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NEWS

author | haftmann |

Tue Nov 06 13:12:53 2007 +0100 (2007-11-06) | |

changeset 25311 | aa750e3a581c |

parent 25199 | e83c6c43f1e6 |

child 25397 | 82deaaba928d |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

Class.init now similiar to Locale.init

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in Isabelle2007

5 -------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

10 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

11 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

12 legacy features will disappear eventually.

14 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

15 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

16 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

18 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

19 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

20 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

21 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

23 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

24 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

25 quotes.

27 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

28 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

29 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

30 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

31 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

32 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

33 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

34 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

35 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

37 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

38 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

39 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

40 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

41 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

42 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

44 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

45 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

46 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

47 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

49 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

50 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

51 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

52 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

53 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

54 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

56 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

57 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

58 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

59 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

60 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

61 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

62 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

63 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

65 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

66 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

67 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

68 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

69 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

70 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

71 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

73 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

74 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

75 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

77 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

78 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

79 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

80 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

81 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

82 limit is imposed.

84 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

85 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

86 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

87 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

88 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

89 and scalability.

91 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

92 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

95 *** Document preparation ***

97 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

98 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

99 current context.

101 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

102 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

104 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

105 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

106 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

110 *** Pure ***

112 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

113 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

114 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

115 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

116 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

117 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

118 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

119 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

120 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

121 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

123 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

124 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

125 sketch:

127 internal compilation:

128 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

129 writing SML code to a file:

130 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

131 writing OCaml code to a file:

132 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

133 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

134 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

136 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

137 method ``eval''

139 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

141 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

143 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

144 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

145 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

146 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

148 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

150 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

151 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

153 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

154 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

156 code_instance <and-list of instances>

157 {(target)}+

158 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

160 code_class <and_list of classes>

161 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

162 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

164 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

166 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

167 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

168 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

169 codegen".

171 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

172 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

173 annotations).

175 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

176 syntax.

178 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

179 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

180 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

181 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

182 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

183 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

185 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

186 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

187 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

188 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

189 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

190 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

191 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

192 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

193 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

194 equations, see section "definitions".

196 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

197 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

198 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

199 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

200 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

201 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

202 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

203 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

204 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

205 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

207 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

208 configuration options:

210 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

211 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

212 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

213 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

214 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

215 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

216 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

217 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

218 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

220 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

221 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

222 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

223 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

224 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

225 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

226 order.

228 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

229 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

230 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

231 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

232 context encountered later on.

234 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

235 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

236 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

237 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

239 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

240 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

241 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

242 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

243 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

244 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

246 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

247 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

248 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

249 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

250 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

251 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

252 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

253 more permissive.

255 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

256 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

257 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

258 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

259 maintainability of proof texts.

261 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

262 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

264 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

265 then guess x and y by clarify

267 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

268 proof tools being involved here.

270 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

271 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

272 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

273 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

274 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

275 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

276 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

277 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

279 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

280 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

281 certain special cases of literal facts:

283 have "A" by fact == note `A`

284 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

285 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

286 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

288 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

289 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

290 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

292 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

293 both named and unnamed ones.

295 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

297 def x == "t" and y == "u"

299 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

300 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

301 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

302 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

304 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

305 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

306 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

307 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

308 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

310 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

311 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

313 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

314 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

315 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

316 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

317 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

318 originally first one.

320 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

321 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

322 expected.

324 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

325 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

326 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

327 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

328 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

330 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

331 assumes "EX x. P x"

332 obtains x where "P x"

334 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

335 assumes "A & B"

336 obtains A and B

338 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

339 assumes "A | B"

340 obtains

341 A

342 | B

344 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

345 explicitly:

347 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

348 obtains "~ thesis"

350 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

351 obtains "thesis ==> something"

353 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

354 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

355 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

356 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

357 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

358 case_names).

360 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

361 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

362 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

363 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

365 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

366 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

367 top-level lemma.

369 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

370 introduction rule (default "that").

372 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

373 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

374 to occur.

376 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

377 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

378 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

379 representations independently of name spaces.

381 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

382 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

383 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

385 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

386 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

387 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

388 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

389 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

390 current context.

392 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

393 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

394 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

395 isar-ref manual. Examples:

397 axiomatization

398 eq (infix "===" 50) where

399 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

401 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

402 definition g where "g x = f x x"

404 abbreviation

405 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

406 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

408 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

409 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

410 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

411 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

412 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

413 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

414 entities from a monomorphic theory.

416 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

417 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

418 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

419 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

420 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

422 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

423 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

424 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

425 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

427 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

428 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

429 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

431 definition "K x _ = x"

433 inductive conj for A B

434 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

436 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

437 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

438 abbreviations on output.

440 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

441 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

442 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

443 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

445 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

446 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

447 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

448 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

449 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

450 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

451 `unfold_locales'; see below.

453 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

454 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

455 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

456 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

457 unfold predicates to assumptions.

459 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

460 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

461 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

463 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

464 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

465 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

466 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

467 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

469 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

470 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

472 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

473 definition specification element in the context of locale

474 partial_order.

476 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

477 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

478 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

479 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

480 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

481 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

482 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

483 examples.

485 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

486 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

487 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

488 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

489 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

491 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

492 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

493 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

494 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

495 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

497 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

498 (induct set: foo bar)

499 (induct pred: foo bar)

500 (induct type: foo bar)

502 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

503 new format.

505 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

506 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

508 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

509 considered a legacy feature.

511 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

512 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

514 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

515 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

516 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

517 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

519 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

520 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

521 manipulating the claset.

523 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

524 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

525 least one premise.

527 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

528 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

529 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

530 rule steps.

532 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

533 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

534 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

535 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

536 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

537 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

539 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

540 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

541 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

543 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

544 the graph browser tool.

546 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

547 default; use '!' option for full details.

550 *** HOL ***

552 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

553 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

554 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

555 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

556 multi-threading.

558 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

559 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

560 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

561 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

562 work with multi-threading.

564 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

565 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

566 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

567 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

568 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

570 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

572 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

573 equality.

575 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

576 the new 'class' package:

578 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

579 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

580 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

581 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

582 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

583 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

584 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

585 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

586 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

587 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

588 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

589 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

590 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

591 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

592 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

593 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

594 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

595 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

596 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

597 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

599 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

601 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

602 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

603 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

604 names.

606 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

607 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

609 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

610 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

611 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

612 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

613 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

615 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

616 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

617 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

618 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

620 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

622 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

623 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

624 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

625 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

626 INCOMPATIBILITY.

628 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

629 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

631 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

632 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

633 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

635 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

636 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

638 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

639 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

640 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

641 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

642 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

643 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

644 in the current context.

646 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

647 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

648 INCOMPATIBILITY.

650 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

651 with new class dense_linear_order.

653 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

655 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

656 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

658 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

659 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

660 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

661 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

663 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

664 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

666 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

668 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

669 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

670 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

671 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

672 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

673 le_meetI ~> le_infI

674 join_leI ~> le_supI

675 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

676 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

677 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

678 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

679 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

680 join_comm ~> sup_commute

681 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

682 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

683 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

684 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

685 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

686 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

687 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

688 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

689 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

690 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

691 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

692 join_aci ~> sup_aci

693 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

694 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

695 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

696 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

697 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

698 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

699 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

700 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

701 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

702 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

704 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

705 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

706 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

707 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

708 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

709 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

710 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

711 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

712 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

713 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

714 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

715 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

716 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

717 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

718 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

719 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

720 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

722 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

723 mono_join ~> mono_sup

724 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

725 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

726 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

727 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

728 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

729 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

730 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

731 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

732 meet1I ~> inf1I

733 meet2I ~> inf2I

734 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

735 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

736 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

737 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

738 meet1E ~> inf1E

739 meet2E ~> inf2E

740 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

741 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

742 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

743 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

744 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

745 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

746 join1CI ~> sup1CI

747 join2CI ~> sup2CI

748 join1E ~> sup1E

749 join2E ~> sup2E

751 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

752 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

753 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

754 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

755 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

756 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

758 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

759 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

760 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

761 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

763 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

764 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

766 meet_min ~> inf_min

767 join_max ~> sup_max

769 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

770 type "'a::size ==> bool"

772 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

773 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

774 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

775 "*.size".

777 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

778 INCOMPATIBILITY.

780 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

781 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

782 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

784 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

786 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

787 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

788 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

789 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

790 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

791 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

792 numerals on all operations.

794 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

796 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

798 * Code generator library theories:

799 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

800 languages.

801 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

802 languages.

803 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

804 codes; includes Code_Integer.

805 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

806 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

807 denominator).

808 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

809 representable by rational numbers.

810 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

811 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

812 includes Code_Integer.

813 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

814 target-language built-in integers.

815 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string} which is isomorphic to

816 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

818 * New package for inductive predicates

820 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

822 inductive

823 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

824 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

825 where

826 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

827 | ...

829 with full support for type-inference, rather than

831 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

833 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

834 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

836 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

837 intros

838 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

839 ...

841 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

842 sets to be defined with the new package via

844 inductive_set

845 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

846 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

847 where

848 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

849 | ...

851 or

853 inductive_set

854 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

855 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

856 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

857 where

858 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

859 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

860 | ...

862 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

864 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

865 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

867 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

869 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

870 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

871 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

872 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

873 than before the actual inductive definition.

875 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

876 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

877 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

878 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

879 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

880 statements of the form

882 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

884 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

885 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

887 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

889 - The format of the elimination rules is now

891 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

892 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

893 ==> ... ==> P

895 for predicates and

897 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

898 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

899 ==> ... ==> P

901 for sets rather than

903 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

904 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

905 ==> ... ==> P

907 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

908 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

909 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

911 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

912 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

913 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

915 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

916 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

917 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

918 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

919 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

920 users are encouraged to use the new package.

922 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

923 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

925 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

926 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

927 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

928 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

929 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

930 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

931 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

932 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

933 variable.

935 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

936 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

937 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

938 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

939 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

940 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

942 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

943 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

944 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

945 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

946 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

947 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

948 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

949 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

950 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

952 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

953 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

954 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

955 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

956 rat, etc.

958 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

959 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

960 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

962 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

964 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

965 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

967 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

968 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

970 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

971 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

972 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

974 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

975 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

976 INCOMPATIBILITY.

978 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

980 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

982 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

983 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

984 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

985 positive/negative (in inequations).

987 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

988 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

989 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

990 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

992 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

993 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

994 algebraic operations.

996 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

997 INCOMPATIBILITY.

999 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

1000 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1002 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

1003 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

1004 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

1005 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

1006 adapted.

1008 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

1009 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

1010 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

1011 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

1012 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

1014 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

1015 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

1016 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

1018 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

1019 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

1020 better use 'abbreviation'.

1022 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1024 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

1025 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

1026 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

1027 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

1028 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

1029 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

1030 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

1031 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

1033 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

1035 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

1036 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

1037 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

1038 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

1039 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

1040 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

1042 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

1043 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

1044 "A = B" (with priority 50).

1046 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

1047 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

1048 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

1049 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1051 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

1053 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

1054 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1056 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

1057 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

1059 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

1060 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

1061 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

1063 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

1064 True/False.

1066 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

1068 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

1070 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

1071 ``rule'' method.

1073 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

1074 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

1075 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

1076 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

1078 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

1079 zChaff is still supported as well.

1081 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

1082 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

1084 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

1085 Library.

1087 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

1089 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

1090 as greatest fixed-point.

1092 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

1093 association lists.

1095 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

1096 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

1097 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

1099 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

1100 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

1101 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1102 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

1103 behavior.

1105 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

1107 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

1108 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

1109 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

1110 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

1111 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

1112 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

1114 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

1115 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

1116 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

1117 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

1118 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

1119 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

1120 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

1122 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

1123 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

1126 *** HOL-Complex ***

1128 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

1129 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

1130 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

1131 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

1132 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1134 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

1135 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

1136 and norm :: 'a => real.

1138 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

1139 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

1140 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1142 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

1143 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

1145 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

1146 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

1147 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

1148 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1150 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1151 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1152 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1153 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

1154 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1155 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1156 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1157 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1158 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1159 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1160 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

1161 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1162 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

1163 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

1164 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

1166 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

1167 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

1168 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

1169 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1171 approx <-- capprox

1172 HFinite <-- CFinite

1173 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

1174 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

1175 monad <-- cmonad

1176 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

1177 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

1178 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

1179 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

1182 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1184 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

1186 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

1187 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1189 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

1190 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1192 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

1193 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

1194 of algebraic structures.

1196 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

1199 *** HOL-Nominal ***

1201 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

1202 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

1203 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

1204 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

1207 *** ML ***

1209 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

1210 (even on SML/NJ).

1212 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

1213 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

1214 compile-time. For example:

1216 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

1217 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

1218 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

1219 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

1220 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

1221 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

1222 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

1223 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

1224 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

1225 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

1226 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

1227 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

1228 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

1229 ML {* @{context} *}

1230 ML {* @{theory} *}

1231 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

1232 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

1233 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

1234 ML {* @{simpset} *}

1235 ML {* @{claset} *}

1236 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

1238 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

1240 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

1241 ML_Context.trace enabled.

1243 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

1244 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

1245 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

1247 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

1248 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

1250 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

1251 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

1252 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

1254 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

1255 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

1256 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

1257 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

1258 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

1259 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

1260 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

1261 declarations and definitions.

1263 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

1264 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

1265 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

1266 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

1268 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

1269 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

1270 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

1271 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1273 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

1274 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

1275 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

1276 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

1277 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

1278 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

1280 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

1281 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

1282 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

1283 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

1284 attributes, methods, etc.

1286 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

1287 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

1288 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

1289 fold_map combinators.

1291 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

1292 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

1293 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

1294 derivation.

1296 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

1297 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

1298 achieve the old behaviour.

1300 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

1301 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

1302 statements.

1304 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

1305 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

1306 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

1308 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

1309 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

1310 some popular functions from term.ML:

1312 Term.variant -> Name.variant

1313 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

1314 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

1316 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

1317 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

1319 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

1320 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

1321 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

1322 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

1323 various freeze_thaw operations.

1325 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

1326 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

1327 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

1328 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

1329 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

1330 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

1331 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

1332 in a locale context).

1334 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

1335 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

1336 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

1337 which are considered legacy and await removal.

1339 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

1340 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

1341 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

1342 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

1343 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

1344 a mere theory instead of a full context.

1346 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

1347 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

1348 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

1349 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

1350 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

1352 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

1354 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

1355 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

1356 this:

1358 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

1360 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

1361 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

1362 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

1363 -- use plain ERROR instead.

1365 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

1366 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

1368 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

1369 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

1371 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

1372 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

1373 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

1374 batch mode.

1376 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

1377 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

1378 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

1379 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1381 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

1382 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

1383 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

1384 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

1385 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

1387 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

1388 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

1389 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

1390 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

1391 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

1392 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

1394 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

1395 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

1396 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

1397 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1399 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

1400 "Trueprop" etc.

1403 *** System ***

1405 * settings: ML_IDENTIFIER -- which is appended to user specific heap

1406 locations -- now includes the Isabelle version identifier as well.

1407 This simplifies use of multiple Isabelle installations.

1409 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

1410 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

1411 code.

1413 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

1415 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

1416 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

1417 independent theories, according to the given theory header

1418 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

1419 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

1420 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

1421 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

1422 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

1423 Implementation manual.

1426 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

1427 ----------------------------------

1429 *** General ***

1431 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

1433 theory <name>

1434 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

1435 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

1436 begin

1438 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

1440 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

1442 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

1443 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

1444 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

1446 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

1447 relative and absolute paths.

1449 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

1450 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

1451 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

1452 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

1453 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

1454 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

1455 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

1456 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

1457 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

1459 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

1461 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

1462 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

1463 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

1465 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

1466 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

1468 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

1469 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

1470 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

1471 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

1473 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

1474 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

1476 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

1477 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

1478 faster.

1481 *** Document preparation ***

1483 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

1484 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

1485 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

1486 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

1487 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

1488 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

1490 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

1491 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

1492 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

1493 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

1494 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

1495 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

1496 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

1497 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

1498 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

1499 \isadroptag.

1501 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

1502 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

1503 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

1504 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

1505 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

1506 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

1507 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

1508 specified above.

1510 * Several new antiquotations:

1512 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

1514 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

1516 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

1517 argument is a known logical constant;

1519 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

1520 theorem applying a "style" to it

1522 @{ML text}

1524 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

1525 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

1526 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

1527 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

1528 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

1529 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

1530 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

1532 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

1533 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

1534 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

1535 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

1537 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

1538 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

1539 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

1541 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

1542 a proof context.

1544 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

1545 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

1547 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

1548 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

1550 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

1551 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

1552 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

1555 *** Pure ***

1557 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

1558 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

1559 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

1560 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

1561 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

1562 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

1563 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

1565 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

1566 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

1567 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

1568 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

1569 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

1570 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

1571 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

1572 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

1574 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

1575 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

1576 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

1578 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

1579 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

1580 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

1582 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

1583 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

1584 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

1585 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

1586 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1588 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

1589 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

1590 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

1591 axclasses vs. locales.

1593 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

1594 instead of base 26 numbers.

1596 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

1597 marks in schematic variable names.

1599 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

1600 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

1601 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

1603 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

1604 by simp

1606 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

1608 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

1609 annotations as "(00...)".

1611 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

1612 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

1613 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

1614 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

1615 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

1616 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

1617 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

1619 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

1620 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

1621 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

1622 specifications.

1624 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

1625 locally fixed variables as well.

1627 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

1628 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

1629 Limit.

1631 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

1632 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

1633 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

1634 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

1635 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

1636 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

1637 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

1639 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

1640 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

1641 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

1643 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1645 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

1646 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

1647 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

1648 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

1649 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

1650 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

1652 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

1653 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

1655 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

1656 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

1657 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

1659 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

1661 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

1662 theory development.

1664 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

1665 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

1666 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

1667 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

1669 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

1670 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

1671 quoted when used as identifier.

1674 *** Locales ***

1676 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

1677 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

1678 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

1679 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

1680 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

1681 commands is a follows:

1683 (1) interpretation expr inst

1684 (2) interpretation target < expr

1685 (3) interpret expr inst

1687 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

1688 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

1689 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

1690 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

1691 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

1692 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

1693 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

1694 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

1695 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

1696 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

1698 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

1699 'interpret' instead.

1701 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

1702 parameters.

1704 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

1705 redeclaration.

1707 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

1709 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

1710 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

1711 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

1712 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

1713 to attribute arguments as expected.

1715 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

1716 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

1717 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

1718 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

1719 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

1720 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

1721 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

1722 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

1723 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

1724 values to argument tokens explicitly.

1726 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

1727 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

1728 theorem statement in rare situations.

1730 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

1731 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

1734 *** Provers ***

1736 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

1737 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

1738 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

1739 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

1740 still available as 'simplesubst'.

1742 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

1743 and quasi orders.

1745 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

1746 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

1748 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

1749 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

1751 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

1752 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

1753 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1756 *** HOL ***

1758 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

1760 syntax (epsilon)

1761 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

1763 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

1764 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

1765 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

1766 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1768 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

1769 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

1770 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

1771 support corresponding Isar calculations.

1773 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

1774 instead of ":".

1776 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

1778 Old New

1779 {..n(} {..<n}

1780 {)n..} {n<..}

1781 {m..n(} {m..<n}

1782 {)m..n} {m<..n}

1783 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

1785 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

1786 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

1787 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

1789 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

1790 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

1792 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

1793 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

1794 interface.

1796 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

1797 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

1798 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

1799 be a tuple pattern.

1801 Some new syntax forms are available:

1803 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

1804 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

1805 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

1806 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

1808 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

1809 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

1811 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

1812 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

1813 (insert F x)'.

1815 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

1816 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

1817 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

1819 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

1820 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

1821 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

1823 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

1824 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

1825 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

1826 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

1827 in unstructured proof scripts.

1829 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

1830 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

1831 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

1832 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

1833 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

1834 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

1835 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

1836 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

1837 <record_name>_ext_type.

1839 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

1840 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

1841 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

1842 quite long.

1844 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

1845 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

1846 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

1847 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

1849 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

1850 type-variables in the term.

1852 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

1853 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

1854 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

1855 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

1856 goals than previously.

1858 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

1859 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

1860 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

1861 just like y <= x.

1863 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

1864 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

1865 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

1866 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

1867 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

1868 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

1869 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

1871 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

1873 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

1874 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

1876 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

1877 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

1878 inequalities.

1880 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1881 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1883 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

1884 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

1885 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

1886 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

1887 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

1888 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

1889 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

1890 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

1891 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

1892 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

1893 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

1895 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

1897 zero_le_square

1898 not_square_less_zero

1900 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

1902 realpow_zero_zero

1903 realpow_two

1904 realpow_less

1905 zero_le_power

1906 realpow_two_le

1907 abs_realpow_two

1908 realpow_two_abs

1910 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

1912 * Theory List:

1914 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1915 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1917 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

1918 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

1919 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

1920 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

1922 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

1923 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

1926 *** HOL-Complex ***

1928 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

1929 integers in the reals.

1931 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1932 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1934 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

1935 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1936 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1937 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1938 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1940 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

1942 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

1944 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

1945 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

1947 hypreal = real star

1948 hypnat = nat star

1949 hcomplex = complex star

1951 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

1952 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1954 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

1956 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

1957 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

1958 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

1959 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

1960 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

1962 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

1963 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

1964 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

1965 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

1966 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

1968 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

1969 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1971 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

1972 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

1973 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

1974 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

1975 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

1976 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

1977 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

1978 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

1979 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

1980 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

1981 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

1982 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

1983 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

1984 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

1985 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

1986 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

1987 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

1988 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

1989 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

1990 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

1991 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

1992 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

1993 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

1994 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

1996 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

1997 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

1998 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2000 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

2001 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

2002 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

2003 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

2004 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

2005 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

2006 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

2007 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

2008 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

2009 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

2010 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

2011 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

2012 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

2013 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

2014 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

2015 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

2016 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

2017 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

2018 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

2019 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

2020 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

2021 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

2022 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

2023 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2024 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2025 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

2026 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

2027 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

2028 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

2029 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

2030 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

2031 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

2032 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

2033 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

2034 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

2035 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

2036 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

2037 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

2038 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

2039 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

2040 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

2041 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

2042 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

2043 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

2044 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

2045 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

2046 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

2047 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

2048 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

2049 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

2050 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

2051 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

2052 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

2053 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

2055 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

2056 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

2057 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

2058 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

2059 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

2060 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

2061 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

2062 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

2063 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

2064 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

2065 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

2067 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

2068 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

2069 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

2070 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

2071 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

2072 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

2073 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

2074 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

2075 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

2076 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

2077 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

2078 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

2079 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

2080 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

2081 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

2082 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

2083 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

2084 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

2085 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

2086 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

2087 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

2089 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

2090 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

2091 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

2092 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

2093 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

2094 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

2096 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

2099 *** HOLCF ***

2101 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

2102 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

2103 type-inference.

2105 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

2106 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

2107 instead of exponential time).

2109 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

2110 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

2112 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

2114 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

2115 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

2116 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

2117 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

2118 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2119 syntax and examples.

2121 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

2122 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

2123 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

2124 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

2125 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

2127 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

2128 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2130 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

2131 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

2132 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

2133 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

2134 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

2135 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

2138 *** ZF ***

2140 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

2141 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

2142 of a homomorphism).

2144 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

2145 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

2146 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

2149 *** Cube ***

2151 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

2152 theories.

2155 *** ML ***

2157 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

2158 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

2160 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

2161 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

2162 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

2163 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

2164 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

2166 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

2167 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

2168 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

2169 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

2171 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

2172 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

2173 suggests how one can translate existing code:

2175 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

2176 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

2177 last_elem xs = List.last xs

2178 flat xss = List.concat xss

2179 seq fs = List.app fs

2180 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

2181 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

2183 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

2184 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

2186 x |> f f #> g

2187 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

2189 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

2191 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

2192 infix 2 ?;

2193 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

2194 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

2196 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

2197 infix operators.

2199 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

2200 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

2201 example:

2203 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

2204 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

2206 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

2207 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

2209 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

2210 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

2212 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

2213 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

2215 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

2216 available:

2218 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

2219 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

2220 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

2221 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

2223 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2224 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

2225 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

2226 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

2227 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

2229 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

2230 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

2231 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

2233 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2235 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

2236 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

2238 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

2239 Naive rewrites:

2241 make_keylist = AList.make

2242 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

2244 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

2245 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

2247 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

2248 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

2250 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

2251 Naive rewrites:

2253 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

2254 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

2256 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

2257 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

2258 lists.

2260 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

2261 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

2262 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

2263 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

2265 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

2266 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

2267 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

2268 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

2269 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

2270 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

2271 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

2272 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

2273 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

2274 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

2275 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

2276 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

2277 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

2278 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

2279 Output.raw have no effect.

2281 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

2282 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

2283 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

2285 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

2286 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

2287 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

2288 internal and external process view of file names are different.

2290 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

2291 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

2292 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

2293 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

2294 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

2295 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

2296 Library.sort_strings on result).

2298 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

2299 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

2300 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

2301 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

2303 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

2304 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

2305 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

2306 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

2307 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

2308 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

2309 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

2310 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

2311 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

2312 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

2313 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

2315 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

2316 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

2317 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

2318 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

2319 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

2320 with earlier declarations.

2322 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

2323 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

2324 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2326 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

2327 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

2328 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

2329 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

2330 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

2331 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

2333 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

2334 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

2336 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

2337 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

2339 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

2340 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

2341 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

2342 Theory.merge, etc.)

2344 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

2345 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

2346 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

2348 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

2350 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

2351 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

2352 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

2353 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

2355 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

2356 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

2357 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

2358 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

2359 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

2360 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

2361 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

2362 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

2364 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

2365 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

2366 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2368 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

2369 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

2370 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

2372 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

2373 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

2375 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2376 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2377 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2378 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2380 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

2382 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

2383 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

2384 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

2385 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

2386 (both increase the runtime).

2388 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

2389 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

2390 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

2392 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

2393 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

2394 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

2395 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

2396 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

2397 for further details.

2399 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

2400 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

2401 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

2402 scripts for the time being.

2404 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

2405 generated HTML files. For example:

2407 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

2408 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

2411 *** System ***

2413 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

2414 isabelle, isatool etc.).

2416 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

2417 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

2419 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

2420 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

2422 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

2423 distribution being used.

2425 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

2426 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

2427 theories.

2431 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

2432 --------------------------------

2434 *** General ***

2436 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

2437 Replaces linorder.ML.

2439 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

2440 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

2441 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

2442 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

2443 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

2444 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

2445 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

2446 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

2447 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

2448 existing theory and ML files.

2450 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

2452 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

2453 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

2454 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

2455 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

2457 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

2458 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

2459 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

2460 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

2462 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

2463 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

2464 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

2466 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

2467 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

2468 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

2469 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

2470 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

2472 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

2473 (i.e. intersections of classes),

2475 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

2476 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

2477 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

2480 *** Isar ***

2482 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

2483 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

2484 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

2485 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

2486 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

2487 emulations.

2488 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

2489 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

2490 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

2492 * Attributes "where" and "of":

2493 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

2494 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

2495 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

2496 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

2498 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

2499 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

2500 and derived forms.

2502 * Locales:

2503 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

2504 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

2505 "_axioms") in the premise.

2506 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

2507 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

2508 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

2509 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

2510 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

2511 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

2512 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

2513 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

2514 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

2515 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

2516 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

2517 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

2518 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

2519 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

2520 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

2521 with "locale (open)".

2522 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

2524 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

2525 (Isar) contexts.

2528 *** HOL ***

2530 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

2531 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

2532 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

2533 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

2534 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

2536 * Simplifier:

2537 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

2538 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

2539 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

2540 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

2541 to solve goals from the assumptions.

2542 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

2543 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

2544 is solved by simplification already.

2546 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

2547 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

2549 * Numerics:

2550 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

2551 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

2552 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

2553 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

2554 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

2555 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

2556 exponentiation).

2558 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

2560 * Records:

2561 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

2562 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

2563 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

2564 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

2565 (not enabled by default).

2566 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

2567 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

2568 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

2570 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

2571 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

2572 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

2574 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

2576 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

2578 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

2579 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

2581 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

2582 matrix theory to linear programming.

2584 * Unions and Intersections:

2585 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

2586 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

2587 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

2588 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

2590 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

2591 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

2592 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

2593 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

2595 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

2596 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

2598 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

2599 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

2601 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

2602 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

2603 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

2605 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

2606 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

2607 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

2608 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

2609 for examples.

2612 *** HOLCF ***

2614 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

2618 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

2619 ------------------------------

2621 *** General ***

2623 * Provers/simplifier:

2625 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

2626 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

2627 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

2628 the order of assumptions.

2630 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2632 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

2633 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

2635 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

2637 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

2639 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

2641 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

2642 kind of problem.

2644 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

2645 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

2646 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

2647 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

2648 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

2649 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

2650 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

2652 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

2654 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

2655 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

2656 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

2657 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

2658 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

2659 the simplifier would diverge.

2661 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

2663 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

2664 congruence is ignored.

2666 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

2667 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

2668 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

2670 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

2671 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

2672 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

2673 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

2675 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

2676 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

2677 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

2678 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

2679 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

2680 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

2681 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

2683 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

2684 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

2685 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

2686 assumption failed.

2688 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

2689 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

2690 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

2691 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

2692 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

2693 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

2694 on the old view without predicates;

2696 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

2697 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

2698 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

2700 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

2701 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

2702 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

2703 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

2704 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

2705 be given (the default is 40);

2707 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

2708 (batch-mode only);

2710 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

2711 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

2712 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

2714 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

2715 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

2716 for slight decrease in efficiency;

2718 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

2719 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

2721 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

2722 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

2725 *** HOL ***

2727 * arith(_tac)

2729 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

2730 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

2731 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

2732 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

2734 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

2736 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

2737 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

2738 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

2740 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

2741 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

2743 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

2744 are distributed over a sum of terms;

2746 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

2747 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

2748 "<=", "<" and "=").

2750 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

2751 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

2753 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

2754 definition;

2756 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

2757 Finite_Set);

2759 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

2760 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

2762 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

2763 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

2765 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

2766 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

2767 of the empty set.

2769 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

2770 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

2771 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

2772 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

2774 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

2776 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

2777 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

2778 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

2780 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

2782 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

2783 Fleuriot);

2785 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

2787 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

2788 Gray and Kramer);

2790 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

2792 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

2793 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

2795 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

2796 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

2797 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

2798 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

2799 assignment, exceptions.

2802 *** ZF ***

2804 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

2805 universe, etc.);

2807 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

2810 *** ML ***

2812 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

2813 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

2814 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

2816 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

2818 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

2819 up simprocs;

2822 *** Document preparation ***

2824 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

2825 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

2826 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

2828 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

2829 other packages

2831 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

2832 broke \Rightarrow)

2834 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

2835 textcomp package)

2839 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

2840 --------------------------------

2842 *** Document preparation ***

2844 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

2845 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

2846 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

2847 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

2848 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

2849 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

2851 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

2852 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

2853 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

2855 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

2856 blocks after section headings;

2858 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

2859 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

2861 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

2862 better in printed text;

2864 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

2865 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

2866 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

2868 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

2869 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

2870 location;

2873 *** Isar ***

2875 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

2876 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

2877 "case (Suc n)");

2878 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

2879 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

2880 instantiation of cases;

2881 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

2882 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

2883 rules without further ado;

2884 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

2885 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

2886 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

2887 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

2888 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

2889 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

2890 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

2891 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

2892 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

2893 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

2894 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

2895 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

2896 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

2897 below);

2898 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

2899 success (no backtracking);

2900 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

2901 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

2902 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

2903 General versions);

2904 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

2905 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

2907 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

2908 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

2909 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

2910 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

2911 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

2912 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

2913 fails:

2915 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

2917 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

2918 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

2920 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

2921 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

2922 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

2923 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

2924 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

2925 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

2926 some examples;

2928 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

2929 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

2930 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

2931 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

2932 qualified by the locale name);

2934 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

2935 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

2936 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

2937 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

2938 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

2940 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

2941 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

2942 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

2943 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

2944 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

2946 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

2948 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

2949 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

2950 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

2952 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

2954 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

2956 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

2958 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

2959 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

2960 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

2962 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

2963 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

2964 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

2965 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

2966 proof *scripts*;

2968 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

2969 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

2970 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

2971 especially important for locales);

2973 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

2974 mode;

2976 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

2977 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

2978 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

2979 situations;

2981 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

2982 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

2984 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

2985 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

2986 discontinued;

2988 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

2989 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

2990 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

2992 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

2993 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

2994 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

2995 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

2996 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

2997 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

2998 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3000 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

3001 of introduction rules;

3003 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

3004 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

3005 conditional rules;

3007 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

3009 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

3010 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

3012 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

3013 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

3015 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

3016 wf_induct_rule;

3019 *** HOL ***

3021 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

3022 follows:

3024 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

3025 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

3027 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

3028 binary representation internally;

3030 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

3031 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

3033 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

3034 are some hints on converting existing sources:

3036 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

3037 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

3038 to be spaced properly;

3040 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

3041 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

3043 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

3045 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

3047 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

3048 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

3050 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

3052 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

3053 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

3054 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

3055 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

3056 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

3058 * HOL/record package improvements:

3059 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

3060 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

3061 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

3062 declared as simp by default;

3063 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

3064 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

3065 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

3066 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3067 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3068 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

3069 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

3070 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

3071 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

3072 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

3074 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

3075 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

3076 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

3077 via 'generate_code' theory section;

3079 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

3081 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

3082 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

3083 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

3085 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

3086 (beware of argument permutation!);

3088 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

3090 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

3092 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

3093 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3094 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

3096 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

3097 in this (rare) case use:

3099 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

3100 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

3102 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

3103 MAY FAIL;

3105 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

3106 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

3107 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

3108 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

3110 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

3111 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

3112 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

3114 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

3115 expressions;

3117 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

3118 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3120 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3121 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

3122 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

3124 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

3126 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

3127 the "cases" method);

3129 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

3130 Florian Kammller);

3132 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

3133 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

3134 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

3136 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

3138 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

3141 *** HOLCF ***

3143 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

3144 operations;

3146 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

3147 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

3149 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

3150 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

3151 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

3153 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

3156 *** ZF ***

3158 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

3159 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

3160 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

3161 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

3163 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

3164 your theory on Main_ZFC;

3166 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

3167 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

3169 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

3170 typeless version of the formalism;

3172 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

3173 format;

3175 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

3176 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

3177 new-style theory format;

3179 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

3182 *** General ***

3184 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

3185 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

3186 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

3187 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

3189 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

3190 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

3192 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

3193 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

3194 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

3195 properly;

3197 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

3198 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

3200 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

3201 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

3202 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

3203 type variable);

3205 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

3206 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

3207 "type_brackets";

3209 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

3210 tokens into AST constants;

3212 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

3213 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

3214 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

3216 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

3217 practice);

3219 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

3220 addSafter;

3222 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

3223 as well;

3225 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

3226 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

3227 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

3228 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

3229 support requires further installations, e.g. from

3230 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

3232 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

3234 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

3235 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

3237 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

3238 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

3240 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

3241 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

3242 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

3244 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

3245 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

3246 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

3247 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

3248 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

3250 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

3251 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

3252 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

3253 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

3255 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

3256 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

3257 terminal);

3261 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

3262 -----------------------------------

3264 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3266 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

3267 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

3268 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

3270 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

3271 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

3272 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

3273 'split_rule (complete)';

3275 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

3276 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

3278 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

3280 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

3281 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

3282 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

3284 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

3285 operation;

3287 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

3289 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

3291 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

3292 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

3293 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

3295 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

3296 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

3299 *** Document preparation ***

3301 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

3302 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

3303 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

3304 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

3305 type-writer);

3307 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

3308 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

3310 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

3311 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

3313 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

3314 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

3315 definitions);

3317 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

3318 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

3319 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

3320 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

3322 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

3323 fonts;

3325 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

3326 generation;

3328 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

3331 *** Isar ***

3333 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

3334 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

3335 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

3336 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

3337 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

3339 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

3340 rules as well;

3342 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

3343 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

3344 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

3345 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

3347 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

3348 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

3350 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

3351 statements as well;

3353 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

3355 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

3356 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

3358 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

3359 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

3361 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

3363 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

3365 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

3366 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

3368 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

3369 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

3370 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

3372 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

3373 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

3374 the result to be shown in each case;

3376 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

3378 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

3381 *** HOL ***

3383 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

3384 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

3385 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

3386 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

3387 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

3389 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

3390 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

3391 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

3393 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

3394 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

3395 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

3396 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

3397 literature;

3399 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

3400 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

3401 operator \<Sum>;

3403 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

3404 HOL/subset.thy);

3406 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

3407 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

3408 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

3410 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

3411 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

3413 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

3414 rules with string literals);

3416 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

3417 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

3418 functions for the reals;

3420 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

3423 *** CTT ***

3425 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

3426 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

3428 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

3429 and Arith);

3432 *** General ***

3434 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

3435 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

3436 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

3437 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

3439 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

3440 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

3442 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

3443 as assumptions as well;

3445 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

3447 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

3451 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

3452 ----------------------------------

3454 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3456 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

3457 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

3458 issue the following ML commands:

3460 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

3461 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

3463 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

3464 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

3466 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

3468 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

3469 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

3471 select_equality -> some_equality

3472 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

3473 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

3474 selectI2 -> someI2

3475 selectI -> someI

3476 select1_equality -> some1_equality

3477 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

3478 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

3480 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

3482 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

3483 instead);

3485 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

3486 f.simps instead of f.rules;

3488 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

3490 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

3491 sometimes be needed;

3493 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

3495 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

3497 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

3498 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

3499 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

3501 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

3502 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

3504 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

3505 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

3507 syntax (symbols)

3508 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

3509 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

3511 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3513 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

3514 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

3515 internally;

3517 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

3518 changed from A/r to A//r;

3520 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

3521 proofs;

3523 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

3524 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

3526 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3527 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

3528 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

3529 "rule del";

3531 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

3533 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

3535 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

3536 lib/texinputs);

3539 *** Document preparation ***

3541 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

3542 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

3543 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

3544 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

3546 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

3547 including proper document sources;

3549 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

3550 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

3551 of isatool usedir;

3553 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

3554 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

3555 LaTeX debugging;

3557 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

3559 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

3560 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

3561 graph for 'all sessions';

3563 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

3564 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

3565 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

3568 *** Isar ***

3570 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

3571 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

3572 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

3574 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

3575 generalized existence reasoning;

3577 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

3578 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

3579 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

3580 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

3581 premises;

3583 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

3584 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

3585 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

3586 to theorems as "tags";

3588 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

3589 class/type/const name spaces;

3591 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

3592 indicate potential overloading;

3594 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

3596 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

3597 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

3599 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

3600 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

3601 with the version in Provers/classical;

3603 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

3604 case name 'antecedent';

3606 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

3607 to the current context is now done automatically);

3609 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

3610 for definining proof methods in ML;

3612 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3613 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

3614 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

3615 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

3617 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

3618 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

3620 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

3621 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

3622 well (including splits);

3624 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

3625 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

3627 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

3628 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

3630 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

3631 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

3632 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

3634 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

3635 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

3636 calculations;

3638 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

3639 method anyway;

3641 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

3642 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

3643 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

3645 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

3646 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

3647 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

3648 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

3650 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

3652 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

3654 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

3655 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

3656 proof states;

3658 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

3659 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

3660 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

3662 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

3663 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

3664 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

3665 (for HOL datatypes);

3667 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

3668 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

3669 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

3671 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

3673 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

3674 should instead use individual commands for printing items

3675 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

3677 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

3680 *** HOL ***

3682 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

3683 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

3684 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

3685 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

3686 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

3687 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

3689 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

3690 Clemens Ballarin;

3692 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

3693 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

3694 Rasmussen;

3696 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

3697 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

3698 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

3699 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

3700 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

3701 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

3703 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

3704 von Oheimb;

3706 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

3707 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

3709 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

3711 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

3712 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

3713 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

3715 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

3716 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

3717 well; admit "r" as field name;

3719 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

3720 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

3722 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

3723 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

3725 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

3726 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

3727 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

3728 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

3729 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

3730 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

3731 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

3733 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

3734 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

3735 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

3737 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

3738 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

3739 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

3741 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

3742 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

3743 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

3744 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

3745 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

3747 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

3748 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

3749 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

3750 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

3751 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

3752 each equation;

3754 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

3755 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

3756 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

3757 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

3759 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

3760 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

3762 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

3764 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

3765 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

3766 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

3768 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3770 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

3771 main HOL, but was unused);

3773 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

3774 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

3776 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

3777 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

3778 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

3779 bogus);

3782 *** ZF ***

3784 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

3785 expressions over nat and int;

3787 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

3788 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

3789 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

3791 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

3792 using the function intify;

3794 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

3795 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

3797 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

3798 simplification;

3800 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

3801 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

3804 *** General ***

3806 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

3807 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

3809 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

3810 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

3812 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

3813 explicit make_elim);

3815 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

3816 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3817 use instead the strong form,

3818 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3819 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

3820 from destruct-rules;

3822 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

3823 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

3825 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

3827 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

3828 for hiding of names;

3830 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

3831 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

3832 situations;

3834 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

3835 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

3836 Poly/ML);

3838 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

3839 useful for remote X11);

3841 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

3843 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

3844 order;

3846 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

3847 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

3849 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

3850 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

3852 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

3853 overloading (usually false);

3855 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

3856 results;

3860 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

3861 --------------------------------

3863 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

3865 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

3866 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

3867 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

3869 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

3871 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

3872 complement;

3874 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

3876 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

3877 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

3879 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

3880 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

3882 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

3883 to constants declared in the same theory;

3885 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

3886 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

3887 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

3889 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

3891 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

3892 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

3893 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

3894 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

3895 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

3896 where the string argument is only a comment.

3899 *** Proof tools ***

3901 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

3902 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

3903 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

3904 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

3906 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

3907 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

3908 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

3909 matching.

3912 *** General ***

3914 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

3915 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

3916 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

3917 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

3918 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

3919 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

3921 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

3922 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

3923 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

3924 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

3925 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

3927 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

3928 Isabelle/Isar;

3930 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

3931 using the graph browser tool;

3933 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

3935 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

3936 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

3937 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

3938 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

3939 isatool doc ref);

3941 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

3942 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

3944 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

3945 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

3947 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

3948 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

3949 Isabelle;

3951 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

3953 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

3954 empty;

3956 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

3957 long arrows);

3959 * new print_mode "HTML";

3961 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

3962 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

3964 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

3965 mode and goal output format:

3967 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

3968 244c244

3969 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

3970 ---

3971 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

3972 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

3973 181c181

3974 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

3975 ---

3976 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

3978 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

3980 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

3982 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

3983 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

3984 result still apply;

3986 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

3987 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

3990 *** HOL ***

3992 ** HOL arithmetic **

3994 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

3995 int:

3997 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

3998 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

3999 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

4000 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

4001 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

4002 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

4003 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

4004 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

4006 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

4007 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

4008 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

4009 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

4010 simplifier.

4012 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

4013 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

4014 int(m) < int(n)'.

4016 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

4017 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

4018 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

4019 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

4020 type constraints;

4022 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

4023 arguments;

4025 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

4026 are now available;

4028 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

4029 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

4030 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

4031 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

4032 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

4033 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

4035 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

4038 ** HOL misc **

4040 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

4041 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

4043 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

4044 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

4046 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

4047 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

4048 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

4049 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

4051 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

4052 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

4053 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

4054 "mono" attribute);

4056 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

4057 (using function types) such as

4059 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

4061 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

4062 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

4063 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

4064 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

4066 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

4067 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

4069 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4070 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4072 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

4073 names rather than an ML expression;

4075 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

4076 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

4077 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

4078 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

4080 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4081 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

4082 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

4084 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

4085 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

4086 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

4088 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

4089 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

4091 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

4092 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

4093 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

4095 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

4097 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

4098 thus available for user theories;

4100 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

4101 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

4102 time;

4104 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

4105 several times and then mp;

4108 *** LK ***

4110 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

4111 formulas;

4113 * the simplifier is now installed

4115 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

4117 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

4120 *** ZF ***

4122 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

4123 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4125 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

4126 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4128 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

4130 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

4131 constructors;

4133 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

4134 type-checking rules;

4136 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

4137 to the claset;

4139 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

4140 if(P,x,y);

4143 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4145 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

4147 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

4148 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

4150 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

4152 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

4153 printing empty lines;

4155 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

4156 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

4157 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

4158 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

4160 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

4161 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

4162 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

4164 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

4165 now of type real instead of int;

4167 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

4168 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

4169 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

4170 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

4172 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

4173 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

4174 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

4175 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

4176 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

4180 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

4181 ----------------------------------

4183 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4185 * several changes of automated proof tools;

4187 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

4188 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

4190 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

4191 called `inj_on';

4193 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

4194 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

4195 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

4197 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

4198 required);

4200 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

4201 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

4202 now taken as an integer constant.

4204 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

4207 *** Proof tools ***

4209 * Simplifier:

4210 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

4211 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

4212 simplify.

4213 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

4214 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

4215 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

4216 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

4217 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

4219 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

4220 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

4221 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

4222 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

4223 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

4224 one (emitting a warning).

4225 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

4226 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

4227 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

4228 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

4229 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

4231 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

4232 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

4233 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

4234 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

4235 by Force_tac;

4237 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

4238 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

4240 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

4241 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

4242 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

4243 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

4244 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

4245 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

4246 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

4247 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

4248 split_all_tac for record fields.

4250 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

4251 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

4252 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

4253 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

4255 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

4256 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

4257 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

4258 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

4259 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

4260 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

4261 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

4262 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

4263 t is the name of the datatype).

4265 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

4266 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

4267 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

4268 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

4271 *** General ***

4273 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

4274 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

4275 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

4276 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

4277 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

4278 (backup your sources first!);

4280 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

4281 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

4283 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

4284 definitions that have local scope;

4286 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

4288 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

4289 (e.g. package initialization);

4291 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

4292 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

4294 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

4295 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

4297 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

4299 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

4301 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

4303 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

4306 *** HOL ***

4308 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

4310 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

4311 definitions such as

4313 inductive EVEN ODD

4314 intrs

4315 null "0 : EVEN"

4316 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

4317 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

4319 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

4320 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

4321 correctly (also ZF);

4323 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

4324 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

4325 contained in "induct";

4328 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

4329 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

4331 datatype

4332 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4333 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4334 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4335 | NUM 'a

4336 and

4337 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4338 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4339 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4341 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

4343 datatype

4344 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

4345 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

4347 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

4348 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

4350 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

4351 <function_name>.simps.

4353 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4355 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

4356 ancestor.

4357 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

4358 generic induct_tac instead.

4359 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

4360 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

4361 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

4362 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

4363 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

4364 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

4365 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

4366 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

4367 sort constraints.

4368 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

4369 of recursive argument.

4371 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

4372 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

4375 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

4376 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

4377 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

4378 support is as follows:

4380 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

4381 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

4383 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

4384 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

4386 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

4387 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

4389 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

4390 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

4391 the name of your record type.

4393 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

4395 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

4397 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

4398 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

4399 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

4400 solve record problems automatically.

4403 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

4404 default; theory Main includes everything;

4406 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

4408 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

4410 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

4412 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

4414 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

4415 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

4416 with add/delsplits);

4418 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

4419 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

4420 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

4421 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

4422 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

4423 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

4424 %u.f();

4426 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

4427 makes more sense);

4429 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4430 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4431 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4433 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

4434 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

4435 literature);

4437 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

4438 the well-founded relation;

4440 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

4441 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

4442 release ONLY.

4444 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

4445 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

4446 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4448 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

4450 * HOL/List:

4451 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

4452 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

4453 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

4454 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

4455 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

4456 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

4458 * HOL/Arith:

4459 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

4460 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

4461 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

4462 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

4464 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

4465 instead of "inverse";

4467 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

4468 of the multiset ordering;

4470 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

4471 (not included by default);

4473 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

4475 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

4476 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

4478 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4479 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4480 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4483 *** ZF ***

4485 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

4486 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

4488 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4489 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4490 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4492 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

4493 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

4494 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4496 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

4498 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4499 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4500 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4502 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

4503 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

4506 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4508 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

4509 also src/Pure/README;

4511 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

4512 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

4513 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

4514 print_data function becomes basically useless;

4516 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

4517 are qualified by default;

4519 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

4520 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

4521 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

4523 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

4524 cterm -> thm;

4526 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

4527 subgoal;

4529 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

4531 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

4532 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

4533 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

4534 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

4535 for example;

4539 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

4540 --------------------------------

4542 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4544 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

4545 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

4547 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

4548 simpset / simpset_ref;

4550 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

4551 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

4553 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

4555 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

4558 *** General Changes ***

4560 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

4561 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

4562 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

4563 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

4564 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

4565 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

4566 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

4567 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

4568 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

4569 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

4570 section;

4572 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

4573 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

4574 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

4575 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

4576 to patch your ML files accordingly;

4578 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

4579 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

4580 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

4582 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

4583 conditional equations;

4585 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

4587 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

4588 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

4589 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

4590 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

4592 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

4593 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

4595 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

4596 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

4598 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

4599 show_types);

4601 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

4603 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

4605 * removed old README and Makefiles;

4607 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

4609 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

4611 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

4612 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

4614 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

4615 (which abbreviates $HOME);

4617 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

4618 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

4619 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

4621 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

4622 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

4625 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4627 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

4628 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

4629 splitting it into several subgoals;

4631 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

4634 *** Simplifier ***

4636 * added simplification meta rules:

4637 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

4639 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

4640 logics (again);

4642 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

4644 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

4645 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

4646 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

4649 *** Syntax ***

4651 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

4653 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

4655 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

4657 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

4660 *** HOL ***

4662 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4663 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4665 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

4667 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

4668 protocol TLS;

4670 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

4672 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

4673 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

4674 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

4675 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

4676 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

4677 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

4679 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

4680 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

4681 are rewritten to

4682 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

4683 and those of the form

4684 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

4685 are rewritten to

4686 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

4688 * HOL/datatype

4689 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

4691 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4692 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

4693 ...

4694 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4695 )

4697 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

4699 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4700 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

4701 ...

4702 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4703 )

4704 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

4705 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

4706 split_list_case and split_option_case.

4708 * HOL/Arithmetic:

4709 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

4710 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

4711 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

4712 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

4713 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

4714 `standard'.

4716 * HOL/Lists:

4717 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

4718 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

4719 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

4721 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

4723 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

4724 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

4726 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

4727 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

4728 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

4731 *** HOLCF ***

4733 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

4735 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

4736 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

4738 * domain package:

4739 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

4740 . creates hierachical name space,

4741 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

4742 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

4743 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

4744 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

4745 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

4746 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

4748 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

4750 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

4751 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

4754 *** FOL and ZF ***

4756 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4757 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4759 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

4760 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

4764 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

4765 ------------------------------

4767 *** General Changes ***

4769 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

4770 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

4772 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

4774 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

4776 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

4777 messages and clean internal interface;

4779 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

4780 setting goals_limit);

4783 *** Syntax ***

4785 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

4786 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

4788 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

4789 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

4790 "symbols" syntax table;

4792 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

4793 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

4794 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

4795 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

4796 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

4798 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

4799 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

4800 version of xterm);

4802 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

4804 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

4805 access type of constant);

4808 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4810 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

4811 some limitations. Blast_tac...

4812 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

4813 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

4814 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

4815 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

4816 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

4817 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

4818 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

4820 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

4821 assumptions;

4823 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

4824 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

4825 (and access functions for it);

4827 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

4828 + functions for handling clasimpsets

4829 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

4830 safe steps.

4831 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

4832 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

4833 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

4835 *** Simplifier ***

4837 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

4838 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

4839 redex);

4841 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

4843 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

4845 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

4846 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

4847 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

4848 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

4851 *** HOL ***

4853 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

4854 also for type `nat';

4856 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

4857 datatypes and also for type `nat';

4859 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

4861 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

4862 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

4864 * primrec now also works with type nat;

4866 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

4867 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

4869 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

4870 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

4872 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

4873 infinite lists;

4875 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

4877 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

4878 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

4880 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

4882 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

4884 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

4886 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

4888 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

4889 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

4890 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

4891 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

4892 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

4893 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

4894 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

4895 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

4896 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

4899 *** ZF ***

4901 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

4902 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

4903 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

4907 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

4908 ---------------------------------

4910 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

4912 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

4914 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

4915 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

4916 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

4917 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

4919 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

4921 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

4922 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

4924 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

4926 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

4927 examples on HOL/Auth);

4929 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

4930 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4932 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

4933 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

4937 New in Isabelle94-6

4938 -------------------

4940 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

4941 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

4943 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

4945 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

4947 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

4949 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

4951 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

4955 New in Isabelle94-5

4956 -------------------

4958 * reduced space requirements;

4960 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

4962 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

4964 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

4966 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

4970 New in Isabelle94-4

4971 -------------------

4973 * greatly reduced space requirements;

4975 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

4977 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

4978 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

4980 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

4981 Axiom of Choice;

4983 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

4985 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

4986 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

4988 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

4990 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

4991 translates to the operator "split";

4995 New in Isabelle94-3

4996 -------------------

4998 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

4999 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

5000 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

5002 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

5003 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

5004 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

5006 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

5008 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

5009 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

5011 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

5012 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

5014 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

5015 of the Axiom of Choice;

5019 New in Isabelle94-2

5020 -------------------

5022 * Significantly faster resolution;

5024 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

5025 freely;

5027 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

5028 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

5030 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

5031 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

5032 (theory_of_thm);

5034 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

5036 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

5037 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

5039 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

5040 have been removed;

5042 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

5044 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

5046 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

5047 types;

5049 :mode=text:wrap=hard:maxLineLen=72:

5050 $Id$