   450 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
   451 eliminated altogether.
   452 
   453 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
   454 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
   455 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
   456 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
   457 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
   458 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
   459 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
   460 
   461 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
   462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   463 
   464 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
   465 
   466     setsum ~> sum
   467     setprod ~> prod
   468     listsum ~> sum_list
   469     listprod ~> prod_list
   470 
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
   474     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
   475     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
   476     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
   477     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
   478     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
   479     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
   480     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   481     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   482     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   483     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   484     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
   485     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
   486     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
   487     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
   488     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
   489     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
   490     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
   491     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
   492     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
   493     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
   494     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
   495     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   496     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
   497     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   498     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   499     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   500     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   501     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
   502     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
   506 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
   507 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
   510 
   511 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
   512 corresponding to {0..255}.
   513 
   514   - Logical representation:
   515     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
   516     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
   517       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
   518     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
   519       are non-canonical.
   520   - Printing and parsing:
   521     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
   522       (as before).
   523     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
   524     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
   525       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
   526       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
   527     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
   528       printed as their logical representation.
   529   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
   530     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
   531   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
   532 
   533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   534 
   535 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
   536 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
   537 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
   538 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   539 
   540 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
   541 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
   542 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
   543 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
   544 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
   547 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   548 
   549 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
   550 which renders those abstract effectively.
   551 
   552 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
   553 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
   554 interface for the generated code.
   555 
   556 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
   557 spelt out explicitly.
   558 
   559 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
   560 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
   561 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
   562 tutorial on code generation for details.
   563 
   564 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
   565 products.
   566 
   567 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
   568 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
   569 
   570 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
   571 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
   572 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
   573 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
   574 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
   575 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
   576 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
   577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   578 
   579 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
   580 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
   581 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   582 
   583 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
   584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
   587   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
   588   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
   589 
   590 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
   591   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
   592     le_add_same_cancel1
   593     le_add_same_cancel2
   594     less_add_same_cancel1
   595     less_add_same_cancel2
   596     add_le_same_cancel1
   597     add_le_same_cancel2
   598     add_less_same_cancel1
   599     add_less_same_cancel2
   600 
   601 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
   602   superseeded by a more general version:
   603     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
   604     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
   605     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
   606     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
   607     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
   608     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
   609     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
   610     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
   614 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * Added class topological_monoid.
   617 
   618 * The following theorems have been renamed:
   619 
   620   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
   621   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
   622 
   623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
   626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
   629 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
   630 A)".
   631 
   632 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 
   634 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
   635 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
   636 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
   637 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
   640 dioid.
   641 
   642 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
   643 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
   644 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
   645 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
   648 of a more general type also:
   649   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
   650   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
   651   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
   652   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
   653   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   654   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   655   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   656   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   657   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
   658   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   659   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   660   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
   661   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
   662   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
   663   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
   664   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
   665   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
   666   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
   667   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
   668   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
   669   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
   670   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
   671   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
   672   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
   673   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
   674   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
   675   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
   676   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
   677   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
   678   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
   679   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
   680   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
   681   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
   682   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
   683   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
   684   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
   685   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
   686   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
   687   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
   688   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
   689   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
   690   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
   691   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   692   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   693   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
   694   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
   695   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
   696   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
   697   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
   698   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   699   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   700   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   701   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   702   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
   703   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
   704   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
   705   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
   706   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
   707   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
   708   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
   709   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
   710   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
   711   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
   712   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
   713   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
   714   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
   715   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   716   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   717   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   718   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   719   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
   720   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
   721   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
   722   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
   723   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
   724   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
   725   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
   726   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
   727   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
   728   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
   729   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
   730   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
   731   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
   732   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   733   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   734   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
   735   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
   736   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
   737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
   740 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741 
   742 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
   743 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
   744 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
   745 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
   746 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
   747 
   748 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
   749 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
   750 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
   751 once.
   752 
   753 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
   754 set_mset rather than count.
   755 
   756   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
   757     by default.
   758 
   759   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
   760     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
   761 
   762   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
   763     "count M a = n" from membership.
   764 
   765   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
   766     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
   767 
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
   771 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
   772 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
   773 underscores.
   774 
   775 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
   776 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
   777 relation.
   778 
   779 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
   780 everywhere fix bijections.
   781 
   782 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
   783 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
   784 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
   785 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
   786 
   787 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
   788 
   789 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
   790 
   791 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
   792 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
   793 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   794 
   795 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
   796 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
   797 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
   798 
   799 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
   800 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
   801 
   802 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
   803 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
   804 domain.
   805 
   806 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
   807 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   810   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   811 
   812 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
   813 Probability Mass Functions.
   814 
   815 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
   816 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
   817 folding over a list in random order.
   818 
   819 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
   820 subprobability distributions.
   821 
   822 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
   823 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
   824 
   825     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
   826     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
   827     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
   828     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
   829     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
   830     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
   831     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
   832     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
   833     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
   834     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
   835     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
   836     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
   837     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
   838     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
   839     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
   840     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
   841     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
   842     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
   843     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
   844     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
   845     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
   846     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
   847 
   848 Some functions have been renamed:
   849     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
   850 
   851 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
   852     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
   853     #\<subset># ~> <
   854     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
   855     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
   856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
   859 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
   860 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
   861 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
   862 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   863 
   864 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
   865 been renamed:
   866 
   867     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
   868     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
   869     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   870     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
   871     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
   872     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
   873     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
   874     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
   875     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
   876 
   877     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
   878     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
   879     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   880     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
   881     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
   882     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
   883     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
   884     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
   885     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
   886     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
   887     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
   888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889 
   890 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
   891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
   894 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
   895 
   896     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   897     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   898     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   899     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   900     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
   901     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   902     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   903     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   904     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
   905     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
   906     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
   907     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
   908     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
   909     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   910     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   911     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   912     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   913 
   914 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
   915 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
   916 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
   917 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
   918 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
   919 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   920 
   921 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
   922 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
   923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
   926 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
   927 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   928 
   929 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
   930 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
   931 removed or changed:
   932 
   933   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
   934   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
   935   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
   936   union_single_eq_diff
   937   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   938   diff_single_eq_union
   939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   940 
   941 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
   942 to use add_mset instead of single:
   943 
   944   mset_add
   945   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   946   diff_single_eq_union
   947   union_single_eq_diff
   948   union_single_eq_member
   949   add_eq_conv_diff
   950   insert_noteq_member
   951   add_eq_conv_ex
   952   multi_member_split
   953   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
   954   mset_subset_eq_insertD
   955   mset_subset_insertD
   956   insert_subset_eq_iff
   957   insert_union_subset_iff
   958   multi_psub_of_add_self
   959   inter_add_left1
   960   inter_add_left2
   961   inter_add_right1
   962   inter_add_right2
   963   sup_union_left1
   964   sup_union_left2
   965   sup_union_right1
   966   sup_union_right2
   967   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
   968   multi_nonempty_split
   969   mset_insort
   970   mset_update
   971   mult1I
   972   less_add
   973   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
   974   rel_mset_Zero
   975   msed_map_invL
   976   msed_map_invR
   977   msed_rel_invL
   978   msed_rel_invR
   979   le_multiset_right_total
   980   multiset_induct
   981   multiset_induct2_size
   982   multiset_induct2
   983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   984 
   985 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
   986 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
   987 element:
   988 
   989   image_mset
   990   mset
   991   replicate_mset
   992   mult1
   993   pred_mset
   994   rel_mset'
   995   mset_insort
   996 
   997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  1000 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  1001 
  1002   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  1003   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  1004   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  1005   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  1006   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  1007   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1008   count_single [simp] ~> []
  1009   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1010   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  1011   size_single [simp] ~> []
  1012   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1013   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1014   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1015   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1016   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  1017   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  1018   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  1019   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  1020   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  1021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1022 
  1023 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  1024 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  1025 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  1026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  1029 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  1030 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  1033 multisets:
  1034 
  1035   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  1036   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  1037 
  1038 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  1039 and union of multisets have been changed:
  1040 
  1041   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  1042   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  1043 
  1044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045 
  1046 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  1047 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  1048 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1049 
  1050 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  1051 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  1052 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  1053 
  1054 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  1055 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  1056 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  1057 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  1058 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  1059 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  1062 the following renaming
  1063 
  1064   prefixeq -> prefix
  1065   prefix -> strict_prefix
  1066   suffixeq -> suffix
  1067   suffix -> strict_suffix
  1068 
  1069 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  1070 
  1071 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  1072 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  1073 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  1074 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  1075 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  1076 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  1079 theories.
  1080 
  1081 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  1082 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  1083 
  1084 
  1085 *** ML ***
  1086 
  1087 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  1088 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  1089 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  1090 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  1091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  1094 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  1095 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  1096 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  1097 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1098 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  1099 superseded by General.Div.
  1100 
  1101 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  1102 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  1105 with approximative output quality.
  1106 
  1107 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  1108 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1109 
  1110 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  1111 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  1112 requiring separate files.
  1113 
  1114 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  1115 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  1116 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  1117 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  1118 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  1119 
  1120 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  1121 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  1122 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  1123 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  1124 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  1125 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  1126 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  1129 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  1130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  1133 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  1134 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  1135 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  1138 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 
  1141 *** System ***
  1142 
  1143 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  1144 
  1145 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  1146 much less disk space.
  1147 
  1148 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  1149 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  1150 particular:
  1151 
  1152   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  1153     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  1154   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  1155   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  1156 
  1157 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  1158 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  1159 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1160 
  1161 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  1162 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  1163 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  1164 return code 1.
  1165 
  1166 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  1167 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  1168 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  1169 
  1170 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  1171 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  1172 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  1173 
  1174 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  1175 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  1176 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  1177 by default).
  1178 
  1179 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  1180 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  1181 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  1182 resulting log files.
  1183 
  1184 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  1185 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  1186 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  1187 implicit default via option -p.
  1188 
  1189 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  1190 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  1191 
  1192 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  1193 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  1194 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  1195 
  1196 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  1197 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  1198 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  1199 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  1200 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  1203 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  1204 "isabelle_scala_script".
  1205 
  1206 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  1207 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  1208 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  1209 
  1210 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  1211 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  1212 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  1213 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  1214 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  1215 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  1216 been discontinued.
  1217 
  1218 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  1219 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  1220 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  1221 
  1222 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  1223 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  1224 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  1225 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  1226 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  1227 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  1228 
  1229 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  1230 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  1231 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  1232 connection).
  1233 
  1234 
  1235 
  1236 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  1237 -----------------------------------
  1238 
  1239 *** General ***
  1240 
  1241 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  1242 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  1243 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  1244 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  1245 examples that do require HOL.
  1246 
  1247 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  1248 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  1249 
  1250 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  1251 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  1252 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  1253 has been removed (see below).
  1254 
  1255 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  1256 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  1257 
  1258 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  1259 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  1260 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  1261 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  1262 
  1263 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  1264 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  1265 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  1266 meaning.
  1267 
  1268 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  1269 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  1270 to update old sources.
  1271 
  1272 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  1273 
  1274   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  1275   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  1276   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  1277   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  1278 
  1279 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  1280 accordingly.
  1281 
  1282 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  1283 'theorem'.
  1284 
  1285 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  1286 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  1287 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  1288 
  1289 
  1290 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1291 
  1292 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  1293 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  1294 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  1295 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  1296 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  1297 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  1298 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  1299 any effect on the running ML program.
  1300 
  1301 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  1302 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  1303 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  1304 update.
  1305 
  1306 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  1307 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  1308 enable option "editor_output_state".
  1309 
  1310 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  1311 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  1312 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  1313 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  1314 visibility.
  1315 
  1316 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  1317 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  1318 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  1319 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  1320 panel.
  1321 
  1322 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  1323 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  1324 
  1325 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  1326 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  1327 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  1328 
  1329 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  1330 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  1331 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  1332 
  1333 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  1334 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  1335 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  1336 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  1337 
  1338 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  1339 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  1340 the editor.
  1341 
  1342 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  1343 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  1344 
  1345 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  1346 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  1347 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  1348 instead.
  1349 
  1350 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  1351 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  1352 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  1353 
  1354 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  1355 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  1356 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  1357 
  1358 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  1359 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  1360 
  1361 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  1362 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  1363 
  1364 
  1365 *** Document preparation ***
  1366 
  1367 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  1368 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  1369 
  1370 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  1371 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  1372 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  1373 
  1374 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  1375 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  1376 follows:
  1377 
  1378   \<^item>  itemize
  1379   \<^enum>  enumerate
  1380   \<^descr>  description
  1381 
  1382 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  1383 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  1384 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  1385 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  1386 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  1387 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  1388 
  1389 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  1390 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  1391 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  1392 
  1393 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  1394 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  1395 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  1396 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  1397 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  1398 
  1399 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  1400 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  1401 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  1402 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  1403 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  1404 
  1405 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  1406 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  1407 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  1408 
  1409 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  1410 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  1411 
  1412 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  1413 
  1414 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  1415 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  1416 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  1417 
  1418 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  1419 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1420 
  1421 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  1422 entities of the Isar language.
  1423 
  1424 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  1425 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  1426 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  1427 
  1428 
  1429 *** Isar ***
  1430 
  1431 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  1432 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  1433 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  1434 example:
  1435 
  1436   have result: "C x y"
  1437     if "A x" and "B y"
  1438     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1439     <proof>
  1440 
  1441 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  1442 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  1443 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  1444 
  1445   {
  1446     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1447     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  1448     have "C x y" <proof>
  1449   }
  1450   note result = this
  1451 
  1452 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  1453 instead of 'assume' above.
  1454 
  1455 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  1456 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  1457 
  1458   assume result: "C x y"
  1459     if "A x" and "B y"
  1460     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1461 
  1462 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  1463 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  1464 
  1465 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  1466 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  1467 example:
  1468 
  1469   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  1470 
  1471 is equivalent to:
  1472 
  1473   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  1474 
  1475 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  1476 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  1477 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  1478 follows:
  1479 
  1480   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1481 
  1482 or:
  1483 
  1484   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  1485 
  1486 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  1487 
  1488   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  1489 
  1490 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  1491 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  1492 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  1493 of the local context elements yet.
  1494 
  1495 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  1496 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  1497 
  1498   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  1499   then have something
  1500   proof cases
  1501     case a
  1502     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1503   next
  1504     case b
  1505     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1506   next
  1507     case c
  1508     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1509   qed
  1510 
  1511 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  1512 
  1513   case a: (c xs)
  1514   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  1515 
  1516 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  1517 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  1518 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  1519 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  1520 and always put attributes in front.
  1521 
  1522 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  1523 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  1524 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  1525 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  1526 
  1527 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  1528 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  1529 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  1530 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  1531 
  1532   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  1533     supply [simp] = a
  1534   proof
  1535     show A by simp
  1536   next
  1537     show A by simp
  1538   qed
  1539 
  1540 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  1541 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  1542 
  1543 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  1544 parameter scope for of each clause.
  1545 
  1546 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  1547 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  1548 
  1549 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  1550 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  1551 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  1552 manual.
  1553 
  1554 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  1555 ('apply' scripts).
  1556 
  1557 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  1558 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  1559 example:
  1560 
  1561 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1562   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1563 proof goal_cases
  1564   case (1 x)
  1565   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  1566 next
  1567   case (2 y z)
  1568   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  1569 qed
  1570 
  1571 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1572   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1573 proof goal_cases
  1574   case prems: 1
  1575   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1576 next
  1577   case prems: 2
  1578   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1579 qed
  1580 
  1581 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  1582 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  1583 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  1584 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  1585 
  1586 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  1587 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  1588 
  1589 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  1590 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  1591 
  1592 
  1593 *** Pure ***
  1594 
  1595 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  1596 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  1597 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  1598 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1599 
  1600 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  1601 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  1604 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  1605 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  1606 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  1607 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  1608 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  1609 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  1610 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  1611 
  1612   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  1613   begin
  1614     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  1615   end
  1616 
  1617   locale morphism =
  1618     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  1619     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  1620   begin
  1621     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  1622   end
  1623 
  1624 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  1625 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  1626 
  1627 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  1628 'defines'.
  1629 
  1630 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  1631 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  1634 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  1635 
  1636 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  1637 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638 
  1639 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  1640 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  1641 exploited.
  1642 
  1643 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  1644 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  1645 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  1646 
  1647 
  1648 *** HOL ***
  1649 
  1650 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  1651 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  1652 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  1653 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  1654 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  1655 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  1658 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  1659 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  1660 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  1661 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  1662 
  1663 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  1664 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  1665 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  1666 simplify porting old theories:
  1667 
  1668   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  1669 
  1670   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  1671 
  1672   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  1673   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  1674 
  1675   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  1676 
  1677   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  1678   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  1679 
  1680   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  1681 
  1682   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  1683     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  1684 
  1685   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  1686   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1687   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1688 
  1689   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  1690   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1691   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1692 
  1693 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  1694 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  1695 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  1696 
  1697 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  1698 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  1699 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  1700 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  1701 
  1702 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  1703 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1704 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  1705 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1706 
  1707 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  1708 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1709 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  1710 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1711 
  1712 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  1713 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  1714 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  1715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1716 
  1717 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  1718 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  1719 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  1720 
  1721 Consolidated facts:
  1722   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  1723   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  1724   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  1725   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  1726   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  1727   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  1728   split_split ~> prod.split
  1729   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  1730   splitI ~> case_prodI
  1731   splitD ~> case_prodD
  1732   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  1733   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  1734   splitE ~> case_prodE
  1735   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  1736   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  1737   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  1738   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  1739   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  1740   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  1741   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  1742   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  1743   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  1744   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  1745   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  1746   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  1747   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  1748   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  1749   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  1750   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  1751   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  1752   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  1753   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  1754   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  1755   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  1756   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  1757 
  1758 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  1759   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  1760   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  1761   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  1762   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  1763 
  1764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1765 
  1766 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  1767 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  1768 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  1769 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  1770 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  1771 
  1772 Consolidated facts (among others):
  1773   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  1774   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  1775   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  1776   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  1777   real_of_one of_int_1
  1778   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  1779   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  1780   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  1781   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  1782   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  1783   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  1784   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  1785   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  1786   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  1787   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  1788   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  1789   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  1790   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  1791   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  1792   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  1793   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1794   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  1795 
  1796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1797 
  1798 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  1799 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  1802 
  1803 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1804 
  1805 * Sledgehammer:
  1806   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  1807   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  1808     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  1809   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  1810   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  1811   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  1812     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  1814 
  1815 * Nitpick:
  1816   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  1817   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1818   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  1819   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  1820   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  1821 
  1822 * (Co)datatype package:
  1823   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  1824     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  1825   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  1826   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  1827     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1828   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  1829     being defined.
  1830   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  1831 
  1832 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  1833 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  1834 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  1835 
  1836 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  1837 
  1838 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  1839 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  1840 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  1841 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  1842 
  1843 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  1844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1845 
  1846 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  1847 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  1848 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  1849 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  1850 
  1851 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  1852 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  1853 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  1854 
  1855 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  1856 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  1857 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  1858 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  1859 
  1860 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  1861 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  1862 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  1863 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1864 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  1865 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  1866 during instantiation.
  1867 
  1868 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  1869 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  1870 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871 
  1872 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  1873 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  1874 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  1875 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  1876 
  1877   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1878   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1879 
  1880 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1881 
  1882 * Library/Multiset:
  1883   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  1884       < ~> <#
  1885       > ~> >#
  1886       <= ~> <=#
  1887       >= ~> >=#
  1888       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  1889       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  1890     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1891   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  1892       \<subset>#
  1893       \<subseteq>#
  1894       \<supset>#
  1895       \<supseteq>#
  1896   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  1897     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  1898     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  1899     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  1900     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  1901     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  1902     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903   - Renamed conversions:
  1904       multiset_of ~> mset
  1905       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  1906       set_of ~> set_mset
  1907     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1908   - Renamed lemmas:
  1909       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1910       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  1911       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1912     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1913   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  1914     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  1915     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  1916     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1917 
  1918 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  1919 
  1920 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  1921 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  1922 chain-complete partial orders.
  1923 
  1924 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  1925 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  1926 
  1927 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  1928 periodic functions.
  1929 
  1930 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  1931 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  1932 GCD.
  1933 
  1934 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  1935 
  1936 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  1937 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1938 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1939 
  1940 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  1941 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  1942 
  1943 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  1944 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  1945 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  1946 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  1947 
  1948 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  1949 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  1950 
  1951 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  1952 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  1953 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  1954 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  1955 properties.
  1956 
  1957 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  1958 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  1959 
  1960 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  1961 structures.
  1962 
  1963 
  1964 *** ML ***
  1965 
  1966 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  1967 system are available:
  1968 
  1969   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  1970   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  1971   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  1972 
  1973 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  1974 
  1975 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  1976 Isar proof method.
  1977 
  1978 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  1979 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  1980 breaks.
  1981 
  1982 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  1983 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  1984 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  1987 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  1988 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  1989 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  1990 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  1993 
  1994   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  1995   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  1996 
  1997   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  1998   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  1999 
  2000 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  2001 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  2002 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  2003 
  2004 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  2005 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  2006 instead (with proper context).
  2007 
  2008 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  2009 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  2010 
  2011 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  2012 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  2013 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  2014 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  2015 the proof context discipline.
  2016 
  2017 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  2018 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  2019 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  2020 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  2021 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 
  2024 *** System ***
  2025 
  2026 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  2027 
  2028 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  2029 conflations:
  2030 
  2031     hence  ~>  then have
  2032     thus   ~>  then show
  2033 
  2034 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  2035 maintainability of proofs.
  2036 
  2037 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  2038 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  2039 performance.
  2040 
  2041 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  2042 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  2043 
  2044     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  2045 
  2046 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  2047 space.
  2048 
  2049 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  2050 platforms as follows.
  2051 
  2052   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  2053     associated with the main app bundle
  2054 
  2055   - isabelle jedit: settings
  2056     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  2057     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2058 
  2059   - isabelle build: settings
  2060     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2061 
  2062 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  2063 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  2064 
  2065 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  2066 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  2067 required after change.
  2068 
  2069 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  2070 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  2071 
  2072 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  2073 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  2074 
  2075 
  2076 
  2077 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  2078 ------------------------------
  2079 
  2080 *** General ***
  2081 
  2082 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  2083 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  2084 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  2085 
  2086   context
  2087   begin
  2088 
  2089   private definition ...
  2090   private lemma ...
  2091 
  2092   qualified definition ...
  2093   qualified lemma ...
  2094 
  2095   lemma ...
  2096   theorem ...
  2097 
  2098   end
  2099 
  2100 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  2101 naming policy.
  2102 
  2103 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  2104 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  2105 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  2106 
  2107 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  2108 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  2109 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  2110 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  2111 
  2112 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  2113 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  2114 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  2115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  2118 theory context.
  2119 
  2120 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  2121 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  2122 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  2123 
  2124 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  2125 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  2126 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  2127 sources.
  2128 
  2129 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  2130 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  2131 
  2132 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  2133 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  2134 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  2135 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  2136 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  2137 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  2138 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  2139 
  2140 
  2141 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2142 
  2143 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  2144 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  2145 
  2146 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  2147 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  2148 in the buffer.
  2149 
  2150 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  2151 marker, SideKick parser.
  2152 
  2153 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  2154 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  2155 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  2156 
  2157 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  2158 Options / Text Area).
  2159 
  2160 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  2161 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  2162 
  2163 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  2164 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  2165 
  2166 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  2167 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  2168 
  2169 
  2170 *** Document preparation ***
  2171 
  2172 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  2173 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  2174 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  2175 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  2176 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  2177 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  2178 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  2179 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  2182 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  2183 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  2184 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  2185 
  2186 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  2187 style.
  2188 
  2189 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  2190 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  2191 
  2192 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  2193 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  2194 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  2195 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  2196 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2197 
  2198 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  2199 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  2200 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  2201 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  2202 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  2203 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  2204 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  2207 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  2208 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  2209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2210 
  2211 
  2212 *** Pure ***
  2213 
  2214 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  2215 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  2216 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  2217 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  2218 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  2219 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2220 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  2221 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  2222 
  2223 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  2224 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  2225 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  2226 
  2227 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  2228 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  2229 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  2230 different index.
  2231 
  2232 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  2233 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  2234 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  2235 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  2236 
  2237 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  2238 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  2239 token category instead.
  2240 
  2241 
  2242 *** HOL ***
  2243 
  2244 * New (co)datatype package:
  2245   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  2246     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  2247     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2248     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250   - Renamed theorems:
  2251       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  2252       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  2253       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  2254       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  2255       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  2256       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  2257       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  2258       sel_map ~> map_sel
  2259       sel_set ~> set_sel
  2260       sel_split ~> split_sel
  2261       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  2262       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  2263       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2264     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  2266     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  2267     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  2269     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  2270     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2271   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  2272     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  2273     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  2274     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  2275     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  2276     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  2277     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278   - Renamed theories:
  2279       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  2280       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  2281       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  2282       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  2283       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  2284       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  2285     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  2287     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  2288     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  2289     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  2290     rel_sum (using inductive).
  2291     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  2292     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  2293     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  2294     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  2295   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  2296     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  2297     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  2298     rules.
  2299 
  2300 * Old datatype package:
  2301   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  2302     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  2303     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2304     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2305     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2306   - Renamed theorems:
  2307       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309   - Renamed theory:
  2310       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  2311     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312 
  2313 * Nitpick:
  2314   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  2315     operations.
  2316 
  2317 * Sledgehammer:
  2318   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  2319     default.
  2320   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  2321     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  2322   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  2323     Removed sub-command:
  2324       min
  2325   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  2326     dramatically improved.
  2327   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  2328 
  2329 * Old and new SMT modules:
  2330   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  2331     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  2332     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  2333     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  2334     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  2335     point to it.
  2336     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  2338     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2339   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  2340     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  2341   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  2342     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  2343 
  2344 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  2345 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  2346 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  2347 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  2348 
  2349 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  2350 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  2351 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  2354 
  2355 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  2356 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  2357 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  2358 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  2361 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  2364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  2367 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  2368 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  2371 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2372 
  2373 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  2374 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  2375 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  2376 
  2377 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  2378 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  2379 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  2380 needed.
  2381 
  2382 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  2383 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  2384 
  2385 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  2386 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  2387 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  2388 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  2389 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  2390 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  2391 
  2392 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  2393 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  2394 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  2395 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  2396 
  2397 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  2398 type class hierarchy:
  2399   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  2400   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  2401   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  2402   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  2403 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  2406   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  2407   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  2408 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2409 
  2410 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  2411 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  2412 
  2413 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  2414   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  2415   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  2416   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  2417 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  2420 and part of theory Main.
  2421   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  2422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  2425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2426 
  2427 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  2428 Fact rename:
  2429     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  2430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2431 
  2432 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  2433 
  2434 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  2435 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  2436 
  2437 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  2438 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  2439 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  2440 
  2441 * Library/Multiset:
  2442   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  2443   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  2444     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  2445   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  2446       <# ~> #<#
  2447       <=# ~> #<=#
  2448       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  2449       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  2450     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  2452       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  2453       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  2454     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455   - Renamed
  2456       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  2457       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  2458       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  2459     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  2461   - Added attributes:
  2462       image_mset.id [simp]
  2463       image_mset_id [simp]
  2464       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  2465       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  2466       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  2467       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  2468       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  2469       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  2470     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  2473 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  2474 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  2475 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2476 
  2477 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  2478 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  2479 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  2480 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  2481 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  2482 examples.
  2483 
  2484 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  2485   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  2486   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  2487   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  2488     projection
  2489 
  2490 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  2491 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  2492 
  2493 
  2494 *** ML ***
  2495 
  2496 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  2497 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  2498 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  2499 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  2500 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  2501 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  2502 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  2503 
  2504 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  2505 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  2506 
  2507 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  2508 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  2509 
  2510 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  2511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  2514 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  2515 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  2516 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  2517 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  2518 nested.
  2519 
  2520 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  2521 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  2524 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  2525 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  2526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527 
  2528 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  2529 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  2530 Thm.term_of etc.
  2531 
  2532 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  2533 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  2534 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  2537 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  2538 
  2539 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  2540 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  2541 
  2542 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  2543 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  2544 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2545 
  2546 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  2547 Input.source (with formal position information).
  2548 
  2549 
  2550 *** System ***
  2551 
  2552 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  2553 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  2554 
  2555 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  2556 
  2557 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  2558 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  2559 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  2560 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  2561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562 
  2563 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  2564 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  2565 
  2566 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  2567 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  2568 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  2569 
  2570 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  2571 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  2572 
  2573 
  2574 
  2575 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  2576 ---------------------------------
  2577 
  2578 *** General ***
  2579 
  2580 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  2581 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  2582 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  2583 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  2584 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  2585 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  2586 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  2587 some examples.
  2588 
  2589 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  2590 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  2591 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  2592 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  2593 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  2594 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  2595 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  2596 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  2597 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  2598 
  2599 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  2600 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  2601 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  2602 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  2603 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  2604 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  2605 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  2606 proof tools.
  2607 
  2608 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  2609 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  2610 supports input via ` (backquote).
  2611 
  2612 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  2613 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  2614 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  2615 
  2616 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  2617 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  2618 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  2619 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  2622 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  2623 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  2624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  2627 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  2628 
  2629 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  2630 not check existence within the file-system.
  2631 
  2632 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  2633 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  2634 
  2635 
  2636 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2637 
  2638 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  2639 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  2640 buffer.
  2641 
  2642 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  2643 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  2644 
  2645 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  2646 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  2647 
  2648 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  2649 auxiliary ML files.
  2650 
  2651 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  2652 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  2653 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  2654 
  2655 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  2656 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  2657 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  2658 
  2659 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  2660 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  2661 
  2662 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  2663 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  2664 caret".
  2665 
  2666 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  2667 completion popup and context-menu.
  2668 
  2669 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  2670 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  2671 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  2672 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  2673 
  2674 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  2675 to highlight text via regular expression.
  2676 
  2677 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  2678 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  2679 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  2680 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  2681 
  2682 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  2683 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  2684 
  2685 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  2686 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  2687 
  2688 * Improved monitor panel.
  2689 
  2690 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  2691 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  2692 
  2693 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  2694 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  2695 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  2696 
  2697 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  2698 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  2699 within the context.
  2700 
  2701 
  2702 *** Pure ***
  2703 
  2704 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  2705 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  2706 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  2707 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  2708 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  2709 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  2710 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  2711 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  2712 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  2713 
  2714 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  2715 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  2716 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  2717 renaming needs to be applied:
  2718 
  2719   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  2720   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  2721   all            ~>  Pure.all
  2722   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  2723   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  2724 
  2725 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  2726 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  2727 old constants:
  2728 
  2729 setup {*
  2730   fn thy => thy
  2731     |> Sign.root_path
  2732     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  2733     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  2734     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  2735     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  2736 *}
  2737 
  2738 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  2739 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  2740 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  2741 
  2742 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  2743 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  2744 instantiated theorem.
  2745 
  2746 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  2747 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  2748 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  2749 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  2750 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  2751 
  2752   attribute_setup standard =
  2753     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  2754 
  2755 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  2756 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  2757 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  2758 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  2759 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  2760 
  2761 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  2762 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  2763 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  2764 
  2765 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  2766 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  2767 
  2768 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  2769 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  2770 
  2771 
  2772 *** HOL ***
  2773 
  2774 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  2775 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2776 
  2777 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  2778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779 
  2780 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  2781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2782 
  2783 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  2784 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  2787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  2790 with the given constants.
  2791 
  2792 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  2793 operations on records.
  2794 
  2795 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  2796 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799 
  2800 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  2801 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  2802 
  2803 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  2806 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  2807 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  2808 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  2809 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  2812 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2813 
  2814 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  2815   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  2816   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  2817   part of theory "Main".
  2818 
  2819   Theory renamings:
  2820     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  2821     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  2822     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  2823     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  2824     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  2825     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  2826     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  2827     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  2828     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  2829     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  2830     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  2831     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  2832     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  2833     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  2834     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  2835     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  2836     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  2837     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  2838     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  2839     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  2840     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  2841     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  2842 
  2843   New theories:
  2844     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  2845     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  2846     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  2847     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  2848     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  2849 
  2850   Discontinued theories:
  2851     BNF/BNF.thy
  2852     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  2853 
  2854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * New (co)datatype package:
  2857   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  2858   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  2859     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  2860   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  2861     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  2862   - Renamed commands:
  2863       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  2864       primrec_new ~> primrec
  2865       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  2866     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  2868     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  2869     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  2871     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  2872     using "prim(co)rec".
  2873     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  2875     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  2876     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  2878     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  2879     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  2880     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Old datatype package:
  2883   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  2884     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  2885     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  2887     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  2888     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2889 
  2890 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  2891   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  2892   BNF-based datatype package.
  2893 
  2894   Renamed constants:
  2895     Option.set ~> set_option
  2896     Option.map ~> map_option
  2897     option_rel ~> rel_option
  2898 
  2899   Renamed theorems:
  2900     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  2901     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  2902     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  2903     option.recs ~> option.rec
  2904     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  2905     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  2906     map.simps ~> list.map
  2907     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  2908     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  2909     the.simps ~> option.sel
  2910 
  2911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  2914     sum_map ~> map_sum
  2915     map_pair ~> map_prod
  2916     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  2917     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  2918     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  2919     set_rel ~> rel_set
  2920     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  2921     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  2922     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  2923     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  2924 
  2925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926 
  2927 * Lifting and Transfer:
  2928   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  2929   - stronger reflexivity prover
  2930   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  2931   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  2932     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  2933     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  2934       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  2935       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  2936       automatically
  2937     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  2938     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  2939       automatically for datatypes
  2940   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  2941     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  2942       more
  2943       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  2945       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  2946       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  2948       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  2949       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950   - registration of code equations is more robust
  2951     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  2953     form
  2954     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  2956     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2957   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  2958     Code_Numeral.natural
  2959     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  2961     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2962 
  2963 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  2964 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  2965 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  2966 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  2967 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  2968 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  2969 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  2972 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  2973 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  2974 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  2975 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  2976 
  2977 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  2978 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  2979 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  2980 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  2981 
  2982 * Sledgehammer:
  2983   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  2984   - MaSh overhaul:
  2985     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  2986       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  2987     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  2988       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  2989       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  2990       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  2991   - New option:
  2992       smt_proofs
  2993   - Renamed options:
  2994       isar_compress ~> compress
  2995       isar_try0 ~> try0
  2996 
  2997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  3000 
  3001 * Nitpick:
  3002   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  3003     take infinite values.
  3004   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  3005     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  3006   - Removed "std" option.
  3007   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  3008     "hide_types".
  3009 
  3010 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  3011 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  3014 
  3015 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  3016   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  3017   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  3018     SUP instead uniformly.
  3019   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  3020     or SUP and Sup.
  3021   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  3022   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  3023   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  3024     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  3025     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  3026 
  3027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  3030 
  3031 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  3032 
  3033   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3034   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3035   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3036   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3037 
  3038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3039 
  3040 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  3041 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  3042 
  3043 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  3044 
  3045     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  3046     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  3047     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  3048     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  3049     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  3050     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  3051     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  3052     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  3053     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  3054     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  3055     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  3056     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  3057     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  3058     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  3059     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3060     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3061     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  3062     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  3063     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  3064     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  3065     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  3066     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  3067     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  3068     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  3069     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  3070     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  3071     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  3072     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  3073     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  3074     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  3075     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  3076     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  3077     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  3078     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  3079     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  3080     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  3081     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  3082     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  3083     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  3084     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  3085     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  3086     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  3087     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  3088     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3089     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3090     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  3091     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  3092     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  3093     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  3094     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  3095     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  3096     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  3097     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  3098     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  3099     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  3100     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  3101     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  3102     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  3103     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  3104 
  3105   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  3106   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  3107   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  3108     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  3109 
  3110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  3113 
  3114   Fact consolidations:
  3115     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  3116     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  3117     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  3118     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  3119     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  3120     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  3121     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  3122     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  3123     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  3124     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  3125     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  3126     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  3127     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  3128     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  3129     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  3130     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  3131     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  3132     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  3133     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  3134     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  3135     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  3136     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  3137     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  3138     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  3139     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  3140     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  3141     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  3142     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  3143     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  3144     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  3145     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  3146     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  3147     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  3148     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  3149     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  3150     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  3151     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  3152     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  3153     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  3154     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  3155 
  3156 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  3157 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  3158 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  3159 
  3160 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  3161 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  3162 
  3163 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  3164 
  3165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  3168 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  3171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172 
  3173 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  3174     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  3175 
  3176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3177 
  3178 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  3179   consolidation:
  3180     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  3181     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  3182 
  3183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  3186   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  3187   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  3188   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  3189     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  3190   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  3191     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  3192   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  3193 
  3194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195 
  3196 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  3197 
  3198     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3199     add_commute ~> add.commute
  3200     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3201     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3202     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3203     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  3204     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3205     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  3206     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3207     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3208     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3209     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  3210     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  3211 
  3212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  3215 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  3216 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  3217 
  3218 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  3219     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  3220     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  3221     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  3222     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  3223 
  3224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Fact name consolidation:
  3227     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3228     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  3229     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  3230     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  3231     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  3232 
  3233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  3236 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  3237 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  3238 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  3239 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  3240 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  3241 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  3242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  3245 
  3246 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  3247 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  3248 
  3249 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  3250 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  3251 
  3252 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  3253 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  3254 or the brute way with
  3255 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  3256 
  3257 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  3258 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  3259 stating boundedness of sets.
  3260 
  3261 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  3262 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  3263 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  3266   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  3267   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  3268   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  3269   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  3270   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  3271   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  3272   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  3273   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  3274   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  3275   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  3276   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  3277 
  3278   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  3279 
  3280   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  3281 
  3282     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  3283     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  3284     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  3285     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  3286     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  3287 
  3288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3289 
  3290 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  3291   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  3292 
  3293   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  3294 
  3295   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  3296 
  3297   - removed constant isDiff
  3298 
  3299   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  3300     input syntax.
  3301 
  3302   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  3303 
  3304   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  3305 
  3306   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  3307 
  3308   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  3309 
  3310   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  3311     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  3312     has_vector_derivative.
  3313 
  3314   - Other renamings:
  3315     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  3316     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  3317     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  3318     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  3319     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  3320     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  3321     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  3322 
  3323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  3326 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  3327 in continuous_intros.
  3328 
  3329 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  3330 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  3331 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  3332 
  3333 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  3334 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  3335 especially removes
  3336 
  3337     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  3338 
  3339 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  3340     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  3341 
  3342 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  3343 
  3344   Renamings:
  3345     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  3346     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  3347     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  3348     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  3349     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  3350     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  3351     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  3352     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  3353     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  3354     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  3355     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  3356     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  3357 
  3358     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  3359     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  3360     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  3361 
  3362   Removed theorems:
  3363     complex_zero_def
  3364     complex_add_def
  3365     complex_minus_def
  3366     complex_diff_def
  3367     complex_one_def
  3368     complex_mult_def
  3369     complex_inverse_def
  3370     complex_scaleR_def
  3371 
  3372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  3375 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  3378 
  3379 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  3380 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  3381 
  3382 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  3383 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  3386 
  3387 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  3388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * HOL-Word:
  3391   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  3392     of "word_arith_wis".
  3393   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  3394     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  3395     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  3396 
  3397 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  3398   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  3399   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  3400   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  3401     (except the AFP)
  3402 
  3403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  3406   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  3407   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  3408     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  3409   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  3410     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  3411     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  3412     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  3413     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  3414     intervals.
  3415   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  3416     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  3417     - renamed theorems:
  3418         interval ~> box
  3419         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  3420         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  3421         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  3422         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  3423         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  3424         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  3425         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  3426         open_interval ~> open_box
  3427         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  3428         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  3429         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  3430         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  3431         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  3432         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  3433         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  3434         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  3435         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  3436         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  3437         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  3438         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  3439         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  3440         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  3441         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  3442         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  3443         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  3444         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  3445         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  3446         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  3447         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  3448         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  3449         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  3450         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  3451 
  3452     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  3453         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  3454         has_integral + has_integral_real
  3455         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  3456         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  3457         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  3458         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  3459         integral_const + integral_const_real
  3460         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  3461         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  3462         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  3463         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  3464         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  3465         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  3466         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  3467         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  3468         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  3469         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  3470 
  3471   - renamed theorems:
  3472     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  3473     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  3474     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  3475 
  3476 * HOL-Probability:
  3477   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  3478 
  3479     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  3480       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  3481 
  3482     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  3483 
  3484   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  3485     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  3486 
  3487     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  3488     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  3489     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  3490     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  3491     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  3492     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  3493     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  3494     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  3495     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  3496     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  3497     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  3498     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  3499     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  3500     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  3501     integral_indicator          ~>
  3502          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  3503     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  3504     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  3505     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  3506 
  3507     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  3508          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  3509 
  3510     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  3511          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  3512 
  3513     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  3514          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  3515 
  3516     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  3517          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  3518          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  3519 
  3520     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  3521          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3522 
  3523     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  3524          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  3525 
  3526     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  3527          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  3528          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3529 
  3530     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  3531          nn_integral_real_affine
  3532 
  3533     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  3534          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  3535 
  3536     The following theorems where removed:
  3537 
  3538     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  3539     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  3540     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  3541     lebesgue_integral_multc
  3542     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  3543     integral_cmul_indicator
  3544     integral_real
  3545 
  3546   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  3547     distributed random variables.
  3548 
  3549 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  3550 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  3551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 
  3554 *** Scala ***
  3555 
  3556 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  3557 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  3558 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  3559 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  3560 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  3563 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564 
  3565 
  3566 *** ML ***
  3567 
  3568 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  3569 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  3570 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  3571 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  3572 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  3573 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  3574 
  3575 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  3576 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  3577 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  3578 actually belongs to it).
  3579 
  3580 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  3581 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  3582 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  3583 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  3584 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  3585 of schematic variables.
  3586 
  3587 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  3588 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3589 
  3590 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  3591 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  3592 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  3595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  3598 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  3599 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  3600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  3603 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  3605 formal context.
  3606 
  3607 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  3608 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3609 
  3610 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  3611 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  3612 
  3613 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  3614 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  3615 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  3616 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  3617 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  3618 
  3619 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  3620 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  3621 purposes.
  3622 
  3623 
  3624 *** System ***
  3625 
  3626 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  3627 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  3628 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  3629 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  3630 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  3631 
  3632 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  3633 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  3634 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  3635 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  3636 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  3637 settings variable.
  3638 
  3639 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  3640 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  3641 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  3642 
  3643 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  3644 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  3645 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  3646 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  3647 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  3648 
  3649 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  3650 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  3651 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  3652 
  3653 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  3654 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  3655 
  3656 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  3657 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  3658 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  3659 
  3660 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  3661 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  3662 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  3663 processing is started.
  3664 
  3665 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  3666 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  3667 
  3668 
  3669 
  3670 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  3671 -------------------------------------
  3672 
  3673 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3674 
  3675 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  3676 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  3677 
  3678 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  3679 after edits surrounding the command location.
  3680 
  3681 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  3682 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  3683 e.g. out-of-memory).
  3684 
  3685 
  3686 *** System ***
  3687 
  3688 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  3689 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  3690 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  3691 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  3692 
  3693 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  3694 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  3695 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  3696 
  3697 
  3698 
  3699 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  3700 -------------------------------------
  3701 
  3702 *** General ***
  3703 
  3704 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  3705 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  3706 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707 
  3708 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  3709 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3710 
  3711 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  3712 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  3713 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  3714 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  3715 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  3716 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  3717 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  3718 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  3719 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  3720 syntax.
  3721 
  3722 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  3723 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  3726 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  3727 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  3728 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  3729 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  3730 
  3731 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  3732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  3735 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  3736 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  3737 
  3738 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  3739 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  3740 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  3741 
  3742 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  3743 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  3744 
  3745 
  3746 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3747 
  3748 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  3749 Documentation panel.
  3750 
  3751 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  3752 documentation.
  3753 
  3754 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  3755 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  3756 
  3757 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  3758 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  3759 normal editing and checking process.
  3760 
  3761 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  3762 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  3763 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  3764 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  3765 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  3766 
  3767 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  3768 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  3769 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  3770 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  3771 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  3772 
  3773 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  3774 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  3775 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  3776 
  3777 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  3778 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  3779 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  3780 to resolve conflict.
  3781 
  3782 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  3783 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  3784 
  3785 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  3786 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  3787 such command executions while editing.
  3788 
  3789 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  3790 document content.
  3791 
  3792 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  3793 toplevel theorem statements.
  3794 
  3795 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  3796 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  3797 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  3798 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  3799 
  3800 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  3801 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  3802 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  3803 
  3804 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  3805 / Global Options / Appearance".
  3806 
  3807 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  3808 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  3809 
  3810 
  3811 *** Pure ***
  3812 
  3813 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  3814 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  3815 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  3816 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  3817 details.
  3818 
  3819 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  3820 
  3821 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  3822 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  3823 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  3824 
  3825 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  3826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  3829 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  3830 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  3831 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  3834 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  3835 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  3838 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  3839 
  3840 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  3841 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  3842 situations.
  3843 
  3844 
  3845 *** HOL ***
  3846 
  3847 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  3848 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  3849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3850 
  3851 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  3852 
  3853 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  3854 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  3855 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  3856 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  3857 
  3858   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  3859 
  3860 * Code generator:
  3861   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  3862     'code_instance'.
  3863   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  3864     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  3865 
  3866 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  3867 examples.
  3868 
  3869 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  3870 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  3871 to distinguish both when desired.
  3872 
  3873 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  3874 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  3875 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  3876 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  3879 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  3880 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  3881 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  3882 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  3883 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  3886 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  3887 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3888 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  3889 
  3890 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  3891 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  3892 
  3893 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  3894 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  3895 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  3896 
  3897 * Lifting:
  3898   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  3899     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  3900       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  3901       transfer rules
  3902     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  3903       correspondence relation can be generated
  3904     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  3905       parametricity
  3906     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  3907   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  3908   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  3909     copies
  3910   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  3911     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  3912     anonymous context)
  3913   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  3914     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3915   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  3916     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  3917   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  3918     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3919 
  3920 * Transfer:
  3921   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  3922     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  3923   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  3924   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  3925     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  3926   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  3927 
  3928 * Reification and reflection:
  3929   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  3930     "Reification".
  3931   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  3932   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  3933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3934 
  3935 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  3936   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  3937     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3938     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  3939   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  3940     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  3941   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  3942     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  3943     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  3944     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  3945     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  3946     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  3947     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  3948     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  3949   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  3950     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  3951   - Fact renames:
  3952       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  3953       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  3954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  3957 
  3958 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  3959 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  3960 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  3961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  3964 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  3965 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  3966 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  3967 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  3968 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  3969 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  3970 lemmas.
  3971 
  3972 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  3973 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  3974 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  3977 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3978 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  3979 
  3980 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  3981 top and bottom elements.
  3982 
  3983 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  3984 
  3985 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  3986 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  3987 
  3988  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  3989    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  3990    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  3991 
  3992  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  3993    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  3994    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  3995 
  3996    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  3997    arbitrary filter.
  3998 
  3999  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  4000    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  4001    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  4002    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  4003    on a compact set.
  4004 
  4005  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  4006    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  4007    linear_continuum_topology).
  4008 
  4009  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  4010    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  4011    on all sequences converging to x.
  4012 
  4013  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  4014    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  4015    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  4016    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  4017    left or right.
  4018 
  4019  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  4020 
  4021      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  4022 
  4023  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  4024    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  4025 
  4026  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  4027    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  4028    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  4029    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  4030    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  4031    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  4032 
  4033  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  4034 
  4035    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  4036 
  4037    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  4038      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  4039 
  4040    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  4041 
  4042    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  4043      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  4044 
  4045    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  4046 
  4047    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  4048 
  4049  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  4050 
  4051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * Nitpick:
  4054   - Added option "spy".
  4055   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  4056 
  4057 * Sledgehammer:
  4058   - Renamed option:
  4059       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  4060     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  4062   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  4063   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  4064 
  4065 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  4066 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  4067 
  4068 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  4069   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  4070   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  4071     generated code.
  4072   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  4073   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  4074   - Fact renames:
  4075     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  4076     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  4077     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  4078 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  4081 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  4082 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  4083 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  4084 
  4085 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  4086 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  4087 
  4088 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  4091 
  4092     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  4093     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  4094 
  4095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  4098 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  4099 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  4100 
  4101 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  4102 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  4103 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  4104 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * HOL-BNF:
  4107   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  4108     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  4109     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  4110     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  4111   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  4112     coinduct).
  4113   - Renamed keywords:
  4114     data ~> datatype_new
  4115     codata ~> codatatype
  4116     bnf_def ~> bnf
  4117   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  4118     discs ~> disc
  4119     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  4120     map_id' ~> map_id
  4121     sels ~> sel
  4122     set_map' ~> set_map
  4123     sets ~> set
  4124 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4125 
  4126 
  4127 *** ML ***
  4128 
  4129 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  4130 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  4131 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  4132 Examples.thy in particular.
  4133 
  4134 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  4135 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  4136 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  4137 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  4138 
  4139 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  4140 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  4141 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  4142 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  4143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4144 
  4145 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  4146 
  4147     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  4148     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  4149 
  4150 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4151 
  4152 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  4153 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  4154 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  4155 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  4156 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  4157 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  4158 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  4159 
  4160 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  4161 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  4162 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  4163 clasets separately from the context.
  4164 
  4165 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  4166 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  4167 
  4168 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  4169 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  4170 
  4171 
  4172 *** System ***
  4173 
  4174 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  4175 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  4178 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  4181 settings variable.
  4182 
  4183 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  4184 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  4185 always pdf.
  4186 
  4187 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  4188 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  4189 
  4190 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  4191 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  4192 
  4193 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  4194 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  4195 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  4196 
  4197 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  4198 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  4199 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  4200 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  4201 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4202 for HTML presentation of theories.
  4203 
  4204 
  4205 
  4206 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  4207 -----------------------------------
  4208 
  4209 *** General ***
  4210 
  4211 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  4212 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  4213 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  4214 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  4215 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  4216 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  4217 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  4218 
  4219 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  4220 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  4221 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  4222 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  4223 
  4224 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  4225 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  4226 
  4227 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  4228 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  4229 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  4230 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  4231 dependencies properly.
  4232 
  4233 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  4234 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  4235 
  4236 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  4237 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  4238 
  4239 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  4240 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  4241 and "class ... context ...".
  4242 
  4243 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  4244 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  4245 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  4246 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  4247 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  4248 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  4249 
  4250 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  4251 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  4252 
  4253 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  4254 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  4255 
  4256 
  4257 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4258 
  4259 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  4260 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  4261 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  4262 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  4263 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  4264 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  4265 
  4266 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  4267 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  4268 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  4269 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  4270 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  4271 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  4272 
  4273 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  4274 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  4275 browser on demand.
  4276 
  4277 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  4278 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  4279 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  4280 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  4281 
  4282 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  4283 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  4284 
  4285 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  4286 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  4287 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  4288 potentially infinite message streams.
  4289 
  4290 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  4291 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  4292 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  4293 schemes.
  4294 
  4295 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  4296 symbols.
  4297 
  4298 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  4299 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  4300 
  4301 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  4302 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  4303 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  4304 
  4305 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  4306 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  4307 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  4308 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  4309 
  4310 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  4311 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  4312 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  4313 
  4314 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  4315 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  4316 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  4317 Isabelle distribution.
  4318 
  4319 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  4320 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  4321 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  4322 
  4323 
  4324 *** Pure ***
  4325 
  4326 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  4327 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  4328 
  4329 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  4330 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  4331 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4334 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  4335 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  4336 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  4337 with some care where this is really required.
  4338 
  4339 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  4340 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  4341 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  4342 
  4343   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  4344 
  4345 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  4346 a Hasse diagram.
  4347 
  4348 
  4349 *** HOL ***
  4350 
  4351 * Sledgehammer:
  4352 
  4353   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  4354     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  4355   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  4356   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  4357   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  4358   - Renamed options:
  4359       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  4360       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  4361       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  4362       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  4363 
  4364 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  4365 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  4366 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  4367 
  4368 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  4369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Lifting:
  4372   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  4373   - quot_del attribute
  4374   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  4375 
  4376 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  4377 expressions.
  4378 
  4379 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  4380 pointfree expressions.
  4381 
  4382 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  4383 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  4384 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  4385 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  4386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4387 
  4388 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  4389 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  4390 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  4391 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  4392 accordingly.
  4393 
  4394 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  4395 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  4398 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4399 
  4400 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  4403 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  4404 
  4405 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  4406 
  4407 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  4408 
  4409   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  4410   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  4411 
  4412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4413 
  4414 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  4415 
  4416   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  4417   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  4418 
  4419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  4422 
  4423   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  4424     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  4425     output f x converges to G.
  4426 
  4427   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  4428     infinity (at_bot).
  4429 
  4430   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  4431     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  4432 
  4433   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  4434     at_top".
  4435 
  4436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4437 
  4438 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  4439 lattice type classes.
  4440 
  4441 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  4442 
  4443     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  4444     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  4445 
  4446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  4449 changes as follows.
  4450 
  4451   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  4452 
  4453       prefix ~> prefixeq
  4454       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  4455 
  4456   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  4457     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  4458     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  4459     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  4460 
  4461   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  4462     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  4463     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  4464 
  4465   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  4466     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  4467     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  4468     Library/Prefix_Order.
  4469 
  4470   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  4471     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  4472 
  4473       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  4474       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  4475       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  4476       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  4477       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  4478       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  4479       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  4480       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  4481       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  4482       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  4483       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  4484       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  4485       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  4486       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  4487       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  4488       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  4489 
  4490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4491 
  4492 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  4493 
  4494 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  4495 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  4496 
  4497 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  4498 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  4499 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  4500 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  4501 
  4502   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  4503   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  4504   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  4505   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  4506   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  4507   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  4508   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  4509   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  4510   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  4511   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  4512 
  4513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  4516 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  4517 Data").
  4518 
  4519 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  4520 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  4521 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  4522 code.
  4523 
  4524 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  4525 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  4526 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  4527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4528 
  4529 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  4530 
  4531 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  4532 
  4533 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  4534 
  4535   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  4536   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  4537 
  4538 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  4539 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  4540 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  4541 
  4542   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  4543 
  4544     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  4545     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  4546     cart_base i  removed
  4547     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  4548 
  4549   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  4550 
  4551   Renamed lemmas:
  4552 
  4553     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  4554     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  4555     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  4556     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  4557     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  4558     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  4559     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  4560     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  4561     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  4562     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  4563 
  4564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565 
  4566 * HOL/Probability:
  4567 
  4568   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  4569 
  4570   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  4571     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  4572     (borel_measurable_induct).
  4573 
  4574   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  4575     projective family).
  4576 
  4577 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  4578 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  4579 
  4580 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  4581 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  4582 datatypes.
  4583 
  4584 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  4585 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  4586 
  4587 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  4588 trees for the code generator.
  4589 
  4590 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  4591 Lifting/Transfer.
  4592 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  4595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596 
  4597 
  4598 *** Document preparation ***
  4599 
  4600 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  4601 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  4602 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  4603 
  4604 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  4605 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  4606 
  4607 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  4608 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  4609 document/root.tex.
  4610 
  4611 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  4612 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614 
  4615 *** ML ***
  4616 
  4617 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  4618 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  4619 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  4620 
  4621 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  4622 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  4623 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  4624 
  4625 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  4626 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  4627 necessarily printing visible text.
  4628 
  4629 
  4630 *** System ***
  4631 
  4632 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  4633 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  4634 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  4635 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  4636 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  4637 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  4638 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  4639 
  4640 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  4641 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  4642 
  4643   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  4644 
  4645 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  4646 
  4647 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  4648 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  4649 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  4650 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  4651 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  4652 
  4653 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  4654 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  4655 
  4656 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  4657 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  4658 
  4659 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  4660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  4663 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  4664 version of Isabelle.
  4665 
  4666 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  4667 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  4668 
  4669 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  4670 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4671 for home-made settings.
  4672 
  4673 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  4674 
  4675 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  4676 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  4677 configuration.
  4678 
  4679 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  4680 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  4681 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  4682 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  4683 bundled as Isabelle component.
  4684 
  4685 
  4686 
  4687 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  4688 ------------------------------
  4689 
  4690 *** General ***
  4691 
  4692 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  4693 
  4694   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  4695     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  4696   - markup for bound variables
  4697   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  4698   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  4699   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  4700     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  4701 
  4702 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  4703 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  4704 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  4705 
  4706 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  4707 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  4708 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  4709 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  4710 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  4711 
  4712   context
  4713     fixes x y z :: 'a
  4714     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  4715   begin
  4716 
  4717   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  4718 
  4719   end
  4720 
  4721   thm my_trans
  4722 
  4723 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  4724 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  4725 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  4726 
  4727 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  4728 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  4729 
  4730 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  4731 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  4732 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  4733 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  4734 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  4735 
  4736 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  4737 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  4738 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  4739 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  4740 indices of schematic variables.
  4741 
  4742 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  4743 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  4744 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4745 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  4746 etc. was exploited.
  4747 
  4748 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  4749 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  4750 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  4751 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  4752 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  4753 of the material of that old tutorial.
  4754 
  4755 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  4756 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  4757 manual.
  4758 
  4759 
  4760 *** Pure ***
  4761 
  4762 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  4763 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  4764 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  4765 
  4766 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  4767 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  4768 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  4769 undocumented feature.)
  4770 
  4771 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  4772 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4773 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  4774 
  4775   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  4776 
  4777   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  4778     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  4779 
  4780 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  4781 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  4782 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  4783 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  4784 
  4785 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  4786 
  4787     num ~> num_token
  4788     xnum ~> xnum_token
  4789     xstr ~> str_token
  4790 
  4791 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  4792 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  4793 position information via constraints).
  4794 
  4795 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  4796 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  4797 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  4800 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  4801 
  4802 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  4803 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  4804 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4805 
  4806 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  4807 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  4810 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  4811 
  4812   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  4813 
  4814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4815 
  4816 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  4817 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  4820 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  4821 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  4822 
  4823 
  4824 *** HOL ***
  4825 
  4826 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  4827 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  4828 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  4829 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  4830 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  4831 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  4832 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  4833 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  4834 possible.
  4835 
  4836 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  4837 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  4838 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  4839 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  4840 
  4841 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  4842 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  4845 
  4846 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  4847 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  4848 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  4849 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  4850 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  4851 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  4852 
  4853   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  4854     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  4855 
  4856   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  4857     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  4858     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  4859 
  4860   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  4861     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  4862 
  4863   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  4864     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  4865     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  4866 
  4867   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  4868     Redefine using other integer operations.
  4869 
  4870 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  4871 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  4872 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  4873 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  4874 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  4875 
  4876   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  4877     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  4878     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  4879     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  4880     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  4881 
  4882     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  4883     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  4884 
  4885   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  4886     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  4887     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  4888     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  4889     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  4890     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  4891     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  4892     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  4893 
  4894   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  4895     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  4896     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  4897     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  4898 
  4899   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  4900     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  4901     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  4902     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  4903 
  4904   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  4905     from type nat to type int.
  4906 
  4907 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  4908 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  4909 
  4910   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  4911     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  4912     type.  Example syntax:
  4913 
  4914     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  4915       is List.insert
  4916 
  4917     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  4918     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  4919     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  4920     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  4921     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  4922     by the package.
  4923 
  4924   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  4925     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  4926     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  4927     code generation for each constant.
  4928 
  4929   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  4930     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  4931     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  4932     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  4933     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  4934 
  4935   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  4936     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  4937     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  4938 
  4939 * Quotient package:
  4940 
  4941   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  4942     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  4943 
  4944   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  4945     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  4946 
  4947   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  4948     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  4949     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4950 
  4951   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  4952     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  4955 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  4956 
  4957 * Quickcheck:
  4958 
  4959   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  4960     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  4961     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  4962     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  4963     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  4964 
  4965     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  4966     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  4967     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  4968 
  4969     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  4970     continues searching for genuine ones.
  4971 
  4972     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  4973     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  4974     show genuine counterexamples.
  4975 
  4976   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  4977     value generators for a given type and operations.
  4978 
  4979     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  4980     constructors of that type.
  4981 
  4982   - Support for multisets.
  4983 
  4984   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  4985 
  4986   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  4987     conjectures in a locale context.
  4988 
  4989 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  4990 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  4991 
  4992 * Sledgehammer:
  4993   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  4994     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  4995   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  4996   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  4997     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  4998   - Sped up the minimizer.
  4999   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  5000   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  5001   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  5002 
  5003 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  5004 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  5005 
  5006 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  5007 
  5008 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  5011 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  5012 
  5013   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  5014 
  5015 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  5016 a list and a nat.
  5017 
  5018 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  5019 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  5020 
  5021 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  5022 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  5023 default.
  5024 
  5025 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  5026 
  5027   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  5028 
  5029 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  5030 
  5031 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  5032 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  5033 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  5034 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  5035 one_case.
  5036 
  5037 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  5038 the result of the fact expression.
  5039 
  5040 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  5041 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  5042 of some relation theorems:
  5043 
  5044   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  5045   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5046   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  5047   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  5048   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  5049   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  5050 
  5051 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  5052 
  5053 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  5054 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  5055 
  5056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  5059 to match the constant's name:
  5060 
  5061   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  5062   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  5063   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  5064   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  5065   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  5066   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  5067   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  5068   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  5069   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  5070   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  5071   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  5072   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  5073   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  5074   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  5075   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  5076   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  5077   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  5078   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  5079   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  5080   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  5081   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  5082   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5083   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5084   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  5085 
  5086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5087 
  5088 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  5089 and corresponding theorem names:
  5090 
  5091   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  5092 
  5093   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  5094 
  5095   - Renamed theorems:
  5096 
  5097     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  5098     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  5099     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  5100     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  5101     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  5102     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  5103     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  5104     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  5105     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  5106     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  5107     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  5108     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  5109     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5110     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  5111     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  5112     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  5113     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  5114     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  5115     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  5116     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  5117     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  5118     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  5119     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  5120 
  5121     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  5122 
  5123     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  5124 
  5125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5126 
  5127 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  5128 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5129 
  5130   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  5131   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  5132   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  5133   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  5134   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  5135   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  5136   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  5137   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  5138   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  5139   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  5140   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  5141   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  5142   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  5143   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  5144   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  5145   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  5146   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  5147   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  5148   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  5149   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  5150   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  5151 
  5152 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  5153 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5154 
  5155 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  5158 
  5159   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  5160   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  5161   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  5162   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  5163   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  5164   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  5165   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  5166   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  5167   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  5168   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  5169   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  5170   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  5171   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  5172   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  5173   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  5174   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  5175   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  5176   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  5177 
  5178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5179 
  5180 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  5181 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  5182 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  5183 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  5184 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  5185 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  5186 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  5187 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  5188 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  5189 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  5190 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  5191 
  5192 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  5193 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  5194 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  5195 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  5196 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  5197 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  5198 
  5199 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  5200 through option types.
  5201 
  5202 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  5203 relations.
  5204 
  5205 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5206 
  5207 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  5208 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5209 
  5210   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  5211   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  5212   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  5213   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  5214   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5215   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5216   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  5217   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5218   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  5219   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5220   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  5221   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  5222   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5223   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5224   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5225   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  5226   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  5227   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  5228   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5229   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5230   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  5231   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  5232   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5233   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5234   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  5235   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5236   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  5237   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  5238   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  5239   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  5240   zless_le ~> less_le
  5241   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  5242   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  5243   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  5244 
  5245 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  5246 
  5247   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  5248 
  5249 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  5250 
  5251 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  5252 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  5253 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  5254 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  5255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5256 
  5257 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5258 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  5259 
  5260 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  5261 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  5262 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  5263 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  5264 follows:
  5265 
  5266   Operations:
  5267   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  5268   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  5269   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  5270   del -> rbt_del
  5271   delete -> rbt_delete
  5272   ins -> rbt_ins
  5273   insert -> rbt_insert
  5274   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  5275   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  5276   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  5277   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  5278   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  5279   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  5280   tree_less -> rbt_less
  5281   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  5282   union -> rbt_union
  5283   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  5284   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  5285 
  5286   Lemmas:
  5287   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  5288   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  5289   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  5290   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  5291   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  5292   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  5293   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  5294   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  5295   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  5296   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  5297   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  5298   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  5299   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  5300   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  5301   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  5302   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  5303   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  5304   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  5305   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  5306   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  5307   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  5308   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  5309   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  5310   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  5311   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  5312   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  5313   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  5314   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  5315   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  5316   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  5317   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  5318   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  5319   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  5320   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  5321   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  5322   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  5323   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  5324   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  5325   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  5326   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  5327   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  5328   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  5329   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  5330   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  5331   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  5332   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  5333   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  5334   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  5335   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  5336   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  5337   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  5338   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  5339   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  5340   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  5341   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  5342   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  5343   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  5344   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  5345   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  5346   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  5347   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  5348   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  5349   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  5350   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  5351   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  5352   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  5353   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  5354   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  5355   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  5356   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  5357   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  5358   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  5359   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  5360   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  5361   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  5362   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  5363   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  5364   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  5365   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  5366   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  5367   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  5368   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  5369   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  5370 
  5371 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  5372 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  5373 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5374 
  5375   Changed Operations:
  5376   float_abs -> abs
  5377   float_nprt -> nprt
  5378   float_pprt -> pprt
  5379   pow2 -> use powr
  5380   round_down -> float_round_down
  5381   round_up -> float_round_up
  5382   scale -> exponent
  5383 
  5384   Removed Operations:
  5385   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  5386 
  5387   Renamed Lemmas:
  5388   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  5389   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  5390   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  5391   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  5392   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  5393   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  5394   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  5395   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  5396   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  5397   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  5398   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  5399   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  5400   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  5401   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  5402   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  5403   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  5404   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  5405   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  5406   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  5407   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  5408   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  5409   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  5410   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  5411   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  5412   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  5413   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  5414   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  5415   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  5416   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  5417   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  5418   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  5419   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  5420   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  5421   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  5422   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  5423   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  5424 
  5425   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  5426   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  5427   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  5428   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  5429   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  5430   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  5431   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  5432   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  5433   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  5434   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  5435 
  5436 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  5437 association lists with distinct keys.
  5438 
  5439 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  5440 annotated commands.
  5441 
  5442 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  5443 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  5444 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  5445 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5446 
  5447 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  5448 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  5449 instead.
  5450 
  5451   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  5452   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  5453   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  5454   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  5455   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  5456   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  5457   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  5458   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5459   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5460   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5461   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  5462   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5463   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5464   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5465   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5466   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  5467   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5468   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  5469   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  5470   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  5471   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  5472   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  5473   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  5474   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  5475   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5476   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  5477   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  5478   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  5479   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  5480   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5481   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5482   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5483   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  5484   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  5485   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  5486   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  5487   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  5488   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  5489   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  5490   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  5491   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  5492 
  5493 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  5494 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  5495 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  5496 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  5497 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  5498 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  5499 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  5500 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  5501 
  5502 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  5503 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  5504 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  5505 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  5506 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  5507 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  5508 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  5509 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  5510 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  5511 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  5512 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  5513 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515   Renamed constants:
  5516   measure -> emeasure
  5517   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  5518   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  5519   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  5520   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  5521 
  5522   Removed locales:
  5523   completeable_measure_space
  5524   finite_measure_space
  5525   finite_prob_space
  5526   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  5527   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  5528   finite_sigma_algebra
  5529   measure_space
  5530   pair_finite_prob_space
  5531   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  5532   pair_finite_space
  5533   pair_sigma_algebra
  5534   product_sigma_algebra
  5535 
  5536   Removed constants:
  5537   conditional_space
  5538   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5539   image_space
  5540   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5541   pair_measure_generator
  5542   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  5543   subvimage
  5544 
  5545   Replacement theorems:
  5546   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  5547   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  5548   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  5549   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  5550   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  5551   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  5552   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  5553   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5554   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  5555   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  5556   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  5557   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5558   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  5559   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  5560   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  5561   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  5562   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5563   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5564   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  5565   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5566   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5567   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  5568   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  5569   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  5570   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  5571   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  5572   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  5573   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5574   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  5575   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  5576   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  5577   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  5578   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  5579   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  5580   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  5581   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  5582   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  5583   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  5584   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  5585   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  5586   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  5587   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  5588   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  5589   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  5590   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  5591   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  5592   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  5593   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  5594   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  5595   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  5596   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  5597   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  5598   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5599   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5600   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  5601   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  5602   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  5603   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  5604   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5605   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  5606   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  5607   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  5608   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5609   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  5610   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  5611   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  5612   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  5613   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  5614   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  5615   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  5616   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  5617   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  5618   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  5619   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  5620   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5621   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  5622   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  5623   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  5624   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  5625   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5626   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5627   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5628   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5629   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  5630   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  5631   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  5632   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  5633   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  5634   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  5635   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  5636   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  5637   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  5638   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  5639   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  5640   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  5641   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  5642   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  5643   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  5644   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  5645   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  5646   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  5647   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  5648   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  5649   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  5650   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  5651   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  5652   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5653   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  5654   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  5655   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  5656   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  5657   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  5658   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  5659   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  5660   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  5661   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  5662   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  5663   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  5664   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5665   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  5666   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5667   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  5668   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  5669   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  5670   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  5671   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  5672   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  5673   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  5674 
  5675 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  5676 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  5677 
  5678 
  5679 *** FOL ***
  5680 
  5681 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  5682 
  5683 
  5684 *** ZF ***
  5685 
  5686 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  5687 analysis.
  5688 
  5689 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  5690 
  5691 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5692 
  5693 
  5694 *** ML ***
  5695 
  5696 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  5697 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  5698 
  5699 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  5700 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  5701 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  5702 
  5703 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  5704 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  5705 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  5706 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  5707 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  5708 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  5709 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  5710 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  5711 
  5712 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  5713 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  5714 
  5715 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  5716 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  5717 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  5718 
  5719 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  5720 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  5723 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  5724 context as well.
  5725 
  5726 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  5727 
  5728   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  5729   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  5730   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  5731   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  5732   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  5733   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  5734   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  5735   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  5736   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  5737   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  5738   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  5739   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  5740 
  5741 
  5742 *** System ***
  5743 
  5744 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  5745 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  5746 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  5747 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  5748 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  5749 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  5750 the generic user home was intended.
  5751 
  5752 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  5753 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  5754 
  5755 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  5756 (not just JRE).
  5757 
  5758 
  5759 
  5760 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  5761 ------------------------------------
  5762 
  5763 *** General ***
  5764 
  5765 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  5766 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  5767 
  5768   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  5769     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  5770     files for checking).
  5771 
  5772   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  5773     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  5774     positions.
  5775 
  5776   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  5777     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  5778     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  5779 
  5780   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  5781     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  5782     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  5783 
  5784   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  5785     cores.
  5786 
  5787   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  5788     versions (garbage collection).
  5789 
  5790 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  5791 including some remaining limitations.
  5792 
  5793 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  5794 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5795 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  5796 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  5797 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  5798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5799 
  5800 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  5801 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  5802 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  5803 
  5804 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  5805 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  5806 usedir option -Q.
  5807 
  5808 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  5809 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  5810 
  5811   long_names   ~> names_long
  5812   short_names  ~> names_short
  5813   unique_names ~> names_unique
  5814 
  5815 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  5816 
  5817   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  5818 
  5819 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  5820 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  5821 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  5822 
  5823 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  5824 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  5825 
  5826 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  5827   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  5828   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  5829   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  5830     "Classical Reasoner".
  5831 
  5832 
  5833 *** HOL ***
  5834 
  5835 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  5836 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5837 
  5838 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  5839 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  5840 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  5841 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  5842 class complete_linorder.
  5843 
  5844 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  5845 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  5846 
  5847 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  5848 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  5849 
  5850   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  5851   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  5852   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5853   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5854   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5855   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5856   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  5857   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  5858   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  5859   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  5860   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  5861 
  5862 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  5863 
  5864   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  5865   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  5866   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  5867   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  5868   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  5869   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  5870   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  5871   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  5872   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  5873   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  5874   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  5875   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  5876   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  5877   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  5878   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  5879   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  5880 
  5881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  5884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5885 
  5886 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  5887 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  5888 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  5889 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5890 
  5891 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  5892 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  5893 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  5894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5895 
  5896 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  5897 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  5898 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  5899 
  5900 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  5901 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  5902 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  5905 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  5906 
  5907 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  5908 
  5909     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  5910     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  5911 
  5912 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  5913 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5914 
  5915 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  5916 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5917 
  5918 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  5919 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  5920 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  5921 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5922 
  5923   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  5924   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  5925   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  5926   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  5927   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  5928   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  5929   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  5930 
  5931 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  5932 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5933 
  5934   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  5935   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  5936   real_less_def ~> less_le
  5937   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  5938   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  5939   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5940   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5941   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5942   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5943   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5944   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  5945   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  5946   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  5947   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5948   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  5949   real_le_linear ~> linear
  5950   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  5951   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5952   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  5953   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  5954   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  5955   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  5956   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  5957   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  5958   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  5959   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  5960   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  5961   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  5962   expi_add ~> exp_add
  5963   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  5964   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  5965   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  5966   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  5967   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5968   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  5969   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5970   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  5971   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5972   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5973   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5974   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5975   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5976   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  5977   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  5978   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  5979   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  5980   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5981   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5982   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5983   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  5984   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5985   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5986   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  5987   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  5988   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  5989   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  5990   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  5991   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5992   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5993   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5994   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  5995   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  5996   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5997   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5998   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  5999   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  6000   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  6001   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  6002   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  6003   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  6004   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  6005   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  6006   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  6007   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  6008   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  6009   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  6010   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  6011   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  6012   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  6013   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  6014   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  6015   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  6016 
  6017 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  6018 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  6019 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  6020 
  6021 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  6022 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  6023 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  6024 
  6025 * Code generation:
  6026 
  6027   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  6028     characters in the target language.
  6029 
  6030   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  6031     instead.
  6032 
  6033   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  6034 
  6035   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  6036     reactivated by the following theory command:
  6037 
  6038       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  6039 
  6040 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6041 
  6042 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  6043 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  6044 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  6045 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  6046 syntax.
  6047 
  6048 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  6049 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  6050 
  6051 * Nitpick:
  6052   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  6053   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  6054   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  6055     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 
  6057 * Sledgehammer:
  6058   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  6059   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  6060     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  6061   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  6062     this can be done within reasonable time.
  6063   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  6064     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6065   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  6066     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  6067   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  6068     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6069 
  6070 * Metis:
  6071   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6072   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  6073     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * Command 'try':
  6076   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  6077     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6078   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  6079     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  6080 
  6081 * Quickcheck:
  6082   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  6083     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  6084   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  6085     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  6086   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  6087     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  6088     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  6089     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  6090   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  6091     (formly in HOL/Library).
  6092 
  6093 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6094 use 'partial_function' instead.
  6095 
  6096 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  6097 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  6098 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  6099 
  6100 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  6101 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  6102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6103 
  6104 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  6105 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6106 
  6107 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  6108 arithmetic.
  6109 
  6110 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  6111 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  6112 and lattice type classes.
  6113 
  6114 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  6115 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  6116 
  6117 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  6118 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  6119 
  6120 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  6121 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  6122 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6123 
  6124   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  6125   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  6126   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  6127   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  6128 
  6129 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  6130 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  6131 constants:
  6132 
  6133   type inat   ~> type enat
  6134   Fin         ~> enat
  6135   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  6136   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  6137   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  6138 
  6139 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  6140 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6141 
  6142 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  6143 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  6144 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  6145 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  6146 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  6147 
  6148 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  6149 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  6150 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  6151 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  6152 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  6153 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  6154 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6155 
  6156   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  6157   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  6158   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  6159   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  6160 
  6161 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  6162 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  6163 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6164 
  6165   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  6166   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  6167   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  6168   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  6169   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  6170   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  6171   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  6172   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  6173   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  6174   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  6175   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  6176   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  6177   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  6178   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  6179   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  6180   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  6181   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  6182   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  6183   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  6184   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  6185   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  6186   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  6187   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  6188   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  6189   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  6190   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  6191   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  6192   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  6193   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  6194   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  6195   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  6196   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  6197   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  6198   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  6199   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  6200   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  6201   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  6202   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  6203   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  6204   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  6205   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  6206   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  6207   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  6208   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  6209   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  6210   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  6211   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  6212   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  6213   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  6214   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  6215   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  6216 
  6217 * Session HOL-Probability:
  6218   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  6219   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  6220   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  6221   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  6222     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6223 
  6224 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6225 
  6226   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  6227   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  6228   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  6229   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  6230   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  6231   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  6232   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  6233   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  6234   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  6235   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  6236   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  6237   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  6238   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  6239   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  6240   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  6241   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  6242   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  6243   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  6244   UU_I ~> bottomI
  6245   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  6246   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6247   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6248   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  6249   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  6250   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  6251 
  6252 
  6253 *** Document preparation ***
  6254 
  6255 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  6256 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  6257 same.
  6258 
  6259 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  6260 result.
  6261 
  6262 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  6263 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,