NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Apr 09 20:42:32 2015 +0200 (2015-04-09)
changeset 59990 a81dc82ecba3
parent 59967 2fcf41a626f7
child 59991 09be0495dcc2
permissions -rw-r--r--
clarified keyword 'qualified' in accordance to a similar keyword from Haskell (despite unrelated Binding.qualified in Isabelle/ML);
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
    10 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
    11 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
    12 
    13   context
    14   begin
    15 
    16   private definition ...
    17   private lemma ...
    18 
    19   qualified definition ...
    20   qualified lemma ...
    21 
    22   lemma ...
    23   theorem ...
    24 
    25   end
    26 
    27 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
    28 naming policy.
    29 
    30 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    31 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    32 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    33 
    34 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    35 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    36 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
    37 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    38 
    39 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    40 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    41 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    45 theory context.
    46 
    47 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    48 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    49 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    50 
    51 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    52 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    53 
    54 
    55 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    56 
    57 * Old graph browser (Java/AWT 1.1) is superseded by improved graphview
    58 panel, which also produces PDF output without external tools.
    59 
    60 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    61 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    62 
    63 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    64 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    65 in the buffer.
    66 
    67 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    68 marker, SideKick parser.
    69 
    70 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    71 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be opened
    72 in the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
    73 
    74 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
    75 Options / Text Area).
    76 
    77 
    78 *** Document preparation ***
    79 
    80 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
    81 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
    82 
    83 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
    84 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
    85 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
    86 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
    87 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
    88 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
    89 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
    90 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91 
    92 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
    93 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
    94 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
    95 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
    96 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
    97 
    98 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
    99 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   100 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   101 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   102 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   103 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   104 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   107 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   108 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   109 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   110 
   111 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   112 style.
   113 
   114 
   115 *** Pure ***
   116 
   117 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   118 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   119 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   120 
   121 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   122 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   123 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   124 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   125 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   126 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   127 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   128 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   129 
   130 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   131 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   132 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   133 different index.
   134 
   135 * Command "class_deps" takes optional sort arguments constraining
   136 the search space.
   137 
   138 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigend numerals: categories "num"
   139 and "float" are unsigend.  INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   140 of numeral signs, particulary in expressions involving infix syntax like
   141 "(- 1) ^ n".
   142 
   143 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   144 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   145 token category instead.
   146 
   147 
   148 *** HOL ***
   149 
   150 * Given up separate type class no_zero_divisors in favour of fully
   151 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   152 
   153 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   157 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   158 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 * Type classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify
   161 explicit additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   162 
   163 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   164 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   165 
   166 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any
   167 "'{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   168 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   169 needed.
   170 
   171 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   172 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   173 
   174 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   175 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   176 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   177 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   178 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   179 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   180 
   181 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   182 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   183 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   184 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   185 
   186 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   187 type class hierarchy:
   188   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   189   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   190   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   191   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   192 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   195   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   196   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   197 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   200 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   201 
   202 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   203 
   204 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   205   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   206   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   207   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   208 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   211 and part of theory Main.
   212   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   219 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   220 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   221 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   224 Fact rename:
   225     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   227 
   228 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   229 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   230 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * New (co)datatype package:
   233   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   234     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   235     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   236     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   237     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238   - Renamed theorems:
   239       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   240       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   241       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   242       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   243       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   244       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   245       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   246       sel_map ~> map_sel
   247       sel_set ~> set_sel
   248       sel_split ~> split_sel
   249       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   250       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   251       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   252     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   254     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   257     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   258     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   260     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   261     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   262     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   263     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   264     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   265     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266   - Renamed theories:
   267       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   268       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   269       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   270       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   271       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   272       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   273     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Old datatype package:
   276   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   277     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   278     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   279     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   280     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   281   - Renamed theorems:
   282       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   283     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   284   - Renamed theory:
   285       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   286     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287 
   288 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   289 
   290 * Nitpick:
   291   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and nonstrict subset
   292     operations.
   293 
   294 * Sledgehammer:
   295   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   296     default.
   297   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   298     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   299   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   300     Removed subcommand:
   301       min
   302   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   303     dramatically improved.
   304   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   305 
   306 * Old and new SMT modules:
   307   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   308     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   309     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   310     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   311     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   312     point to it.
   313     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   317     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   318   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   319     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   320 
   321 * List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   322 
   323 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   324 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   325 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   326 
   327 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   328 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   329 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   330 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   333   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   334   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   335     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   336   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   337       <# ~> #<#
   338       <=# ~> #<=#
   339       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   340       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   341     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   342   - Renamed
   343       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   344     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   346   - Added attributes:
   347       image_mset.id [simp]
   348       image_mset_id [simp]
   349       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   350       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   351       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   352       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   353       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   354       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   355     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * HOL-Decision_Procs:
   358   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[approximation] for
   359     inequalities of transcendental functions.
   360     Uses hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover
   361     potential counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the
   362     'approximation' method.
   363     See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   364     examples.
   365 
   366 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   367   - applies destructor rules repeatetly
   368   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   369   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   370     projection
   371 
   372 
   373 *** ML ***
   374 
   375 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   376 Input.source (with formal position information).
   377 
   378 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   379 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   380 
   381 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   385 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   386 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   387 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   388 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   389 nested.
   390 
   391 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala):
   392 subtle change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   395 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   396 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   400 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   401 Thm.term_of etc.
   402 
   403 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   404 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   405 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   406 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   407 contempory applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   408 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   409 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   410 
   411 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   412 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   413 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   416 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   417 
   418 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   419 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   420 
   421 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   422 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   423 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   424 
   425 
   426 *** System ***
   427 
   428 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   429 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   430 
   431 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -k and -x.
   432 
   433 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   434 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   435 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   436 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438 
   439 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   440 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   441 
   442 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   443 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   444 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   445 
   446 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted.  Minor
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_semicolons" to remove obsolete
   448 semicolons from theory sources.
   449 
   450 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   451 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453 
   454 
   455 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   456 ---------------------------------
   457 
   458 *** General ***
   459 
   460 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   461 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   462 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   463 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   464 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   465 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   466 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   467 some examples.
   468 
   469 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   470 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   471 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   472 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   473 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   474 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   475 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   476 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   477 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   478 
   479 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   480 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   481 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   482 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   483 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   484 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   485 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   486 proof tools.
   487 
   488 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   489 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   490 supports input via ` (backquote).
   491 
   492 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   493 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   494 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   495 
   496 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   497 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   498 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   499 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   500 
   501 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   502 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   503 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   507 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   508 
   509 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   510 not check existence within the file-system.
   511 
   512 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   513 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   514 
   515 
   516 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   517 
   518 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   519 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   520 buffer.
   521 
   522 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   523 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   524 
   525 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   526 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   527 
   528 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   529 auxiliary ML files.
   530 
   531 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   532 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   533 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   534 
   535 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   536 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   537 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   538 
   539 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   540 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   541 
   542 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   543 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   544 caret".
   545 
   546 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   547 completion popup and context-menu.
   548 
   549 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   550 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   551 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   552 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   553 
   554 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   555 to highlight text via regular expression.
   556 
   557 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   558 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   559 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   560 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   561 
   562 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   563 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   564 
   565 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   566 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   567 
   568 * Improved monitor panel.
   569 
   570 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   571 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   572 
   573 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   574 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   575 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   576 
   577 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   578 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   579 within the context.
   580 
   581 
   582 *** Pure ***
   583 
   584 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   585 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   586 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   587 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   588 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   589 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   590 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   591 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   592 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   593 
   594 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   595 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   596 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   597 renaming needs to be applied:
   598 
   599   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   600   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   601   all            ~>  Pure.all
   602   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   603   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   604 
   605 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   606 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   607 old constants:
   608 
   609 setup {*
   610   fn thy => thy
   611     |> Sign.root_path
   612     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   613     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   614     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   615     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   616 *}
   617 
   618 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   619 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   620 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   621 
   622 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   623 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   624 instantiated theorem.
   625 
   626 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   627 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   628 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   629 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   630 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   631 
   632   attribute_setup standard =
   633     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   634 
   635 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   636 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   637 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   638 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   639 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   640 
   641 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   642 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   643 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   644 
   645 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   646 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   647 
   648 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   649 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   650 
   651 
   652 *** HOL ***
   653 
   654 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   655 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   656 
   657 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   662 
   663 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   664 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   668 
   669 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   670 with the given constants.
   671 
   672 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   673 operations on records.
   674 
   675 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   676 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   677 
   678 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   681 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   682 
   683 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   684 
   685 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   686 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   687 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   688 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   689 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   692 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   695   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   696   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   697   part of theory "Main".
   698 
   699   Theory renamings:
   700     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   701     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   702     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   703     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   704     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   705     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   706     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   707     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   708     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   709     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   710     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   711     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   712     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   713     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   714     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   715     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   716     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   717     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   718     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   719     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   720     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   721     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   722 
   723   New theories:
   724     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   725     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   726     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   727     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   728     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   729 
   730   Discontinued theories:
   731     BNF/BNF.thy
   732     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   733 
   734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * New (co)datatype package:
   737   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   738   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   739     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   740   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   741     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   742   - Renamed commands:
   743       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   744       primrec_new ~> primrec
   745       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   746     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   748     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   749     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   751     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   752     using "prim(co)rec".
   753     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   755     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   756     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   757   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   758     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   759     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   760     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Old datatype package:
   763   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   764     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   765     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   766   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   767     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   768     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   771   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   772   BNF-based datatype package.
   773 
   774   Renamed constants:
   775     Option.set ~> set_option
   776     Option.map ~> map_option
   777     option_rel ~> rel_option
   778 
   779   Renamed theorems:
   780     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   781     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   782     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   783     option.recs ~> option.rec
   784     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   785     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   786     map.simps ~> list.map
   787     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   788     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   789     the.simps ~> option.sel
   790 
   791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   794     sum_map ~> map_sum
   795     map_pair ~> map_prod
   796     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   797     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   798     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   799     set_rel ~> rel_set
   800     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   801     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   802     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   803     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   804 
   805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Lifting and Transfer:
   808   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   809   - stronger reflexivity prover
   810   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   811   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   812     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   813     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   814       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   815       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   816       automatically
   817     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   818     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   819       automatically for datatypes
   820   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   821     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   822       more
   823       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   825       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   826       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   828       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   829       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   830   - registration of code equations is more robust
   831     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   832   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   833     form
   834     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   835   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   836     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   837   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   838     Code_Numeral.natural
   839     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   841     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   842 
   843 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   844 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   845 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   846 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   847 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   848 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   849 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850 
   851 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   852 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   853 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   854 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   855 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   856 
   857 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   858 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   859 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   860 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   861 
   862 * Sledgehammer:
   863   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   864   - MaSh overhaul:
   865     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   866       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   867     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   868       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   869       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   870       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   871   - New option:
   872       smt_proofs
   873   - Renamed options:
   874       isar_compress ~> compress
   875       isar_try0 ~> try0
   876 
   877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   880 
   881 * Nitpick:
   882   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   883     take infinite values.
   884   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   885     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   886   - Removed "std" option.
   887   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   888     "hide_types".
   889 
   890 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   891 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   894 
   895 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   896   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   897   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   898     SUP instead uniformly.
   899   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   900     or SUP and Sup.
   901   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   902   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   903   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   904     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   905     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   906 
   907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   908 
   909 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   910 
   911 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   912 
   913   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   914   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   915   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   916   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   917 
   918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   921 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   922 
   923 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   924 
   925     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   926     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   927     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   928     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   929     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   930     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   931     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   932     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   933     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   934     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   935     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   936     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   937     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   938     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   939     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   940     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   941     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   942     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   943     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   944     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   945     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   946     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   947     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   948     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   949     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   950     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   951     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   952     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   953     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   954     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   955     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   956     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   957     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   958     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   959     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   960     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   961     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   962     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   963     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   964     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   965     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   966     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   967     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   968     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   969     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   970     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   971     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   972     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   973     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   974     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   975     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   976     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   977     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   978     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   979     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   980     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   981     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   982     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   983     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   984 
   985   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   986   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   987   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   988     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   989 
   990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   991 
   992 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   993 
   994   Fact consolidations:
   995     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   996     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   997     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   998     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   999     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1000     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1001     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1002     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1003     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1004     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1005     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1006     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1007     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1008     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1009     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1010     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1011     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1012     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1013     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1014     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1015     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1016     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1017     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1018     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1019     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1020     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1021     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1022     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1023     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1024     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1025     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1026     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1027     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1028     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1029     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1030     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1031     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1032     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1033     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1034     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1035 
  1036 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1037 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1038 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1039 
  1040 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1041 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1042 
  1043 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1044 
  1045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1048 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1049 
  1050 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1052 
  1053 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1054     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1055 
  1056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1059   consolidation:
  1060     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1061     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1062 
  1063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1066   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1067   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1068   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1069     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1070   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1071     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1072   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1073 
  1074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1075 
  1076 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1077 
  1078     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1079     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1080     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1081     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1082     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1083     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1084     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1085     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1086     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1087     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1088     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1089     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1090     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1091 
  1092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1095 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1096 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1097 
  1098 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1099     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1100     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1101     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1102     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1103 
  1104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Fact name consolidation:
  1107     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1108     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1109     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1110     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1111     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1112 
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1116 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1117 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1118 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1119 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1120 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1121 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1125 
  1126 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1127 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1128 
  1129 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1130 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1131 
  1132 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1133 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1134 or the brute way with
  1135 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1136 
  1137 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1138 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1139 stating boundedness of sets.
  1140 
  1141 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1142 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1143 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1144 
  1145 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1146   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1147   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1148   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1149   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1150   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1151   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1152   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1153   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1154   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1155   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1156   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1157 
  1158   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1159 
  1160   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1161 
  1162     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1163     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1164     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1165     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1166     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1167 
  1168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1169 
  1170 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1171   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1172 
  1173   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1174 
  1175   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1176 
  1177   - removed constant isDiff
  1178 
  1179   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1180     input syntax.
  1181 
  1182   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1183 
  1184   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1185 
  1186   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1187 
  1188   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1189 
  1190   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1191     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1192     has_vector_derivative.
  1193 
  1194   - Other renamings:
  1195     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1196     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1197     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1198     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1199     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1200     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1201     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1202 
  1203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1206 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1207 in continuous_intros.
  1208 
  1209 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1210 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1211 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1212 
  1213 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1214 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1215 especially removes
  1216 
  1217     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1218 
  1219 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1220     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1221 
  1222 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1223 
  1224   Renamings:
  1225     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1226     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1227     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1228     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1229     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1230     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1231     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1232     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1233     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1234     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1235     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1236     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1237 
  1238     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1239     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1240     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1241 
  1242   Removed theorems:
  1243     complex_zero_def
  1244     complex_add_def
  1245     complex_minus_def
  1246     complex_diff_def
  1247     complex_one_def
  1248     complex_mult_def
  1249     complex_inverse_def
  1250     complex_scaleR_def
  1251 
  1252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1253 
  1254 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1255 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1256 
  1257 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1258 
  1259 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1260 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1261 
  1262 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1263 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1266 
  1267 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1269 
  1270 * HOL-Word:
  1271   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1272     of "word_arith_wis".
  1273   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1274     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1275     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1276 
  1277 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1278   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1279   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1280   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1281     (except the AFP)
  1282 
  1283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1284 
  1285 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1286   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1287   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1288     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1289   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1290     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1291     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1292     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1293     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1294     intervals.
  1295   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1296     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1297     - renamed theorems:
  1298         interval ~> box
  1299         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1300         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1301         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1302         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1303         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1304         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1305         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1306         open_interval ~> open_box
  1307         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1308         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1309         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1310         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1311         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1312         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1313         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1314         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1315         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1316         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1317         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1318         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1319         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1320         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1321         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1322         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1323         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1324         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1325         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1326         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1327         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1328         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1329         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1330         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1331 
  1332     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1333         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1334         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1335         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1336         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1337         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1338         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1339         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1340         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1341         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1342         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1343         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1344         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1345         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1346         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1347         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1348         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1349         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1350 
  1351   - renamed theorems:
  1352     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1353     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1354     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1355 
  1356 * HOL-Probability:
  1357   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1358 
  1359     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1360       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1361 
  1362     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1363 
  1364   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1365     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1366 
  1367     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1368     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1369     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1370     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1371     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1372     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1373     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1374     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1375     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1376     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1377     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1378     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1379     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1380     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1381     integral_indicator          ~>
  1382          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1383     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1384     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1385     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1386 
  1387     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1388          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1389 
  1390     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1391          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1392 
  1393     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1394          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1395 
  1396     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1397          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1398          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1399 
  1400     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1401          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1402 
  1403     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1404          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1405 
  1406     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1407          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1408          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1409 
  1410     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1411          nn_integral_real_affine
  1412 
  1413     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1414          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1415 
  1416     The following theorems where removed:
  1417 
  1418     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1419     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1420     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1421     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1422     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1423     integral_cmul_indicator
  1424     integral_real
  1425 
  1426   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1427     distributed random variables.
  1428 
  1429 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1430 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433 
  1434 *** Scala ***
  1435 
  1436 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1437 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1438 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1439 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1440 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1443 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 
  1446 *** ML ***
  1447 
  1448 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1449 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1450 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1451 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1452 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1453 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1454 
  1455 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1456 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1457 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1458 actually belongs to it).
  1459 
  1460 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1461 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1462 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1463 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1464 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1465 of schematic variables.
  1466 
  1467 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1468 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1469 
  1470 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1471 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1472 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1476 
  1477 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1478 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1479 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1483 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1485 formal context.
  1486 
  1487 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1488 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1491 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1492 
  1493 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1494 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1495 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1496 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1497 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1498 
  1499 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1500 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1501 purposes.
  1502 
  1503 
  1504 *** System ***
  1505 
  1506 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1507 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1508 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1509 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1510 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1511 
  1512 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1513 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1514 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1515 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1516 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1517 settings variable.
  1518 
  1519 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1520 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1521 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1522 
  1523 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1524 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1525 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1526 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1527 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1528 
  1529 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1530 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1531 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1532 
  1533 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1534 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1535 
  1536 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1537 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1538 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1539 
  1540 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1541 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1542 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1543 processing is started.
  1544 
  1545 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1546 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1547 
  1548 
  1549 
  1550 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1551 -------------------------------------
  1552 
  1553 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1554 
  1555 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1556 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1557 
  1558 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1559 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1560 
  1561 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1562 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1563 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1564 
  1565 
  1566 *** System ***
  1567 
  1568 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1569 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1570 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1571 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1572 
  1573 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1574 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1575 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1576 
  1577 
  1578 
  1579 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1580 -------------------------------------
  1581 
  1582 *** General ***
  1583 
  1584 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1585 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1586 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1589 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1592 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1593 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1594 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1595 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1596 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1597 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1598 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1599 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1600 syntax.
  1601 
  1602 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1603 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1606 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1607 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1608 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1609 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1610 
  1611 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1615 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1616 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1617 
  1618 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1619 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1620 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1621 
  1622 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1623 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1624 
  1625 
  1626 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1627 
  1628 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1629 Documentation panel.
  1630 
  1631 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1632 documentation.
  1633 
  1634 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1635 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1636 
  1637 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1638 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1639 normal editing and checking process.
  1640 
  1641 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1642 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1643 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1644 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1645 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1646 
  1647 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1648 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1649 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1650 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1651 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1652 
  1653 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1654 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1655 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1656 
  1657 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1658 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1659 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1660 to resolve conflict.
  1661 
  1662 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1663 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1664 
  1665 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1666 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1667 such command executions while editing.
  1668 
  1669 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1670 document content.
  1671 
  1672 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1673 toplevel theorem statements.
  1674 
  1675 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1676 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1677 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1678 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1679 
  1680 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1681 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1682 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1683 
  1684 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1685 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1686 
  1687 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1688 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1689 
  1690 
  1691 *** Pure ***
  1692 
  1693 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1694 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1695 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1696 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1697 details.
  1698 
  1699 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1700 
  1701 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1702 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1703 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1704 
  1705 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1709 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1710 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1711 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1712 
  1713 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1714 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1715 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1716 
  1717 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1718 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1719 
  1720 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1721 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1722 situations.
  1723 
  1724 
  1725 *** HOL ***
  1726 
  1727 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1728 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1732 
  1733 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1734 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1735 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1736 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1737 
  1738   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1739 
  1740 * Code generator:
  1741   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1742     'code_instance'.
  1743   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1744     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1745 
  1746 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1747 examples.
  1748 
  1749 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1750 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1751 to distinguish both when desired.
  1752 
  1753 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1754 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1755 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1756 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1757 
  1758 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1759 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1760 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1761 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1762 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1763 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1766 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1767 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1768 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1769 
  1770 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1771 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1772 
  1773 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1774 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1775 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1776 
  1777 * Lifting:
  1778   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1779     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1780       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1781       transfer rules
  1782     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1783       correspondence relation can be generated
  1784     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1785       parametricity
  1786     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1787   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1788   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1789     copies
  1790   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1791     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1792     anonymous context)
  1793   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1794     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1795   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1796     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1797   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1798     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1799 
  1800 * Transfer:
  1801   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1802     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1803   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1804   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1805     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1806   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1807 
  1808 * Reification and reflection:
  1809   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1810     "Reification".
  1811   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1812   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1814 
  1815 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1816   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1817     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1818     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1819   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1820     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1821   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1822     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1823     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1824     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1825     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1826     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1827     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1828     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1829   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1830     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1831   - Fact renames:
  1832       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1833       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1835 
  1836 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1837 
  1838 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1839 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1840 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1842 
  1843 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1844 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1845 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1846 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1847 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1848 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1849 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1850 lemmas.
  1851 
  1852 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1853 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1854 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1855 
  1856 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1857 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1858 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1859 
  1860 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1861 top and bottom elements.
  1862 
  1863 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1864 
  1865 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1866 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1867 
  1868  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1869    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1870    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1871 
  1872  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1873    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1874    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1875 
  1876    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1877    arbitrary filter.
  1878 
  1879  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1880    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1881    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1882    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1883    on a compact set.
  1884 
  1885  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1886    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1887    linear_continuum_topology).
  1888 
  1889  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1890    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1891    on all sequences converging to x.
  1892 
  1893  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1894    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1895    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1896    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1897    left or right.
  1898 
  1899  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1900 
  1901      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1902 
  1903  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1904    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1905 
  1906  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1907    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1908    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1909    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1910    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1911    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1912 
  1913  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1914 
  1915    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1916 
  1917    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1918      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1919 
  1920    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1921 
  1922    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1923      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1924 
  1925    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1926 
  1927    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1928 
  1929  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1930 
  1931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1932 
  1933 * Nitpick:
  1934   - Added option "spy".
  1935   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1936 
  1937 * Sledgehammer:
  1938   - Renamed option:
  1939       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1940     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1941   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1942   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1943   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1944 
  1945 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1946 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1947 
  1948 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1949   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1950   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1951     generated code.
  1952   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1953   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1954   - Fact renames:
  1955     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1956     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1957     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1958 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1959 
  1960 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1961 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1962 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1963 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1964 
  1965 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1966 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1967 
  1968 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1969 
  1970 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1971 
  1972     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1973     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1974 
  1975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1978 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1979 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1980 
  1981 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1982 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1983 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1984 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986 * HOL-BNF:
  1987   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1988     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1989     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1990     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1991   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1992     coinduct).
  1993   - Renamed keywords:
  1994     data ~> datatype_new
  1995     codata ~> codatatype
  1996     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1997   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1998     discs ~> disc
  1999     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2000     map_id' ~> map_id
  2001     sels ~> sel
  2002     set_map' ~> set_map
  2003     sets ~> set
  2004 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2005 
  2006 
  2007 *** ML ***
  2008 
  2009 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2010 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2011 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2012 Examples.thy in particular.
  2013 
  2014 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2015 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2016 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2017 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2018 
  2019 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2020 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2021 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2022 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2026 
  2027     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2028     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2029 
  2030 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2033 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2034 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2035 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2036 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2037 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2038 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2039 
  2040 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2041 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2042 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2043 clasets separately from the context.
  2044 
  2045 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2046 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2047 
  2048 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2049 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2050 
  2051 
  2052 *** System ***
  2053 
  2054 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2055 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2056 
  2057 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2058 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2059 
  2060 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2061 settings variable.
  2062 
  2063 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2064 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2065 always pdf.
  2066 
  2067 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2068 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2069 
  2070 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2071 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2072 
  2073 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2074 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2075 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2076 
  2077 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2078 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2079 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2080 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2081 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2082 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2083 
  2084 
  2085 
  2086 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2087 -----------------------------------
  2088 
  2089 *** General ***
  2090 
  2091 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2092 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2093 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2094 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2095 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2096 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2097 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2098 
  2099 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2100 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2101 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2102 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2103 
  2104 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2105 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2106 
  2107 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2108 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2109 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2110 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2111 dependencies properly.
  2112 
  2113 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2114 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2115 
  2116 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2117 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2118 
  2119 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2120 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2121 and "class ... context ...".
  2122 
  2123 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2124 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2125 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2126 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2127 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2128 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2129 
  2130 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2131 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2132 
  2133 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2134 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2135 
  2136 
  2137 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2138 
  2139 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2140 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2141 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2142 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2143 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2144 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2145 
  2146 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2147 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2148 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2149 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2150 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2151 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2152 
  2153 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2154 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2155 browser on demand.
  2156 
  2157 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2158 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2159 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2160 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2161 
  2162 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2163 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2164 
  2165 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2166 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2167 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2168 potentially infinite message streams.
  2169 
  2170 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2171 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2172 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2173 schemes.
  2174 
  2175 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2176 symbols.
  2177 
  2178 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2179 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2180 
  2181 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2182 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2183 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2184 
  2185 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2186 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2187 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2188 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2189 
  2190 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2191 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2192 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2193 
  2194 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2195 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2196 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2197 Isabelle distribution.
  2198 
  2199 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2200 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2201 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2202 
  2203 
  2204 *** Pure ***
  2205 
  2206 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2207 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2208 
  2209 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2210 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2211 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2214 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2215 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2216 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2217 with some care where this is really required.
  2218 
  2219 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2220 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2221 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2222 
  2223   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2224 
  2225 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2226 a Hasse diagram.
  2227 
  2228 
  2229 *** HOL ***
  2230 
  2231 * Sledgehammer:
  2232 
  2233   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2234     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2235   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2236   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2237   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2238   - Renamed options:
  2239       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2240       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2241       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2242       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2243 
  2244 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2245 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2246 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2247 
  2248 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2249 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250 
  2251 * Lifting:
  2252   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2253   - quot_del attribute
  2254   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2255 
  2256 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2257 expressions.
  2258 
  2259 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2260 pointfree expressions.
  2261 
  2262 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2263 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2264 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2265 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2269 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2270 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2271 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2272 accordingly.
  2273 
  2274 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2275 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2278 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2279 
  2280 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2283 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2284 
  2285 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2286 
  2287 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2288 
  2289   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2290   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2291 
  2292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2295 
  2296   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2297   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2298 
  2299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2300 
  2301 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2302 
  2303   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2304     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2305     output f x converges to G.
  2306 
  2307   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2308     infinity (at_bot).
  2309 
  2310   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2311     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2312 
  2313   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2314     at_top".
  2315 
  2316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317 
  2318 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2319 lattice type classes.
  2320 
  2321 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2322 
  2323     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2324     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2325 
  2326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2329 changes as follows.
  2330 
  2331   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2332 
  2333       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2334       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2335 
  2336   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2337     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2338     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2339     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2340 
  2341   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2342     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2343     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2344 
  2345   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2346     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2347     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2348     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2349 
  2350   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2351     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2352 
  2353       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2354       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2355       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2356       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2357       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2358       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2359       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2360       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2361       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2362       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2363       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2364       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2365       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2366       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2367       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2368       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2369 
  2370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2373 
  2374 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2375 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2376 
  2377 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2378 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2379 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2380 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2381 
  2382   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2383   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2384   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2385   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2386   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2387   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2388   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2389   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2390   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2391   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2392 
  2393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2396 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2397 Data").
  2398 
  2399 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2400 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2401 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2402 code.
  2403 
  2404 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2405 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2406 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2410 
  2411 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2412 
  2413 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2414 
  2415   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2416   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2417 
  2418 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2419 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2420 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2421 
  2422   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2423 
  2424     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2425     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2426     cart_base i  removed
  2427     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2428 
  2429   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2430 
  2431   Renamed lemmas:
  2432 
  2433     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2434     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2435     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2436     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2437     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2438     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2439     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2440     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2441     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2442     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2443 
  2444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * HOL/Probability:
  2447 
  2448   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2449 
  2450   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2451     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2452     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2453 
  2454   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2455     projective family).
  2456 
  2457 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2458 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2459 
  2460 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2461 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2462 datatypes.
  2463 
  2464 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2465 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2466 
  2467 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2468 trees for the code generator.
  2469 
  2470 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2471 Lifting/Transfer.
  2472 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473 
  2474 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2476 
  2477 
  2478 *** Document preparation ***
  2479 
  2480 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2481 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2482 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2483 
  2484 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2485 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2486 
  2487 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2488 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2489 document/root.tex.
  2490 
  2491 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2492 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 
  2495 *** ML ***
  2496 
  2497 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2498 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2499 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2500 
  2501 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2502 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2503 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2504 
  2505 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2506 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2507 necessarily printing visible text.
  2508 
  2509 
  2510 *** System ***
  2511 
  2512 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2513 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2514 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2515 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2516 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2517 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2518 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2519 
  2520 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2521 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2522 
  2523   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2524 
  2525 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2526 
  2527 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2528 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2529 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2530 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2531 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2532 
  2533 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2534 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2535 
  2536 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2537 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2538 
  2539 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2543 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2544 version of Isabelle.
  2545 
  2546 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2547 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2548 
  2549 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2550 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2551 for home-made settings.
  2552 
  2553 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2554 
  2555 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2556 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2557 configuration.
  2558 
  2559 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2560 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2561 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2562 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2563 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2564 
  2565 
  2566 
  2567 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2568 ------------------------------
  2569 
  2570 *** General ***
  2571 
  2572 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2573 
  2574   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2575     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2576   - markup for bound variables
  2577   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2578   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2579   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2580     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2581 
  2582 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2583 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2584 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2585 
  2586 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2587 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2588 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2589 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2590 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2591 
  2592   context
  2593     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2594     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2595   begin
  2596 
  2597   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2598 
  2599   end
  2600 
  2601   thm my_trans
  2602 
  2603 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2604 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2605 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2606 
  2607 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2608 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2609 
  2610 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2611 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2612 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2613 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2614 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2615 
  2616 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2617 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2618 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2619 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2620 indices of schematic variables.
  2621 
  2622 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2623 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2624 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2625 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2626 etc. was exploited.
  2627 
  2628 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2629 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2630 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2631 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2632 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2633 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2634 
  2635 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2636 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2637 manual.
  2638 
  2639 
  2640 *** Pure ***
  2641 
  2642 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2643 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2644 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2645 
  2646 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2647 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2648 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2649 undocumented feature.)
  2650 
  2651 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2652 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2653 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2654 
  2655   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2656 
  2657   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2658     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2659 
  2660 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2661 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2662 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2663 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2664 
  2665 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2666 
  2667     num ~> num_token
  2668     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2669     xstr ~> str_token
  2670 
  2671 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2672 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2673 position information via constraints).
  2674 
  2675 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2676 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2677 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2678 
  2679 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2680 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2681 
  2682 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2683 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2684 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2685 
  2686 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2687 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2688 
  2689 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2690 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2691 
  2692   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2693 
  2694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2697 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2700 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2701 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2702 
  2703 
  2704 *** HOL ***
  2705 
  2706 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2707 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2708 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2709 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2710 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2711 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2712 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2713 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2714 possible.
  2715 
  2716 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2717 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2718 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2719 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2720 
  2721 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2722 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2725 
  2726 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2727 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2728 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2729 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2730 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2731 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2732 
  2733   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2734     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2735 
  2736   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2737     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2738     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2739 
  2740   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2741     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2742 
  2743   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2744     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2745     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2746 
  2747   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2748     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2749 
  2750 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2751 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2752 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2753 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2754 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2755 
  2756   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2757     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2758     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2759     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2760     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2761 
  2762     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2763     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2764 
  2765   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2766     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2767     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2768     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2769     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2770     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2771     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2772     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2773 
  2774   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2775     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2776     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2777     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2778 
  2779   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2780     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2781     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2782     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2783 
  2784   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2785     from type nat to type int.
  2786 
  2787 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2788 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2789 
  2790   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2791     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2792     type.  Example syntax:
  2793 
  2794     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2795       is List.insert
  2796 
  2797     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2798     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2799     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2800     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2801     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2802     by the package.
  2803 
  2804   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2805     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2806     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2807     code generation for each constant.
  2808 
  2809   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2810     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2811     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2812     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2813     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2814 
  2815   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2816     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2817     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2818 
  2819 * Quotient package:
  2820 
  2821   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2822     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2823 
  2824   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2825     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2826 
  2827   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2828     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2829     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2832     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833 
  2834 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2835 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2836 
  2837 * Quickcheck:
  2838 
  2839   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2840     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2841     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2842     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2843     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2844 
  2845     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2846     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2847     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2848 
  2849     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2850     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2851 
  2852     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2853     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2854     show genuine counterexamples.
  2855 
  2856   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2857     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2858 
  2859     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2860     constructors of that type.
  2861 
  2862   - Support for multisets.
  2863 
  2864   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2865 
  2866   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2867     conjectures in a locale context.
  2868 
  2869 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2870 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2871 
  2872 * Sledgehammer:
  2873   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2874     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2875   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2876   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2877     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2878   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2879   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2880   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2881   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2882 
  2883 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2884 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2885 
  2886 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2887 
  2888 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2889 
  2890 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2891 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2892 
  2893   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2894 
  2895 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2896 a list and a nat.
  2897 
  2898 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2899 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2900 
  2901 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2902 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2903 default.
  2904 
  2905 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2906 
  2907   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2908 
  2909 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2910 
  2911 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2912 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2913 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2914 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2915 one_case.
  2916 
  2917 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2918 the result of the fact expression.
  2919 
  2920 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2921 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2922 of some relation theorems:
  2923 
  2924   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2925   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2926   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2927   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2928   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2929   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2930 
  2931 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2932 
  2933 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2934 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2935 
  2936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2939 to match the constant's name:
  2940 
  2941   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2942   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2943   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2944   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2945   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2946   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2947   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2948   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2949   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2950   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2951   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2952   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2953   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2954   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2955   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2956   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2957   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2958   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2959   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2960   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2961   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2962   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2963   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2964   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2965 
  2966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2967 
  2968 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2969 and corresponding theorem names:
  2970 
  2971   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2972 
  2973   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2974 
  2975   - Renamed theorems:
  2976 
  2977     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2978     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2979     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2980     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2981     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2982     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2983     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2984     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2985     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2986     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2987     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2988     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2989     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2990     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2991     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2992     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2993     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2994     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2995     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2996     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2997     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2998     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2999     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3000 
  3001     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3002 
  3003     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3004 
  3005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3008 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3009 
  3010   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3011   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3012   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3013   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3014   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3015   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3016   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3017   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3018   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3019   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3020   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3021   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3022   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3023   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3024   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3025   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3026   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3027   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3028   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3029   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3030   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3031 
  3032 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3033 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3038 
  3039   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3040   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3041   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3042   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3043   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3044   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3045   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3046   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3047   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3048   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3049   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3050   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3051   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3052   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3053   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3054   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3055   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3056   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3057 
  3058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3061 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3062 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3063 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3064 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3065 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3066 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3067 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3068 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3069 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3070 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3071 
  3072 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3073 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3074 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3075 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3076 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3077 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3078 
  3079 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3080 through option types.
  3081 
  3082 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3083 relations.
  3084 
  3085 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3088 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3089 
  3090   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3091   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3092   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3093   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3094   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3095   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3096   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3097   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3098   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3099   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3100   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3101   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3102   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3103   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3104   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3105   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3106   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3107   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3108   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3109   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3110   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3111   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3112   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3113   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3114   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3115   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3116   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3117   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3118   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3119   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3120   zless_le ~> less_le
  3121   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3122   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3123   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3124 
  3125 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3126 
  3127   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3128 
  3129 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3130 
  3131 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3132 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3133 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3134 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3138 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3139 
  3140 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3141 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3142 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3143 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3144 follows:
  3145 
  3146   Operations:
  3147   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3148   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3149   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3150   del -> rbt_del
  3151   delete -> rbt_delete
  3152   ins -> rbt_ins
  3153   insert -> rbt_insert
  3154   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3155   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3156   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3157   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3158   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3159   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3160   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3161   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3162   union -> rbt_union
  3163   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3164   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3165 
  3166   Lemmas:
  3167   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3168   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3169   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3170   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3171   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3172   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3173   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3174   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3175   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3176   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3177   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3178   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3179   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3180   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3181   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3182   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3183   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3184   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3185   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3186   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3187   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3188   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3189   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3190   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3191   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3192   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3193   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3194   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3195   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3196   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3197   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3198   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3199   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3200   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3201   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3202   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3203   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3204   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3205   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3206   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3207   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3208   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3209   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3210   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3211   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3212   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3213   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3214   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3215   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3216   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3217   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3218   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3219   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3220   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3221   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3222   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3223   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3224   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3225   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3226   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3227   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3228   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3229   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3230   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3231   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3232   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3233   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3234   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3235   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3236   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3237   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3238   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3239   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3240   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3241   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3242   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3243   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3244   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3245   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3246   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3247   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3248   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3249   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3250 
  3251 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3252 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3253 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255   Changed Operations:
  3256   float_abs -> abs
  3257   float_nprt -> nprt
  3258   float_pprt -> pprt
  3259   pow2 -> use powr
  3260   round_down -> float_round_down
  3261   round_up -> float_round_up
  3262   scale -> exponent
  3263 
  3264   Removed Operations:
  3265   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3266 
  3267   Renamed Lemmas:
  3268   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3269   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3270   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3271   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3272   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3273   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3274   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3275   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3276   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3277   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3278   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3279   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3280   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3281   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3282   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3283   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3284   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3285   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3286   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3287   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3288   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3289   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3290   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3291   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3292   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3293   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3294   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3295   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3296   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3297   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3298   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3299   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3300   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3301   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3302   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3303   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3304 
  3305   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3306   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3307   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3308   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3309   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3310   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3311   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3312   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3313   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3314   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3315 
  3316 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3317 association lists with distinct keys.
  3318 
  3319 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3320 annotated commands.
  3321 
  3322 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3323 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3324 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3325 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3328 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3329 instead.
  3330 
  3331   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3332   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3333   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3334   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3335   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3336   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3337   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3338   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3339   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3340   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3341   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3342   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3343   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3344   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3345   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3346   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3347   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3348   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3349   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3350   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3351   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3352   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3353   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3354   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3355   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3356   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3357   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3358   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3359   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3360   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3361   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3362   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3363   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3364   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3365   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3366   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3367   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3368   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3369   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3370   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3371   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3372 
  3373 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3374 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3375 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3376 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3377 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3378 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3379 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3380 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3381 
  3382 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3383 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3384 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3385 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3386 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3387 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3388 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3389 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3390 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3391 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3392 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3393 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3394 
  3395   Renamed constants:
  3396   measure -> emeasure
  3397   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3398   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3399   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3400   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3401 
  3402   Removed locales:
  3403   completeable_measure_space
  3404   finite_measure_space
  3405   finite_prob_space
  3406   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3407   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3408   finite_sigma_algebra
  3409   measure_space
  3410   pair_finite_prob_space
  3411   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3412   pair_finite_space
  3413   pair_sigma_algebra
  3414   product_sigma_algebra
  3415 
  3416   Removed constants:
  3417   conditional_space
  3418   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3419   image_space
  3420   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3421   pair_measure_generator
  3422   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3423   subvimage
  3424 
  3425   Replacement theorems:
  3426   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3427   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3428   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3429   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3430   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3431   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3432   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3433   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3434   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3435   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3436   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3437   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3438   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3439   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3440   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3441   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3442   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3443   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3444   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3445   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3446   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3447   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3448   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3449   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3450   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3451   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3452   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3453   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3454   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3455   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3456   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3457   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3458   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3459   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3460   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3461   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3462   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3463   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3464   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3465   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3466   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3467   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3468   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3469   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3470   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3471   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3472   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3473   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3474   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3475   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3476   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3477   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3478   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3479   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3480   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3481   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3482   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3483   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3484   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3485   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3486   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3487   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3488   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3489   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3490   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3491   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3492   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3493   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3494   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3495   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3496   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3497   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3498   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3499   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3500   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3501   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3502   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3503   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3504   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3505   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3506   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3507   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3508   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3509   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3510   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3511   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3512   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3513   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3514   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3515   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3516   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3517   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3518   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3519   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3520   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3521   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3522   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3523   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3524   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3525   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3526   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3527   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3528   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3529   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3530   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3531   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3532   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3533   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3534   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3535   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3536   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3537   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3538   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3539   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3540   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3541   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3542   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3543   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3544   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3545   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3546   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3547   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3548   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3549   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3550   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3551   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3552   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3553   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3554 
  3555 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3556 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3557 
  3558 
  3559 *** FOL ***
  3560 
  3561 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3562 
  3563 
  3564 *** ZF ***
  3565 
  3566 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3567 analysis.
  3568 
  3569 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3570 
  3571 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 
  3574 *** ML ***
  3575 
  3576 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3577 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3578 
  3579 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3580 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3581 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3582 
  3583 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3584 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3585 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3586 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3587 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3588 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3589 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3590 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3591 
  3592 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3593 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3594 
  3595 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3596 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3597 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3598 
  3599 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3600 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3603 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3604 context as well.
  3605 
  3606 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3607 
  3608   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3609   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3610   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3611   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3612   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3613   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3614   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3615   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3616   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3617   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3618   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3619   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3620 
  3621 
  3622 *** System ***
  3623 
  3624 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3625 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3626 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3627 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3628 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3629 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3630 the generic user home was intended.
  3631 
  3632 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3633 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3634 
  3635 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3636 (not just JRE).
  3637 
  3638 
  3639 
  3640 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3641 ------------------------------------
  3642 
  3643 *** General ***
  3644 
  3645 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3646 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3647 
  3648   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3649     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3650     files for checking).
  3651 
  3652   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3653     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3654     positions.
  3655 
  3656   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3657     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3658     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3659 
  3660   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3661     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3662     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3663 
  3664   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3665     cores.
  3666 
  3667   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3668     versions (garbage collection).
  3669 
  3670 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3671 including some remaining limitations.
  3672 
  3673 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3674 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3675 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3676 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3677 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3681 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3682 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3683 
  3684 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3685 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3686 usedir option -Q.
  3687 
  3688 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3689 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3690 
  3691   long_names   ~> names_long
  3692   short_names  ~> names_short
  3693   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3694 
  3695 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3696 
  3697   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3698 
  3699 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3700 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3701 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3702 
  3703 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3704 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3705 
  3706 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3707   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3708   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3709   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3710     "Classical Reasoner".
  3711 
  3712 
  3713 *** HOL ***
  3714 
  3715 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3716 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3719 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3720 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3721 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3722 class complete_linorder.
  3723 
  3724 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3725 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3726 
  3727 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3728 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3729 
  3730   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3731   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3732   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3733   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3734   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3735   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3736   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3737   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3738   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3739   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3740   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3741 
  3742 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3743 
  3744   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3745   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3746   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3747   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3748   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3749   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3750   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3751   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3752   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3753   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3754   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3755   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3756   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3757   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3758   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3759   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3760 
  3761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3767 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3768 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3769 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3772 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3773 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3775 
  3776 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3777 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3778 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3779 
  3780 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3781 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3782 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3785 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3786 
  3787 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3788 
  3789     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3790     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3791 
  3792 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3793 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3796 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3799 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3800 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3801 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3804   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3805   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3806   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3807   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3808   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3809   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3810 
  3811 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3812 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3815   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3816   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3817   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3818   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3819   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3820   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3821   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3822   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3823   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3824   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3825   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3826   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3827   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3828   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3829   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3830   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3831   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3832   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3833   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3834   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3835   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3836   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3837   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3838   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3839   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3840   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3841   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3842   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3843   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3844   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3845   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3846   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3847   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3848   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3849   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3850   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3851   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3852   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3853   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3854   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3855   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3856   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3857   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3858   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3859   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3860   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3861   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3862   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3863   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3864   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3865   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3866   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3867   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3868   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3869   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3870   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3871   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3872   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3873   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3874   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3875   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3876   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3877   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3878   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3879   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3880   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3881   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3882   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3883   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3884   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3885   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3886   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3887   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3888   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3889   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3890   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3891   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3892   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3893   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3894   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3895   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3896 
  3897 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3898 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3899 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3900 
  3901 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3902 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3903 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3904 
  3905 * Code generation:
  3906 
  3907   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3908     characters in the target language.
  3909 
  3910   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3911     instead.
  3912 
  3913   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3914 
  3915   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3916     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3917 
  3918       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3919 
  3920 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3923 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3924 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3925 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3926 syntax.
  3927 
  3928 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3929 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3930 
  3931 * Nitpick:
  3932   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3933   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3934   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3935     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * Sledgehammer:
  3938   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3939   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3940     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3941   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3942     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3943   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3944     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3946     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3947   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3948     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Metis:
  3951   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3952   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3953     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Command 'try':
  3956   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3957     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3959     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3960 
  3961 * Quickcheck:
  3962   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3963     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3964   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3965     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3966   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3967     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3968     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3969     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3970   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3971     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3972 
  3973 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3974 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3975 
  3976 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3977 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3978 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3979 
  3980 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3981 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3985 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3988 arithmetic.
  3989 
  3990 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3991 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3992 and lattice type classes.
  3993 
  3994 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3995 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3996 
  3997 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3998 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3999 
  4000 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4001 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4002 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4005   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4006   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4007   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4008 
  4009 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4010 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4011 constants:
  4012 
  4013   type inat   ~> type enat
  4014   Fin         ~> enat
  4015   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4016   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4017   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4018 
  4019 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4020 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 
  4022 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4023 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4024 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4025 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4026 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4027 
  4028 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4029 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4030 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4031 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4032 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4033 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4034 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4035 
  4036   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4037   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4038   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4039   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4040 
  4041 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4042 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4043 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4046   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4047   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4048   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4049   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4050   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4051   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4052   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4053   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4054   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4055   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4056   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4057   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4058   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4059   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4060   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4061   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4062   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4063   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4064   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4065   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4066   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4067   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4068   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4069   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4070   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4071   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4072   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4073   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4074   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4075   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4076   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4077   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4078   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4079   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4080   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4081   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4082   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4083   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4084   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4085   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4086   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4087   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4088   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4089   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4090   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4091   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4092   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4093   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4094   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4095   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4096 
  4097 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4098   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4099   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4100   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4101   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4102     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4103 
  4104 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4107   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4108   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4109   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4110   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4111   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4112   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4113   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4114   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4115   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4116   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4117   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4118   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4119   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4120   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4121   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4122   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4123   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4124   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4125   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4126   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4127   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4128   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4129   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4130   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4131 
  4132 
  4133 *** Document preparation ***
  4134 
  4135 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4136 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4137 same.
  4138 
  4139 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4140 result.
  4141 
  4142 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4143 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4144 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4145 
  4146 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4147 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4148 
  4149 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4150 like this:
  4151 
  4152   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4153   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4154 
  4155 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4156 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4157 layouts.
  4158 
  4159 
  4160 *** ML ***
  4161 
  4162 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4163 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4164 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4165 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4166 under external program control.
  4167 
  4168 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4169 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4170 
  4171 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4172 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4173 (better known as Proof General).
  4174 
  4175 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4176 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4177 
  4178 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4179 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4180 
  4181 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4182 (including quotes etc.).
  4183 
  4184 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4185 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4186 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4187 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4188 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4189 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4190 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4191 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4192 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4193 
  4194 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4195 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4196 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4197 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4198 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4199 
  4200 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4201 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4202 
  4203 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4204 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4205 
  4206 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4207 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4208 
  4209 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4210 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4211 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4212 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4213 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4214 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4215 proper Proof.context.
  4216 
  4217 
  4218 *** System ***
  4219 
  4220 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4221 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4222 
  4223 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4224 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4225 
  4226 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4227 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4228 
  4229   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4230   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4231   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4232   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4233   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4234 
  4235 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4236 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4237 
  4238 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4239 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4240 example:
  4241 
  4242   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4243 
  4244 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4245 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4246 
  4247 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4248 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4249 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4250 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4251 
  4252 
  4253 
  4254 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4255 ----------------------------------
  4256 
  4257 *** General ***
  4258 
  4259 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4260 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4261 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4262 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4263 like this:
  4264 
  4265   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4266 
  4267 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4268 
  4269 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4270 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4271 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4272 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4273 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4274 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4275 
  4276 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4277 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4278 the following package declarations:
  4279 
  4280   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4281   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4282 
  4283 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4284 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4285 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4286 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4287 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4288 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4289 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4290 
  4291 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4292 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4293 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4294 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4295 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4296 
  4297 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4298 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4299 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4300 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4303 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4304 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4305 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4306 
  4307   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4308 
  4309   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4310   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4311   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4312   show_types                    show_types
  4313   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4314   show_consts                   show_consts
  4315   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4316 
  4317   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4318   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4319   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4320 
  4321   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4322   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4323 
  4324   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4325 
  4326   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4327   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4328   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4329   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4330   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4331 
  4332 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4333 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4334 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4335 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4336 
  4337 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4339 
  4340   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4341   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4342 
  4343 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4344 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4345 float_token.
  4346 
  4347 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4348 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4352 DejaVu Sans.
  4353 
  4354 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4355 
  4356 
  4357 *** Pure ***
  4358 
  4359 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4360 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4361 time.
  4362 
  4363 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4364 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4367 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4370 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4371 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4372 command already provided this functionality.
  4373 
  4374 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4375 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4376 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4377 without interpretations.
  4378 
  4379 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4380 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4381 
  4382 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4383 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4384 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4385 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4386 
  4387 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4388 'definition' instead.
  4389 
  4390 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4391 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4392 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4393 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4394 
  4395 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4396 constructors.
  4397 
  4398 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4399 the local file system.
  4400 
  4401 
  4402 *** HOL ***
  4403 
  4404 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4405 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4406 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4407 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4408 
  4409   declare [[coercion f]]
  4410 
  4411 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4412 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4413 
  4414   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4415 
  4416 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4417 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4418 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4419 other theories like this:
  4420 
  4421   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4422 
  4423 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4424 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4425 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4426 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4427 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4428 for examples.
  4429 
  4430 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4431 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4434 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4435 
  4436 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4437 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4438 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4439 
  4440 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4441 functorial structure of types.
  4442 
  4443 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4444 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4445 
  4446 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4447 languages.
  4448 
  4449 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4450 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4454 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4455 
  4456 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4457 combinators any longer.
  4458 
  4459 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4460 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4461 
  4462 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4463 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4464 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4465 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4466 
  4467   record 'a foo = ...
  4468   ...
  4469   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4470 
  4471 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4472 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4474 
  4475 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4476 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4477 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4478 
  4479 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4480 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4481 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4482 
  4483 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4484 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4485 
  4486 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4487 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4488 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4489 independently.
  4490 
  4491 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4492 counter example search.
  4493 
  4494 * Sledgehammer:
  4495   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4496     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4497     sledgehammer").
  4498   - Renamed commands:
  4499     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4500     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4501     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4502     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4503   - Renamed options:
  4504     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4505     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4506     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4507     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4508     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Nitpick:
  4511   - Renamed options:
  4512     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4513     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4514     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4515   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4516   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4517   - Added "whack" option.
  4518   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4519   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4520   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4521   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4522     higher cardinalities.
  4523   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4524 
  4525 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4526 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4527 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4528 
  4529     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4530 
  4531 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4532 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4533 
  4534 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4535 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4536 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4537 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4538 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4539 "smt_solver".
  4540 
  4541 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4542 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4543 
  4544 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4545 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4546 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4547 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4550   - Renamed:
  4551     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4552     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4553     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4554   - Added:
  4555     smt_verbose
  4556     smt_random_seed
  4557     smt_datatypes
  4558     smt_infer_triggers
  4559     smt_monomorph_limit
  4560     cvc3_options
  4561     remote_cvc3_options
  4562     remote_z3_options
  4563     yices_options
  4564 
  4565 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4566 header.
  4567 
  4568 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4569 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4570 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4571 
  4572   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4573 
  4574 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4577 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4578 
  4579 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4582 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4585 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4586 
  4587 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4588 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4591 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4592 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4600 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4603 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4604 for congruent(2)).
  4605 
  4606 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4607 
  4608   types
  4609     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4610     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4611 
  4612   constants
  4613     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4614     True ~> HOL.True
  4615     False ~> HOL.False
  4616     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4617     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4618     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4619     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4620     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4621     The ~> HOL.The
  4622     All ~> HOL.All
  4623     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4624     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4625     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4626     If ~> HOL.If
  4627     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4628     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4629     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4630     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4631     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4632     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4633     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4634     op : ~> Set.member
  4635     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4636 
  4637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4638 
  4639 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4640 
  4641     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4642     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4643     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4644     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4645     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4646     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4647     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4648     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4649 
  4650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * More stylized fact names:
  4653 
  4654   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4655   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4656   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4657   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4658 
  4659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4662 
  4663   constants
  4664     null ~> List.null
  4665 
  4666   facts
  4667     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4668     null_empty ~> null_def
  4669 
  4670 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4671 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4672 generation.
  4673 
  4674 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4675 Haskell code.
  4676 
  4677 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4678 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4679 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4682 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4683 
  4684 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4685 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4686 
  4687 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4688 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4689 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4690 
  4691 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4692 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4698 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4699 referred to by its qualified name.
  4700 
  4701   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4702   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4703   product ~>  Enum.product
  4704 
  4705 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4706 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4710 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4711 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4715 sort_key.
  4716 
  4717 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 
  4720 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4721 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4722 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4723 
  4724   types
  4725     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4726               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4727               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4728         (depends on your needs)
  4729 
  4730   constants
  4731      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4732      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4733      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4734 
  4735 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4736 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4737 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4738 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4739 
  4740 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4741 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4742 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4743 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4744 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4750 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4751 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4752 
  4753 
  4754 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4755 
  4756 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4757 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4758 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4759 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4760 compatibility.
  4761 
  4762 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4763 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4764 
  4765 
  4766 *** HOLCF ***
  4767 
  4768 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4769 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4770 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4774 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4775 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4776 
  4777   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4778   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4779   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4780 
  4781 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4782 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4783 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4786 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4787 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4788 domain definition now works:
  4789 
  4790   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4791 
  4792 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4793 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4794 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4795 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4796 
  4797   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4798     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4799 
  4800   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4801 
  4802 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4803 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4804 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4805 
  4806 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4807 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4810 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4811 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4812 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4813 
  4814 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4815 
  4816 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 
  4818 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4824 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4825 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4826 
  4827 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4828 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4829 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4832 still supported as an input translation.
  4833 
  4834 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4835 
  4836   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4837   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4838   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4839   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4840   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4841   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4842   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4843 
  4844 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4845 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4848   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4849   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4850   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4851   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4852   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4853 
  4854 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4855 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4858 
  4859   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4860   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4861   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4862   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4863 
  4864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4865 
  4866 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4867 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4870 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4873   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4874   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4875   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4876   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4877   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4878   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4879   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4880   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4881   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4882   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4883   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4884   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4885   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4886   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4887   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4888   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4889   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4890   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4891   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4892 
  4893 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4894 
  4895   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4896   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4897   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4898   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4899   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4900   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4901   box_less             ~> box_below
  4902   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4903   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4904   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4905   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4906   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4907   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4908   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4909   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4910   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4911   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4912   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4913   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4914   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4915   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4916   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4917   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4918   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4919   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4920   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4921   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4922   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4923   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4924   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4925   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4926   up_less              ~> up_below
  4927   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4928   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4929   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4930   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4931   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4932   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4933   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4934   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4935   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4936   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4937   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4938   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4939   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4940 
  4941 
  4942 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4943 
  4944 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4945 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4946 
  4947 
  4948 *** ML ***
  4949 
  4950 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4951 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4952 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4953 
  4954 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4955 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4956 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4957 
  4958 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4959 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4960 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4961 
  4962 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4963 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4964 
  4965 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4966 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4967 
  4968 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4969 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4970 
  4971 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4972 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4973 
  4974 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4975 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4976 almost all situations.
  4977 
  4978 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4979 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4980 Isabelle/ML.
  4981 
  4982 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4983 meaning.
  4984 
  4985 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4986 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4987 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4988 
  4989 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4990 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4991 
  4992 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4993 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4994 
  4995 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4996 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4997 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4998 
  4999 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5000 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5001 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5002 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5003 configuration options.
  5004 
  5005 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5006 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5007 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5008 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5009 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5010 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5011 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5012 
  5013 
  5014 
  5015 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5016 ---------------------------------
  5017 
  5018 *** General ***
  5019 
  5020 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5021 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5022 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5023 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5024 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5025 their full internal name.
  5026 
  5027 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5028 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5029 Some hints on upgrading:
  5030 
  5031   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5032     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5033     which are independent of this issue.
  5034 
  5035   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5036     provides the following special forms:
  5037 
  5038       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5039       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5040       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5041 
  5042     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5043     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5044     extra variables".
  5045 
  5046     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5047     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5048     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5049     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5050     "logic".
  5051 
  5052   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5053     antiquotations:
  5054 
  5055       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5056       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5057       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5058       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5059 
  5060   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5061     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5062     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5063     antiquotations.
  5064 
  5065 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5066 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5067 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5068 diagnose syntax problems.
  5069 
  5070 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5071 
  5072 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5073 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5074 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5075 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5076 
  5077 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5078 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5079 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5080 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5081 
  5082 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5083 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5084 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5085 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5086 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5087 
  5088 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5089 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5090 
  5091 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5092 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5093 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5094 
  5095   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5096 
  5097 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5098 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5099 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5100 
  5101 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5102 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5104 
  5105 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5106 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5107 
  5108 
  5109 *** Pure ***
  5110 
  5111 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5112 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5113 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5114 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5115 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5116 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5117 inspect proof terms.
  5118 
  5119 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5120 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5121 are added internally.  For example:
  5122 
  5123   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5124 
  5125 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5126 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5129 
  5130 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5131 'class' instead.
  5132 
  5133 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5134 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5138 invariants.
  5139 
  5140 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5141 user space functionality any longer.
  5142 
  5143 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5144 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5148 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5149 
  5150 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5151 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5152 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5153 
  5154 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5155 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5156 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5157 
  5158 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5159 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5160 
  5161 
  5162 *** HOL ***
  5163 
  5164 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5165 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5166 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5167 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5168 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5169 
  5170 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5171 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5172 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5173 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5174 
  5175   fun
  5176     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5177   where
  5178     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5179 
  5180   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5181     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5182 
  5183   quotient_definition
  5184     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5185 
  5186 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5187 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5188 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5189 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5190 
  5191 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5192 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5193 
  5194 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5195 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5196 
  5197 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5199 
  5200 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5201 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5202 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5203 
  5204 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5205 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5206 
  5207 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5209 
  5210 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5212 
  5213 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5214 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5215 
  5216 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5217 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5218 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5219 
  5220   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5221   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5222   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5223   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5224   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5225   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5226   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5227   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5228   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5229   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5230   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5231   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5232   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5233   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5234   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5235   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5236   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5237   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5238   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5239   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5240   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5241   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5242   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5243   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5244   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5245   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5246   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5247   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5248   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5249   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5250 
  5251 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5252 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5253 
  5254 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5255 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5256 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5257 
  5258 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5259 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5260 
  5261 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5262 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5263 
  5264 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5265 
  5266 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5267 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5268 
  5269 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5270 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5271 
  5272 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5273 
  5274 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5275 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5276 
  5277 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5278 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5279 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5280 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5281 
  5282 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5283   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5284   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5285   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5287 
  5288 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5289 lattices):
  5290 
  5291     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5292     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5293 
  5294     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5295 
  5296     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5297     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5298     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5299     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5300     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5301     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5302     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5303     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5304     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5305     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5306     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5307     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5308     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5309 
  5310     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5311     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5312     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5313     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5314     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5315     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5316     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5317     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5318     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5319     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5320     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5321     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5322     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5323     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5324     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5325     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5326     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5327     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5328 
  5329   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5330   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5331 
  5332     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5333     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5334     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5335     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5336     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5337 
  5338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5339 
  5340 * Refined field classes:
  5341   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5342     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5343     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5344   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5346 
  5347 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5348   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5349   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5350   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5351     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5352   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5353     equal_neg_zero.
  5354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5355 
  5356 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5357 sets to lattices:
  5358 
  5359   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5360   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5361   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5362   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5363   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5364   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5365   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5366   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5367   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5368   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5369 
  5370 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5371 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5372 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5373 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5374 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5375 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5378 multiset order:
  5379 
  5380   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5381     <= and <;
  5382   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5383     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5384     multiset_order;
  5385   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5386     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5387     generation;
  5388   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5389     if needed.
  5390 
  5391 Renamed:
  5392 
  5393   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5394   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5395   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5396 
  5397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5398 
  5399 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5400 
  5401 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5402 
  5403 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5404 
  5405 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5406 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5407 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5408 
  5409   Constants:
  5410   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5411   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5412   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5413   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5414   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5415   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5416   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5417   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5418   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5419   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5420   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5421   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5422   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5423 
  5424   Lemmas:
  5425   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5426   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5427   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5428   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5429   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5430   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5431   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5432   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5433   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5434   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5435   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5436   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5437   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5438 
  5439 * Sledgehammer:
  5440   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5441     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5442     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5443     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5444     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5445     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5446     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5447   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5448   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5449     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5450   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5451     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5452     is still experimental.)
  5453   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5454     full-typed mode.
  5455   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5456 
  5457 * Nitpick:
  5458   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5459   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5460   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5461     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5462   - Added support for quotient types.
  5463   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5464     constructs.
  5465   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5466     "termination" proofs).
  5467   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5468   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5469   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5470   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5471     record getters.
  5472   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5473   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5474   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5475   - Added "atoms" option.
  5476   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5477     problems.
  5478   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5479     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5480     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5481   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5482     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5483   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5484 
  5485 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5486   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5487   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5488   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5489   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5490   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5491   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5492   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5493   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5494   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5495 
  5496 
  5497 *** HOLCF ***
  5498 
  5499 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5500 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5501 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5504 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5505 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5506 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5507 
  5508 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5509 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5510 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5511 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5512 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5513 
  5514 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5515 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5516 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5517 
  5518 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5519 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5520 
  5521   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5522   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5523 
  5524 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5525 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5526 
  5527   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5528   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5529   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5530   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5531   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5532 
  5533 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5534 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5535 
  5536   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5537   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5538   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5539 
  5540 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5541 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5545 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5546 
  5547 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548 
  5549 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5550 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 
  5553 *** ML ***
  5554 
  5555 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5556 
  5557     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5558     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5559 
  5560     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5561     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5562     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5563     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5564 
  5565     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5566     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5567     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5568 
  5569 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5570 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5571 
  5572 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5573 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5574 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5575 
  5576 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5577 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5578 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5579 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5580 
  5581 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5582 the context or even global references.
  5583 
  5584 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5585 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5586 
  5587 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5588 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5589 
  5590   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5591   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5592   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5593   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5594   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5595   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5596   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5597   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5598   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5599   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5600 
  5601 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5602 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5603 
  5604 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5605 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5606 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5607 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5608 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5609 
  5610 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5611 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5612 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5613 Theory_Data version.
  5614 
  5615 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5616 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5617 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5618 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5619 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5620 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5621 explicitly in rare situations.
  5622 
  5623 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5624 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5626 
  5627 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5628 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5629 
  5630 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5631 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5632 quite rare).
  5633 
  5634 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5635 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5636 
  5637 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5638 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5639 terms.
  5640 
  5641 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5642 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5643 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5644 
  5645 
  5646 *** System ***
  5647 
  5648 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5649 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5650 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5651 
  5652 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5653 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5654 respectively.
  5655 
  5656 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5657 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5658 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5659 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5660 
  5661   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5662 
  5663 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5664 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5665 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5666 component.
  5667 
  5668 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5669 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5670 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5671 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5672 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5673 the user for manual installation.
  5674 
  5675 
  5676 
  5677 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5678 -------------------------------------
  5679 
  5680 *** General ***
  5681 
  5682 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5683 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5684 
  5685 
  5686 *** Pure ***
  5687 
  5688 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5689 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5690 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5691 
  5692 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5693 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5694 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5695 
  5696 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5697 interpretation.
  5698 
  5699 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5700 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5701 
  5702 
  5703 *** Document preparation ***
  5704 
  5705 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5706 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5707 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5708 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5709 
  5710 
  5711 *** HOL ***
  5712 
  5713 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5714 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5715 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5716 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5717 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5718 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5719 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5720 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5721 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5722 
  5723 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5724 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5725 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5726 
  5727 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5728 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5729 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5730 
  5731 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5732 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5733 
  5734 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5735 
  5736 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5737 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5738 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5739 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5740 
  5741 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5742 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5743 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5744 "mirabelle" utility.
  5745 
  5746 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5747 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5748 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5749 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5750 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5751 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5752 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5753 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5754 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5755 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5756 
  5757 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5758 procedure only.
  5759 
  5760 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5761 
  5762 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5763 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5764 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5765 that fail later.
  5766 
  5767 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5768 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5769 
  5770 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5771 the same method as the approximation method.
  5772 
  5773 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5774 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5775 series expansion.
  5776 
  5777 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5778 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5779 
  5780 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5781 reals.
  5782 
  5783 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5784 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5785 
  5786 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5787 fixpoint theorem.
  5788 
  5789 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5790   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5791     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5792   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5793     accordingly
  5794   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5795     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5796   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5797     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5798 
  5799 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5800 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5801 lattice.
  5802 
  5803 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5804 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5805 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5806 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5807 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5808 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5812   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5813     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5814   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5815     le_inf_iff
  5816   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5817     sup_aci)
  5818   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5819   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5820   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5821     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5822     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5823     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5824     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5825     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5826     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5827     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5828     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5829     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5830     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5831   - authentic syntax for
  5832     Set.Pow
  5833     Set.image
  5834   - mere abbreviations:
  5835     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5836     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5837     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5838     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5839     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5840     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5841     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5842     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5843   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5844 
  5845 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5846 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5847 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5848 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5849 
  5850 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5851 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5852 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5853 
  5854 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5855 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5856 
  5857 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5858 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5859 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5860 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5861 
  5862 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5863 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5864 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5865 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5866 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5867 
  5868 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5869 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5871 
  5872 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5873 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5876 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5877 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5878 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5879 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5880 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5881 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5883 
  5884 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5885     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5886     code_post       replaces    code post
  5887     etc.
  5888   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5889 
  5890 * Renamed methods:
  5891     sizechange -> size_change
  5892     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5893   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5894 
  5895 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5896 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5897 
  5898 * Renamed theorems:
  5899     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5900     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5901     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5902     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5903     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5904   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5905 
  5906 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5908 
  5909 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5911 
  5912 
  5913 *** HOLCF ***
  5914 
  5915 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5916 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5917 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5918 
  5919 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5920 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5921 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5922 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5923 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5924 
  5925 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5926 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5927 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5928 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5929 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5930 
  5931 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5932 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5933 constructor are pre-configured.
  5934 
  5935 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5936 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5937 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5938 
  5939 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5940 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5941 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5942 as well.)
  5943 
  5944 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5945 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5946 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5947 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5948 examples.
  5949 
  5950 
  5951 *** ML ***
  5952 
  5953 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5954 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5955 
  5956 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5957 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5958 position, logical grouping etc.
  5959 
  5960 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5961 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5962 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5963 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5964 
  5965 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5966 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5967 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5968 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5969 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5970 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5971 
  5972 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5973 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5974 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5975 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5976 experiments with references.
  5977 
  5978 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5979 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5980 
  5981 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5982 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5983 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5984 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5985 
  5986 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5987 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5988 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5989 
  5990 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5991 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5992 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5993 
  5994 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5995 
  5996 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5998 
  5999 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6000 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6001 
  6002 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6003 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6004 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6005 
  6006 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6007 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6008 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6009 
  6010 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6011 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6012 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6014 
  6015 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6016 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6017 instead of global theory.
  6018 
  6019 
  6020 *** System ***
  6021 
  6022 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6023 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6024 usedir option -q.
  6025 
  6026 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6027 also the system manual.
  6028 
  6029 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6030 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6031 
  6032 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6033 this is always enabled.
  6034 
  6035 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6036 
  6037 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6038 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6039 currently supported on Linux only.
  6040 
  6041 
  6042 
  6043 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6044 --------------------------------
  6045 
  6046 *** General ***
  6047 
  6048 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6049 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6050 
  6051   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6052     "isatool."
  6053 
  6054   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6055     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6056 
  6057   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6058     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6059 
  6060 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6061 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6062 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6063 
  6064 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6065 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6066 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6067 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6068 via "isabelle emacs".
  6069 
  6070 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6071 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6072 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6073 
  6074 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6075 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6076 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6077 
  6078 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6079 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6080 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6081 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6082 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6083 
  6084 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6085 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6086 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6087 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6088 
  6089 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6090 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6091 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6092 
  6093 
  6094 *** Pure ***
  6095 
  6096 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6097 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6098 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6099 
  6100 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6101 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6102 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6103 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6104 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6105 
  6106 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6107 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6108 useful in locale declarations.
  6109 
  6110 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6111 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6112 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6113 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6114 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6115 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6116 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6117 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6118 no longer generated.
  6119 
  6120 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6121 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6122 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6123 
  6124 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6125 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6126 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6127 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6128 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6129 
  6130 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6131 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6132 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6133 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6134 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6135 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6136 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6137 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6138 
  6139 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6140 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6141 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6142 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6143 
  6144 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6147 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6148 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6149 
  6150 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6151 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6152 
  6153 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6154 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6155 in HOL, write
  6156 
  6157     class foo = ...
  6158 
  6159 instead of
  6160 
  6161     class foo = type + ...
  6162 
  6163 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6164 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6165 
  6166 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6167 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6168 
  6169 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6170 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6171 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6172 
  6173 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6174 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6175 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6176 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6177 directly in regular applications.
  6178 
  6179 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6180 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6181 
  6182 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6183 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6184 
  6185 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6186 theory context.
  6187 
  6188 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6189 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6190 
  6191 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6192 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6193 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6194 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6195 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6196 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6197 
  6198   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6199 
  6200 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6201 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6202 normalization.
  6203 
  6204 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  6205 addressing etc.
  6206 
  6207 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  6208 
  6209   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  6210   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  6211 
  6212 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6213 
  6214   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  6215      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  6216      parts of the code generator framework).
  6217 
  6218   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  6219      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  6220      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  6221 
  6222 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6223 
  6224 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  6225 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6226 
  6227 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  6228 patterns, e.g.
  6229 
  6230     find_consts "_ => bool"
  6231 
  6232 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  6233 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  6234 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  6235 hyphen:
  6236 
  6237     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  6238 
  6239 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  6240 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  6241 
  6242 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  6243 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  6244 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  6245 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  6246 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  6247 higher-order unification.
  6248 
  6249 
  6250 *** Document preparation ***
  6251 
  6252 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  6253 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  6254 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  6255 
  6256 
  6257 *** HOL ***
  6258 
  6259 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  6260 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  6261 
  6262 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  6263 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  6264 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  6265 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  6266 Main, as before.
  6267 
  6268 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  6269 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  6270 
  6271 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  6272 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal