NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Aug 07 23:43:05 2012 +0200 (2012-08-07)
changeset 48722 a5e3ba7cbb2a
parent 48693 ceeea46bdeba
child 48736 292b97e17fb7
permissions -rw-r--r--
discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the Isabelle distribution;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    19 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    20 
    21 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    22 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    23 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    27 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    28 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    29 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    30 with some care where this is really required.
    31 
    32 
    33 *** HOL ***
    34 
    35 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    36 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    37 
    38 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    39 expressions.
    40 
    41 * Quickcheck:
    42 
    43   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    44     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    45     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    46 
    47 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    48 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    49 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    50 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    51 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Sledgehammer:
    54 
    55   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    56     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    57   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    58   - Renamed options:
    59       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    60       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Document preparation ***
    64 
    65 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    66 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    67 
    68 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
    69 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
    70 document/root.tex.
    71 
    72 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
    73 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    74 
    75 
    76 *** System ***
    77 
    78 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
    79 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
    80 build" tool and its examples.  Eventual INCOMPATIBILITY, as isabelle
    81 usedir / make / makeall are rendered obsolete.
    82 
    83 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
    84 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
    85 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
    86 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
    87 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
    88 
    89 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
    90 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
    91 
    92   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
    93 
    94 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
    95 required for "isabelle build", for example.
    96 
    97 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
    98 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
    99 "isabelle usedir".
   100 
   101 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   102 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   103 configuration.
   104 
   105 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   106 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   107 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   108 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   109 bundled as Isabelle component.
   110 
   111 
   112 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   113 ------------------------------
   114 
   115 *** General ***
   116 
   117 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   118 
   119   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   120     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   121   - markup for bound variables
   122   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   123   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   124   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   125     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   126 
   127 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   128 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   129 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   130 
   131 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   132 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   133 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   134 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   135 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   136 
   137   context
   138     fixes x y z :: 'a
   139     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   140   begin
   141 
   142   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   143 
   144   end
   145 
   146   thm my_trans
   147 
   148 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   149 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   150 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   151 
   152 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   153 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   154 
   155 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   156 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   157 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   158 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   159 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   160 
   161 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   162 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   163 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   164 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   165 indices of schematic variables.
   166 
   167 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   168 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   169 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   170 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   171 etc. was exploited.
   172 
   173 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   174 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   175 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   176 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   177 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   178 of the material of that old tutorial.
   179 
   180 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   181 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   182 manual.
   183 
   184 
   185 *** Pure ***
   186 
   187 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   188 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   189 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   190 
   191 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   192 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   193 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   194 undocumented feature.)
   195 
   196 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   197 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   198 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   199 
   200   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   201 
   202   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   203     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   204 
   205 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   206 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   207 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   208 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   209 
   210 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   211 
   212     num ~> num_token
   213     xnum ~> xnum_token
   214     xstr ~> str_token
   215 
   216 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   217 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   218 position information via constraints).
   219 
   220 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   221 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   222 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   225 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   226 
   227 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   228 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   229 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   230 
   231 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   232 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   235 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   236 
   237   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   238 
   239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240 
   241 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   242 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243 
   244 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   245 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   246 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   247 
   248 
   249 *** HOL ***
   250 
   251 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   252 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   253 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   254 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   255 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   256 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   257 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   258 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   259 possible.
   260 
   261 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   262 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   263 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   264 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   265 
   266 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   267 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   270 
   271 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   272 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   273 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   274 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   275 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   276 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   277 
   278   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   279     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   280 
   281   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   282     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   283     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   284 
   285   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   286     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   287 
   288   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   289     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   290     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   291 
   292   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   293     Redefine using other integer operations.
   294 
   295 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   296 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   297 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   298 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   299 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   300 
   301   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   302     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   303     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   304     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   305     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   306 
   307     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   308     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   309 
   310   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   311     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   312     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   313     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   314     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   315     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   316     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   317     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   318 
   319   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   320     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   321     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   322     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   323 
   324   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   325     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   326     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   327     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   328 
   329   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   330     from type nat to type int.
   331 
   332 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   333 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   334 
   335   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   336     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   337     type.  Example syntax:
   338 
   339     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   340       is List.insert
   341 
   342     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   343     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   344     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   345     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   346     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   347     by the package.
   348 
   349   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   350     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   351     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   352     code generation for each constant.
   353 
   354   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   355     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   356     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   357     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   358     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   359 
   360   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   361     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   362     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   363 
   364 * Quotient package:
   365 
   366   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   367     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   368 
   369   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   370     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   371 
   372   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   373     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   374     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   375 
   376   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   377     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378 
   379 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   380 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   381 
   382 * Quickcheck:
   383 
   384   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   385     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   386     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   387     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   388     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   389 
   390     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   391     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   392     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   393 
   394     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   395     continues searching for genuine ones.
   396 
   397     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   398     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   399     show genuine counterexamples.
   400 
   401   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   402     value generators for a given type and operations.
   403 
   404     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   405     constructors of that type.
   406 
   407   - Support for multisets.
   408 
   409   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   410 
   411   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   412     conjectures in a locale context.
   413 
   414 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   415 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   416 
   417 * Sledgehammer:
   418   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   419     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   420   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   421   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   422     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   423   - Sped up the minimizer.
   424   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   425   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   426   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   427 
   428 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   429 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   430 
   431 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   432 
   433 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   436 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   437 
   438   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   439 
   440 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   441 a list and a nat.
   442 
   443 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   444 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   445 
   446 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   447 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   448 default.
   449 
   450 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   451 
   452   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   453 
   454 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   455 
   456 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   457 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   459 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   460 one_case.
   461 
   462 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   463 the result of the fact expression.
   464 
   465 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   466 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   467 of some relation theorems:
   468 
   469   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   470   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   471   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   472   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   473   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   474   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   475 
   476 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   477 
   478 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   479 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   480 
   481 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   484 to match the constant's name:
   485 
   486   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   487   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   488   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   489   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   490   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   491   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   492   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   493   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   494   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   495   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   496   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   497   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   498   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   499   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   500   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   501   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   502   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   503   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   504   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   505   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   506   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   507   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   508   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   509   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   510 
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   514 and corresponding theorem names:
   515 
   516   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   517 
   518   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   519 
   520   - Renamed theorems:
   521 
   522     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   523     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   524     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   525     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   526     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   527     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   528     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   529     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   530     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   531     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   532     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   533     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   534     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   535     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   536     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   537     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   538     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   539     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   540     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   541     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   542     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   543     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   544     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   545 
   546     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   547 
   548     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   549 
   550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   553 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   554 
   555   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   556   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   557   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   558   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   559   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   560   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   561   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   562   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   563   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   564   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   565   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   566   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   567   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   568   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   569   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   570   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   571   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   572   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   573   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   574   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   575   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   576 
   577 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   578 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   579 
   580 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   581 
   582 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   583 
   584   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   585   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   586   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   587   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   588   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   589   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   590   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   591   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   592   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   593   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   594   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   595   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   596   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   597   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   598   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   599   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   600   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   601   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   602 
   603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   604 
   605 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   606 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   607 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   608 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   609 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   610 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   611 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   612 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   613 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   614 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   615 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   616 
   617 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   618 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   619 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   620 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   621 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   622 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   623 
   624 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   625 through option types.
   626 
   627 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   628 relations.
   629 
   630 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   633 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   634 
   635   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   636   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   637   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   638   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   639   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   640   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   641   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   642   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   643   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   644   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   645   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   646   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   647   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   648   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   649   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   650   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   651   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   652   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   653   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   654   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   655   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   656   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   657   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   658   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   659   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   660   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   661   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   662   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   663   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   664   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   665   zless_le ~> less_le
   666   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   667   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   668   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   669 
   670 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   671 
   672   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   673 
   674 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   675 
   676 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   677 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   678 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   679 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   681 
   682 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   683 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   684 
   685 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   686 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   687 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   688 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   689 follows:
   690 
   691   Operations:
   692   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   693   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   694   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   695   del -> rbt_del
   696   delete -> rbt_delete
   697   ins -> rbt_ins
   698   insert -> rbt_insert
   699   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   700   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   701   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   702   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   703   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   704   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   705   tree_less -> rbt_less
   706   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   707   union -> rbt_union
   708   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   709   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   710 
   711   Lemmas:
   712   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   713   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   714   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   715   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   716   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   717   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   718   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   719   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   720   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   721   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   722   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   723   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   724   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   725   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   726   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   727   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   728   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   729   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   730   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   731   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   732   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   733   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   734   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   735   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   736   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   737   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   738   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   739   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   740   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   741   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   742   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   743   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   744   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   745   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   746   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   747   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   748   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   749   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   750   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   751   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   752   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   753   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   754   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   755   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   756   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   757   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   758   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   759   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   760   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   761   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   762   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   763   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   764   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   765   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   766   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   767   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   768   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   769   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   770   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   771   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   772   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   773   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   774   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   775   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   776   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   777   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   778   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   779   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   780   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   781   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   782   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   783   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   784   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   785   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   786   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   787   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   788   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   789   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   790   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   791   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   792   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   793   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   794   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   795 
   796 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   797 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   798 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800   Changed Operations:
   801   float_abs -> abs
   802   float_nprt -> nprt
   803   float_pprt -> pprt
   804   pow2 -> use powr
   805   round_down -> float_round_down
   806   round_up -> float_round_up
   807   scale -> exponent
   808 
   809   Removed Operations:
   810   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   811 
   812   Renamed Lemmas:
   813   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   814   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   815   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   816   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   817   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   818   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   819   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   820   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   821   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   822   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   823   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   824   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   825   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   826   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   827   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   828   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   829   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   830   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   831   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   832   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   833   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   834   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   835   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   836   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   837   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   838   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   839   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   840   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   841   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   842   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   843   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   844   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   845   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   846   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   847   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   848   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   849 
   850   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   851   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   852   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   853   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   854   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   855   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   856   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   857   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   858   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   859   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   860 
   861 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   862 association lists with distinct keys.
   863 
   864 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   865 annotated commands.
   866 
   867 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   868 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   869 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   870 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   871 
   872 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   873 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   874 instead.
   875 
   876   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   877   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   878   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   879   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   880   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   881   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   882   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   883   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   884   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   885   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   886   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   887   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   888   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   889   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   890   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   891   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   892   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   893   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   894   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   895   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   896   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   897   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   898   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   899   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   900   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   901   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   902   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   903   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   904   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   905   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   906   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   907   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   908   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   909   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   910   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   911   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   912   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   913   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   914   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   915   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   916   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   917 
   918 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   919 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   920 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   921 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   922 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   923 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   924 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   925 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   926 
   927 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   928 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   929 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   930 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   931 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   932 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   933 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   934 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   935 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   936 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   937 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   938 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   939 
   940   Renamed constants:
   941   measure -> emeasure
   942   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   943   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   944   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   945   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   946 
   947   Removed locales:
   948   completeable_measure_space
   949   finite_measure_space
   950   finite_prob_space
   951   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   952   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   953   finite_sigma_algebra
   954   measure_space
   955   pair_finite_prob_space
   956   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   957   pair_finite_space
   958   pair_sigma_algebra
   959   product_sigma_algebra
   960 
   961   Removed constants:
   962   conditional_space
   963   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   964   image_space
   965   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   966   pair_measure_generator
   967   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   968   subvimage
   969 
   970   Replacement theorems:
   971   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   972   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   973   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   974   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   975   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   976   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   977   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   978   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   979   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   980   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   981   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   982   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   983   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   984   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   985   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   986   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   987   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   988   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   989   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   990   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   991   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   992   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   993   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   994   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   995   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   996   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   997   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   998   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   999   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1000   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1001   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1002   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1003   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1004   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1005   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1006   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1007   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1008   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1009   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1010   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1011   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1012   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1013   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1014   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1015   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1016   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1017   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1018   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1019   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1020   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1021   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1022   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1023   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1024   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1025   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1026   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1027   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1028   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1029   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1030   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1031   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1032   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1033   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1034   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1035   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1036   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1037   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1038   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1039   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1040   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1041   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1042   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1043   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1044   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1045   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1046   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1047   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1048   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1049   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1050   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1051   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1052   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1053   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1054   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1055   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1056   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1057   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1058   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1059   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1060   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1061   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1062   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1063   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1064   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1065   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1066   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1067   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1068   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1069   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1070   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1071   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1072   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1073   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1074   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1075   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1076   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1077   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1078   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1079   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1080   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1081   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1082   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1083   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1084   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1085   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1086   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1087   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1088   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1089   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1090   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1091   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1092   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1093   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1094   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1095   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1096   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1097   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1098   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1099 
  1100 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1101 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1102 
  1103 
  1104 *** FOL ***
  1105 
  1106 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1107 
  1108 
  1109 *** ZF ***
  1110 
  1111 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1112 analysis.
  1113 
  1114 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1115 
  1116 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 
  1119 *** ML ***
  1120 
  1121 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1122 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1123 
  1124 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1125 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1126 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1127 
  1128 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1129 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1130 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1131 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1132 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1133 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1134 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1135 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1136 
  1137 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1138 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1139 
  1140 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1141 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1142 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1143 
  1144 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1145 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1148 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1149 context as well.
  1150 
  1151 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1152 
  1153   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1154   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1155   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1156   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1157   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1158   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1159   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1160   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1161   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1162   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1163   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1164   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1165 
  1166 
  1167 *** System ***
  1168 
  1169 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1170 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1171 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1172 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1173 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1174 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1175 the generic user home was intended.
  1176 
  1177 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1178 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1179 
  1180 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1181 (not just JRE).
  1182 
  1183 
  1184 
  1185 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1186 ------------------------------------
  1187 
  1188 *** General ***
  1189 
  1190 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1191 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1192 
  1193   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1194     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1195     files for checking).
  1196 
  1197   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1198     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1199     positions.
  1200 
  1201   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1202     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1203     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1204 
  1205   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1206     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1207     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1208 
  1209   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1210     cores.
  1211 
  1212   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1213     versions (garbage collection).
  1214 
  1215 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1216 including some remaining limitations.
  1217 
  1218 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1219 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1220 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1221 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1222 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1224 
  1225 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1226 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1227 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1228 
  1229 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1230 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1231 usedir option -Q.
  1232 
  1233 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1234 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1235 
  1236   long_names   ~> names_long
  1237   short_names  ~> names_short
  1238   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1239 
  1240 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1241 
  1242   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1243 
  1244 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1245 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1246 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1247 
  1248 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1249 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1250 
  1251 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1252   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1253   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1254   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1255     "Classical Reasoner".
  1256 
  1257 
  1258 *** HOL ***
  1259 
  1260 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1261 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1264 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1265 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1266 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1267 class complete_linorder.
  1268 
  1269 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1270 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1271 
  1272 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1273 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1274 
  1275   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1276   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1277   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1278   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1279   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1280   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1281   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1282   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1283   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1284   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1285   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1286 
  1287 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1288 
  1289   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1290   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1291   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1292   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1293   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1294   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1295   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1296   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1297   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1298   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1299   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1300   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1301   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1302   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1303   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1304   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1305 
  1306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1307 
  1308 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1310 
  1311 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1312 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1313 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1314 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1315 
  1316 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1317 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1318 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1320 
  1321 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1322 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1323 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1324 
  1325 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1326 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1327 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1328 
  1329 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1330 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1331 
  1332 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1333 
  1334     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1335     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1336 
  1337 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1338 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1339 
  1340 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1341 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1344 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1345 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1346 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1349   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1350   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1351   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1352   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1353   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1354   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1355 
  1356 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1357 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1358 
  1359   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1360   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1361   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1362   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1363   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1364   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1365   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1366   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1367   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1368   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1369   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1370   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1371   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1372   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1373   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1374   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1375   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1376   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1377   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1378   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1379   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1380   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1381   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1382   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1383   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1384   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1385   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1386   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1387   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1388   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1389   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1390   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1391   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1392   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1393   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1394   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1395   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1396   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1397   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1398   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1399   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1400   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1401   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1402   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1403   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1404   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1405   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1406   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1407   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1408   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1409   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1410   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1411   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1412   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1413   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1414   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1415   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1416   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1417   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1418   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1419   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1420   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1421   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1422   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1423   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1424   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1425   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1426   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1427   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1428   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1429   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1430   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1431   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1432   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1433   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1434   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1435   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1436   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1437   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1438   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1439   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1440   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1441 
  1442 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1443 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1444 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1445 
  1446 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1447 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1448 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1449 
  1450 * Code generation:
  1451 
  1452   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1453     characters in the target language.
  1454 
  1455   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1456     instead.
  1457 
  1458   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1459 
  1460   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1461     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1462 
  1463       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1464 
  1465 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1466 
  1467 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1468 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1469 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1470 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1471 syntax.
  1472 
  1473 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1474 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1475 
  1476 * Nitpick:
  1477   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1478   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1479   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1480     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * Sledgehammer:
  1483   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1484   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1485     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1486   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1487     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1488   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1489     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1491     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1492   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1493     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 * Metis:
  1496   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1498     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1499 
  1500 * Command 'try':
  1501   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1502     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1504     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1505 
  1506 * Quickcheck:
  1507   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1508     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1509   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1510     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1511   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1512     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1513     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1514     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1515   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1516     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1517 
  1518 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1519 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1520 
  1521 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1522 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1523 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1524 
  1525 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1526 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528 
  1529 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1530 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1533 arithmetic.
  1534 
  1535 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1536 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1537 and lattice type classes.
  1538 
  1539 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1540 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1541 
  1542 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1543 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1544 
  1545 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1546 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1547 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1548 
  1549   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1550   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1551   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1552   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1553 
  1554 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1555 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1556 constants:
  1557 
  1558   type inat   ~> type enat
  1559   Fin         ~> enat
  1560   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1561   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1562   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1563 
  1564 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1565 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1568 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1569 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1570 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1571 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1572 
  1573 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1574 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1575 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1576 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1577 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1578 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1579 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1580 
  1581   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1582   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1583   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1584   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1585 
  1586 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1587 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1588 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1589 
  1590   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1591   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1592   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1593   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1594   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1595   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1596   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1597   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1598   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1599   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1600   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1601   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1602   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1603   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1604   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1605   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1606   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1607   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1608   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1609   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1610   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1611   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1612   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1613   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1614   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1615   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1616   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1617   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1618   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1619   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1620   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1621   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1622   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1623   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1624   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1625   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1626   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1627   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1628   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1629   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1630   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1631   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1632   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1633   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1634   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1635   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1636   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1637   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1638   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1639   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1640   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1641 
  1642 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1643   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1644   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1645   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1646   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1647     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1648 
  1649 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1652   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1653   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1654   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1655   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1656   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1657   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1658   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1659   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1660   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1661   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1662   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1663   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1664   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1665   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1666   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1667   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1668   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1669   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1670   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1671   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1672   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1673   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1674   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1675   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1676 
  1677 
  1678 *** Document preparation ***
  1679 
  1680 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1681 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1682 same.
  1683 
  1684 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1685 result.
  1686 
  1687 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1688 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1689 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1690 
  1691 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1692 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1693 
  1694 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1695 like this:
  1696 
  1697   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1698   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1699 
  1700 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1701 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1702 layouts.
  1703 
  1704 
  1705 *** ML ***
  1706 
  1707 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1708 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1709 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1710 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1711 under external program control.
  1712 
  1713 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1714 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1715 
  1716 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1717 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1718 (better known as Proof General).
  1719 
  1720 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1721 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1722 
  1723 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1724 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1725 
  1726 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1727 (including quotes etc.).
  1728 
  1729 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1730 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1731 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1732 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1733 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1734 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1735 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1736 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1737 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1738 
  1739 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1740 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1741 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1742 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1743 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1744 
  1745 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1746 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1747 
  1748 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1749 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1750 
  1751 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1752 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1753 
  1754 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1755 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1756 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1757 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1758 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1759 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1760 proper Proof.context.
  1761 
  1762 
  1763 *** System ***
  1764 
  1765 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1766 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1767 
  1768 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1769 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1770 
  1771 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1772 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1773 
  1774   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1775   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1776   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1777   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1778   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1779 
  1780 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1781 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1784 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1785 example:
  1786 
  1787   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1788 
  1789 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1790 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1791 
  1792 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1793 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1794 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1795 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1796 
  1797 
  1798 
  1799 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1800 ----------------------------------
  1801 
  1802 *** General ***
  1803 
  1804 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1805 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1806 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1807 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1808 like this:
  1809 
  1810   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1811 
  1812 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1813 
  1814 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1815 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1816 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1817 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1818 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1819 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1820 
  1821 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1822 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1823 the following package declarations:
  1824 
  1825   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1826   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1827 
  1828 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1829 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1830 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1831 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1832 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1833 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1834 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1835 
  1836 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1837 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1838 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1839 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1840 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1841 
  1842 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1843 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1844 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1845 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1846 
  1847 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1848 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1849 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1850 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1851 
  1852   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1853 
  1854   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1855   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1856   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1857   show_types                    show_types
  1858   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1859   show_consts                   show_consts
  1860   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1861 
  1862   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1863   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1864   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1865 
  1866   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1867   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1868 
  1869   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1870 
  1871   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1872   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1873   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1874   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1875   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1876 
  1877 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1878 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1879 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1880 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1881 
  1882 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1884 
  1885   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1886   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1887 
  1888 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1889 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1890 float_token.
  1891 
  1892 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1893 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1897 DejaVu Sans.
  1898 
  1899 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1900 
  1901 
  1902 *** Pure ***
  1903 
  1904 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1905 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1906 time.
  1907 
  1908 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1909 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1910 
  1911 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1912 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1913 
  1914 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1915 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1916 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1917 command already provided this functionality.
  1918 
  1919 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1920 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1921 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1922 without interpretations.
  1923 
  1924 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1925 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1926 
  1927 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1928 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1929 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1930 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1931 
  1932 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1933 'definition' instead.
  1934 
  1935 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1936 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1937 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1938 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1939 
  1940 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1941 constructors.
  1942 
  1943 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1944 the local file system.
  1945 
  1946 
  1947 *** HOL ***
  1948 
  1949 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1950 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1951 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1952 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1953 
  1954   declare [[coercion f]]
  1955 
  1956 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1957 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1958 
  1959   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1960 
  1961 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1962 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1963 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1964 other theories like this:
  1965 
  1966   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1967 
  1968 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1969 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1970 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1971 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1972 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1973 for examples.
  1974 
  1975 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1976 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1977 
  1978 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1979 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1980 
  1981 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1982 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1983 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1984 
  1985 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1986 functorial structure of types.
  1987 
  1988 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1989 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1990 
  1991 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1992 languages.
  1993 
  1994 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1995 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997 
  1998 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1999 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2002 combinators any longer.
  2003 
  2004 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2005 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2006 
  2007 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2008 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2009 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2010 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2011 
  2012   record 'a foo = ...
  2013   ...
  2014   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2015 
  2016 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2017 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2019 
  2020 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2021 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2022 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2023 
  2024 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2025 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2026 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2027 
  2028 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2029 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2030 
  2031 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2032 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2033 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2034 independently.
  2035 
  2036 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2037 counter example search.
  2038 
  2039 * Sledgehammer:
  2040   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2041     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2042     sledgehammer").
  2043   - Renamed commands:
  2044     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2045     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2046     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2047     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2048   - Renamed options:
  2049     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2050     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2051     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2052     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2053     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055 * Nitpick:
  2056   - Renamed options:
  2057     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2058     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2059     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2060   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2061   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2062   - Added "whack" option.
  2063   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2064   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2065   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2066   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2067     higher cardinalities.
  2068   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2069 
  2070 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2071 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2072 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2073 
  2074     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2075 
  2076 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2077 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2078 
  2079 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2080 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2081 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2082 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2083 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2084 "smt_solver".
  2085 
  2086 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2087 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2088 
  2089 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2090 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2091 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2092 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2093 
  2094 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2095   - Renamed:
  2096     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2097     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2098     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2099   - Added:
  2100     smt_verbose
  2101     smt_random_seed
  2102     smt_datatypes
  2103     smt_infer_triggers
  2104     smt_monomorph_limit
  2105     cvc3_options
  2106     remote_cvc3_options
  2107     remote_z3_options
  2108     yices_options
  2109 
  2110 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2111 header.
  2112 
  2113 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2114 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2115 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2116 
  2117   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2118 
  2119 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2120 
  2121 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2122 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2127 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2130 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2131 
  2132 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2133 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2134 
  2135 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2136 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2137 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2138 
  2139 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2143 
  2144 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2145 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2148 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2149 for congruent(2)).
  2150 
  2151 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2152 
  2153   types
  2154     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2155     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2156 
  2157   constants
  2158     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2159     True ~> HOL.True
  2160     False ~> HOL.False
  2161     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2162     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2163     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2164     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2165     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2166     The ~> HOL.The
  2167     All ~> HOL.All
  2168     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2169     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2170     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2171     If ~> HOL.If
  2172     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2173     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2174     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2175     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2176     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2177     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2178     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2179     op : ~> Set.member
  2180     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2181 
  2182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2185 
  2186     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2187     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2188     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2189     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2190     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2191     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2192     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2193     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2194 
  2195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 * More stylized fact names:
  2198 
  2199   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2200   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2201   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2202   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2203 
  2204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2207 
  2208   constants
  2209     null ~> List.null
  2210 
  2211   facts
  2212     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2213     null_empty ~> null_def
  2214 
  2215 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2216 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2217 generation.
  2218 
  2219 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2220 Haskell code.
  2221 
  2222 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2223 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2224 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2227 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2230 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2231 
  2232 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2233 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2234 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2235 
  2236 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2237 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2243 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2244 referred to by its qualified name.
  2245 
  2246   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2247   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2248   product ~>  Enum.product
  2249 
  2250 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2251 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2255 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2256 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2260 sort_key.
  2261 
  2262 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2266 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2267 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2268 
  2269   types
  2270     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2271               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2272               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2273         (depends on your needs)
  2274 
  2275   constants
  2276      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2277      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2278      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2279 
  2280 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2281 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2282 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2283 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2286 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2287 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2288 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2289 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2295 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2296 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2297 
  2298 
  2299 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2300 
  2301 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2302 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2303 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2304 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2305 compatibility.
  2306 
  2307 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2308 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2309 
  2310 
  2311 *** HOLCF ***
  2312 
  2313 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2314 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2315 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317 
  2318 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2319 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2320 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2323   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2324   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2325 
  2326 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2327 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2328 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2331 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2332 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2333 domain definition now works:
  2334 
  2335   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2336 
  2337 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2338 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2339 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2340 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2341 
  2342   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2343     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2344 
  2345   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2346 
  2347 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2348 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2349 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2352 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2355 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2356 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2357 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2358 
  2359 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2360 
  2361 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2369 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2370 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2371 
  2372 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2373 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2374 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2377 still supported as an input translation.
  2378 
  2379 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2380 
  2381   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2382   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2383   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2384   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2385   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2386   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2387   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2388 
  2389 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2390 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2393   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2394   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2395   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2396   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2397   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2398 
  2399 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2400 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401 
  2402 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2403 
  2404   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2405   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2406   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2407   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2408 
  2409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2410 
  2411 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2412 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2413 
  2414 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2415 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2418   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2419   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2420   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2421   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2422   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2423   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2424   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2425   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2426   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2427   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2428   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2429   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2430   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2431   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2432   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2433   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2434   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2435   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2436   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2437 
  2438 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2441   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2442   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2443   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2444   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2445   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2446   box_less             ~> box_below
  2447   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2448   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2449   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2450   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2451   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2452   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2453   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2454   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2455   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2456   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2457   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2458   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2459   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2460   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2461   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2462   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2463   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2464   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2465   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2466   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2467   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2468   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2469   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2470   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2471   up_less              ~> up_below
  2472   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2473   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2474   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2475   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2476   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2477   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2478   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2479   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2480   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2481   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2482   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2483   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2484   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2485 
  2486 
  2487 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2488 
  2489 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2490 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2491 
  2492 
  2493 *** ML ***
  2494 
  2495 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2496 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2497 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2498 
  2499 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2500 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2501 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2502 
  2503 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2504 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2505 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2506 
  2507 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2508 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2509 
  2510 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2511 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2512 
  2513 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2514 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2515 
  2516 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2517 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2518 
  2519 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2520 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2521 almost all situations.
  2522 
  2523 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2524 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2525 Isabelle/ML.
  2526 
  2527 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2528 meaning.
  2529 
  2530 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2531 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2532 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2533 
  2534 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2535 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2536 
  2537 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2538 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2539 
  2540 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2541 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2542 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2543 
  2544 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2545 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2546 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2547 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2548 configuration options.
  2549 
  2550 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2551 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2552 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2553 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2554 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2555 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2556 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2557 
  2558 
  2559 
  2560 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2561 ---------------------------------
  2562 
  2563 *** General ***
  2564 
  2565 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2566 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2567 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2568 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2569 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2570 their full internal name.
  2571 
  2572 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2573 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2574 Some hints on upgrading:
  2575 
  2576   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2577     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2578     which are independent of this issue.
  2579 
  2580   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2581     provides the following special forms:
  2582 
  2583       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2584       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2585       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2586 
  2587     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2588     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2589     extra variables".
  2590 
  2591     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2592     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2593     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2594     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2595     "logic".
  2596 
  2597   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2598     antiquotations:
  2599 
  2600       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2601       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2602       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2603       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2604 
  2605   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2606     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2607     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2608     antiquotations.
  2609 
  2610 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2611 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2612 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2613 diagnose syntax problems.
  2614 
  2615 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2616 
  2617 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2618 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2619 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2620 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2621 
  2622 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2623 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2624 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2625 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2628 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2629 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2630 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2631 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2634 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2635 
  2636 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2637 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2638 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2639 
  2640   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2641 
  2642 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2643 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2644 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2645 
  2646 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2647 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2651 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2652 
  2653 
  2654 *** Pure ***
  2655 
  2656 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2657 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2658 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2659 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2660 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2661 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2662 inspect proof terms.
  2663 
  2664 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2665 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2666 are added internally.  For example:
  2667 
  2668   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2669 
  2670 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2671 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2674 
  2675 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2676 'class' instead.
  2677 
  2678 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2679 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2683 invariants.
  2684 
  2685 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2686 user space functionality any longer.
  2687 
  2688 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2689 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2693 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2694 
  2695 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2696 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2697 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2698 
  2699 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2700 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2701 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2702 
  2703 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2704 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706 
  2707 *** HOL ***
  2708 
  2709 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2710 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2711 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2712 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2713 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2714 
  2715 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2716 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2717 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2718 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2719 
  2720   fun
  2721     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2722   where
  2723     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2724 
  2725   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2726     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2727 
  2728   quotient_definition
  2729     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2730 
  2731 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2732 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2733 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2734 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2735 
  2736 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2737 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2738 
  2739 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2740 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2741 
  2742 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2746 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2747 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2748 
  2749 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2750 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754 
  2755 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2759 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2762 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2763 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2766   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2767   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2768   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2769   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2770   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2771   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2772   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2773   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2774   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2775   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2776   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2777   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2778   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2779   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2780   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2781   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2782   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2783   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2784   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2785   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2786   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2787   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2788   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2789   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2790   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2791   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2792   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2793   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2794   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2795 
  2796 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2797 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2798 
  2799 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2800 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2801 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2802 
  2803 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2804 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2805 
  2806 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2807 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2810 
  2811 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2812 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2813 
  2814 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2815 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2816 
  2817 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2820 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2821 
  2822 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2823 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2824 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2825 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2828   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2829   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2830   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2834 lattices):
  2835 
  2836     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2837     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2838 
  2839     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2840 
  2841     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2842     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2843     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2844     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2845     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2846     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2847     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2848     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2849     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2850     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2851     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2852     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2853     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2854 
  2855     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2856     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2857     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2858     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2859     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2860     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2861     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2862     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2863     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2864     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2865     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2866     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2867     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2868     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2869     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2870     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2871     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2872     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2873 
  2874   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2875   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2876 
  2877     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2878     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2879     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2880     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2881     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2882 
  2883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Refined field classes:
  2886   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2887     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2888     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2889   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2891 
  2892 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2893   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2894   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2895   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2896     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2897   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2898     equal_neg_zero.
  2899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900 
  2901 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2902 sets to lattices:
  2903 
  2904   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2905   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2906   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2907   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2908   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2909   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2910   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2911   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2912   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2913   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2914 
  2915 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2916 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2917 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2918 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2919 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2920 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2923 multiset order:
  2924 
  2925   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2926     <= and <;
  2927   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2928     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2929     multiset_order;
  2930   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2931     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2932     generation;
  2933   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2934     if needed.
  2935 
  2936 Renamed:
  2937 
  2938   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2939   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2940   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2941 
  2942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2943 
  2944 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2945 
  2946 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2947 
  2948 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2949 
  2950 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2951 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2952 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954   Constants:
  2955   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2956   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2957   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2958   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2959   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2960   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2961   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2962   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2963   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2964   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2965   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2966   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2967   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2968 
  2969   Lemmas:
  2970   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2971   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2972   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2973   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2974   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2975   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2976   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2977   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2978   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2979   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2980   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2981   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2982   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2983 
  2984 * Sledgehammer:
  2985   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2986     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2987     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2988     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2989     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2990     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2991     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2993   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2994     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2995   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2996     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2997     is still experimental.)
  2998   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2999     full-typed mode.
  3000   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3001 
  3002 * Nitpick:
  3003   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3004   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3005   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3006     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3007   - Added support for quotient types.
  3008   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3009     constructs.
  3010   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3011     "termination" proofs).
  3012   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3013   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3014   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3015   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3016     record getters.
  3017   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3018   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3019   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3020   - Added "atoms" option.
  3021   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3022     problems.
  3023   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3024     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3025     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3027     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3029 
  3030 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3031   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3032   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3033   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3034   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3035   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3036   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3037   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3038   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3039   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040 
  3041 
  3042 *** HOLCF ***
  3043 
  3044 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3045 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3046 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3047 
  3048 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3049 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3050 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3051 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3054 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3055 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3056 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3057 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3060 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3061 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3064 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3067   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3068 
  3069 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3070 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3073   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3074   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3075   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3076   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3077 
  3078 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3079 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3080 
  3081   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3082   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3083   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3084 
  3085 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3086 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3090 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3095 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 
  3098 *** ML ***
  3099 
  3100 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3101 
  3102     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3103     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3104 
  3105     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3106     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3107     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3108     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3109 
  3110     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3111     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3112     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3113 
  3114 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3115 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3116 
  3117 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3118 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3119 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3120 
  3121 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3122 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3123 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3124 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3125 
  3126 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3127 the context or even global references.
  3128 
  3129 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3130 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3131 
  3132 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3133 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3134 
  3135   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3136   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3137   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3138   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3139   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3140   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3141   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3142   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3143   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3144   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3145 
  3146 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3147 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3148 
  3149 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3150 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3151 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3152 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3153 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3154 
  3155 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3156 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3157 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3158 Theory_Data version.
  3159 
  3160 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3161 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3162 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3163 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3164 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3165 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3166 explicitly in rare situations.
  3167 
  3168 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3169 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3173 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3176 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3177 quite rare).
  3178 
  3179 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3180 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3183 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3184 terms.
  3185 
  3186 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3187 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3188 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3189 
  3190 
  3191 *** System ***
  3192 
  3193 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3194 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3195 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3196 
  3197 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3198 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3199 respectively.
  3200 
  3201 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3202 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3203 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3204 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3205 
  3206   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3207 
  3208 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3209 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3210 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3211 component.
  3212 
  3213 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3214 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3215 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3216 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3217 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3218 the user for manual installation.
  3219 
  3220 
  3221 
  3222 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3223 -------------------------------------
  3224 
  3225 *** General ***
  3226 
  3227 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3228 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3229 
  3230 
  3231 *** Pure ***
  3232 
  3233 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3234 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3235 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3236 
  3237 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3238 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3239 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3240 
  3241 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3242 interpretation.
  3243 
  3244 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3245 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 
  3248 *** Document preparation ***
  3249 
  3250 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3251 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3252 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3253 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3254 
  3255 
  3256 *** HOL ***
  3257 
  3258 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3259 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3260 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3261 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3262 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3263 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3264 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3265 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3266 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3267 
  3268 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3269 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3270 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3271 
  3272 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3273 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3274 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3275 
  3276 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3277 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3278 
  3279 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3280 
  3281 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3282 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3283 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3284 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3285 
  3286 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3287 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3288 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3289 "mirabelle" utility.
  3290 
  3291 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3292 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3293 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3294 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3295 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3296 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3297 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3298 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3299 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3300 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3301 
  3302 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3303 procedure only.
  3304 
  3305 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3306 
  3307 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3308 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3309 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3310 that fail later.
  3311 
  3312 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3313 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3314 
  3315 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3316 the same method as the approximation method.
  3317 
  3318 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3319 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3320 series expansion.
  3321 
  3322 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3323 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3324 
  3325 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3326 reals.
  3327 
  3328 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3329 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3330 
  3331 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3332 fixpoint theorem.
  3333 
  3334 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3335   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3336     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3337   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3338     accordingly
  3339   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3340     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3341   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3342     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3343 
  3344 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3345 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3346 lattice.
  3347 
  3348 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3349 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3350 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3351 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3352 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3353 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3357   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3358     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3359   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3360     le_inf_iff
  3361   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3362     sup_aci)
  3363   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3364   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3365   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3366     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3367     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3368     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3369     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3370     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3371     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3372     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3373     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3374     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3375     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3376   - authentic syntax for
  3377     Set.Pow
  3378     Set.image
  3379   - mere abbreviations:
  3380     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3381     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3382     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3383     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3384     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3385     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3386     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3387     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3388   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3389 
  3390 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3391 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3392 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3393 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3394 
  3395 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3396 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3397 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3400 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3403 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3404 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3405 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3408 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3409 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3410 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3411 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3412 
  3413 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3414 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3418 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3421 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3422 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3423 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3424 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3425 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3426 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3430     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3431     code_post       replaces    code post
  3432     etc.
  3433   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Renamed methods:
  3436     sizechange -> size_change
  3437     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3438   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3441 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3442 
  3443 * Renamed theorems:
  3444     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3445     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3446     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3447     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3448     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3449   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 
  3458 *** HOLCF ***
  3459 
  3460 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3461 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3462 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3463 
  3464 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3465 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3466 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3467 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3468 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3469 
  3470 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3471 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3472 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3473 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3474 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3475 
  3476 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3477 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3478 constructor are pre-configured.
  3479 
  3480 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3481 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3482 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3483 
  3484 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3485 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3486 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3487 as well.)
  3488 
  3489 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3490 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3491 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3492 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3493 examples.
  3494 
  3495 
  3496 *** ML ***
  3497 
  3498 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3499 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3500 
  3501 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3502 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3503 position, logical grouping etc.
  3504 
  3505 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3506 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3507 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3508 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3509 
  3510 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3511 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3512 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3513 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3514 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3515 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3516 
  3517 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3518 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3519 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3520 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3521 experiments with references.
  3522 
  3523 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3524 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3525 
  3526 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3527 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3528 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3529 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3530 
  3531 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3532 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3533 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3534 
  3535 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3536 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3537 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3545 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3546 
  3547 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3548 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3549 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3550 
  3551 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3552 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3553 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3556 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3557 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3561 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3562 instead of global theory.
  3563 
  3564 
  3565 *** System ***
  3566 
  3567 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3568 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3569 usedir option -q.
  3570 
  3571 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3572 also the system manual.
  3573 
  3574 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3575 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3576 
  3577 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3578 this is always enabled.
  3579 
  3580 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3581 
  3582 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3583 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3584 currently supported on Linux only.
  3585 
  3586 
  3587 
  3588 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3589 --------------------------------
  3590 
  3591 *** General ***
  3592 
  3593 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3594 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3595 
  3596   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3597     "isatool."
  3598 
  3599   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3600     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3601 
  3602   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3603     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3604 
  3605 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3606 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3607 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3608 
  3609 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3610 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3611 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3612 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3613 via "isabelle emacs".
  3614 
  3615 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3616 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3617 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3618 
  3619 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3620 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3621 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3622 
  3623 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3624 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3625 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3626 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3627 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3628 
  3629 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3630 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3631 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3632 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3633 
  3634 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3635 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3636 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3637 
  3638 
  3639 *** Pure ***
  3640 
  3641 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3642 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3643 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3644 
  3645 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3646 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3647 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3648 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3649 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3650 
  3651 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3652 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3653 useful in locale declarations.
  3654 
  3655 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3656 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3657 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3658 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3659 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3660 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3661 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3662 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3663 no longer generated.
  3664 
  3665 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3666 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3667 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3668 
  3669 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3670 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3671 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3672 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3673 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3674 
  3675 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3677 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3678 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3679 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3680 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3681 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3682 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3683 
  3684 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3685 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3686 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3687 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3688 
  3689 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3692 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3693 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3694 
  3695 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3696 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3699 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3700 in HOL, write
  3701 
  3702     class foo = ...
  3703 
  3704 instead of
  3705 
  3706     class foo = type + ...
  3707 
  3708 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3709 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3710 
  3711 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3712 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3713 
  3714 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3715 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3716 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3717 
  3718 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3719 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3720 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3721 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3722 directly in regular applications.
  3723 
  3724 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3725 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3726 
  3727 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3728 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3729 
  3730 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3731 theory context.
  3732 
  3733 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3734 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3737 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3738 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3739 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3740 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3741 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3742 
  3743   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3744 
  3745 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3746 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3747 normalization.
  3748 
  3749 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3750 addressing etc.
  3751 
  3752 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3753 
  3754   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3755   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3756 
  3757 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3758 
  3759   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3760      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3761      parts of the code generator framework).
  3762 
  3763   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3764      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3765      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3766 
  3767 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3770 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3773 patterns, e.g.
  3774 
  3775     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3776 
  3777 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3778 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3779 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3780 hyphen:
  3781 
  3782     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3783 
  3784 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3785 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3786 
  3787 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3788 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3789 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3790 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3791 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3792 higher-order unification.
  3793 
  3794 
  3795 *** Document preparation ***
  3796 
  3797 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3798 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3799 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3800 
  3801 
  3802 *** HOL ***
  3803 
  3804 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3805 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3806 
  3807 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3808 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3809 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3810 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3811 Main, as before.
  3812 
  3813 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3814 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3815 
  3816 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3817 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3818 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3819 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3820 
  3821 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3822 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3823 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3824 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3825 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3826 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3827 
  3828 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3829 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3830 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3831 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3832 
  3833 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3834 menu.
  3835 
  3836 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3837 (contains the empty clause).
  3838 
  3839 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3840 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3841 
  3842 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3843 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3844 
  3845 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3846 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3847 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3850 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3851 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3852 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3853 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3854 
  3855 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3856 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3857 
  3858 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3859 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3860 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3861 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3862 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3863 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3864 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3865 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3866 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3867 
  3868 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3869 
  3870 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3871 
  3872 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3873 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3876 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3877 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3878 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3879 
  3880 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3881 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3882 
  3883     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3884     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3885     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3886     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3887     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3888     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3889     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3890     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3891 
  3892 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3893 theory Set.
  3894 
  3895 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3896 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3897 
  3898 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3899 
  3900 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3901 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3902 
  3903 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3904 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3905 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3906 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3907 allowed. For examples see
  3908 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3909 
  3910 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3911 
  3912 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3916 structure:
  3917 
  3918     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3919     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3920     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3921     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3922     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3923     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3924     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3925     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3926     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3927     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3928     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3929     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3930     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3931     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3932     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3933     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3934     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3935     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3936     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3937     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3938     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3939     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3940     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3941     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3942     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3943     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3944     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3945     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3946     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3947     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3948     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3949     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3950     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3951 
  3952     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3953     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3954     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3955     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3956     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3957     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3958     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3959     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3960     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3961     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3962 
  3963     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3964     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3965     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3966     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3967     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3968     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3969 
  3970 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3971 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3972 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3973 
  3974 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3975 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3976 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3977 
  3978 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3979 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3982 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3983 
  3984 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3985 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3986 proofs, e.g.
  3987 
  3988   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3989 
  3990 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3991 
  3992 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3993 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3994 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995 
  3996 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3997 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4001 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4002 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4006 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4007 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4008 preorder_class.*.
  4009 
  4010 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4011 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4012 
  4013 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4014 
  4015   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4016 
  4017 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4018 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4019 fold_image.
  4020 
  4021 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4022 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4023 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4024 the former will disappear at some point.
  4025 
  4026 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4027 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4028 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4029 
  4030 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4031 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4032 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4033 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4034 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4035 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4036 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4037 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4038 
  4039 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4040 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4041 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4042 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4043 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4044 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4045 
  4046     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4047     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4048     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4049     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4050     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4051     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4052     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4053 
  4054 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4055 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4056 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4057 
  4058 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4059 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4060 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4061 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4062 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4063 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4064 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4065 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4066 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4067 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4068 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4069 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4070 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4071 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4072 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4073 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4074 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4075 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4076 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4077 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4078 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4079 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4080 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4081 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4082 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4083 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4084 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4085 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4086 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4087 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4088 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4089 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4090 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4091 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4092 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4093 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4094 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4095 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4096 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4097 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4098 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4099 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4100 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4101 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4102 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4103 
  4104 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4107 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4108 
  4109 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4110 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4111 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4112 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4113 
  4114 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4115 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4116 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4117 theory RealVector.
  4118 
  4119 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4120 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4121 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4122 and inner products are included.
  4123 
  4124 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4125 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4126 supported.
  4127 
  4128 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4129 first diagonalization argument.
  4130 
  4131 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4132 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4133 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4134 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4135 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4136 
  4137     hide (open) const gcd
  4138     abbreviation gcd where
  4139       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4140     notation (output)
  4141       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4142 
  4143 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4144 
  4145 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4146 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4147 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4148 
  4149 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4150 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4151 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4152 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4153 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4154 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4155 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4156 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4157 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4158 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4159 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4160 cases.
  4161 
  4162 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4163 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4164 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4165 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4166 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4167 
  4168     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4169     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4170     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4171     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4172     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4173 
  4174 
  4175 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4176 
  4177 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4178 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4179 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4180 
  4181 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4182 
  4183 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4184 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4185 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4186 
  4187 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4188 
  4189 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4190 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4191 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4192 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4193 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4194 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4195 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4196 
  4197 
  4198 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4199 
  4200 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4201 
  4202 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4203 theory targets.
  4204 
  4205 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4206 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4207 'inductive' etc.
  4208 
  4209 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4210 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4211 
  4212 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4213 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4214 
  4215 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4216 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4217 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4218 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4219 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4220 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4221 the algorithm W:
  4222 
  4223  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4224  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4225          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4226 
  4227 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4228 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4229 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4230 
  4231 
  4232 *** HOLCF ***
  4233 
  4234 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4235 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4236 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4237 
  4238 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4239 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4240 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4241 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4242 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4243 
  4244 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4245 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4246 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4247 
  4248 
  4249 *** ZF ***
  4250 
  4251 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4252 
  4253 
  4254 *** ML ***
  4255 
  4256 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4257 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4258 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4259 5.2.1!
  4260 
  4261 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4262 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4263 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4264 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4265 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4266 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4267 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4268 
  4269 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4270 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4271 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4272 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4273 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4274 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4275 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4276 
  4277 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4278 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4279 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4280 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4281 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4282 
  4283 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4284 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4285 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4286 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4287 Method.add_method.
  4288 
  4289 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4290 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4291 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4292 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4293 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4294 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4295 
  4296 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4297 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4298 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4299 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4300 examples.
  4301 
  4302 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4303 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4304 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4305 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4306 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4307 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4308 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4309 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4310 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4311 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4312 
  4313 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4314 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4315 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4316 
  4317 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4318 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4319 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4320 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4321 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4322 resort for legacy applications.
  4323 
  4324 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4325 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4326 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4327 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4328 explicit runtime argument.
  4329 
  4330 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4331 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4332 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4333 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4334 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4335 
  4336 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4337 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4338 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4339 theory state.
  4340 
  4341 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4342 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4343 
  4344   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4345   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4346   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4347   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4348   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4349   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4350   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4351   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4352   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4353   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4354 
  4355 
  4356 *** System ***
  4357 
  4358 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4359 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4360 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4361 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4362 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4363 
  4364 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4365 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4366 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4367 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4368 
  4369 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4370 
  4371 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4372 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4373 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4374 prover operations.
  4375 
  4376 
  4377 
  4378 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4379 -------------------------------
  4380 
  4381 *** General ***
  4382 
  4383 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4384 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4385 
  4386 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4387 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4388 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4389 provides a proper context already.
  4390 
  4391 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4392 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4393 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4394 
  4395 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4396 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4397 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4398 swap theory imports.
  4399 
  4400 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4401 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4402 
  4403 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4404 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4405 white space without escapes.
  4406 
  4407 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4408 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4409 "foo_bar".
  4410 
  4411 
  4412 *** Pure ***
  4413 
  4414 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4415 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4416 
  4417 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4418 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4419 
  4420 (1) unused_thms
  4421      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4422 
  4423 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4424      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4425      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4426 
  4427 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4428      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4429      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4430      their ancestors.
  4431 
  4432 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4433 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4434 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4435 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4436 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4437 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4438 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4439 
  4440 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4441 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4442 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4443 
  4444 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4445 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4446 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4447 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4448 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4449 
  4450 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4451 
  4452 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4453 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4454 update of theories within ML code.
  4455 
  4456 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4457 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4458 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4459 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4460 
  4461 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4462 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4463 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4465 
  4466 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4467 
  4468 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4469 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4470 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4471 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4472 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4473 
  4474 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4475 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4476 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4477 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4478 situations.
  4479 
  4480 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4481 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4482 proof text.
  4483 
  4484 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4485 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4486 
  4487 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4488 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4489 predicates.
  4490 
  4491 
  4492 *** Document preparation ***
  4493 
  4494 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4495 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4496 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4497 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4498 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4499 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4500 
  4501 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4502 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4503 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4504 
  4505 
  4506 *** HOL ***
  4507 
  4508 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4509 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4510 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4511 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4512 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4513 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4514 
  4515 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4516 with multithreading.
  4517 
  4518 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4519 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4520 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4521 
  4522 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4523 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4524 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4525 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4528 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4529 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4530 and makes them available separately.  See
  4531 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4532 
  4533 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4534 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4535 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4536 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4537 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4538 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4539 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4540 the declared rules.
  4541 
  4542 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4543 
  4544   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4545 
  4546 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4547 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4548 
  4549 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4550 
  4551   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4552 
  4553   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4554     definitions on => and bool.
  4555 
  4556   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4557     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4558     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4559 
  4560       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4561       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4562       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4563       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4564       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4565       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4566       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4567       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4568 
  4569   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4570     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4571     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4572 
  4573   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4574     The proof pattern
  4575 
  4576       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4577       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4578 
  4579     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4580     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4581 
  4582       have "EX S. P S"
  4583       proof
  4584         show "P S" <...>
  4585       qed
  4586 
  4587   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4588     The proof pattern
  4589 
  4590       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4591       also have "S = T" <...>
  4592       finally have "P T" .
  4593 
  4594     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4595     must be replaced by something like
  4596 
  4597       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4598       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4599       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4600 
  4601   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4602     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4603 
  4604       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4605 
  4606     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4607     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4608     type of the form
  4609 
  4610       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4611 
  4612     rather than
  4613 
  4614       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4615 
  4616 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4617 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4618 
  4619 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4620 
  4621 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4622 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4624 
  4625 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4626 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4627 
  4628 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4629 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4632 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4633 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4634 
  4635 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4636 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4637 
  4638   less_trans
  4639   less_linear
  4640   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4641   le_less_trans
  4642   less_le_trans
  4643   less_not_sym
  4644   less_asym
  4645 
  4646 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4647 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4648 and different variable names.
  4649 
  4650 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4651 
  4652 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4653 finite maps.
  4654 
  4655 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4656 
  4657 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4658 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4659 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4660 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4661 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4662 accordingly.
  4663 
  4664 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4665 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4666 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4667 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4668 
  4669 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4670 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4671 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4672 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4673 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4677 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4680 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4681 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4682 
  4683 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4687 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4688 
  4689 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4690 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4691 
  4692 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4693 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4694 
  4695 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4696 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4700 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4703 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4704 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4705 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4706 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4707 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4710 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4711 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4712 
  4713 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4714 
  4715 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4716 
  4717 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4718 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4719 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4720 
  4721 
  4722 *** ZF ***
  4723 
  4724 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4725 same session:
  4726 
  4727   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4728   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4729   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4730   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4731   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4732   List      -> List_ZF
  4733   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4734 
  4735 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4736 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4737 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4738 
  4739 
  4740 *** ML ***
  4741 
  4742 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4743 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4744 
  4745 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4746 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4747 
  4748 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4749 
  4750 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4751 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4752 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4753 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4754 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4755 
  4756 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4757 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4758 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4759 
  4760 
  4761 *** System ***
  4762 
  4763 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4764 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4765 
  4766 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4767 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4768 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4769 
  4770 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4771 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4772 
  4773 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4774 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4775 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4776 
  4777 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4778 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4779 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4780 
  4781 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4782 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4783 
  4784 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4785 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4786 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4787 script.
  4788 
  4789 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4790 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4791 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4792 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4793 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4794 
  4795 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4796 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4797 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4798 
  4799 
  4800 
  4801 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4802 -----------------------------------
  4803 
  4804 *** General ***
  4805 
  4806 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4807 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4808 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4809 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4810 
  4811 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4812 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4813 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4816 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4817 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4818 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4821 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4822 quotes.
  4823 
  4824 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4825 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4826 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4827 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4828 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4829 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4830 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4831 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4832 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4833 
  4834 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4835 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4836 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4837 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4838 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4839 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4840 
  4841 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4842 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4843 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4844 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4845 
  4846 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4847 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4848 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4849 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4850 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4851 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4852 
  4853 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4854 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4855 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4856 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4857 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4858 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4859 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4860 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4861 
  4862 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4863 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4864 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4865 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4866 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4867 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4868 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4869 
  4870 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4871 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4872 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4873 
  4874 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4875 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4876 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4877 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4878 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4879 limit is imposed.
  4880 
  4881 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4882 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4883 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4884 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4885 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4886 and scalability.
  4887 
  4888 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4889 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4890 
  4891 
  4892 *** Document preparation ***
  4893 
  4894 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4895 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4896 current context.
  4897 
  4898 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4899 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4900 
  4901 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4902 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4903 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4904 
  4905 
  4906 *** Pure ***
  4907 
  4908 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4909 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4910 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4911 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4912 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4913 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4914 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4915 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4916 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4917 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4918 
  4919 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4920 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4921 sketch:
  4922 
  4923     internal compilation:
  4924         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4925     writing SML code to a file:
  4926         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4927     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4928         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4929     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4930         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4931 
  4932     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4933         method ``eval''
  4934 
  4935 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4936 
  4937 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4938 
  4939     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4940     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4941     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4942     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4943 
  4944 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4945 
  4946     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4947       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4948 
  4949     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4950       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4951 
  4952     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4953       {(target)}+
  4954         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4955 
  4956     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4957       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4958         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4959 
  4960 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4961 
  4962 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4963 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4964 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4965 codegen".
  4966 
  4967 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4968 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4969 annotations).
  4970 
  4971 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4972 syntax.
  4973 
  4974 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4975 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4976 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4977 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4978 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4979 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4980 
  4981 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4982 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4983 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4984 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4985 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4986 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4987 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4988 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4989 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4990 equations, see section "definitions".
  4991 
  4992 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4993 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4994 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4995 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4996 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4997 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4998 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4999 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5000 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5001 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5002 
  5003 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5004 configuration options:
  5005 
  5006   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5007   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5008   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5009   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5010   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5011   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5012   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5013   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5014   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5015 
  5016 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5017 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5018 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5019 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5020 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5021 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5022 order.
  5023 
  5024 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5025 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5026 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5027 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5028 context encountered later on.
  5029 
  5030 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5031 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5032 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5033 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5034 
  5035 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5036 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5037 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5038 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5039 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5040 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5041 
  5042 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5043 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5044 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5045 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5046 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5047 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5048 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5049 more permissive.
  5050 
  5051 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5052 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5053 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5054 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5055 maintainability of proof texts.
  5056 
  5057 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5058 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5059 
  5060   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5061   then guess x and y by clarify
  5062 
  5063 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5064 proof tools being involved here.
  5065 
  5066 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5067 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5068 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5069 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5070 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5071 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5072 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5073 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5074 
  5075 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5076 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5077 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5078 
  5079   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5080   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5081   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5082   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5083 
  5084 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5085 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5086 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5087 
  5088 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5089 both named and unnamed ones.
  5090 
  5091 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5092 
  5093   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5094 
  5095 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5096 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5097 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5098 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5099 
  5100 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5101 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5102 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5103 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5104 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5105 
  5106 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5107 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5108 
  5109 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5110 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5111 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5112 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5113 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5114 originally first one.
  5115 
  5116 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5117 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5118 expected.
  5119 
  5120 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5121 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5122 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5123 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5124 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5125 
  5126   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5127     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5128     obtains x where "P x"
  5129 
  5130   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5131     assumes "A & B"
  5132     obtains A and B
  5133 
  5134   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5135     assumes "A | B"
  5136     obtains
  5137       A
  5138     | B
  5139 
  5140 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5141 explicitly:
  5142 
  5143   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5144     obtains "~ thesis"
  5145 
  5146   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5147     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5148 
  5149 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5150 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5151 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5152 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5153 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5154 case_names).
  5155 
  5156 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5157 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5158 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5159 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5160 
  5161 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5162 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5163 top-level lemma.
  5164 
  5165 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5166 introduction rule (default "that").
  5167 
  5168 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5169 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5170 to occur.
  5171 
  5172 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5173 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5174 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5175 representations independently of name spaces.
  5176 
  5177 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5178 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5179 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5180 
  5181 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5182 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5183 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5184 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5185 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5186 current context.
  5187 
  5188 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5189 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5190 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5191 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5192 
  5193   axiomatization
  5194     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5195     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5196 
  5197   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5198   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5199 
  5200   abbreviation
  5201     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5202     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5203 
  5204 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5205 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5206 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5207 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5208 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5209 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5210 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5211 
  5212 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5213 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5214 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5215 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5216 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5217 
  5218 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5219 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5220 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5221 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5222 
  5223 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5224 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5225 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5226 
  5227   definition "K x _ = x"
  5228 
  5229   inductive conj for A B
  5230   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5231 
  5232 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5233 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5234 abbreviations on output.
  5235 
  5236 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5237 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5238 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5239 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5240 
  5241 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5242 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5243 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5244 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5245 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5246 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5247 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5248 
  5249 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5250 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5251 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5252 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5253 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5254 
  5255 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5256 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5257 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5258 
  5259 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5260 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5261 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5262 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5263 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5264 
  5265   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5266     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5267 
  5268 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5269 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5270 partial_order.
  5271 
  5272 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5273 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5274 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5275 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5276 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5277 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5278 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5279 examples.
  5280 
  5281 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5282 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5283 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5284 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5285 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5286 
  5287 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5288 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5289 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5290 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5291 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5292 
  5293   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5294   (induct set: foo bar)
  5295   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5296   (induct type: foo bar)
  5297 
  5298 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5299 new format.
  5300 
  5301 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5302 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5303 
  5304 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5305 considered a legacy feature.
  5306 
  5307 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5308 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5311 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5312 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5313 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5314   
  5315 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5316 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5317 manipulating the claset.
  5318 
  5319 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5320 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5321 least one premise.
  5322 
  5323 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5324 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5325 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5326 rule steps.
  5327 
  5328 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5329 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5330 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5331 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5332 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5333 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5334 
  5335 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5336 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5337 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5338 
  5339 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5340 the graph browser tool.
  5341 
  5342 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5343 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5344 
  5345 
  5346 *** HOL ***
  5347 
  5348 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5349 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5350 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5351 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5352 multi-threading.
  5353   
  5354 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5355 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5356 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5357 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5358 work with multi-threading.
  5359 
  5360 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5361 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5362 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5363 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5364 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5365 
  5366 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5367 
  5368 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5369 equality.
  5370 
  5371 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5372 the new 'class' package:
  5373 
  5374     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5375     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5376     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5377     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5378     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5379     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5380     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5381     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5382     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5383     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5384     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5385     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5386     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5387     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5388     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5389     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5390     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5391     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5392     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5393     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5394 
  5395 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5396 
  5397 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5398 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5399 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5400 names.
  5401 
  5402 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5403 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5404 
  5405 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5406 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5407 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5408 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5409 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5410 
  5411 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5412 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5413 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5414 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5415 
  5416 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5417 
  5418 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5419 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5420 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5421 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5423 
  5424 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5425 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5426 
  5427 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5428 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5429 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5430 
  5431 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5432 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5433 
  5434 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5435 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5436 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5437 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5438 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5439 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5440 in the current context.
  5441 
  5442 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5443 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5445 
  5446 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5447 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5448 
  5449 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5450 
  5451     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5452     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5453 
  5454     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5455       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5456     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5457     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5458 
  5459     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5460     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5461 
  5462   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5463 
  5464     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5465     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5466     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5467     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5468     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5469     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5470     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5471     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5472     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5473     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5474     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5475     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5476     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5477     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5478     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5479     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5480     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5481     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5482     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5483     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5484     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5485     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5486     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5487     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5488     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5489     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5490     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5491     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5492     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5493     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5494     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5495     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5496     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5497     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5498     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5499 
  5500     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5501     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5502     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5503     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5504     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5505     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5506     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5507     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5508     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5509     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5510     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5511     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5512     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5513     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5514     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5515     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5516     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5517 
  5518     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5519     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5520     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5521     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5522     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5523     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5524     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5525     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5526     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5527     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5528     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5529     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5530     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5531     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5532     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5533     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5534     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5535     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5536     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5537     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5538     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5539     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5540     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5541     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5542     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5543     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5544     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5545     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5546 
  5547     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5548     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5549     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5550     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5551     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5552     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5553 
  5554     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5555     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5556     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5557     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5558 
  5559     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5560     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5561 
  5562     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5563     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5564 
  5565 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5566 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5567 
  5568 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5569 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5570 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5571 "*.size".
  5572 
  5573 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5575 
  5576 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5577 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5578 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5579 
  5580 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5583 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5584 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5585 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5586 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5587 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5588 numerals on all operations.
  5589 
  5590 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5591 
  5592 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5593 
  5594 * Code generator library theories:
  5595   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5596     languages.
  5597   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5598     languages.
  5599   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5600     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5601   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5602   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5603     denominator).
  5604   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5605     representable by rational numbers.
  5606   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5607     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5608     includes Code_Integer.
  5609   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5610     target-language built-in integers.
  5611   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5612     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5613 
  5614 * New package for inductive predicates
  5615 
  5616   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5617 
  5618     inductive
  5619       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5620       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5621     where
  5622       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5623     | ...
  5624 
  5625   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5626 
  5627     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5628 
  5629     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5630     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5631 
  5632     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5633     intros
  5634       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5635       ...
  5636 
  5637   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5638   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5639 
  5640     inductive_set
  5641       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5642       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5643     where
  5644       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5645     | ...
  5646 
  5647   or
  5648 
  5649     inductive_set
  5650       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5651       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5652       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5653     where
  5654       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5655     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5656     | ...
  5657 
  5658   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5659 
  5660   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5661   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5662 
  5663   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5664 
  5665   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5666     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5667     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5668     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5669     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5670 
  5671   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5672     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5673     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5674     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5675     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5676     statements of the form
  5677 
  5678       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5679 
  5680     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5681     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5682 
  5683       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5684 
  5685   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5686 
  5687       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5688         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5689         ==> ... ==> P
  5690 
  5691     for predicates and
  5692 
  5693       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5694         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5695         ==> ... ==> P
  5696 
  5697     for sets rather than
  5698 
  5699       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5700         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5701         ==> ... ==> P
  5702 
  5703     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5704     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5705     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5706 
  5707   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5708     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5709     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5710 
  5711 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5712 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5713 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5714 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5715 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5716 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5717 
  5718 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5719 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5720 
  5721 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5722 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5723 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5724 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5725 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5726 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5727 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5728 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5729 variable.
  5730 
  5731 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5732 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5733 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5734 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5735   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5736   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5737 
  5738 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5739 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5740 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5741 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5742 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5743 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5744 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5745 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5746 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5747 
  5748 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5749 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5750 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5751 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5752 rat, etc.
  5753 
  5754 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5755 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5756 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5757 
  5758 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5759 
  5760 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5761 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5762 
  5763 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5764 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5765 
  5766 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5767 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5768 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5769 
  5770 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5771 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5773 
  5774 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5775 
  5776 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5777 
  5778 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5779 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5780 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5781 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5782 
  5783 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5784 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5785 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5786 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5787 
  5788 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5789 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5790 algebraic operations.
  5791 
  5792 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5794 
  5795 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5797 
  5798 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5799 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5800 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5801 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5802 adapted.
  5803  
  5804 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5805 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5806 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5807 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5808 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5809 
  5810 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5811 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5812 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5813 
  5814 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5815 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5816 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5817 
  5818 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5819 
  5820 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5821 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5822 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5823   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5824       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5825   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5826   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5827   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5828 
  5829 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5830 
  5831 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5832 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5833 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5834 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5835 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5836 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5837 
  5838 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5839 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5840 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5841 
  5842 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5843 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5844 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5846 
  5847 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5848 
  5849 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5850 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5851 
  5852 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5853 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5854 
  5855 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5856 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5857 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5858 
  5859 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5860 True/False.
  5861 
  5862 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5863 
  5864 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5865 
  5866 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5867 ``rule'' method.
  5868 
  5869 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5870 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5871 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5872 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5873 
  5874 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5875 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5876 
  5877 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5878 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5879 
  5880 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5881 Library.
  5882 
  5883 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5884 
  5885 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5886 as greatest fixed-point.
  5887 
  5888 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5889 association lists.
  5890 
  5891 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5892 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5893 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5894 
  5895 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5896 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5897 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5898 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5899 behavior.
  5900 
  5901 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5902 
  5903 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5904 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5905 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5906 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5907 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5908 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5909 
  5910 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5911 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5912 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5913 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5914 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5915 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5916 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5917 
  5918 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5919 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5920 
  5921 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5922 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5923 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5924 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5925 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5926 
  5927 
  5928 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5929 
  5930 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5931 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5932 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5933 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5935 
  5936 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5937 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5938 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5939 
  5940 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5941 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5942 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5943 
  5944 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5945 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5946 
  5947 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5948 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5949 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5953   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5954   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5955   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5956   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5957   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5958   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5959   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5960   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5961   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5962   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5963   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5964   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5965   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5966   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5967 
  5968 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5969 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5970 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5971 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5972 
  5973   approx        <-- capprox
  5974   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5975   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5976   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5977   monad         <-- cmonad
  5978   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5979   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5980   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5981   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5982 
  5983 
  5984 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5985 
  5986 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5987 
  5988 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5990 
  5991 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5992 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5993 
  5994 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5995 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5996 of algebraic structures.
  5997 
  5998 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5999 
  6000 
  6001 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6002 
  6003 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6004 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6005 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6006 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6007 
  6008 
  6009 *** ML ***
  6010 
  6011 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6012 (even on SML/NJ).
  6013 
  6014 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6015 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6016 compile-time.  For example:
  6017 
  6018 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6019 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6020 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6021 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6022 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6023 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6024 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6025 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6026 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6027 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6028 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6029 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6030 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6031 ML {* @{context} *}
  6032 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6033 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6034 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6035 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6036 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6037 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6038 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6039 
  6040 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6041 
  6042 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6043 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6044 
  6045 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6046 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6047 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6048 
  6049 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6050 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6051 
  6052 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6053 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6054 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6055 
  6056 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6057 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6058 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6059 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6060 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6061 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6062 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6063 declarations and definitions.
  6064 
  6065 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6066 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6067 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6068 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6069 
  6070 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6071 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6072 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6073 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6076 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6077 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6078 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6079 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6080 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6081 
  6082 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6083 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6084 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6085 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6086 attributes, methods, etc.
  6087 
  6088 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6089 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6090 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6091 fold_map combinators.
  6092 
  6093 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6094 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6095 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6096 derivation.
  6097 
  6098 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6099 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6100 achieve the old behaviour.
  6101 
  6102 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6103 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6104 statements.
  6105 
  6106 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6107 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6108 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6109 
  6110 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6111 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6112 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6113 
  6114   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6115   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6116   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6117 
  6118 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6119 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6120 
  6121 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6122 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6123 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6124 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6125 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6126 
  6127 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6128 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6129 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6130 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6131 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6132 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6133 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6134 in a locale context).
  6135 
  6136 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6137 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6138 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6139 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6140 
  6141 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6142 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6143 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6144 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6145 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6146 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6147 
  6148 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6149 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6150 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6151 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6152 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6153 
  6154   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6155 
  6156 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6157 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6158 this:
  6159 
  6160   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6161 
  6162 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6163 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6164 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6165 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6166 
  6167 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6168 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6169 
  6170 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6171 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6172 
  6173 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6174 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6175 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6176 batch mode.
  6177 
  6178 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6179 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6180 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6181 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6182 
  6183 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6184 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6185 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6186 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6187 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6188 
  6189 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6190 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6191 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6192 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6194 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6195 
  6196 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6197 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6198 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6200 
  6201 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6202 "Trueprop" etc.
  6203 
  6204 
  6205 *** System ***
  6206 
  6207 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6208 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6209 Isabelle installations.
  6210 
  6211 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6212 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6213 code.
  6214 
  6215 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6216 
  6217 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6218 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6219 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6220 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6221 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6222 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6223 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6224 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6225 Implementation manual.
  6226 
  6227 
  6228 
  6229 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6230 ----------------------------------
  6231 
  6232 *** General ***
  6233 
  6234 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6235 
  6236   theory <name>
  6237   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6238   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6239   begin
  6240