NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Mar 03 18:50:46 2013 +0100 (2013-03-03)
changeset 51326 a75040aaf369
parent 51316 dfe469293eb4
child 51382 51957d006677
permissions -rw-r--r--
prefer more systematic Future.flat;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    14 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 
    17 *** Pure ***
    18 
    19 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
    20 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
    21 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
    22 
    23 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** HOL ***
    28 
    29 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
    30 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
    31 
    32 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
    33 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
    34 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
    35 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
    36 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
    40 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
    41 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
    42 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Theory "RealVector" and "Limits": Introduce type class
    45 (lin)order_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about limits and
    46 order. Instances are reals and extended reals.
    47 
    48 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
    49 
    50     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
    51     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
    52 
    53 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    54 
    55 * Sledgehammer:
    56 
    57   - Renamed option:
    58       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
    59 
    60 
    61 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
    62 -----------------------------------
    63 
    64 *** General ***
    65 
    66 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    67 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    68 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    69 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    70 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    71 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    72 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    73 
    74 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    75 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    76 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    77 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    78 
    79 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    80 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    81 
    82 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    83 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    84 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    85 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    86 dependencies properly.
    87 
    88 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    89 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    90 
    91 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    92 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    93 
    94 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
    95 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    96 and "class ... context ...".
    97 
    98 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    99 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   100 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   101 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   102 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   103 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   104 
   105 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   106 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   107 
   108 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   109 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   110 
   111 
   112 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   113 
   114 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   115 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   116 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   117 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   118 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   119 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   120 
   121 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   122 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   123 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   124 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   125 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   126 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   127 
   128 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   129 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   130 browser on demand.
   131 
   132 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   133 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   134 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   135 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   136 
   137 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   138 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   139 
   140 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   141 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   142 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   143 potentially infinite message streams.
   144 
   145 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   146 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   147 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   148 schemes.
   149 
   150 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   151 symbols.
   152 
   153 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   154 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   155 
   156 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   157 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   158 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   159 
   160 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   161 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   162 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   163 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   164 
   165 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   166 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   167 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   168 
   169 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   170 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   171 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   172 Isabelle distribution.
   173 
   174 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   175 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   176 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   177 
   178 
   179 *** Pure ***
   180 
   181 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   182 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   183 
   184 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   185 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   186 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   189 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   190 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   191 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   192 with some care where this is really required.
   193 
   194 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   195 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   196 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   197 
   198   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   199 
   200 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   201 a Hasse diagram.
   202 
   203 
   204 *** HOL ***
   205 
   206 * Sledgehammer:
   207 
   208   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   209     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   210   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   211   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   212   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   213   - Renamed options:
   214       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   215       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   216       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   217       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   218 
   219 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   220 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   221 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   222 
   223 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Lifting:
   227   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   228   - quot_del attribute
   229   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   230 
   231 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   232 expressions.
   233 
   234 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   235 pointfree expressions.
   236 
   237 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   238 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   239 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   240 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   244 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   245 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   246 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   247 accordingly.
   248 
   249 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   250 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   253 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   258 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   259 
   260 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   261 
   262 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   263 
   264   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   265   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   266 
   267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   270 
   271   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   272   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   273 
   274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   275 
   276 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   277 
   278   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   279     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   280     output f x converges to G.
   281 
   282   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   283     infinity (at_bot).
   284 
   285   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   286     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   287 
   288   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   289     at_top".
   290 
   291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292 
   293 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   294 lattice type classes.
   295 
   296 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   297 
   298     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   299     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   300 
   301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   304 changes as follows.
   305 
   306   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   307 
   308       prefix ~> prefixeq
   309       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   310 
   311   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   312     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   313     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   314     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   315 
   316   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   317     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   318     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   319 
   320   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   321     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   322     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   323     Library/Prefix_Order.
   324 
   325   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   326     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   327 
   328       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   329       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   330       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   331       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   332       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   333       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   334       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   335       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   336       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   337       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   338       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   339       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   340       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   341       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   342       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   343       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   344 
   345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   346 
   347 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   348 
   349 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   350 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   351 
   352 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   353 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   354 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   355 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   356 
   357   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   358   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   359   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   360   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   361   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   362   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   363   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   364   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   365   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   366   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   367 
   368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   369 
   370 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   371 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   372 Data").
   373 
   374 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   375 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   376 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   377 code.
   378 
   379 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   380 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   381 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   385 
   386 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   387 
   388 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   389 
   390   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   391   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   392 
   393 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   394 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   395 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   396 
   397   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   398 
   399     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   400     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   401     cart_base i  removed
   402     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   403 
   404   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   405 
   406   Renamed lemmas:
   407 
   408     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   409     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   410     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   411     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   412     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   413     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   414     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   415     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   416     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   417     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   418 
   419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   420 
   421 * HOL/Probability:
   422 
   423   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   424 
   425   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   426     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   427     (borel_measurable_induct).
   428 
   429   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   430     projective family).
   431 
   432 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   433 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   434 
   435 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   436 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   437 datatypes.
   438 
   439 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   440 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   441 
   442 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   443 trees for the code generator.
   444 
   445 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   446 Lifting/Transfer.
   447 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   451 
   452 
   453 *** Document preparation ***
   454 
   455 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   456 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   457 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   458 
   459 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   460 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   461 
   462 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   463 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   464 document/root.tex.
   465 
   466 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   467 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   468 
   469 
   470 *** ML ***
   471 
   472 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   473 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   474 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   475 
   476 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   477 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   478 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   479 
   480 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   481 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   482 necessarily printing visible text.
   483 
   484 
   485 *** System ***
   486 
   487 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   488 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   489 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   490 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   491 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   492 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   493 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   494 
   495 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   496 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   497 
   498   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   499 
   500 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   501 
   502 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   503 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   504 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   505 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   506 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   507 
   508 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   509 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   510 
   511 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   512 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   513 
   514 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   516 
   517 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   518 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   519 version of Isabelle.
   520 
   521 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   522 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   523 
   524 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   525 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   526 for home-made settings.
   527 
   528 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   529 
   530 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   531 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   532 configuration.
   533 
   534 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   535 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   536 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   537 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   538 bundled as Isabelle component.
   539 
   540 
   541 
   542 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   543 ------------------------------
   544 
   545 *** General ***
   546 
   547 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   548 
   549   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   550     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   551   - markup for bound variables
   552   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   553   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   554   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   555     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   556 
   557 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   558 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   559 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   560 
   561 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   562 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   563 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   564 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   565 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   566 
   567   context
   568     fixes x y z :: 'a
   569     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   570   begin
   571 
   572   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   573 
   574   end
   575 
   576   thm my_trans
   577 
   578 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   579 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   580 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   581 
   582 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   583 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   584 
   585 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   586 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   587 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   588 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   589 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   590 
   591 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   592 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   593 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   594 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   595 indices of schematic variables.
   596 
   597 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   598 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   599 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   600 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   601 etc. was exploited.
   602 
   603 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   604 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   605 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   606 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   607 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   608 of the material of that old tutorial.
   609 
   610 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   611 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   612 manual.
   613 
   614 
   615 *** Pure ***
   616 
   617 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   618 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   619 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   620 
   621 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   622 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   623 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   624 undocumented feature.)
   625 
   626 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   627 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   628 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   629 
   630   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   631 
   632   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   633     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   634 
   635 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   636 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   637 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   638 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   639 
   640 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   641 
   642     num ~> num_token
   643     xnum ~> xnum_token
   644     xstr ~> str_token
   645 
   646 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   647 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   648 position information via constraints).
   649 
   650 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   651 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   652 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   653 
   654 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   655 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   656 
   657 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   658 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   659 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   660 
   661 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   662 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   665 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   666 
   667   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   668 
   669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   670 
   671 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   672 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   675 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   676 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   677 
   678 
   679 *** HOL ***
   680 
   681 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   682 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   683 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   684 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   685 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   686 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   687 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   688 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   689 possible.
   690 
   691 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   692 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   693 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   694 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   695 
   696 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   697 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   700 
   701 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   702 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   703 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   704 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   705 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   706 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   707 
   708   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   709     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   710 
   711   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   712     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   713     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   714 
   715   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   716     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   717 
   718   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   719     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   720     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   721 
   722   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   723     Redefine using other integer operations.
   724 
   725 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   726 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   727 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   728 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   729 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   730 
   731   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   732     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   733     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   734     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   735     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   736 
   737     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   738     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   739 
   740   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   741     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   742     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   743     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   744     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   745     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   746     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   747     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   748 
   749   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   750     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   751     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   752     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   753 
   754   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   755     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   756     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   757     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   758 
   759   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   760     from type nat to type int.
   761 
   762 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   763 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   764 
   765   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   766     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   767     type.  Example syntax:
   768 
   769     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   770       is List.insert
   771 
   772     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   773     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   774     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   775     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   776     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   777     by the package.
   778 
   779   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   780     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   781     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   782     code generation for each constant.
   783 
   784   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   785     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   786     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   787     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   788     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   789 
   790   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   791     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   792     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   793 
   794 * Quotient package:
   795 
   796   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   797     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   798 
   799   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   800     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   801 
   802   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   803     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   804     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   805 
   806   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   807     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   810 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   811 
   812 * Quickcheck:
   813 
   814   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   815     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   816     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   817     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   818     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   819 
   820     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   821     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   822     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   823 
   824     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   825     continues searching for genuine ones.
   826 
   827     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   828     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   829     show genuine counterexamples.
   830 
   831   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   832     value generators for a given type and operations.
   833 
   834     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   835     constructors of that type.
   836 
   837   - Support for multisets.
   838 
   839   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   840 
   841   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   842     conjectures in a locale context.
   843 
   844 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   845 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   846 
   847 * Sledgehammer:
   848   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   849     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   850   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   851   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   852     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   853   - Sped up the minimizer.
   854   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   855   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   856   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   857 
   858 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   859 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   860 
   861 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   862 
   863 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   866 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   867 
   868   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   869 
   870 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   871 a list and a nat.
   872 
   873 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   874 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   875 
   876 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   877 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   878 default.
   879 
   880 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   881 
   882   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   883 
   884 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   885 
   886 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   887 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   888 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   889 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   890 one_case.
   891 
   892 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   893 the result of the fact expression.
   894 
   895 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   896 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   897 of some relation theorems:
   898 
   899   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   900   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   901   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   902   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   903   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   904   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   905 
   906 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   907 
   908 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   909 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   910 
   911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   912 
   913 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   914 to match the constant's name:
   915 
   916   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   917   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   918   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   919   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   920   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   921   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   922   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   923   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   924   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   925   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   926   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   927   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   928   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   929   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   930   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   931   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   932   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   933   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   934   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   935   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   936   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   937   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   938   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   939   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   940 
   941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   942 
   943 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   944 and corresponding theorem names:
   945 
   946   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   947 
   948   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   949 
   950   - Renamed theorems:
   951 
   952     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   953     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   954     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   955     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   956     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   957     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   958     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   959     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   960     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   961     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   962     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   963     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   964     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   965     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   966     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   967     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   968     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   969     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   970     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   971     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   972     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   973     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   974     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   975 
   976     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   977 
   978     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   979 
   980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   981 
   982 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   983 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   984 
   985   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   986   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   987   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   988   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   989   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   990   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   991   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   992   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   993   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   994   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   995   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   996   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   997   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   998   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   999   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1000   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1001   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1002   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1003   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1004   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1005   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1006 
  1007 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1008 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011 
  1012 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1013 
  1014   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1015   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1016   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1017   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1018   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1019   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1020   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1021   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1022   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1023   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1024   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1025   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1026   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1027   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1028   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1029   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1030   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1031   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1032 
  1033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1034 
  1035 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1036 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1037 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1038 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1039 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1040 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1041 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1042 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1043 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1044 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1045 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1046 
  1047 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1048 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1049 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1050 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1051 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1052 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1053 
  1054 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1055 through option types.
  1056 
  1057 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1058 relations.
  1059 
  1060 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1063 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1064 
  1065   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1066   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1067   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1068   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1069   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1070   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1071   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1072   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1073   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1074   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1075   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1076   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1077   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1078   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1079   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1080   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1081   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1082   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1083   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1084   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1085   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1086   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1087   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1088   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1089   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1090   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1091   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1092   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1093   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1094   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1095   zless_le ~> less_le
  1096   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1097   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1098   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1099 
  1100 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1101 
  1102   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1103 
  1104 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1105 
  1106 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1107 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1108 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1109 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1113 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1114 
  1115 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1116 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1117 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1118 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1119 follows:
  1120 
  1121   Operations:
  1122   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1123   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1124   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1125   del -> rbt_del
  1126   delete -> rbt_delete
  1127   ins -> rbt_ins
  1128   insert -> rbt_insert
  1129   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1130   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1131   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1132   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1133   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1134   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1135   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1136   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1137   union -> rbt_union
  1138   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1139   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1140 
  1141   Lemmas:
  1142   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1143   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1144   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1145   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1146   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1147   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1148   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1149   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1150   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1151   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1152   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1153   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1154   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1155   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1156   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1157   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1158   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1159   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1160   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1161   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1162   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1163   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1164   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1165   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1166   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1167   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1168   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1169   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1170   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1171   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1172   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1173   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1174   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1175   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1176   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1177   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1178   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1179   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1180   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1181   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1182   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1183   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1184   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1185   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1186   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1187   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1188   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1189   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1190   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1191   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1192   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1193   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1194   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1195   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1196   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1197   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1198   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1199   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1200   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1201   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1202   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1203   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1204   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1205   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1206   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1207   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1208   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1209   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1210   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1211   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1212   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1213   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1214   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1215   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1216   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1217   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1218   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1219   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1220   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1221   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1222   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1223   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1224   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1225 
  1226 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1227 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1228 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230   Changed Operations:
  1231   float_abs -> abs
  1232   float_nprt -> nprt
  1233   float_pprt -> pprt
  1234   pow2 -> use powr
  1235   round_down -> float_round_down
  1236   round_up -> float_round_up
  1237   scale -> exponent
  1238 
  1239   Removed Operations:
  1240   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1241 
  1242   Renamed Lemmas:
  1243   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1244   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1245   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1246   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1247   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1248   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1249   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1250   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1251   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1252   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1253   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1254   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1255   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1256   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1257   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1258   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1259   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1260   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1261   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1262   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1263   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1264   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1265   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1266   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1267   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1268   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1269   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1270   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1271   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1272   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1273   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1274   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1275   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1276   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1277   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1278   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1279 
  1280   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1281   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1282   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1283   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1284   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1285   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1286   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1287   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1288   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1289   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1290 
  1291 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1292 association lists with distinct keys.
  1293 
  1294 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1295 annotated commands.
  1296 
  1297 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1298 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1299 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1300 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1301 
  1302 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1303 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1304 instead.
  1305 
  1306   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1307   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1308   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1309   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1310   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1311   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1312   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1313   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1314   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1315   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1316   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1317   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1318   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1319   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1320   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1321   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1322   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1323   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1324   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1325   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1326   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1327   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1328   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1329   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1330   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1331   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1332   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1333   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1334   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1335   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1336   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1337   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1338   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1339   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1340   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1341   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1342   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1343   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1344   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1345   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1346   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1347 
  1348 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1349 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1350 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1351 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1352 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1353 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1354 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1355 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1356 
  1357 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1358 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1359 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1360 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1361 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1362 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1363 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1364 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1365 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1366 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1367 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1368 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1369 
  1370   Renamed constants:
  1371   measure -> emeasure
  1372   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1373   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1374   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1375   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1376 
  1377   Removed locales:
  1378   completeable_measure_space
  1379   finite_measure_space
  1380   finite_prob_space
  1381   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1382   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1383   finite_sigma_algebra
  1384   measure_space
  1385   pair_finite_prob_space
  1386   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1387   pair_finite_space
  1388   pair_sigma_algebra
  1389   product_sigma_algebra
  1390 
  1391   Removed constants:
  1392   conditional_space
  1393   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1394   image_space
  1395   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1396   pair_measure_generator
  1397   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1398   subvimage
  1399 
  1400   Replacement theorems:
  1401   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1402   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1403   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1404   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1405   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1406   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1407   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1408   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1409   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1410   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1411   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1412   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1413   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1414   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1415   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1416   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1417   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1418   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1419   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1420   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1421   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1422   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1423   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1424   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1425   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1426   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1427   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1428   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1429   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1430   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1431   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1432   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1433   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1434   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1435   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1436   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1437   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1438   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1439   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1440   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1441   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1442   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1443   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1444   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1445   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1446   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1447   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1448   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1449   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1450   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1451   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1452   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1453   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1454   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1455   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1456   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1457   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1458   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1459   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1460   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1461   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1462   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1463   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1464   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1465   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1466   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1467   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1468   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1469   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1470   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1471   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1472   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1473   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1474   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1475   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1476   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1477   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1478   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1479   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1480   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1481   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1482   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1483   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1484   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1485   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1486   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1487   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1488   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1489   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1490   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1491   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1492   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1493   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1494   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1495   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1496   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1497   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1498   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1499   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1500   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1501   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1502   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1503   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1504   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1505   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1506   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1507   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1508   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1509   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1510   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1511   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1512   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1513   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1514   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1515   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1516   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1517   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1518   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1519   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1520   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1521   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1522   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1523   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1524   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1525   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1526   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1527   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1528   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1529 
  1530 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1531 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1532 
  1533 
  1534 *** FOL ***
  1535 
  1536 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1537 
  1538 
  1539 *** ZF ***
  1540 
  1541 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1542 analysis.
  1543 
  1544 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1545 
  1546 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 
  1549 *** ML ***
  1550 
  1551 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1552 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1553 
  1554 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1555 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1556 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1557 
  1558 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1559 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1560 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1561 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1562 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1563 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1564 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1565 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1566 
  1567 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1568 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1569 
  1570 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1571 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1572 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1573 
  1574 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1575 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1578 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1579 context as well.
  1580 
  1581 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1582 
  1583   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1584   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1585   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1586   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1587   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1588   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1589   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1590   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1591   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1592   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1593   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1594   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1595 
  1596 
  1597 *** System ***
  1598 
  1599 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1600 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1601 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1602 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1603 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1604 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1605 the generic user home was intended.
  1606 
  1607 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1608 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1609 
  1610 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1611 (not just JRE).
  1612 
  1613 
  1614 
  1615 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1616 ------------------------------------
  1617 
  1618 *** General ***
  1619 
  1620 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1621 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1622 
  1623   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1624     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1625     files for checking).
  1626 
  1627   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1628     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1629     positions.
  1630 
  1631   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1632     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1633     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1634 
  1635   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1636     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1637     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1638 
  1639   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1640     cores.
  1641 
  1642   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1643     versions (garbage collection).
  1644 
  1645 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1646 including some remaining limitations.
  1647 
  1648 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1649 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1650 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1651 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1652 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1656 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1657 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1658 
  1659 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1660 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1661 usedir option -Q.
  1662 
  1663 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1664 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1665 
  1666   long_names   ~> names_long
  1667   short_names  ~> names_short
  1668   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1669 
  1670 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1671 
  1672   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1673 
  1674 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1675 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1676 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1677 
  1678 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1679 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1680 
  1681 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1682   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1683   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1684   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1685     "Classical Reasoner".
  1686 
  1687 
  1688 *** HOL ***
  1689 
  1690 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1691 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1694 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1695 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1696 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1697 class complete_linorder.
  1698 
  1699 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1700 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1701 
  1702 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1703 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1704 
  1705   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1706   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1707   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1708   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1709   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1710   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1711   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1712   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1713   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1714   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1715   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1716 
  1717 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1718 
  1719   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1720   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1721   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1722   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1723   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1724   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1725   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1726   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1727   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1728   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1729   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1730   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1731   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1732   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1733   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1734   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1735 
  1736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1737 
  1738 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1740 
  1741 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1742 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1743 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1744 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745 
  1746 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1747 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1748 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1750 
  1751 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1752 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1753 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1754 
  1755 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1756 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1757 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1760 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1761 
  1762 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1763 
  1764     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1765     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1766 
  1767 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1768 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1769 
  1770 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1771 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1774 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1775 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1776 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1779   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1780   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1781   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1782   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1783   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1784   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1785 
  1786 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1787 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1790   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1791   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1792   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1793   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1794   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1795   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1796   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1797   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1798   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1799   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1800   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1801   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1802   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1803   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1804   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1805   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1806   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1807   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1808   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1809   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1810   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1811   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1812   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1813   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1814   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1815   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1816   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1817   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1818   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1819   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1820   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1821   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1822   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1823   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1824   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1825   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1826   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1827   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1828   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1829   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1830   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1831   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1832   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1833   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1834   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1835   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1836   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1837   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1838   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1839   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1840   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1841   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1842   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1843   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1844   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1845   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1846   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1847   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1848   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1849   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1850   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1851   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1852   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1853   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1854   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1855   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1856   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1857   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1858   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1859   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1860   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1861   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1862   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1863   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1864   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1865   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1866   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1867   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1868   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1869   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1870   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1871 
  1872 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1873 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1874 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1875 
  1876 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1877 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1878 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1879 
  1880 * Code generation:
  1881 
  1882   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1883     characters in the target language.
  1884 
  1885   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1886     instead.
  1887 
  1888   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1889 
  1890   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1891     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1892 
  1893       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1894 
  1895 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1898 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1899 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1900 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1901 syntax.
  1902 
  1903 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1904 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1905 
  1906 * Nitpick:
  1907   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1908   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1909   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1910     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1911 
  1912 * Sledgehammer:
  1913   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1914   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1915     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1916   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1917     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1918   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1919     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1920   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1921     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1922   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1923     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1924 
  1925 * Metis:
  1926   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1927   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1928     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Command 'try':
  1931   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1932     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1933   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1934     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1935 
  1936 * Quickcheck:
  1937   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1938     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1939   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1940     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1941   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1942     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1943     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1944     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1945   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1946     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1947 
  1948 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1949 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1950 
  1951 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1952 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1953 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1954 
  1955 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1956 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1958 
  1959 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1960 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1963 arithmetic.
  1964 
  1965 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1966 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1967 and lattice type classes.
  1968 
  1969 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1970 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1971 
  1972 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1973 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1974 
  1975 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1976 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1977 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1978 
  1979   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1980   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1981   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1982   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1983 
  1984 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1985 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1986 constants:
  1987 
  1988   type inat   ~> type enat
  1989   Fin         ~> enat
  1990   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1991   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1992   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1993 
  1994 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1995 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1996 
  1997 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1998 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1999 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2000 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2001 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2002 
  2003 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2004 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2005 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2006 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2007 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2008 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2009 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2010 
  2011   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2012   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2013   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2014   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2015 
  2016 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2017 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2018 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2019 
  2020   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2021   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2022   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2023   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2024   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2025   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2026   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2027   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2028   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2029   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2030   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2031   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2032   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2033   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2034   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2035   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2036   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2037   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2038   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2039   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2040   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2041   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2042   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2043   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2044   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2045   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2046   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2047   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2048   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2049   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2050   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2051   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2052   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2053   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2054   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2055   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2056   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2057   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2058   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2059   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2060   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2061   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2062   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2063   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2064   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2065   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2066   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2067   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2068   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2069   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2070   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2071 
  2072 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2073   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2074   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2075   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2076   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2077     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2078 
  2079 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2082   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2083   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2084   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2085   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2086   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2087   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2088   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2089   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2090   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2091   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2092   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2093   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2094   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2095   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2096   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2097   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2098   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2099   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2100   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2101   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2102   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2103   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2104   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2105   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2106 
  2107 
  2108 *** Document preparation ***
  2109 
  2110 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2111 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2112 same.
  2113 
  2114 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2115 result.
  2116 
  2117 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2118 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2119 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2120 
  2121 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2122 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2123 
  2124 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2125 like this:
  2126 
  2127   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2128   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2129 
  2130 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2131 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2132 layouts.
  2133 
  2134 
  2135 *** ML ***
  2136 
  2137 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2138 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2139 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2140 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2141 under external program control.
  2142 
  2143 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2144 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2145 
  2146 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2147 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2148 (better known as Proof General).
  2149 
  2150 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2151 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2152 
  2153 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2154 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2155 
  2156 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2157 (including quotes etc.).
  2158 
  2159 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2160 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2161 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2162 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2163 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2164 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2165 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2166 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2167 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2168 
  2169 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2170 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2171 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2172 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2173 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2174 
  2175 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2176 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2177 
  2178 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2179 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2180 
  2181 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2182 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2183 
  2184 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2185 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2186 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2187 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2188 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2189 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2190 proper Proof.context.
  2191 
  2192 
  2193 *** System ***
  2194 
  2195 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2196 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2197 
  2198 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2199 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2200 
  2201 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2202 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2203 
  2204   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2205   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2206   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2207   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2208   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2209 
  2210 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2211 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2214 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2215 example:
  2216 
  2217   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2218 
  2219 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2220 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2221 
  2222 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2223 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2224 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2225 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2226 
  2227 
  2228 
  2229 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2230 ----------------------------------
  2231 
  2232 *** General ***
  2233 
  2234 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2235 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2236 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2237 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2238 like this:
  2239 
  2240   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2241 
  2242 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2243 
  2244 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2245 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2246 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2247 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2248 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2249 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2250 
  2251 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2252 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2253 the following package declarations:
  2254 
  2255   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2256   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2257 
  2258 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2259 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2260 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2261 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2262 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2263 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2264 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2265 
  2266 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2267 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2268 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2269 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2270 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2271 
  2272 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2273 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2274 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2275 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2276 
  2277 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2278 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2279 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2280 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2281 
  2282   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2283 
  2284   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2285   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2286   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2287   show_types                    show_types
  2288   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2289   show_consts                   show_consts
  2290   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2291 
  2292   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2293   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2294   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2295 
  2296   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2297   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2298 
  2299   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2300 
  2301   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2302   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2303   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2304   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2305   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2306 
  2307 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2308 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2309 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2310 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2311 
  2312 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2316   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2317 
  2318 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2319 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2320 float_token.
  2321 
  2322 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2323 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2327 DejaVu Sans.
  2328 
  2329 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2330 
  2331 
  2332 *** Pure ***
  2333 
  2334 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2335 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2336 time.
  2337 
  2338 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2339 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2340 
  2341 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2342 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2345 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2346 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2347 command already provided this functionality.
  2348 
  2349 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2350 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2351 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2352 without interpretations.
  2353 
  2354 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2355 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2356 
  2357 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2358 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2359 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2360 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2361 
  2362 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2363 'definition' instead.
  2364 
  2365 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2366 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2367 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2368 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2369 
  2370 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2371 constructors.
  2372 
  2373 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2374 the local file system.
  2375 
  2376 
  2377 *** HOL ***
  2378 
  2379 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2380 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2381 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2382 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2383 
  2384   declare [[coercion f]]
  2385 
  2386 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2387 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2388 
  2389   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2390 
  2391 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2392 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2393 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2394 other theories like this:
  2395 
  2396   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2397 
  2398 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2399 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2400 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2401 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2402 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2403 for examples.
  2404 
  2405 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2406 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2409 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2410 
  2411 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2412 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2413 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2414 
  2415 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2416 functorial structure of types.
  2417 
  2418 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2419 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2420 
  2421 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2422 languages.
  2423 
  2424 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2425 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2429 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2432 combinators any longer.
  2433 
  2434 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2435 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2436 
  2437 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2438 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2439 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2440 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2441 
  2442   record 'a foo = ...
  2443   ...
  2444   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2445 
  2446 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2447 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2449 
  2450 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2451 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2452 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2453 
  2454 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2455 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2456 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2457 
  2458 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2459 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2462 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2463 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2464 independently.
  2465 
  2466 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2467 counter example search.
  2468 
  2469 * Sledgehammer:
  2470   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2471     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2472     sledgehammer").
  2473   - Renamed commands:
  2474     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2475     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2476     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2477     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2478   - Renamed options:
  2479     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2480     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2481     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2482     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2483     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2484 
  2485 * Nitpick:
  2486   - Renamed options:
  2487     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2488     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2489     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2490   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2491   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2492   - Added "whack" option.
  2493   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2494   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2495   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2496   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2497     higher cardinalities.
  2498   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2499 
  2500 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2501 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2502 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2503 
  2504     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2505 
  2506 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2507 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2508 
  2509 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2510 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2511 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2512 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2513 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2514 "smt_solver".
  2515 
  2516 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2517 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2518 
  2519 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2520 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2521 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2522 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2525   - Renamed:
  2526     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2527     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2528     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529   - Added:
  2530     smt_verbose
  2531     smt_random_seed
  2532     smt_datatypes
  2533     smt_infer_triggers
  2534     smt_monomorph_limit
  2535     cvc3_options
  2536     remote_cvc3_options
  2537     remote_z3_options
  2538     yices_options
  2539 
  2540 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2541 header.
  2542 
  2543 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2544 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2545 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2546 
  2547   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2548 
  2549 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2552 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2557 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2560 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2561 
  2562 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2563 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2564 
  2565 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2566 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2567 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2575 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2578 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2579 for congruent(2)).
  2580 
  2581 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2582 
  2583   types
  2584     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2585     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2586 
  2587   constants
  2588     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2589     True ~> HOL.True
  2590     False ~> HOL.False
  2591     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2592     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2593     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2594     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2595     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2596     The ~> HOL.The
  2597     All ~> HOL.All
  2598     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2599     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2600     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2601     If ~> HOL.If
  2602     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2603     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2604     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2605     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2606     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2607     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2608     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2609     op : ~> Set.member
  2610     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2611 
  2612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2615 
  2616     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2617     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2618     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2619     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2620     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2621     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2622     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2623     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2624 
  2625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * More stylized fact names:
  2628 
  2629   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2630   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2631   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2632   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2633 
  2634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2637 
  2638   constants
  2639     null ~> List.null
  2640 
  2641   facts
  2642     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2643     null_empty ~> null_def
  2644 
  2645 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2646 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2647 generation.
  2648 
  2649 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2650 Haskell code.
  2651 
  2652 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2653 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2654 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2657 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2660 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2661 
  2662 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2663 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2664 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2667 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2671 
  2672 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2673 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2674 referred to by its qualified name.
  2675 
  2676   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2677   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2678   product ~>  Enum.product
  2679 
  2680 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2681 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2685 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2686 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2688 
  2689 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2690 sort_key.
  2691 
  2692 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2696 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2697 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2698 
  2699   types
  2700     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2701               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2702               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2703         (depends on your needs)
  2704 
  2705   constants
  2706      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2707      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2708      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2709 
  2710 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2711 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2712 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2713 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2714 
  2715 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2716 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2717 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2718 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2719 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2720 
  2721 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2722 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2725 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2726 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2727 
  2728 
  2729 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2730 
  2731 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2732 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2733 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2734 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2735 compatibility.
  2736 
  2737 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2738 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2739 
  2740 
  2741 *** HOLCF ***
  2742 
  2743 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2744 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2745 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2749 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2750 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2753   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2754   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2755 
  2756 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2757 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2758 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2761 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2762 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2763 domain definition now works:
  2764 
  2765   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2766 
  2767 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2768 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2769 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2770 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2771 
  2772   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2773     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2774 
  2775   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2776 
  2777 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2778 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2779 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2782 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2785 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2786 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2787 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2788 
  2789 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2790 
  2791 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2792 
  2793 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2799 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2800 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2801 
  2802 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2803 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2804 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2805 
  2806 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2807 still supported as an input translation.
  2808 
  2809 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2810 
  2811   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2812   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2813   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2814   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2815   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2816   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2817   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2818 
  2819 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2820 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2821 
  2822   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2823   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2824   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2825   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2826   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2827   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2828 
  2829 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2830 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2833 
  2834   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2835   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2836   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2837   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2838 
  2839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2842 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2845 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2848   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2849   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2850   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2851   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2852   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2853   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2854   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2855   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2856   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2857   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2858   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2859   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2860   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2861   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2862   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2863   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2864   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2865   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2866   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2867 
  2868 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2869 
  2870   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2871   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2872   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2873   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2874   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2875   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2876   box_less             ~> box_below
  2877   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2878   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2879   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2880   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2881   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2882   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2883   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2884   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2885   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2886   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2887   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2888   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2889   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2890   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2891   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2892   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2893   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2894   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2895   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2896   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2897   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2898   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2899   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2900   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2901   up_less              ~> up_below
  2902   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2903   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2904   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2905   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2906   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2907   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2908   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2909   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2910   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2911   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2912   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2913   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2914   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2915 
  2916 
  2917 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2918 
  2919 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2920 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 
  2923 *** ML ***
  2924 
  2925 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2926 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2927 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2928 
  2929 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2930 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2931 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2932 
  2933 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2934 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2935 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2936 
  2937 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2938 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2939 
  2940 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2941 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2942 
  2943 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2944 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2945 
  2946 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2947 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2948 
  2949 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2950 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2951 almost all situations.
  2952 
  2953 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2954 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2955 Isabelle/ML.
  2956 
  2957 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2958 meaning.
  2959 
  2960 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2961 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2962 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2963 
  2964 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2965 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2966 
  2967 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2968 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2969 
  2970 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2971 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2972 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2973 
  2974 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2975 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2976 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2977 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2978 configuration options.
  2979 
  2980 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2981 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2982 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2983 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2984 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2985 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2986 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2987 
  2988 
  2989 
  2990 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2991 ---------------------------------
  2992 
  2993 *** General ***
  2994 
  2995 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2996 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2997 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2998 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2999 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3000 their full internal name.
  3001 
  3002 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3003 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3004 Some hints on upgrading:
  3005 
  3006   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3007     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3008     which are independent of this issue.
  3009 
  3010   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3011     provides the following special forms:
  3012 
  3013       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3014       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3015       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3016 
  3017     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3018     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3019     extra variables".
  3020 
  3021     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3022     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3023     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3024     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3025     "logic".
  3026 
  3027   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3028     antiquotations:
  3029 
  3030       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3031       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3032       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3033       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3034 
  3035   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3036     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3037     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3038     antiquotations.
  3039 
  3040 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3041 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3042 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3043 diagnose syntax problems.
  3044 
  3045 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3046 
  3047 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3048 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3049 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3050 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3051 
  3052 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3053 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3054 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3055 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3058 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3059 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3060 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3061 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3064 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3065 
  3066 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3067 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3068 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3069 
  3070   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3071 
  3072 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3073 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3074 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3075 
  3076 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3077 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3081 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3082 
  3083 
  3084 *** Pure ***
  3085 
  3086 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3087 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3088 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3089 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3090 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3091 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3092 inspect proof terms.
  3093 
  3094 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3095 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3096 are added internally.  For example:
  3097 
  3098   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3099 
  3100 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3101 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3106 'class' instead.
  3107 
  3108 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3109 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3113 invariants.
  3114 
  3115 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3116 user space functionality any longer.
  3117 
  3118 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3119 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3123 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3124 
  3125 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3126 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3127 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3128 
  3129 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3130 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3131 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3132 
  3133 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3134 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3135 
  3136 
  3137 *** HOL ***
  3138 
  3139 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3140 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3141 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3142 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3143 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3144 
  3145 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3146 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3147 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3148 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3149 
  3150   fun
  3151     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3152   where
  3153     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3154 
  3155   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3156     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3157 
  3158   quotient_definition
  3159     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3160 
  3161 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3162 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3163 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3164 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3165 
  3166 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3167 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3168 
  3169 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3170 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3171 
  3172 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3176 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3177 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3178 
  3179 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3180 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3187 
  3188 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3189 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3190 
  3191 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3192 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3193 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3196   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3197   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3198   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3199   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3200   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3201   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3202   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3203   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3204   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3205   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3206   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3207   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3208   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3209   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3210   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3211   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3212   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3213   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3214   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3215   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3216   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3217   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3218   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3219   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3220   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3221   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3222   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3223   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3224   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3225 
  3226 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3227 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3228 
  3229 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3230 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3231 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3232 
  3233 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3234 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3235 
  3236 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3237 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238 
  3239 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3240 
  3241 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3242 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3245 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3250 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3251 
  3252 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3253 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3254 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3255 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3258   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3259   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3260   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3264 lattices):
  3265 
  3266     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3267     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3268 
  3269     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3270 
  3271     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3272     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3273     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3274     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3275     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3276     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3277     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3278     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3279     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3280     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3281     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3282     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3283     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3284 
  3285     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3286     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3287     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3288     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3289     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3290     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3291     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3292     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3293     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3294     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3295     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3296     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3297     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3298     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3299     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3300     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3301     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3302     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3303 
  3304   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3305   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3306 
  3307     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3308     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3309     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3310     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3311     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3312 
  3313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314 
  3315 * Refined field classes:
  3316   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3317     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3318     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3319   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3323   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3324   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3325   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3326     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3327   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3328     equal_neg_zero.
  3329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330 
  3331 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3332 sets to lattices:
  3333 
  3334   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3335   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3336   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3337   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3338   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3339   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3340   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3341   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3342   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3343   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3344 
  3345 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3346 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3347 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3348 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3349 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3350 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3353 multiset order:
  3354 
  3355   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3356     <= and <;
  3357   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3358     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3359     multiset_order;
  3360   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3361     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3362     generation;
  3363   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3364     if needed.
  3365 
  3366 Renamed:
  3367 
  3368   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3369   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3370   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3371 
  3372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3375 
  3376 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3377 
  3378 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3379 
  3380 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3381 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3382 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384   Constants:
  3385   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3386   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3387   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3388   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3389   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3390   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3391   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3392   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3393   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3394   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3395   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3396   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3397   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3398 
  3399   Lemmas:
  3400   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3401   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3402   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3403   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3404   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3405   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3406   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3407   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3408   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3409   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3410   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3411   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3412   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3413 
  3414 * Sledgehammer:
  3415   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3416     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3417     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3418     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3419     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3420     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3421     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3423   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3424     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3425   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3426     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3427     is still experimental.)
  3428   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3429     full-typed mode.
  3430   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3431 
  3432 * Nitpick:
  3433   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3434   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3435   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3436     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3437   - Added support for quotient types.
  3438   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3439     constructs.
  3440   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3441     "termination" proofs).
  3442   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3443   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3444   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3445   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3446     record getters.
  3447   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3448   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3449   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3450   - Added "atoms" option.
  3451   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3452     problems.
  3453   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3454     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3455     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3457     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3461   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3462   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3463   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3464   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3465   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3466   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3467   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3468   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3469   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471 
  3472 *** HOLCF ***
  3473 
  3474 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3475 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3476 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3479 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3480 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3481 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3484 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3485 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3486 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3487 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3490 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3491 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3494 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3497   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3498 
  3499 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3500 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3503   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3504   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3505   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3506   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3507 
  3508 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3509 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3512   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3513   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3514 
  3515 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3516 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3520 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3521 
  3522 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3525 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 
  3528 *** ML ***
  3529 
  3530 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3531 
  3532     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3533     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3534 
  3535     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3536     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3537     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3538     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3539 
  3540     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3541     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3542     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3543 
  3544 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3545 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3546 
  3547 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3548 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3549 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3550 
  3551 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3552 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3553 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3554 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3555 
  3556 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3557 the context or even global references.
  3558 
  3559 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3560 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3561 
  3562 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3563 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3564 
  3565   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3566   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3567   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3568   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3569   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3570   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3571   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3572   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3573   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3574   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3575 
  3576 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3577 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3578 
  3579 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3580 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3581 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3582 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3583 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3584 
  3585 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3586 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3587 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3588 Theory_Data version.
  3589 
  3590 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3591 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3592 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3593 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3594 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3595 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3596 explicitly in rare situations.
  3597 
  3598 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3599 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3603 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3606 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3607 quite rare).
  3608 
  3609 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3610 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3613 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3614 terms.
  3615 
  3616 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3617 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3618 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3619 
  3620 
  3621 *** System ***
  3622 
  3623 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3624 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3625 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3626 
  3627 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3628 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3629 respectively.
  3630 
  3631 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3632 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3633 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3634 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3635 
  3636   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3637 
  3638 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3639 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3640 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3641 component.
  3642 
  3643 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3644 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3645 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3646 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3647 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3648 the user for manual installation.
  3649 
  3650 
  3651 
  3652 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3653 -------------------------------------
  3654 
  3655 *** General ***
  3656 
  3657 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3658 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3659 
  3660 
  3661 *** Pure ***
  3662 
  3663 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3664 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3665 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3666 
  3667 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3668 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3669 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3670 
  3671 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3672 interpretation.
  3673 
  3674 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3675 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676 
  3677 
  3678 *** Document preparation ***
  3679 
  3680 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3681 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3682 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3683 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3684 
  3685 
  3686 *** HOL ***
  3687 
  3688 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3689 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3690 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3691 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3692 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3693 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3694 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3695 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3696 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3697 
  3698 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3699 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3700 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3701 
  3702 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3703 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3704 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3705 
  3706 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3707 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3708 
  3709 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3710 
  3711 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3712 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3713 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3714 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3715 
  3716 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3717 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3718 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3719 "mirabelle" utility.
  3720 
  3721 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3722 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3723 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3724 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3725 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3726 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3727 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3728 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3729 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3730 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3731 
  3732 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3733 procedure only.
  3734 
  3735 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3736 
  3737 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3738 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3739 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3740 that fail later.
  3741 
  3742 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3743 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3744 
  3745 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3746 the same method as the approximation method.
  3747 
  3748 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3749 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3750 series expansion.
  3751 
  3752 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3753 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3754 
  3755 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3756 reals.
  3757 
  3758 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3759 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3760 
  3761 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3762 fixpoint theorem.
  3763 
  3764 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3765   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3766     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3767   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3768     accordingly
  3769   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3770     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3771   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3772     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3773 
  3774 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3775 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3776 lattice.
  3777 
  3778 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3779 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3780 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3781 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3782 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3783 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3787   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3788     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3789   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3790     le_inf_iff
  3791   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3792     sup_aci)
  3793   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3794   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3795   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3796     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3797     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3798     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3799     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3800     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3801     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3802     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3803     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3804     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3805     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3806   - authentic syntax for
  3807     Set.Pow
  3808     Set.image
  3809   - mere abbreviations:
  3810     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3811     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3812     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3813     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3814     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3815     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3816     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3817     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3818   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3819 
  3820 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3821 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3822 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3823 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3824 
  3825 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3826 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3827 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3830 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3833 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3834 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3835 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3838 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3839 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3840 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3841 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3842 
  3843 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3844 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3848 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3849 
  3850 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3851 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3852 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3853 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3854 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3855 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3856 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3860     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3861     code_post       replaces    code post
  3862     etc.
  3863   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Renamed methods:
  3866     sizechange -> size_change
  3867     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3868   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3871 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3872 
  3873 * Renamed theorems:
  3874     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3875     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3876     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3877     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3878     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3879   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 
  3888 *** HOLCF ***
  3889 
  3890 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3891 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3892 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3893 
  3894 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3895 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3896 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3897 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3898 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3899 
  3900 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3901 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3902 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3903 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3904 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3905 
  3906 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3907 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3908 constructor are pre-configured.
  3909 
  3910 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3911 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3912 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3913 
  3914 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3915 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3916 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3917 as well.)
  3918 
  3919 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3920 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3921 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3922 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3923 examples.
  3924 
  3925 
  3926 *** ML ***
  3927 
  3928 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3929 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3930 
  3931 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3932 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3933 position, logical grouping etc.
  3934 
  3935 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3936 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3937 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3938 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3939 
  3940 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3941 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3942 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3943 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3944 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3945 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3946 
  3947 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3948 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3949 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3950 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3951 experiments with references.
  3952 
  3953 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3954 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3955 
  3956 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3957 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3958 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3959 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3960 
  3961 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3962 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3963 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3964 
  3965 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3966 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3967 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3968 
  3969 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3973 
  3974 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3975 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3976 
  3977 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3978 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3979 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3980 
  3981 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3982 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3983 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3986 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3987 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3991 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3992 instead of global theory.
  3993 
  3994 
  3995 *** System ***
  3996 
  3997 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3998 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3999 usedir option -q.
  4000 
  4001 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4002 also the system manual.
  4003 
  4004 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4005 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4006 
  4007 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4008 this is always enabled.
  4009 
  4010 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4011 
  4012 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4013 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4014 currently supported on Linux only.
  4015 
  4016 
  4017 
  4018 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4019 --------------------------------
  4020 
  4021 *** General ***
  4022 
  4023 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4024 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4025 
  4026   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4027     "isatool."
  4028 
  4029   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4030     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4031 
  4032   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4033     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4034 
  4035 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4036 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4037 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4038 
  4039 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4040 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4041 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4042 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4043 via "isabelle emacs".
  4044 
  4045 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4046 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4047 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4048 
  4049 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4050 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4051 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4052 
  4053 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4054 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4055 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4056 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4057 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4058 
  4059 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4060 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4061 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4062 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4063 
  4064 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4065 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4066 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4067 
  4068 
  4069 *** Pure ***
  4070 
  4071 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4072 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4073 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4074 
  4075 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4076 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4077 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4078 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4079 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4080 
  4081 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4082 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4083 useful in locale declarations.
  4084 
  4085 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4086 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4087 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4088 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4089 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4090 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4091 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4092 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4093 no longer generated.
  4094 
  4095 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4096 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4097 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4098 
  4099 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4100 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4101 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4102 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4103 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4104 
  4105 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4106 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4107 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4108 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4109 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4110 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4111 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4112 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4113 
  4114 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4115 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4116 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4117 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4118 
  4119 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4122 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4123 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4124 
  4125 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4126 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4127 
  4128 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4129 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4130 in HOL, write
  4131 
  4132     class foo = ...
  4133 
  4134 instead of
  4135 
  4136     class foo = type + ...
  4137 
  4138 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4139 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4142 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4143 
  4144 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4145 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4146 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4147 
  4148 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4149 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4150 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4151 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4152 directly in regular applications.
  4153 
  4154 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4155 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4156 
  4157 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4158 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4159 
  4160 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4161 theory context.
  4162 
  4163 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4164 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4167 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4168 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4169 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4170 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4171 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4172 
  4173   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4174 
  4175 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4176 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4177 normalization.
  4178 
  4179 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4180 addressing etc.
  4181 
  4182 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4183 
  4184   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4185   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4186 
  4187 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4188 
  4189   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4190      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4191      parts of the code generator framework).
  4192 
  4193   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4194      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4195      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4196 
  4197 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4200 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4201 
  4202 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4203 patterns, e.g.
  4204 
  4205     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4206 
  4207 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4208 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4209 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4210 hyphen:
  4211 
  4212     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4213 
  4214 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4215 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4216 
  4217 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4218 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4219 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4220 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4221 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4222 higher-order unification.
  4223 
  4224 
  4225 *** Document preparation ***
  4226 
  4227 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4228 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4229 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4230 
  4231 
  4232 *** HOL ***
  4233 
  4234 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4235 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4236 
  4237 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4238 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4239 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4240 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4241 Main, as before.
  4242 
  4243 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4244 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4245 
  4246 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4247 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4248 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4249 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4250 
  4251 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4252 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4253 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4254 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4255 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4256 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4257 
  4258 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4259 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4260 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4261 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4262 
  4263 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4264 menu.
  4265 
  4266 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4267 (contains the empty clause).
  4268 
  4269 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4270 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4271 
  4272 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4273 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4274 
  4275 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4276 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4277 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4278 
  4279 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4280 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4281 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4282 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4283 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4284 
  4285 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4286 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4287 
  4288 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4289 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4290 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4291 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4292 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4293 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4294 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4295 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4296 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4297 
  4298 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4299 
  4300 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4301 
  4302 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4303 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4306 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4307 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4308 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4309 
  4310 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4311 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4312 
  4313     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4314     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4315     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4316     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4317     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4318     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4319     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4320     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4321 
  4322 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4323 theory Set.
  4324 
  4325 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4326 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4327 
  4328 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4329 
  4330 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4331 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4332 
  4333 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4334 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4335 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4336 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4337 allowed. For examples see
  4338 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4339 
  4340 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4341 
  4342 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4346 structure:
  4347 
  4348     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4349     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4350     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4351     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4352     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4353     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4354     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4355     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4356     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4357     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4358     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4359     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4360     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4361     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4362     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4363     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4364     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4365     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4366     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4367     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4368     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4369     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4370     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4371     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4372     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4373     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4374     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4375     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4376     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4377     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4378     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4379     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4380     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4381 
  4382     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4383     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4384     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4385     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4386     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4387     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4388     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4389     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4390     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4391     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4392 
  4393     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4394     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4395     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4396     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4397     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4398     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4399 
  4400 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4401 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4402 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4403 
  4404 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4405 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4406 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4407 
  4408 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4409 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4412 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4413 
  4414 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4415 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4416 proofs, e.g.
  4417 
  4418   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4419 
  4420 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4421 
  4422 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4423 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4424 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4427 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429 
  4430 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4431 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4432 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4436 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4437 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4438 preorder_class.*.
  4439 
  4440 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4441 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4442 
  4443 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4444 
  4445   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4446 
  4447 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4448 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4449 fold_image.
  4450 
  4451 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4452 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4453 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4454 the former will disappear at some point.
  4455 
  4456 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4457 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4458 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4459 
  4460 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4461 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4462 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4463 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4464 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4465 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4466 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4467 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4468 
  4469 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4470 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4471 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4472 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4473 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4474 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4475 
  4476     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4477     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4478     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4479     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4480     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4481     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4482     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4483 
  4484 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4485 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4486 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4487 
  4488 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4489 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4490 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4491 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4492 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4493 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4494 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4495 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4496 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4497 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4498 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4499 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4500 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4501 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4502 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4503 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4504 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4505 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4506 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4507 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4508 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4509 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4510 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4511 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4512 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4513 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4514 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4515 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4516 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4517 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4518 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4519 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4520 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4521 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4522 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4523 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4524 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4525 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4526 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4527 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4528 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4529 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4530 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4531 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4532 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4533 
  4534 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4535 
  4536 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4537 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4538 
  4539 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4540 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4541 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4542 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4543 
  4544 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4545 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4546 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4547 theory RealVector.
  4548 
  4549 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4550 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4551 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4552 and inner products are included.
  4553 
  4554 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4555 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4556 supported.
  4557 
  4558 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4559 first diagonalization argument.
  4560 
  4561 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4562 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4563 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4564 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4565 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4566 
  4567     hide (open) const gcd
  4568     abbreviation gcd where
  4569       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4570     notation (output)
  4571       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4572 
  4573 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4574 
  4575 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4576 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4577 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4578 
  4579 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4580 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4581 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4582 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4583 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4584 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4585 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4586 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4587 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4588 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4589 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4590 cases.
  4591 
  4592 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4593 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4594 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4595 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4596 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4597 
  4598     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4599     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4600     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4601     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4602     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4603 
  4604 
  4605 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4606 
  4607 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4608 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4609 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4610 
  4611 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4612 
  4613 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4614 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4615 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4616 
  4617 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4618 
  4619 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4620 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4621 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4622 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4623 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4624 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4625 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4626 
  4627 
  4628 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4629 
  4630 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4631 
  4632 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4633 theory targets.
  4634 
  4635 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4636 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4637 'inductive' etc.
  4638 
  4639 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4640 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4641 
  4642 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4643 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4644 
  4645 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4646 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4647 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4648 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4649 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4650 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4651 the algorithm W:
  4652 
  4653  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4654  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4655          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4656 
  4657 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4658 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4659 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4660 
  4661 
  4662 *** HOLCF ***
  4663 
  4664 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4665 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4666 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4667 
  4668 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4669 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4670 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4671 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4672 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4673 
  4674 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4675 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4676 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4677 
  4678 
  4679 *** ZF ***
  4680 
  4681 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4682 
  4683 
  4684 *** ML ***
  4685 
  4686 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4687 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4688 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4689 5.2.1!
  4690 
  4691 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4692 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4693 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4694 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4695 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4696 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4697 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4698 
  4699 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4700 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4701 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4702 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4703 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4704 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4705 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4706 
  4707 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4708 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4709 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4710 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4711 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4712 
  4713 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4714 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4715 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4716 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4717 Method.add_method.
  4718 
  4719 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4720 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4721 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4722 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4723 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4724 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4725 
  4726 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4727 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4728 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4729 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4730 examples.
  4731 
  4732 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4733 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4734 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4735 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4736 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4737 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4738 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4739 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4740 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4741 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4742 
  4743 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4744 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4745 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4746 
  4747 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4748 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4749 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4750 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4751 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4752 resort for legacy applications.
  4753 
  4754 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4755 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4756 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4757 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4758 explicit runtime argument.
  4759 
  4760 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4761 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4762 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4763 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4764 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4767 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4768 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4769 theory state.
  4770 
  4771 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4772 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4773 
  4774   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4775   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4776   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4777   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4778   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4779   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4780   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4781   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4782   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4783   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4784 
  4785 
  4786 *** System ***
  4787 
  4788 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4789 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4790 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4791 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4792 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4793 
  4794 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4795 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4796 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4797 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4798 
  4799 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4800 
  4801 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4802 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4803 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4804 prover operations.
  4805 
  4806 
  4807 
  4808 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4809 -------------------------------
  4810 
  4811 *** General ***
  4812 
  4813 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4814 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4815 
  4816 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4817 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4818 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4819 provides a proper context already.
  4820 
  4821 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4822 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4823 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4824 
  4825 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4826 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4827 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4828 swap theory imports.
  4829 
  4830 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4831 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4832 
  4833 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4834 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4835 white space without escapes.
  4836 
  4837 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4838 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4839 "foo_bar".
  4840 
  4841 
  4842 *** Pure ***
  4843 
  4844 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4845 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4846 
  4847 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4848 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4849 
  4850 (1) unused_thms
  4851      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4852 
  4853 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4854      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4855      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4856 
  4857 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4858      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4859      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4860      their ancestors.
  4861 
  4862 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4863 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4864 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4865 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4866 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4867 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4868 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4869 
  4870 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4871 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4872 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4873 
  4874 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4875 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4876 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4877 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4878 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4879 
  4880 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4881 
  4882 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4883 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4884 update of theories within ML code.
  4885 
  4886 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4887 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4888 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4889 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4890 
  4891 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4892 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4893 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4895 
  4896 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4897 
  4898 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4899 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4900 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4901 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4902 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4903 
  4904 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4905 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4906 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4907 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4908 situations.
  4909 
  4910 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4911 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4912 proof text.
  4913 
  4914 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4915 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4916 
  4917 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4918 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4919 predicates.
  4920 
  4921 
  4922 *** Document preparation ***
  4923 
  4924 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4925 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4926 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4927 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4928 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4929 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4930 
  4931 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4932 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4933 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4934 
  4935 
  4936 *** HOL ***
  4937 
  4938 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4939 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4940 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4941 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4942 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4943 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4944 
  4945 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4946 with multithreading.
  4947 
  4948 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4949 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4950 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4951 
  4952 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4953 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4954 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4955 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4956 
  4957 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4958 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4959 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4960 and makes them available separately.  See
  4961 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4962 
  4963 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4964 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4965 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4966 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4967 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4968 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4969 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4970 the declared rules.
  4971 
  4972 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4973 
  4974   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4975 
  4976 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4977 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4978 
  4979 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4980 
  4981   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4982 
  4983   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4984     definitions on => and bool.
  4985 
  4986   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4987     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4988     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4989 
  4990       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4991       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4992       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4993       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4994       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4995       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4996       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4997       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4998 
  4999   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5000     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5001     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5002 
  5003   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5004     The proof pattern
  5005 
  5006       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5007       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5008 
  5009     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5010     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5011 
  5012       have "EX S. P S"
  5013       proof
  5014         show "P S" <...>
  5015       qed
  5016 
  5017   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5018     The proof pattern
  5019 
  5020       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5021       also have "S = T" <...>
  5022       finally have "P T" .
  5023 
  5024     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5025     must be replaced by something like
  5026 
  5027       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5028       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5029       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5030 
  5031   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5032     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5033 
  5034       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5035 
  5036     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5037     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5038     type of the form
  5039 
  5040       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5041 
  5042     rather than
  5043 
  5044       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5045 
  5046 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5047 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5048 
  5049 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5052 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5054 
  5055 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5056 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5059 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5060 
  5061 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5062 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5063 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5066 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5067 
  5068   less_trans
  5069   less_linear
  5070   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5071   le_less_trans
  5072   less_le_trans
  5073   less_not_sym
  5074   less_asym
  5075 
  5076 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5077 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5078 and different variable names.
  5079 
  5080 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5081 
  5082 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5083 finite maps.
  5084 
  5085 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5086 
  5087 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5088 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5089 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5090 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5091 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5092 accordingly.
  5093 
  5094 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5095 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5096 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5097 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5098 
  5099 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5100 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5101 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5102 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5103 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5105 
  5106 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5107 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5108 
  5109 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5110 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5111 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5112 
  5113 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5115 
  5116 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5117 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5118 
  5119 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5120 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5121 
  5122 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5123 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5126 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5128 
  5129 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5130 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5131 
  5132 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5133 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5134 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5135 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5136 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5137 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5138 
  5139 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5140 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5141 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5142 
  5143 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5144 
  5145 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5146 
  5147 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5148 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5149 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5150 
  5151 
  5152 *** ZF ***
  5153 
  5154 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5155 same session:
  5156 
  5157   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5158   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5159   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5160   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5161   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5162   List      -> List_ZF
  5163   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5164 
  5165 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5166 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5167 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5168 
  5169 
  5170 *** ML ***
  5171 
  5172 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5173 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5174 
  5175 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5176 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5177 
  5178 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5179 
  5180 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5181 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5182 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5183 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5184 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5185 
  5186 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5187 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5188 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5189 
  5190 
  5191 *** System ***
  5192 
  5193 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5194 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5195 
  5196 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5197 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5198 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5199 
  5200 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5201 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5202 
  5203 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5204 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5205 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5206 
  5207 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5208 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5209 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5210 
  5211 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5212 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5213 
  5214 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5215 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5216 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5217 script.
  5218 
  5219 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5220 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5221 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5222 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5223 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5224 
  5225 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5226 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5227 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5228 
  5229 
  5230 
  5231 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5232 -----------------------------------
  5233 
  5234 *** General ***
  5235 
  5236 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5237 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5238 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5239 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5240 
  5241 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5242 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5243 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5244 
  5245 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5246 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5247 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5248 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5249 
  5250 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5251 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5252 quotes.
  5253 
  5254 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5255 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5256 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5257 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5258 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5259 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5260 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5261 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5262 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5263 
  5264 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5265 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5266 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5267 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5268 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5269 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5270 
  5271 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5272 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5273 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5274 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5275 
  5276 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5277 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5278 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5279 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5280 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5281 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5282 
  5283 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5284 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5285 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5286 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5287 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5288 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5289 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5290 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5291 
  5292 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5293 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5294 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5295 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5296 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5297 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5298 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5299 
  5300 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5301 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5302 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5303 
  5304 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5305 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5306 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5307 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5308 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5309 limit is imposed.
  5310 
  5311 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5312 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5313 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5314 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5315 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5316 and scalability.
  5317 
  5318 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5319 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5320 
  5321 
  5322 *** Document preparation ***
  5323 
  5324 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5325 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5326 current context.
  5327 
  5328 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5329 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5330 
  5331 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5332 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5333 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5334 
  5335 
  5336 *** Pure ***
  5337 
  5338 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5339 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5340 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5341 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5342 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5343 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5344 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5345 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5346 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5347 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5348 
  5349 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5350 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5351 sketch:
  5352 
  5353     internal compilation:
  5354         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5355     writing SML code to a file:
  5356         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5357     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5358         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5359     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5360         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5361 
  5362     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5363         method ``eval''
  5364 
  5365 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5366 
  5367 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5368 
  5369     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5370     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5371     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5372     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5373 
  5374 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5375 
  5376     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5377       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5378 
  5379     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5380       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5381 
  5382     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5383       {(target)}+
  5384         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5385 
  5386     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5387       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5388         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5389 
  5390 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5391 
  5392 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5393 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5394 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5395 codegen".
  5396 
  5397 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5398 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5399 annotations).
  5400 
  5401 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5402 syntax.
  5403 
  5404 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5405 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5406 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5407 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5408 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5409 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5410 
  5411 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5412 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5413 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5414 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5415 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5416 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5417 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5418 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5419 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5420 equations, see section "definitions".
  5421 
  5422 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5423 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5424 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5425 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5426 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5427 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5428 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5429 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5430 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5431 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5432 
  5433 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5434 configuration options:
  5435 
  5436   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5437   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5438   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5439   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5440   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5441   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5442   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5443   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5444   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5445 
  5446 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5447 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5448 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5449 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5450 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5451 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5452 order.
  5453 
  5454 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5455 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5456 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5457 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5458 context encountered later on.
  5459 
  5460 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5461 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5462 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5463 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5464 
  5465 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5466 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5467 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5468 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5469 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5470 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5471 
  5472 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5473 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5474 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5475 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5476 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5477 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5478 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5479 more permissive.
  5480 
  5481 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5482 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5483 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5484 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5485 maintainability of proof texts.
  5486 
  5487 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5488 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5489 
  5490   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5491   then guess x and y by clarify
  5492 
  5493 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5494 proof tools being involved here.
  5495 
  5496 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5497 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5498 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5499 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5500 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5501 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5502 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5503 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5504 
  5505 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5506 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5507 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5508 
  5509   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5510   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5511   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5512   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5513 
  5514 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5515 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5516 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5517 
  5518 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5519 both named and unnamed ones.
  5520 
  5521 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5522 
  5523   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5524 
  5525 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5526 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5527 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5528 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5529 
  5530 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5531 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5532 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5533 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5534 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5535 
  5536 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5537 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5538 
  5539 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5540 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5541 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5542 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5543 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5544 originally first one.
  5545 
  5546 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5547 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5548 expected.
  5549 
  5550 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5551 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5552 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5553 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5554 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5555 
  5556   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5557     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5558     obtains x where "P x"
  5559 
  5560   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5561     assumes "A & B"
  5562     obtains A and B
  5563 
  5564   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5565     assumes "A | B"
  5566     obtains
  5567       A
  5568     | B
  5569 
  5570 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5571 explicitly:
  5572 
  5573   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5574     obtains "~ thesis"
  5575 
  5576   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5577     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5578 
  5579 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5580 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5581 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5582 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5583 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5584 case_names).
  5585 
  5586 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5587 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5588 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5589 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5590 
  5591 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5592 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5593 top-level lemma.
  5594 
  5595 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5596 introduction rule (default "that").
  5597 
  5598 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5599 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5600 to occur.
  5601 
  5602 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5603 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5604 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5605 representations independently of name spaces.
  5606 
  5607 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5608 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5609 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5612 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5613 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5614 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5615 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5616 current context.
  5617 
  5618 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5619 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5620 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5621 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5622 
  5623   axiomatization
  5624     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5625     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5626 
  5627   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5628   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5629 
  5630   abbreviation
  5631     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5632     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5633 
  5634 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5635 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5636 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5637 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5638 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5639 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5640 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5641 
  5642 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5643 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5644 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5645 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5646 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5647 
  5648 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5649 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5650 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5651 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5652 
  5653 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5654 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5655 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5656 
  5657   definition "K x _ = x"
  5658 
  5659   inductive conj for A B
  5660   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5661 
  5662 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5663 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5664 abbreviations on output.
  5665 
  5666 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5667 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5668 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5669 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5670 
  5671 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5672 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5673 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5674 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5675 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5676 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5677 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5678 
  5679 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5680 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5681 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5682 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5683 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5684 
  5685 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5686 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5687 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5688 
  5689 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5690 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5691 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5692 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5693 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5694 
  5695   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5696     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5697 
  5698 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5699 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5700 partial_order.
  5701 
  5702 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5703 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5704 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5705 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5706 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5707 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5708 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5709 examples.
  5710 
  5711 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5712 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5713 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5714 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5715 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5716 
  5717 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5718 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5719 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5720 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5721 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5722 
  5723   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5724   (induct set: foo bar)
  5725   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5726   (induct type: foo bar)
  5727 
  5728 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5729 new format.
  5730 
  5731 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5732 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5733 
  5734 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5735 considered a legacy feature.
  5736 
  5737 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5738 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5739 
  5740 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5741 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5742 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5743 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5744   
  5745 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5746 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5747 manipulating the claset.
  5748 
  5749 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5750 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5751 least one premise.
  5752 
  5753 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5754 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5755 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5756 rule steps.
  5757 
  5758 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5759 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5760 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5761 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5762 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5763 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5764 
  5765 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5766 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5767 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5768 
  5769 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5770 the graph browser tool.
  5771 
  5772 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5773 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5774 
  5775 
  5776 *** HOL ***
  5777 
  5778 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5779 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5780 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5781 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5782 multi-threading.
  5783   
  5784 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5785 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5786 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5787 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5788 work with multi-threading.
  5789 
  5790 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5791 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5792 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5793 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5794 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5795 
  5796 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5797 
  5798 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5799 equality.
  5800 
  5801 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5802 the new 'class' package:
  5803 
  5804     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5805     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5806     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5807     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5808     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5809     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5810     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5811     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5812     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5813     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5814     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5815     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5816     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5817     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5818     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5819     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5820     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5821     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5822     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5823     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5824 
  5825 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5826 
  5827 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5828 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5829 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5830 names.
  5831 
  5832 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5833 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5834 
  5835 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5836 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5837 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5838 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5839 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5840 
  5841 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5842 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5843 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5844 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5845 
  5846 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5847 
  5848 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5849 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5850 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5851 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5853 
  5854 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5855 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5856 
  5857 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5858 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5859 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5860 
  5861 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5862 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5863 
  5864 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5865 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5866 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5867 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5868 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5869 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5870 in the current context.
  5871 
  5872 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5873 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5875 
  5876 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5877 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5878 
  5879 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5880 
  5881     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5882     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5883 
  5884     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5885       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5886     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5887     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5888 
  5889     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5890     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5891 
  5892   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5893 
  5894     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5895     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5896     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5897     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5898     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5899     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5900     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5901     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5902     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5903     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5904     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5905     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5906     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5907     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5908     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5909     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5910     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5911     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5912     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5913     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5914     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5915     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5916     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5917     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5918     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5919     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5920     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5921     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5922     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5923     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5924     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5925     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5926     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5927     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5928     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5929 
  5930     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5931     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5932     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5933     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5934     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5935     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5936     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5937     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5938     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5939     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5940     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5941     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5942     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5943     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5944     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5945     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5946     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5947 
  5948     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5949     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5950     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5951     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5952     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5953     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5954     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5955     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5956     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5957     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5958     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5959     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5960     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5961     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5962     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5963     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5964     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5965     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5966     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5967     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5968     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5969     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5970     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5971     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5972     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5973     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5974     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5975     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5976 
  5977     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5978     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5979     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5980     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5981     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5982     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5983 
  5984     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5985     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5986     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5987     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5988 
  5989     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5990     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5991 
  5992     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5993     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5994 
  5995 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5996 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5997 
  5998 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5999 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  6000 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  6001 "*.size".
  6002 
  6003 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  6004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6005 
  6006 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  6007 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  6008 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6009 
  6010 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6011 
  6012 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  6013 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  6014 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  6015 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  6016 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  6017 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  6018 numerals on all operations.
  6019 
  6020 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  6021 
  6022 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  6023 
  6024 * Code generator library theories:
  6025   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  6026     languages.
  6027   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  6028     languages.
  6029   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  6030     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  6031   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  6032   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  6033     denominator).
  6034   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  6035     representable by rational numbers.
  6036   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  6037     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  6038     includes Code_Integer.
  6039   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  6040     target-language built-in integers.
  6041   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  6042     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  6043 
  6044 * New package for inductive predicates
  6045 
  6046   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6047 
  6048     inductive
  6049       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6050       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6051     where
  6052       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6053     | ...
  6054 
  6055   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6056 
  6057     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6058 
  6059     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6060     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6061 
  6062     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6063     intros
  6064       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6065       ...
  6066 
  6067   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6068   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6069 
  6070     inductive_set
  6071       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6072       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6073     where
  6074       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6075     | ...
  6076 
  6077   or
  6078 
  6079     inductive_set
  6080       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6081       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6082       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6083     where
  6084       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6085     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6086     | ...
  6087 
  6088   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6089 
  6090   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6091   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6092 
  6093   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6094 
  6095   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6096     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6097     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6098     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6099     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6100 
  6101   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6102     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6103     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6104     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6105     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6106     statements of the form
  6107 
  6108       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6109 
  6110     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6111     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6112 
  6113       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6114 
  6115   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6116 
  6117       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6118         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6119         ==> ... ==> P
  6120 
  6121     for predicates and
  6122 
  6123       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6124         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6125         ==> ... ==> P
  6126 
  6127     for sets rather than
  6128 
  6129       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6130         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6131         ==> ... ==> P
  6132 
  6133     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6134     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6135     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6136 
  6137   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6138     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6139     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6140 
  6141 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6142 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6143 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6144 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6145 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6146 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6147 
  6148 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6149 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6150 
  6151 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6152 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6153 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6154 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6155 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6156 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6157 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6158 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6159 variable.
  6160 
  6161 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6162 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6163 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6164 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6165   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6166   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6167 
  6168 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6169 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6170 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6171 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6172 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6173 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6174 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6175 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6176 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6177 
  6178 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6179 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6180 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6181 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6182 rat, etc.
  6183 
  6184 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6185 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6186 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6187 
  6188 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6189 
  6190 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6191 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6192 
  6193 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6194 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6195 
  6196 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6197 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6198 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6201 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6203 
  6204 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6205 
  6206 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6207 
  6208 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6209 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6210 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6211 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6212 
  6213 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6214 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6215 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6216 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6217 
  6218 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6219 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6220 algebraic operations.
  6221 
  6222 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6224 
  6225 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6227 
  6228 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6229 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6230 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6231 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6232 adapted.
  6233  
  6234 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6235 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6236 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6237 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6238 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6239 
  6240 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6241 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6242 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6243 
  6244 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6245 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6246 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6247