NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Jan 20 15:34:27 2013 +0100 (2013-01-20)
changeset 50994 aafd4270b4d4
parent 50993 2c3d0cb151c0
child 51002 496013a6eb38
permissions -rw-r--r--
back to post-release mode -- after fork point;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 
     8 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
     9 -----------------------------------
    10 
    11 *** General ***
    12 
    13 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    14 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    15 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    16 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    17 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    18 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    19 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    20 
    21 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    22 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    23 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    24 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    25 
    26 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    27 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    28 
    29 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    30 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    31 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    32 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    33 dependencies properly.
    34 
    35 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    36 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    37 
    38 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    39 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    40 
    41 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    42 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    43 and "class ... context ...".
    44 
    45 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    46 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    47 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    48 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    49 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
    50 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
    51 
    52 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    53 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    54 
    55 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    56 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    57 
    58 
    59 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    60 
    61 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    62 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    63 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    64 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    65 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    66 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    67 
    68 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    69 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    70 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    71 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    72 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    73 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    74 
    75 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    76 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    77 browser on demand.
    78 
    79 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    80 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    81 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    82 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    83 
    84 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    85 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    86 
    87 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    88 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    89 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    90 potentially infinite message streams.
    91 
    92 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    93 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    94 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    95 schemes.
    96 
    97 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    98 symbols.
    99 
   100 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
   101 
   102 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   103 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   104 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   105 
   106 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   107 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   108 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   109 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   110 
   111 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   112 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   113 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   114 
   115 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   116 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   117 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   118 Isabelle distribution.
   119 
   120 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   121 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   122 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   123 
   124 
   125 *** Pure ***
   126 
   127 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   128 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   129 
   130 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   131 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   132 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   135 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   136 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   137 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   138 with some care where this is really required.
   139 
   140 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   141 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   142 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   143 
   144   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   145 
   146 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   147 a Hasse diagram.
   148 
   149 
   150 *** HOL ***
   151 
   152 * Sledgehammer:
   153 
   154   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   155     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   156   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   157   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   158   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   159   - Renamed options:
   160       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   161       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   162       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   163       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   164 
   165 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   166 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   167 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   168 
   169 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * Lifting:
   173   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   174   - quot_del attribute
   175   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   176 
   177 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   178 expressions.
   179 
   180 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   181 pointfree expressions.
   182 
   183 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   184 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   185 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   186 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   190 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   191 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   192 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   193 accordingly.
   194 
   195 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   196 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   199 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   204 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   205 
   206 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   207 
   208 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   209 
   210   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   211   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   212 
   213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   216 
   217   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   218   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   219 
   220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   223 
   224   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   225     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   226     output f x converges to G.
   227 
   228   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   229     infinity (at_bot).
   230 
   231   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   232     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   233 
   234   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   235     at_top".
   236 
   237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238 
   239 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   240 lattice type classes.
   241 
   242 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   243 
   244     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   245     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   246 
   247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   250 changes as follows.
   251 
   252   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   253 
   254       prefix ~> prefixeq
   255       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   256 
   257   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   258     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   259     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   260     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   261 
   262   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   263     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   264     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   265 
   266   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   267     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   268     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   269     Library/Prefix_Order.
   270 
   271   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   272     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   273 
   274       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   275       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   276       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   277       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   278       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   279       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   280       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   281       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   282       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   283       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   284       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   285       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   286       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   287       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   288       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   289       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   290 
   291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292 
   293 
   294 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   295 
   296 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   297 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   298 
   299 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   300 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   301 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   302 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   303 
   304   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   305   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   306   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   307   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   308   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   309   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   310   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   311   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   312   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   313   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   314 
   315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316 
   317 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   318 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   319 Data").
   320 
   321 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   322 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   323 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   324 code.
   325 
   326 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   327 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   328 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   332 
   333 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   334 
   335 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   336 
   337   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   338   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   339 
   340 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   341 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   342 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   343 
   344   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   345 
   346     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   347     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   348     cart_base i  removed
   349     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   350 
   351   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   352 
   353   Renamed lemmas:
   354 
   355     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   356     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   357     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   358     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   359     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   360     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   361     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   362     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   363     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   364     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   365 
   366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 * HOL/Probability:
   369 
   370   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   371 
   372   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   373     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   374     (borel_measurable_induct).
   375 
   376   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   377     projective family).
   378 
   379 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   380 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   381 
   382 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   383 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   384 datatypes.
   385 
   386 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   387 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   388 
   389 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   390 trees for the code generator.
   391 
   392 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   393 Lifting/Transfer.
   394 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   395 
   396 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 
   400 *** Document preparation ***
   401 
   402 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   403 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   404 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   405 
   406 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   407 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   408 
   409 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   410 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   411 document/root.tex.
   412 
   413 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   414 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   415 
   416 
   417 *** ML ***
   418 
   419 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   420 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   421 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   422 
   423 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   424 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   425 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   426 
   427 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   428 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   429 necessarily printing visible text.
   430 
   431 
   432 *** System ***
   433 
   434 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   435 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   436 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   437 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   438 
   439 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   440 
   441 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   442 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   443 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   444 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   445 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   446 
   447 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   448 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   449 
   450   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   451 
   452 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   453 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   454 
   455 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   456 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   457 "isabelle usedir".
   458 
   459 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   460 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   461 
   462 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   466 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   467 version of Isabelle.
   468 
   469 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   470 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   471 
   472 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   473 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   474 for home-made settings.
   475 
   476 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   477 
   478 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   479 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   480 configuration.
   481 
   482 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   483 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   484 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   485 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   486 bundled as Isabelle component.
   487 
   488 
   489 
   490 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   491 ------------------------------
   492 
   493 *** General ***
   494 
   495 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   496 
   497   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   498     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   499   - markup for bound variables
   500   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   501   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   502   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   503     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   504 
   505 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   506 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   507 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   508 
   509 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   510 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   511 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   512 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   513 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   514 
   515   context
   516     fixes x y z :: 'a
   517     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   518   begin
   519 
   520   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   521 
   522   end
   523 
   524   thm my_trans
   525 
   526 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   527 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   528 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   529 
   530 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   531 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   532 
   533 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   534 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   535 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   536 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   537 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   538 
   539 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   540 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   541 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   542 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   543 indices of schematic variables.
   544 
   545 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   546 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   547 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   548 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   549 etc. was exploited.
   550 
   551 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   552 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   553 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   554 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   555 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   556 of the material of that old tutorial.
   557 
   558 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   559 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   560 manual.
   561 
   562 
   563 *** Pure ***
   564 
   565 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   566 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   567 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   568 
   569 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   570 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   571 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   572 undocumented feature.)
   573 
   574 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   575 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   576 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   577 
   578   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   579 
   580   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   581     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   582 
   583 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   584 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   585 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   586 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   587 
   588 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   589 
   590     num ~> num_token
   591     xnum ~> xnum_token
   592     xstr ~> str_token
   593 
   594 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   595 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   596 position information via constraints).
   597 
   598 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   599 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   600 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   601 
   602 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   603 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   604 
   605 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   606 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   607 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   608 
   609 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   610 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   611 
   612 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   613 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   614 
   615   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   616 
   617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   618 
   619 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   620 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   621 
   622 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   623 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   624 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   625 
   626 
   627 *** HOL ***
   628 
   629 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   630 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   631 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   632 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   633 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   634 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   635 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   636 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   637 possible.
   638 
   639 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   640 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   641 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   642 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   643 
   644 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   645 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   648 
   649 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   650 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   651 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   652 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   653 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   654 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   655 
   656   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   657     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   658 
   659   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   660     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   661     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   662 
   663   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   664     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   665 
   666   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   667     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   668     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   669 
   670   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   671     Redefine using other integer operations.
   672 
   673 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   674 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   675 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   676 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   677 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   678 
   679   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   680     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   681     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   682     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   683     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   684 
   685     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   686     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   687 
   688   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   689     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   690     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   691     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   692     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   693     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   694     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   695     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   696 
   697   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   698     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   699     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   700     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   701 
   702   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   703     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   704     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   705     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   706 
   707   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   708     from type nat to type int.
   709 
   710 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   711 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   712 
   713   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   714     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   715     type.  Example syntax:
   716 
   717     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   718       is List.insert
   719 
   720     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   721     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   722     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   723     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   724     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   725     by the package.
   726 
   727   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   728     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   729     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   730     code generation for each constant.
   731 
   732   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   733     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   734     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   735     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   736     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   737 
   738   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   739     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   740     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   741 
   742 * Quotient package:
   743 
   744   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   745     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   746 
   747   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   748     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   749 
   750   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   751     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   752     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   755     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   756 
   757 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   758 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   759 
   760 * Quickcheck:
   761 
   762   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   763     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   764     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   765     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   766     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   767 
   768     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   769     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   770     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   771 
   772     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   773     continues searching for genuine ones.
   774 
   775     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   776     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   777     show genuine counterexamples.
   778 
   779   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   780     value generators for a given type and operations.
   781 
   782     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   783     constructors of that type.
   784 
   785   - Support for multisets.
   786 
   787   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   788 
   789   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   790     conjectures in a locale context.
   791 
   792 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   793 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   794 
   795 * Sledgehammer:
   796   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   797     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   798   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   799   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   800     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   801   - Sped up the minimizer.
   802   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   803   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   804   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   805 
   806 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   807 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   808 
   809 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   810 
   811 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   814 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   815 
   816   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   817 
   818 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   819 a list and a nat.
   820 
   821 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   822 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   823 
   824 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   825 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   826 default.
   827 
   828 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   829 
   830   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   831 
   832 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   833 
   834 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   835 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   836 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   837 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   838 one_case.
   839 
   840 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   841 the result of the fact expression.
   842 
   843 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   844 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   845 of some relation theorems:
   846 
   847   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   848   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   849   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   850   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   851   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   852   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   853 
   854 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   855 
   856 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   857 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   858 
   859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   862 to match the constant's name:
   863 
   864   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   865   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   866   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   867   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   868   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   869   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   870   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   871   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   872   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   873   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   874   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   875   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   876   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   877   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   878   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   879   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   880   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   881   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   882   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   883   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   884   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   885   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   886   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   887   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   888 
   889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   892 and corresponding theorem names:
   893 
   894   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   895 
   896   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   897 
   898   - Renamed theorems:
   899 
   900     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   901     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   902     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   903     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   904     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   905     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   906     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   907     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   908     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   909     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   910     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   911     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   912     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   913     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   914     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   915     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   916     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   917     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   918     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   919     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   920     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   921     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   922     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   923 
   924     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   925 
   926     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   927 
   928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   929 
   930 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   931 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   932 
   933   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   934   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   935   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   936   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   937   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   938   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   939   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   940   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   941   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   942   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   943   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   944   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   945   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   946   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   947   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   948   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   949   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   950   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   951   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   952   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   953   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   954 
   955 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   956 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957 
   958 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   961 
   962   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   963   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   964   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   965   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   966   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   967   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   968   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   969   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   970   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   971   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   972   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   973   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   974   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   975   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   976   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   977   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   978   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   979   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   980 
   981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   982 
   983 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   984 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   985 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   986 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   987 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   988 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   989 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   990 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   991 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   992 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   993 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   994 
   995 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   996 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   997 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   998 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   999 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1000 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1001 
  1002 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1003 through option types.
  1004 
  1005 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1006 relations.
  1007 
  1008 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1011 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1012 
  1013   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1014   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1015   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1016   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1017   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1018   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1019   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1020   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1021   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1022   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1023   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1024   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1025   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1026   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1027   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1028   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1029   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1030   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1031   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1032   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1033   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1034   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1035   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1036   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1037   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1038   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1039   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1040   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1041   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1042   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1043   zless_le ~> less_le
  1044   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1045   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1046   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1047 
  1048 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1049 
  1050   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1051 
  1052 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1053 
  1054 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1055 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1056 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1057 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1059 
  1060 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1061 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1062 
  1063 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1064 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1065 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1066 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1067 follows:
  1068 
  1069   Operations:
  1070   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1071   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1072   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1073   del -> rbt_del
  1074   delete -> rbt_delete
  1075   ins -> rbt_ins
  1076   insert -> rbt_insert
  1077   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1078   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1079   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1080   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1081   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1082   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1083   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1084   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1085   union -> rbt_union
  1086   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1087   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1088 
  1089   Lemmas:
  1090   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1091   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1092   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1093   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1094   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1095   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1096   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1097   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1098   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1099   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1100   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1101   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1102   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1103   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1104   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1105   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1106   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1107   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1108   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1109   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1110   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1111   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1112   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1113   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1114   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1115   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1116   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1117   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1118   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1119   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1120   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1121   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1122   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1123   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1124   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1125   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1126   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1127   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1128   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1129   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1130   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1131   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1132   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1133   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1134   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1135   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1136   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1137   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1138   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1139   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1140   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1141   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1142   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1143   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1144   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1145   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1146   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1147   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1148   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1149   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1150   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1151   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1152   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1153   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1154   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1155   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1156   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1157   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1158   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1159   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1160   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1161   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1162   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1163   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1164   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1165   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1166   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1167   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1168   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1169   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1170   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1171   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1172   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1173 
  1174 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1175 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1176 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178   Changed Operations:
  1179   float_abs -> abs
  1180   float_nprt -> nprt
  1181   float_pprt -> pprt
  1182   pow2 -> use powr
  1183   round_down -> float_round_down
  1184   round_up -> float_round_up
  1185   scale -> exponent
  1186 
  1187   Removed Operations:
  1188   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1189 
  1190   Renamed Lemmas:
  1191   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1192   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1193   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1194   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1195   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1196   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1197   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1198   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1199   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1200   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1201   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1202   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1203   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1204   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1205   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1206   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1207   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1208   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1209   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1210   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1211   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1212   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1213   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1214   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1215   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1216   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1217   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1218   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1219   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1220   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1221   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1222   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1223   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1224   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1225   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1226   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1227 
  1228   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1229   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1230   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1231   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1232   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1233   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1234   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1235   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1236   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1237   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1238 
  1239 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1240 association lists with distinct keys.
  1241 
  1242 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1243 annotated commands.
  1244 
  1245 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1246 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1247 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1248 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1249 
  1250 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1251 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1252 instead.
  1253 
  1254   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1255   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1256   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1257   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1258   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1259   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1260   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1261   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1262   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1263   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1264   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1265   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1266   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1267   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1268   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1269   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1270   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1271   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1272   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1273   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1274   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1275   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1276   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1277   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1278   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1279   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1280   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1281   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1282   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1283   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1284   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1285   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1286   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1287   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1288   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1289   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1290   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1291   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1292   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1293   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1294   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1295 
  1296 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1297 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1298 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1299 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1300 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1301 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1302 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1303 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1304 
  1305 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1306 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1307 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1308 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1309 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1310 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1311 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1312 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1313 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1314 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1315 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1316 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1317 
  1318   Renamed constants:
  1319   measure -> emeasure
  1320   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1321   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1322   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1323   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1324 
  1325   Removed locales:
  1326   completeable_measure_space
  1327   finite_measure_space
  1328   finite_prob_space
  1329   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1330   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1331   finite_sigma_algebra
  1332   measure_space
  1333   pair_finite_prob_space
  1334   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1335   pair_finite_space
  1336   pair_sigma_algebra
  1337   product_sigma_algebra
  1338 
  1339   Removed constants:
  1340   conditional_space
  1341   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1342   image_space
  1343   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1344   pair_measure_generator
  1345   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1346   subvimage
  1347 
  1348   Replacement theorems:
  1349   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1350   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1351   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1352   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1353   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1354   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1355   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1356   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1357   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1358   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1359   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1360   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1361   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1362   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1363   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1364   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1365   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1366   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1367   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1368   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1369   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1370   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1371   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1372   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1373   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1374   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1375   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1376   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1377   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1378   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1379   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1380   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1381   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1382   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1383   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1384   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1385   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1386   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1387   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1388   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1389   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1390   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1391   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1392   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1393   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1394   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1395   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1396   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1397   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1398   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1399   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1400   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1401   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1402   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1403   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1404   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1405   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1406   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1407   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1408   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1409   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1410   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1411   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1412   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1413   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1414   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1415   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1416   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1417   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1418   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1419   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1420   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1421   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1422   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1423   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1424   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1425   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1426   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1427   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1428   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1429   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1430   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1431   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1432   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1433   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1434   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1435   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1436   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1437   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1438   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1439   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1440   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1441   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1442   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1443   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1444   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1445   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1446   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1447   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1448   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1449   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1450   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1451   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1452   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1453   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1454   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1455   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1456   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1457   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1458   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1459   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1460   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1461   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1462   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1463   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1464   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1465   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1466   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1467   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1468   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1469   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1470   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1471   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1472   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1473   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1474   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1475   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1476   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1477 
  1478 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1479 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1480 
  1481 
  1482 *** FOL ***
  1483 
  1484 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1485 
  1486 
  1487 *** ZF ***
  1488 
  1489 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1490 analysis.
  1491 
  1492 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1493 
  1494 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1495 
  1496 
  1497 *** ML ***
  1498 
  1499 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1500 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1501 
  1502 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1503 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1504 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1505 
  1506 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1507 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1508 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1509 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1510 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1511 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1512 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1513 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1514 
  1515 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1516 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1517 
  1518 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1519 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1520 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1521 
  1522 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1523 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1526 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1527 context as well.
  1528 
  1529 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1530 
  1531   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1532   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1533   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1534   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1535   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1536   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1537   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1538   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1539   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1540   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1541   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1542   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1543 
  1544 
  1545 *** System ***
  1546 
  1547 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1548 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1549 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1550 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1551 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1552 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1553 the generic user home was intended.
  1554 
  1555 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1556 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1557 
  1558 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1559 (not just JRE).
  1560 
  1561 
  1562 
  1563 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1564 ------------------------------------
  1565 
  1566 *** General ***
  1567 
  1568 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1569 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1570 
  1571   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1572     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1573     files for checking).
  1574 
  1575   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1576     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1577     positions.
  1578 
  1579   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1580     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1581     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1582 
  1583   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1584     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1585     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1586 
  1587   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1588     cores.
  1589 
  1590   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1591     versions (garbage collection).
  1592 
  1593 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1594 including some remaining limitations.
  1595 
  1596 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1597 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1598 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1599 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1600 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1604 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1605 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1606 
  1607 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1608 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1609 usedir option -Q.
  1610 
  1611 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1612 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1613 
  1614   long_names   ~> names_long
  1615   short_names  ~> names_short
  1616   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1617 
  1618 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1619 
  1620   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1621 
  1622 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1623 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1624 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1625 
  1626 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1627 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1628 
  1629 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1630   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1631   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1632   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1633     "Classical Reasoner".
  1634 
  1635 
  1636 *** HOL ***
  1637 
  1638 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1639 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1642 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1643 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1644 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1645 class complete_linorder.
  1646 
  1647 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1648 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1649 
  1650 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1651 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1652 
  1653   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1654   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1655   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1656   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1657   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1658   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1659   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1660   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1661   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1662   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1663   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1664 
  1665 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1666 
  1667   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1668   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1669   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1670   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1671   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1672   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1673   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1674   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1675   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1676   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1677   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1678   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1679   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1680   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1681   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1682   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1683 
  1684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685 
  1686 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1690 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1691 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1692 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1695 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1696 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1698 
  1699 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1700 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1701 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1702 
  1703 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1704 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1705 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1706 
  1707 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1708 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1709 
  1710 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1711 
  1712     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1713     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1714 
  1715 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1716 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1719 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1720 
  1721 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1722 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1723 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1724 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1727   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1728   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1729   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1730   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1731   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1732   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1733 
  1734 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1735 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1736 
  1737   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1738   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1739   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1740   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1741   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1742   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1743   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1744   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1745   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1746   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1747   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1748   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1749   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1750   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1751   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1752   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1753   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1754   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1755   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1756   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1757   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1758   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1759   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1760   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1761   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1762   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1763   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1764   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1765   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1766   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1767   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1768   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1769   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1770   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1771   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1772   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1773   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1774   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1775   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1776   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1777   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1778   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1779   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1780   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1781   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1782   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1783   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1784   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1785   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1786   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1787   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1788   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1789   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1790   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1791   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1792   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1793   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1794   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1795   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1796   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1797   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1798   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1799   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1800   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1801   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1802   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1803   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1804   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1805   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1806   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1807   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1808   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1809   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1810   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1811   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1812   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1813   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1814   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1815   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1816   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1817   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1818   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1819 
  1820 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1821 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1822 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1823 
  1824 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1825 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1826 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1827 
  1828 * Code generation:
  1829 
  1830   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1831     characters in the target language.
  1832 
  1833   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1834     instead.
  1835 
  1836   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1837 
  1838   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1839     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1840 
  1841       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1842 
  1843 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844 
  1845 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1846 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1847 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1848 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1849 syntax.
  1850 
  1851 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1852 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1853 
  1854 * Nitpick:
  1855   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1856   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1857   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1858     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1859 
  1860 * Sledgehammer:
  1861   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1862   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1863     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1864   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1865     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1866   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1867     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1868   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1869     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1870   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1871     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1872 
  1873 * Metis:
  1874   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1875   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1876     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Command 'try':
  1879   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1880     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1881   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1882     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1883 
  1884 * Quickcheck:
  1885   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1886     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1887   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1888     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1889   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1890     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1891     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1892     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1893   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1894     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1895 
  1896 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1897 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1898 
  1899 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1900 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1901 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1902 
  1903 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1904 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1906 
  1907 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1908 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1911 arithmetic.
  1912 
  1913 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1914 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1915 and lattice type classes.
  1916 
  1917 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1918 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1919 
  1920 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1921 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1922 
  1923 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1924 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1925 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1928   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1929   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1930   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1931 
  1932 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1933 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1934 constants:
  1935 
  1936   type inat   ~> type enat
  1937   Fin         ~> enat
  1938   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1939   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1940   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1941 
  1942 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1943 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1946 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1947 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1948 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1949 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1950 
  1951 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1952 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1953 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1954 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1955 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1956 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1957 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1958 
  1959   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1960   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1961   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1962   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1963 
  1964 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1965 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1966 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1967 
  1968   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1969   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1970   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1971   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1972   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1973   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1974   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1975   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1976   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1977   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1978   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1979   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1980   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1981   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1982   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1983   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1984   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1985   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1986   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1987   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1988   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1989   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1990   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1991   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1992   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1993   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1994   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1995   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1996   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1997   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1998   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1999   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2000   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2001   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2002   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2003   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2004   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2005   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2006   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2007   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2008   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2009   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2010   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2011   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2012   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2013   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2014   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2015   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2016   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2017   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2018   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2019 
  2020 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2021   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2022   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2023   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2024   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2025     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026 
  2027 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2030   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2031   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2032   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2033   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2034   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2035   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2036   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2037   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2038   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2039   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2040   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2041   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2042   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2043   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2044   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2045   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2046   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2047   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2048   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2049   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2050   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2051   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2052   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2053   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2054 
  2055 
  2056 *** Document preparation ***
  2057 
  2058 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2059 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2060 same.
  2061 
  2062 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2063 result.
  2064 
  2065 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2066 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2067 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2068 
  2069 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2070 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2071 
  2072 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2073 like this:
  2074 
  2075   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2076   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2077 
  2078 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2079 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2080 layouts.
  2081 
  2082 
  2083 *** ML ***
  2084 
  2085 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2086 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2087 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2088 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2089 under external program control.
  2090 
  2091 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2092 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2093 
  2094 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2095 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2096 (better known as Proof General).
  2097 
  2098 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2099 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2100 
  2101 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2102 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2103 
  2104 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2105 (including quotes etc.).
  2106 
  2107 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2108 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2109 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2110 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2111 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2112 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2113 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2114 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2115 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2116 
  2117 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2118 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2119 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2120 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2121 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2122 
  2123 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2124 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2125 
  2126 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2127 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2128 
  2129 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2130 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2131 
  2132 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2133 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2134 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2135 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2136 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2137 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2138 proper Proof.context.
  2139 
  2140 
  2141 *** System ***
  2142 
  2143 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2144 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2145 
  2146 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2147 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2148 
  2149 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2150 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2151 
  2152   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2153   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2154   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2155   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2156   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2157 
  2158 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2159 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2160 
  2161 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2162 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2163 example:
  2164 
  2165   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2166 
  2167 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2168 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2169 
  2170 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2171 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2172 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2173 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2174 
  2175 
  2176 
  2177 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2178 ----------------------------------
  2179 
  2180 *** General ***
  2181 
  2182 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2183 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2184 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2185 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2186 like this:
  2187 
  2188   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2189 
  2190 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2191 
  2192 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2193 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2194 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2195 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2196 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2197 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2198 
  2199 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2200 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2201 the following package declarations:
  2202 
  2203   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2204   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2205 
  2206 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2207 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2208 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2209 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2210 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2211 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2212 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2213 
  2214 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2215 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2216 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2217 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2218 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2219 
  2220 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2221 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2222 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2223 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2224 
  2225 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2226 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2227 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2228 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2229 
  2230   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2231 
  2232   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2233   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2234   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2235   show_types                    show_types
  2236   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2237   show_consts                   show_consts
  2238   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2239 
  2240   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2241   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2242   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2243 
  2244   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2245   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2246 
  2247   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2248 
  2249   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2250   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2251   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2252   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2253   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2254 
  2255 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2256 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2257 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2258 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2259 
  2260 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2262 
  2263   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2264   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2265 
  2266 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2267 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2268 float_token.
  2269 
  2270 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2271 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2275 DejaVu Sans.
  2276 
  2277 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2278 
  2279 
  2280 *** Pure ***
  2281 
  2282 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2283 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2284 time.
  2285 
  2286 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2287 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2290 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2293 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2294 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2295 command already provided this functionality.
  2296 
  2297 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2298 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2299 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2300 without interpretations.
  2301 
  2302 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2303 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2304 
  2305 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2306 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2307 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2308 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2309 
  2310 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2311 'definition' instead.
  2312 
  2313 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2314 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2315 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2316 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2317 
  2318 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2319 constructors.
  2320 
  2321 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2322 the local file system.
  2323 
  2324 
  2325 *** HOL ***
  2326 
  2327 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2328 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2329 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2330 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2331 
  2332   declare [[coercion f]]
  2333 
  2334 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2335 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2336 
  2337   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2338 
  2339 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2340 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2341 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2342 other theories like this:
  2343 
  2344   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2345 
  2346 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2347 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2348 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2349 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2350 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2351 for examples.
  2352 
  2353 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2354 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355 
  2356 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2357 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2358 
  2359 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2360 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2361 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2362 
  2363 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2364 functorial structure of types.
  2365 
  2366 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2367 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2368 
  2369 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2370 languages.
  2371 
  2372 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2373 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2377 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2380 combinators any longer.
  2381 
  2382 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2383 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2384 
  2385 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2386 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2387 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2388 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2389 
  2390   record 'a foo = ...
  2391   ...
  2392   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2393 
  2394 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2395 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2399 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2400 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2401 
  2402 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2403 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2404 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2405 
  2406 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2407 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2410 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2411 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2412 independently.
  2413 
  2414 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2415 counter example search.
  2416 
  2417 * Sledgehammer:
  2418   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2419     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2420     sledgehammer").
  2421   - Renamed commands:
  2422     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2423     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2424     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2425     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2426   - Renamed options:
  2427     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2428     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2429     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2430     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2431     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2432 
  2433 * Nitpick:
  2434   - Renamed options:
  2435     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2436     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2437     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2439   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2440   - Added "whack" option.
  2441   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2442   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2443   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2444   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2445     higher cardinalities.
  2446   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2447 
  2448 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2449 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2450 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2451 
  2452     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2453 
  2454 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2455 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2456 
  2457 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2458 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2459 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2460 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2461 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2462 "smt_solver".
  2463 
  2464 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2465 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2466 
  2467 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2468 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2469 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2470 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2473   - Renamed:
  2474     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2475     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2476     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477   - Added:
  2478     smt_verbose
  2479     smt_random_seed
  2480     smt_datatypes
  2481     smt_infer_triggers
  2482     smt_monomorph_limit
  2483     cvc3_options
  2484     remote_cvc3_options
  2485     remote_z3_options
  2486     yices_options
  2487 
  2488 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2489 header.
  2490 
  2491 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2492 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2493 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2494 
  2495   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2496 
  2497 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2500 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2505 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2508 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2509 
  2510 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2511 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2514 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2515 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2518 
  2519 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2523 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2526 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2527 for congruent(2)).
  2528 
  2529 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2530 
  2531   types
  2532     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2533     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2534 
  2535   constants
  2536     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2537     True ~> HOL.True
  2538     False ~> HOL.False
  2539     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2540     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2541     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2542     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2543     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2544     The ~> HOL.The
  2545     All ~> HOL.All
  2546     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2547     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2548     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2549     If ~> HOL.If
  2550     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2551     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2552     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2553     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2554     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2555     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2556     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2557     op : ~> Set.member
  2558     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2559 
  2560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2561 
  2562 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2563 
  2564     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2565     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2566     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2567     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2568     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2569     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2570     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2571     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2572 
  2573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * More stylized fact names:
  2576 
  2577   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2578   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2579   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2580   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2581 
  2582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2585 
  2586   constants
  2587     null ~> List.null
  2588 
  2589   facts
  2590     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2591     null_empty ~> null_def
  2592 
  2593 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2594 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2595 generation.
  2596 
  2597 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2598 Haskell code.
  2599 
  2600 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2601 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2602 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2605 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2608 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2609 
  2610 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2611 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2612 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2615 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2621 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2622 referred to by its qualified name.
  2623 
  2624   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2625   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2626   product ~>  Enum.product
  2627 
  2628 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2629 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2633 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2634 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2638 sort_key.
  2639 
  2640 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2644 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2645 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2646 
  2647   types
  2648     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2649               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2650               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2651         (depends on your needs)
  2652 
  2653   constants
  2654      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2655      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2656      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2657 
  2658 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2659 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2660 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2661 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2662 
  2663 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2664 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2665 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2666 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2667 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2671 
  2672 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2673 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2674 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2675 
  2676 
  2677 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2678 
  2679 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2680 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2681 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2682 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2683 compatibility.
  2684 
  2685 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2686 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2687 
  2688 
  2689 *** HOLCF ***
  2690 
  2691 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2692 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2693 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2697 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2698 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699 
  2700   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2701   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2702   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2703 
  2704 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2705 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2706 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2709 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2710 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2711 domain definition now works:
  2712 
  2713   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2714 
  2715 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2716 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2717 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2718 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2719 
  2720   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2721     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2722 
  2723   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2724 
  2725 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2726 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2727 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2730 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2733 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2734 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2735 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2736 
  2737 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2738 
  2739 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2742 
  2743 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2747 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2748 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2749 
  2750 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2751 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2752 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2755 still supported as an input translation.
  2756 
  2757 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2758 
  2759   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2760   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2761   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2762   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2763   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2764   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2765   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2766 
  2767 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2768 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2769 
  2770   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2771   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2772   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2773   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2774   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2775   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2776 
  2777 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2778 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779 
  2780 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2781 
  2782   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2783   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2784   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2785   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2786 
  2787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2790 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2793 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2796   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2797   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2798   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2799   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2800   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2801   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2802   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2803   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2804   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2805   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2806   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2807   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2808   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2809   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2810   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2811   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2812   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2813   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2814   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2815 
  2816 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2817 
  2818   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2819   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2820   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2821   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2822   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2823   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2824   box_less             ~> box_below
  2825   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2826   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2827   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2828   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2829   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2830   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2831   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2832   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2833   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2834   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2835   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2836   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2837   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2838   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2839   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2840   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2841   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2842   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2843   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2844   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2845   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2846   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2847   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2848   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2849   up_less              ~> up_below
  2850   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2851   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2852   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2853   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2854   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2855   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2856   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2857   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2858   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2859   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2860   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2861   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2862   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2863 
  2864 
  2865 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2866 
  2867 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2868 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2869 
  2870 
  2871 *** ML ***
  2872 
  2873 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2874 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2875 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2876 
  2877 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2878 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2879 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2880 
  2881 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2882 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2883 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2884 
  2885 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2886 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2887 
  2888 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2889 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2890 
  2891 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2892 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2893 
  2894 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2895 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2896 
  2897 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2898 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2899 almost all situations.
  2900 
  2901 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2902 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2903 Isabelle/ML.
  2904 
  2905 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2906 meaning.
  2907 
  2908 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2909 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2910 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2911 
  2912 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2913 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2914 
  2915 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2916 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2917 
  2918 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2919 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2920 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2921 
  2922 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2923 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2924 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2925 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2926 configuration options.
  2927 
  2928 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2929 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2930 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2931 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2932 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2933 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2934 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2935 
  2936 
  2937 
  2938 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2939 ---------------------------------
  2940 
  2941 *** General ***
  2942 
  2943 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2944 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2945 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2946 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2947 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2948 their full internal name.
  2949 
  2950 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2951 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2952 Some hints on upgrading:
  2953 
  2954   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2955     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2956     which are independent of this issue.
  2957 
  2958   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2959     provides the following special forms:
  2960 
  2961       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2962       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2963       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2964 
  2965     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2966     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2967     extra variables".
  2968 
  2969     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2970     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2971     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2972     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2973     "logic".
  2974 
  2975   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2976     antiquotations:
  2977 
  2978       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2979       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2980       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2981       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2982 
  2983   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2984     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2985     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2986     antiquotations.
  2987 
  2988 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2989 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2990 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2991 diagnose syntax problems.
  2992 
  2993 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2994 
  2995 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2996 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2997 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2998 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2999 
  3000 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3001 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3002 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3003 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3006 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3007 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3008 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3009 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3012 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3013 
  3014 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3015 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3016 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3017 
  3018   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3019 
  3020 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3021 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3022 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3023 
  3024 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3025 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3027 
  3028 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3029 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3030 
  3031 
  3032 *** Pure ***
  3033 
  3034 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3035 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3036 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3037 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3038 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3039 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3040 inspect proof terms.
  3041 
  3042 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3043 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3044 are added internally.  For example:
  3045 
  3046   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3047 
  3048 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3049 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3054 'class' instead.
  3055 
  3056 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3057 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3061 invariants.
  3062 
  3063 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3064 user space functionality any longer.
  3065 
  3066 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3067 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3071 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3072 
  3073 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3074 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3075 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3076 
  3077 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3078 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3079 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3080 
  3081 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3082 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 
  3085 *** HOL ***
  3086 
  3087 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3088 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3089 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3090 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3091 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3092 
  3093 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3094 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3095 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3096 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3097 
  3098   fun
  3099     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3100   where
  3101     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3102 
  3103   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3104     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3105 
  3106   quotient_definition
  3107     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3108 
  3109 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3110 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3111 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3112 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3113 
  3114 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3115 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3116 
  3117 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3118 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3119 
  3120 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3124 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3125 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3126 
  3127 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3128 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3135 
  3136 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3137 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3140 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3141 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3144   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3145   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3146   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3147   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3148   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3149   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3150   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3151   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3152   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3153   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3154   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3155   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3156   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3157   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3158   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3159   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3160   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3161   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3162   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3163   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3164   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3165   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3166   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3167   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3168   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3169   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3170   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3171   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3172   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3173 
  3174 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3175 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3176 
  3177 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3178 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3179 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3180 
  3181 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3182 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3183 
  3184 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3185 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3188 
  3189 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3190 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3193 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3198 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3199 
  3200 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3201 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3202 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3203 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3204 
  3205 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3206   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3207   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3208   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3212 lattices):
  3213 
  3214     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3215     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3216 
  3217     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3218 
  3219     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3220     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3221     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3222     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3223     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3224     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3225     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3226     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3227     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3228     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3229     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3230     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3231     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3232 
  3233     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3234     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3235     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3236     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3237     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3238     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3239     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3240     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3241     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3242     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3243     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3244     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3245     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3246     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3247     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3248     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3249     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3250     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3251 
  3252   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3253   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3254 
  3255     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3256     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3257     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3258     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3259     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3260 
  3261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * Refined field classes:
  3264   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3265     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3266     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3267   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3271   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3272   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3273   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3274     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3275   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3276     equal_neg_zero.
  3277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3280 sets to lattices:
  3281 
  3282   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3283   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3284   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3285   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3286   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3287   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3288   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3289   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3290   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3291   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3292 
  3293 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3294 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3295 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3296 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3297 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3298 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3299 
  3300 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3301 multiset order:
  3302 
  3303   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3304     <= and <;
  3305   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3306     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3307     multiset_order;
  3308   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3309     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3310     generation;
  3311   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3312     if needed.
  3313 
  3314 Renamed:
  3315 
  3316   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3317   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3318   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3319 
  3320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3323 
  3324 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3325 
  3326 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3327 
  3328 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3329 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3330 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331 
  3332   Constants:
  3333   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3334   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3335   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3336   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3337   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3338   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3339   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3340   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3341   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3342   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3343   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3344   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3345   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3346 
  3347   Lemmas:
  3348   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3349   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3350   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3351   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3352   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3353   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3354   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3355   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3356   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3357   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3358   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3359   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3360   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3361 
  3362 * Sledgehammer:
  3363   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3364     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3365     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3366     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3367     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3368     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3369     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3371   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3372     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3373   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3374     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3375     is still experimental.)
  3376   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3377     full-typed mode.
  3378   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3379 
  3380 * Nitpick:
  3381   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3382   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3383   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3384     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3385   - Added support for quotient types.
  3386   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3387     constructs.
  3388   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3389     "termination" proofs).
  3390   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3391   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3392   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3393   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3394     record getters.
  3395   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3396   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3397   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3398   - Added "atoms" option.
  3399   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3400     problems.
  3401   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3402     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3403     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3405     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 
  3408 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3409   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3410   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3411   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3412   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3413   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3414   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3415   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3416   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3417   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 
  3420 *** HOLCF ***
  3421 
  3422 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3423 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3424 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425 
  3426 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3427 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3428 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3429 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3432 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3433 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3434 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3435 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3438 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3439 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3442 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3445   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3446 
  3447 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3448 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3451   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3452   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3453   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3454   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3455 
  3456 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3457 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3460   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3461   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3462 
  3463 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3464 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466 
  3467 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3468 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3469 
  3470 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3471 
  3472 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3473 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474 
  3475 
  3476 *** ML ***
  3477 
  3478 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3479 
  3480     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3481     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3482 
  3483     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3484     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3485     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3486     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3487 
  3488     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3489     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3490     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3491 
  3492 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3493 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3494 
  3495 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3496 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3497 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3498 
  3499 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3500 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3501 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3502 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3503 
  3504 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3505 the context or even global references.
  3506 
  3507 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3508 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3509 
  3510 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3511 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3512 
  3513   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3514   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3515   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3516   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3517   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3518   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3519   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3520   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3521   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3522   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3523 
  3524 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3525 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3526 
  3527 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3528 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3529 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3530 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3531 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3532 
  3533 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3534 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3535 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3536 Theory_Data version.
  3537 
  3538 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3539 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3540 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3541 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3542 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3543 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3544 explicitly in rare situations.
  3545 
  3546 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3547 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549 
  3550 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3551 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3554 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3555 quite rare).
  3556 
  3557 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3558 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3561 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3562 terms.
  3563 
  3564 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3565 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3566 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3567 
  3568 
  3569 *** System ***
  3570 
  3571 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3572 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3573 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3574 
  3575 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3576 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3577 respectively.
  3578 
  3579 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3580 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3581 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3582 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3583 
  3584   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3585 
  3586 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3587 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3588 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3589 component.
  3590 
  3591 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3592 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3593 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3594 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3595 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3596 the user for manual installation.
  3597 
  3598 
  3599 
  3600 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3601 -------------------------------------
  3602 
  3603 *** General ***
  3604 
  3605 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3606 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3607 
  3608 
  3609 *** Pure ***
  3610 
  3611 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3612 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3613 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3614 
  3615 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3616 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3617 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3618 
  3619 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3620 interpretation.
  3621 
  3622 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3623 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 
  3626 *** Document preparation ***
  3627 
  3628 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3629 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3630 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3631 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3632 
  3633 
  3634 *** HOL ***
  3635 
  3636 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3637 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3638 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3639 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3640 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3641 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3642 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3643 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3644 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3645 
  3646 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3647 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3648 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3649 
  3650 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3651 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3652 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3653 
  3654 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3655 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3656 
  3657 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3658 
  3659 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3660 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3661 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3662 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3663 
  3664 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3665 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3666 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3667 "mirabelle" utility.
  3668 
  3669 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3670 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3671 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3672 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3673 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3674 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3675 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3676 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3677 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3678 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3679 
  3680 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3681 procedure only.
  3682 
  3683 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3684 
  3685 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3686 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3687 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3688 that fail later.
  3689 
  3690 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3691 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3692 
  3693 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3694 the same method as the approximation method.
  3695 
  3696 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3697 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3698 series expansion.
  3699 
  3700 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3701 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3702 
  3703 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3704 reals.
  3705 
  3706 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3707 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3708 
  3709 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3710 fixpoint theorem.
  3711 
  3712 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3713   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3714     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3715   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3716     accordingly
  3717   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3718     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3719   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3720     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3721 
  3722 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3723 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3724 lattice.
  3725 
  3726 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3727 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3728 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3729 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3730 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3731 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3735   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3736     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3737   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3738     le_inf_iff
  3739   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3740     sup_aci)
  3741   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3742   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3743   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3744     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3745     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3746     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3747     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3748     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3749     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3750     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3751     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3752     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3753     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3754   - authentic syntax for
  3755     Set.Pow
  3756     Set.image
  3757   - mere abbreviations:
  3758     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3759     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3760     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3761     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3762     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3763     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3764     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3765     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3766   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3767 
  3768 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3769 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3770 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3771 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3772 
  3773 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3774 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3775 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3778 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3781 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3782 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3783 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3786 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3787 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3788 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3789 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3790 
  3791 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3792 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3796 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3799 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3800 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3801 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3802 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3803 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3804 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3808     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3809     code_post       replaces    code post
  3810     etc.
  3811   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Renamed methods:
  3814     sizechange -> size_change
  3815     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3816   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3817 
  3818 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3819 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3820 
  3821 * Renamed theorems:
  3822     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3823     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3824     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3825     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3826     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3827   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3834 
  3835 
  3836 *** HOLCF ***
  3837 
  3838 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3839 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3840 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3841 
  3842 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3843 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3844 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3845 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3846 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3847 
  3848 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3849 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3850 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3851 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3852 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3853 
  3854 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3855 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3856 constructor are pre-configured.
  3857 
  3858 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3859 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3860 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3861 
  3862 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3863 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3864 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3865 as well.)
  3866 
  3867 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3868 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3869 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3870 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3871 examples.
  3872 
  3873 
  3874 *** ML ***
  3875 
  3876 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3877 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3878 
  3879 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3880 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3881 position, logical grouping etc.
  3882 
  3883 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3884 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3885 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3886 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3887 
  3888 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3889 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3890 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3891 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3892 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3893 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3894 
  3895 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3896 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3897 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3898 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3899 experiments with references.
  3900 
  3901 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3902 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3903 
  3904 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3905 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3906 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3907 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3908 
  3909 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3910 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3911 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3912 
  3913 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3914 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3915 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3920 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3923 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3924 
  3925 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3926 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3927 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3928 
  3929 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3930 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3931 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3934 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3935 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3939 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3940 instead of global theory.
  3941 
  3942 
  3943 *** System ***
  3944 
  3945 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3946 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3947 usedir option -q.
  3948 
  3949 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3950 also the system manual.
  3951 
  3952 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3953 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3954 
  3955 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3956 this is always enabled.
  3957 
  3958 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3959 
  3960 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3961 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3962 currently supported on Linux only.
  3963 
  3964 
  3965 
  3966 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3967 --------------------------------
  3968 
  3969 *** General ***
  3970 
  3971 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3972 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3973 
  3974   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3975     "isatool."
  3976 
  3977   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3978     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3979 
  3980   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3981     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3982 
  3983 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3984 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3985 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3986 
  3987 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3988 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3989 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3990 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3991 via "isabelle emacs".
  3992 
  3993 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3994 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3995 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3996 
  3997 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3998 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3999 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4000 
  4001 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4002 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4003 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4004 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4005 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4006 
  4007 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4008 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4009 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4010 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4011 
  4012 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4013 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4014 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4015 
  4016 
  4017 *** Pure ***
  4018 
  4019 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4020 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4021 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4022 
  4023 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4024 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4025 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4026 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4027 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4028 
  4029 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4030 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4031 useful in locale declarations.
  4032 
  4033 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4034 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4035 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4036 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4037 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4038 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4039 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4040 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4041 no longer generated.
  4042 
  4043 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4044 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4045 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4046 
  4047 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4048 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4049 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4050 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4051 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4052 
  4053 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4055 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4056 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4057 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4058 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4059 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4060 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4061 
  4062 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4063 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4064 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4065 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4066 
  4067 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4070 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4071 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4072 
  4073 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4074 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4077 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4078 in HOL, write
  4079 
  4080     class foo = ...
  4081 
  4082 instead of
  4083 
  4084     class foo = type + ...
  4085 
  4086 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4087 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088 
  4089 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4090 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4091 
  4092 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4093 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4094 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4095 
  4096 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4097 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4098 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4099 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4100 directly in regular applications.
  4101 
  4102 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4103 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4104 
  4105 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4106 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4107 
  4108 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4109 theory context.
  4110 
  4111 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4112 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4115 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4116 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4117 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4118 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4119 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4120 
  4121   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4122 
  4123 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4124 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4125 normalization.
  4126 
  4127 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4128 addressing etc.
  4129 
  4130 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4131 
  4132   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4133   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4134 
  4135 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4136 
  4137   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4138      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4139      parts of the code generator framework).
  4140 
  4141   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4142      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4143      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4144 
  4145 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4148 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4149 
  4150 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4151 patterns, e.g.
  4152 
  4153     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4154 
  4155 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4156 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4157 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4158 hyphen:
  4159 
  4160     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4161 
  4162 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4163 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4164 
  4165 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4166 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4167 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4168 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4169 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4170 higher-order unification.
  4171 
  4172 
  4173 *** Document preparation ***
  4174 
  4175 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4176 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4177 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4178 
  4179 
  4180 *** HOL ***
  4181 
  4182 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4183 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4184 
  4185 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4186 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4187 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4188 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4189 Main, as before.
  4190 
  4191 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4192 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4193 
  4194 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4195 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4196 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4197 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4198 
  4199 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4200 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4201 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4202 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4203 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4204 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4205 
  4206 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4207 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4208 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4209 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4210 
  4211 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4212 menu.
  4213 
  4214 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4215 (contains the empty clause).
  4216 
  4217 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4218 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4219 
  4220 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4221 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4222 
  4223 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4224 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4225 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4228 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4229 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4230 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4231 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4232 
  4233 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4234 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4235 
  4236 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4237 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4238 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4239 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4240 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4241 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4242 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4243 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4244 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4245 
  4246 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4247 
  4248 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4249 
  4250 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4251 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4254 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4255 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4256 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4257 
  4258 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4259 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4260 
  4261     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4262     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4263     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4264     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4265     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4266     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4267     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4268     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4269 
  4270 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4271 theory Set.
  4272 
  4273 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4274 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4275 
  4276 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4277 
  4278 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4279 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4280 
  4281 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4282 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4283 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4284 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4285 allowed. For examples see
  4286 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4287 
  4288 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4289 
  4290 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4294 structure:
  4295 
  4296     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4297     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4298     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4299     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4300     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4301     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4302     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4303     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4304     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4305     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4306     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4307     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4308     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4309     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4310     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4311     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4312     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4313     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4314     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4315     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4316     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4317     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4318     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4319     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4320     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4321     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4322     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4323     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4324     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4325     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4326     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4327     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4328     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4329 
  4330     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4331     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4332     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4333     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4334     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4335     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4336     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4337     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4338     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4339     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4340 
  4341     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4342     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4343     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4344     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4345     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4346     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4347 
  4348 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4349 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4350 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4351 
  4352 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4353 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4354 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4355 
  4356 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4357 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4358 
  4359 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4360 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4361 
  4362 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4363 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4364 proofs, e.g.
  4365 
  4366   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4367 
  4368 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4369 
  4370 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4371 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4372 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4375 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4379 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4380 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4382 
  4383 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4384 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4385 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4386 preorder_class.*.
  4387 
  4388 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4389 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4390 
  4391 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4392 
  4393   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4394 
  4395 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4396 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4397 fold_image.
  4398 
  4399 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4400 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4401 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4402 the former will disappear at some point.
  4403 
  4404 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4405 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4406 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4407 
  4408 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4409 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4410 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4411 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4412 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4413 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4414 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4415 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4416 
  4417 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4418 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4419 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4420 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4421 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4422 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4423 
  4424     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4425     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4426     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4427     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4428     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4429     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4430     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4431 
  4432 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4433 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4434 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4435 
  4436 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4437 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4438 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4439 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4440 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4441 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4442 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4443 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4444 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4445 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4446 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4447 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4448 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4449 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4450 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4451 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4452 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4453 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4454 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4455 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4456 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4457 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4458 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4459 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4460 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4461 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4462 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4463 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4464 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4465 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4466 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4467 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4468 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4469 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4470 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4471 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4472 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4473 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4474 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4475 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4476 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4477 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4478 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4479 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4480 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4481 
  4482 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4483 
  4484 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4485 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4486 
  4487 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4488 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4489 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4490 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4491 
  4492 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4493 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4494 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4495 theory RealVector.
  4496 
  4497 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4498 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4499 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4500 and inner products are included.
  4501 
  4502 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4503 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4504 supported.
  4505 
  4506 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4507 first diagonalization argument.
  4508 
  4509 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4510 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4511 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4512 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4513 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4514 
  4515     hide (open) const gcd
  4516     abbreviation gcd where
  4517       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4518     notation (output)
  4519       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4520 
  4521 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4522 
  4523 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4524 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4525 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4528 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4529 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4530 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4531 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4532 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4533 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4534 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4535 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4536 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4537 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4538 cases.
  4539 
  4540 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4541 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4542 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4543 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4544 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4545 
  4546     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4547     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4548     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4549     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4550     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4551 
  4552 
  4553 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4554 
  4555 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4556 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4557 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4558 
  4559 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4560 
  4561 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4562 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4563 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4564 
  4565 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4566 
  4567 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4568 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4569 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4570 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4571 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4572 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4573 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4574 
  4575 
  4576 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4577 
  4578 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4579 
  4580 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4581 theory targets.
  4582 
  4583 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4584 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4585 'inductive' etc.
  4586 
  4587 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4588 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4589 
  4590 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4591 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4592 
  4593 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4594 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4595 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4596 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4597 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4598 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4599 the algorithm W:
  4600 
  4601  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4602  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4603          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4604 
  4605 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4606 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4607 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4608 
  4609 
  4610 *** HOLCF ***
  4611 
  4612 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4613 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4614 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4615 
  4616 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4617 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4618 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4619 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4620 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4623 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4624 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 
  4627 *** ZF ***
  4628 
  4629 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4630 
  4631 
  4632 *** ML ***
  4633 
  4634 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4635 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4636 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4637 5.2.1!
  4638 
  4639 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4640 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4641 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4642 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4643 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4644 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4645 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4646 
  4647 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4648 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4649 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4650 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4651 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4652 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4653 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4654 
  4655 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4656 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4657 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4658 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4659 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4660 
  4661 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4662 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4663 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4664 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4665 Method.add_method.
  4666 
  4667 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4668 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4669 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4670 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4671 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4672 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4673 
  4674 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4675 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4676 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4677 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4678 examples.
  4679 
  4680 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4681 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4682 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4683 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4684 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4685 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4686 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4687 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4688 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4689 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4690 
  4691 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4692 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4693 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4694 
  4695 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4696 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4697 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4698 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4699 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4700 resort for legacy applications.
  4701 
  4702 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4703 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4704 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4705 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4706 explicit runtime argument.
  4707 
  4708 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4709 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4710 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4711 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4712 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4715 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4716 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4717 theory state.
  4718 
  4719 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4720 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4721 
  4722   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4723   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4724   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4725   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4726   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4727   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4728   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4729   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4730   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4731   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4732 
  4733 
  4734 *** System ***
  4735 
  4736 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4737 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4738 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4739 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4740 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4741 
  4742 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4743 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4744 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4745 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4746 
  4747 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4748 
  4749 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4750 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4751 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4752 prover operations.
  4753 
  4754 
  4755 
  4756 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4757 -------------------------------
  4758 
  4759 *** General ***
  4760 
  4761 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4762 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4763 
  4764 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4765 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4766 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4767 provides a proper context already.
  4768 
  4769 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4770 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4771 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4772 
  4773 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4774 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4775 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4776 swap theory imports.
  4777 
  4778 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4779 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4780 
  4781 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4782 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4783 white space without escapes.
  4784 
  4785 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4786 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4787 "foo_bar".
  4788 
  4789 
  4790 *** Pure ***
  4791 
  4792 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4793 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4794 
  4795 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4796 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4797 
  4798 (1) unused_thms
  4799      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4800 
  4801 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4802      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4803      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4804 
  4805 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4806      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4807      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4808      their ancestors.
  4809 
  4810 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4811 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4812 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4813 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4814 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4815 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4816 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4817 
  4818 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4819 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4820 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4821 
  4822 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4823 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4824 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4825 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4826 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4827 
  4828 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4829 
  4830 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4831 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4832 update of theories within ML code.
  4833 
  4834 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4835 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4836 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4837 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4838 
  4839 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4840 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4841 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4845 
  4846 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4847 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4848 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4849 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4850 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4851 
  4852 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4853 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4854 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4855 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4856 situations.
  4857 
  4858 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4859 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4860 proof text.
  4861 
  4862 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4863 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4864 
  4865 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4866 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4867 predicates.
  4868 
  4869 
  4870 *** Document preparation ***
  4871 
  4872 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4873 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4874 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4875 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4876 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4877 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4878 
  4879 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4880 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4881 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4882 
  4883 
  4884 *** HOL ***
  4885 
  4886 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4887 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4888 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4889 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4890 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4891 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4892 
  4893 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4894 with multithreading.
  4895 
  4896 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4897 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4898 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4899 
  4900 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4901 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4902 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4903 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4906 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4907 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4908 and makes them available separately.  See
  4909 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4910 
  4911 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4912 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4913 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4914 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4915 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4916 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4917 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4918 the declared rules.
  4919 
  4920 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4921 
  4922   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4923 
  4924 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4925 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4926 
  4927 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4928 
  4929   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4930 
  4931   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4932     definitions on => and bool.
  4933 
  4934   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4935     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4936     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4937 
  4938       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4939       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4940       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4941       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4942       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4943       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4944       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4945       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4946 
  4947   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4948     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4949     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4950 
  4951   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4952     The proof pattern
  4953 
  4954       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4955       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4956 
  4957     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4958     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4959 
  4960       have "EX S. P S"
  4961       proof
  4962         show "P S" <...>
  4963       qed
  4964 
  4965   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4966     The proof pattern
  4967 
  4968       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4969       also have "S = T" <...>
  4970       finally have "P T" .
  4971 
  4972     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4973     must be replaced by something like
  4974 
  4975       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4976       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4977       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4978 
  4979   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4980     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4981 
  4982       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4983 
  4984     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4985     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4986     type of the form
  4987 
  4988       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4989 
  4990     rather than
  4991 
  4992       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4993 
  4994 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4995 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4996 
  4997 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4998 
  4999 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5000 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5004 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 
  5006 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5007 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5008 
  5009 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5010 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5011 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5014 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5015 
  5016   less_trans
  5017   less_linear
  5018   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5019   le_less_trans
  5020   less_le_trans
  5021   less_not_sym
  5022   less_asym
  5023 
  5024 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5025 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5026 and different variable names.
  5027 
  5028 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5029 
  5030 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5031 finite maps.
  5032 
  5033 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5034 
  5035 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5036 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5037 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5038 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5039 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5040 accordingly.
  5041 
  5042 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5043 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5044 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5045 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5046 
  5047 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5048 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5049 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5050 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5051 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5053 
  5054 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5055 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5056 
  5057 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5058 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5059 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5060 
  5061 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5063 
  5064 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5065 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5066 
  5067 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5068 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5069 
  5070 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5071 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 
  5073 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5074 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5076 
  5077 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5078 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5079 
  5080 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5081 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5082 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5083 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5084 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5085 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5086 
  5087 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5088 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5089 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5090 
  5091 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5092 
  5093 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5094 
  5095 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5096 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5097 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5098 
  5099 
  5100 *** ZF ***
  5101 
  5102 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5103 same session:
  5104 
  5105   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5106   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5107   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5108   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5109   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5110   List      -> List_ZF
  5111   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5112 
  5113 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5114 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5115 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5116 
  5117 
  5118 *** ML ***
  5119 
  5120 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5121 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5122 
  5123 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5124 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5125 
  5126 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5127 
  5128 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5129 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5130 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5131 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5132 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5135 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5136 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5137 
  5138 
  5139 *** System ***
  5140 
  5141 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5142 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5143 
  5144 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5145 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5146 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5147 
  5148 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5149 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5150 
  5151 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5152 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5153 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5154 
  5155 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5156 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5157 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5158 
  5159 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5160 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5161 
  5162 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5163 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5164 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5165 script.
  5166 
  5167 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5168 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5169 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5170 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5171 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5172 
  5173 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5174 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5175 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5176 
  5177 
  5178 
  5179 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5180 -----------------------------------
  5181 
  5182 *** General ***
  5183 
  5184 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5185 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5186 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5187 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5188 
  5189 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5190 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5191 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5194 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5195 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5196 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5199 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5200 quotes.
  5201 
  5202 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5203 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5204 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5205 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5206 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5207 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5208 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5209 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5210 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5211 
  5212 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5213 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5214 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5215 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5216 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5217 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5218 
  5219 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5220 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5221 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5222 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5223 
  5224 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5225 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5226 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5227 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5228 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5229 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5230 
  5231 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5232 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5233 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5234 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5235 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5236 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5237 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5238 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5239 
  5240 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5241 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5242 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5243 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5244 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5245 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5246 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5247 
  5248 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5249 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5250 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5251 
  5252 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5253 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5254 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5255 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5256 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5257 limit is imposed.
  5258 
  5259 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5260 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5261 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5262 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5263 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5264 and scalability.
  5265 
  5266 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5267 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5268 
  5269 
  5270 *** Document preparation ***
  5271 
  5272 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5273 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5274 current context.
  5275 
  5276 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5277 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5278 
  5279 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5280 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5281 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5282 
  5283 
  5284 *** Pure ***
  5285 
  5286 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5287 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5288 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5289 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5290 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5291 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5292 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5293 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5294 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5295 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5296 
  5297 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5298 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5299 sketch:
  5300 
  5301     internal compilation:
  5302         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5303     writing SML code to a file:
  5304         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5305     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5306         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5307     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5308         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5309 
  5310     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5311         method ``eval''
  5312 
  5313 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5314 
  5315 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5316 
  5317     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5318     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5319     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5320     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5321 
  5322 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5323 
  5324     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5325       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5326 
  5327     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5328       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5329 
  5330     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5331       {(target)}+
  5332         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5333 
  5334     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5335       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5336         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5337 
  5338 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5339 
  5340 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5341 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5342 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5343 codegen".
  5344 
  5345 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5346 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5347 annotations).
  5348 
  5349 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5350 syntax.
  5351 
  5352 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5353 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5354 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5355 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5356 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5357 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5358 
  5359 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5360 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5361 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5362 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5363 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5364 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5365 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5366 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5367 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5368 equations, see section "definitions".
  5369 
  5370 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5371 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5372 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5373 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5374 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5375 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5376 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5377 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5378 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5379 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5380 
  5381 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5382 configuration options:
  5383 
  5384   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5385   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5386   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5387   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5388   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5389   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5390   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5391   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5392   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5393 
  5394 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5395 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5396 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5397 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5398 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5399 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5400 order.
  5401 
  5402 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5403 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5404 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5405 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5406 context encountered later on.
  5407 
  5408 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5409 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5410 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5411 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5412 
  5413 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5414 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5415 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5416 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5417 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5418 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5419 
  5420 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5421 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5422 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5423 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5424 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5425 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5426 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5427 more permissive.
  5428 
  5429 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5430 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5431 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5432 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5433 maintainability of proof texts.
  5434 
  5435 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5436 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5437 
  5438   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5439   then guess x and y by clarify
  5440 
  5441 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5442 proof tools being involved here.
  5443 
  5444 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5445 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5446 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5447 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5448 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5449 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5450 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5451 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5452 
  5453 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5454 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5455 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5456 
  5457   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5458   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5459   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5460   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5461 
  5462 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5463 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5464 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5465 
  5466 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5467 both named and unnamed ones.
  5468 
  5469 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5470 
  5471   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5472 
  5473 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5474 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5475 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5476 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5477 
  5478 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5479 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5480 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5481 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5482 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5483 
  5484 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5485 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5486 
  5487 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5488 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5489 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5490 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5491 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5492 originally first one.
  5493 
  5494 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5495 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5496 expected.
  5497 
  5498 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5499 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5500 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5501 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5502 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5503 
  5504   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5505     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5506     obtains x where "P x"
  5507 
  5508   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5509     assumes "A & B"
  5510     obtains A and B
  5511 
  5512   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5513     assumes "A | B"
  5514     obtains
  5515       A
  5516     | B
  5517 
  5518 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5519 explicitly:
  5520 
  5521   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5522     obtains "~ thesis"
  5523 
  5524   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5525     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5526 
  5527 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5528 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5529 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5530 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5531 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5532 case_names).
  5533 
  5534 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5535 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5536 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5537 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5538 
  5539 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5540 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5541 top-level lemma.
  5542 
  5543 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5544 introduction rule (default "that").
  5545 
  5546 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5547 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5548 to occur.
  5549 
  5550 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5551 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5552 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5553 representations independently of name spaces.
  5554 
  5555 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5556 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5557 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5558 
  5559 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5560 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5561 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5562 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5563 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5564 current context.
  5565 
  5566 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5567 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5568 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5569 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5570 
  5571   axiomatization
  5572     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5573     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5574 
  5575   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5576   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5577 
  5578   abbreviation
  5579     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5580     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5581 
  5582 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5583 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5584 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5585 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5586 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5587 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5588 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5589 
  5590 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5591 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5592 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5593 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5594 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5595 
  5596 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5597 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5598 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5599 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5600 
  5601 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5602 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5603 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5604 
  5605   definition "K x _ = x"
  5606 
  5607   inductive conj for A B
  5608   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5609 
  5610 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5611 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5612 abbreviations on output.
  5613 
  5614 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5615 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5616 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5617 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5618 
  5619 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5620 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5621 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5622 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5623 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5624 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5625 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5626 
  5627 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5628 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5629 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5630 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5631 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5632 
  5633 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5634 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5635 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5636 
  5637 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5638 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5639 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5640 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5641 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5642 
  5643   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5644     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5645 
  5646 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5647 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5648 partial_order.
  5649 
  5650 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5651 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5652 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5653 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5654 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5655 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5656 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5657 examples.
  5658 
  5659 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5660 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5661 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5662 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5663 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5664 
  5665 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5666 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5667 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5668 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5669 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5670 
  5671   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5672   (induct set: foo bar)
  5673   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5674   (induct type: foo bar)
  5675 
  5676 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5677 new format.
  5678 
  5679 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5680 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5681 
  5682 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5683 considered a legacy feature.
  5684 
  5685 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5686 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5687 
  5688 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5689 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5690 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5691 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5692   
  5693 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5694 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5695 manipulating the claset.
  5696 
  5697 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5698 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5699 least one premise.
  5700 
  5701 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5702 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5703 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5704 rule steps.
  5705 
  5706 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5707 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5708 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5709 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5710 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5711 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5712 
  5713 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5714 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5715 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5716 
  5717 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5718 the graph browser tool.
  5719 
  5720 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5721 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5722 
  5723 
  5724 *** HOL ***
  5725 
  5726 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5727 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5728 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5729 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5730 multi-threading.
  5731   
  5732 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5733 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5734 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5735 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5736 work with multi-threading.
  5737 
  5738 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5739 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5740 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5741 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5742 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5743 
  5744 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5745 
  5746 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5747 equality.
  5748 
  5749 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5750 the new 'class' package:
  5751 
  5752     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5753     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5754     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5755     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5756     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5757     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5758     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5759     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5760     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5761     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5762     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5763     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5764     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5765     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5766     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5767     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5768     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5769     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5770     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5771     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5772 
  5773 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5774 
  5775 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5776 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5777 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5778 names.
  5779 
  5780 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5781 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5782 
  5783 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5784 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5785 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5786 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5787 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5788 
  5789 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5790 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5791 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5792 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5793 
  5794 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5795 
  5796 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5797 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5798 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5799 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5801 
  5802 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5803 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5806 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5807 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5808 
  5809 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5810 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5811 
  5812 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5813 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5814 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5815 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5816 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5817 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5818 in the current context.
  5819 
  5820 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5821 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5823 
  5824 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5825 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5826 
  5827 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5828 
  5829     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5830     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5831 
  5832     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5833       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5834     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5835     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5836 
  5837     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5838     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5839 
  5840   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5841 
  5842     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5843     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5844     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5845     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5846     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5847     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5848     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5849     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5850     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5851     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5852     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5853     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5854     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5855     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5856     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5857     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5858     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5859     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5860     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5861     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5862     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5863     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5864     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5865     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5866     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5867     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5868     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5869     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5870     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5871     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5872     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5873     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5874     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5875     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5876     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5877 
  5878     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5879     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5880     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5881     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5882     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5883     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5884     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5885     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5886     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5887     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5888     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5889     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5890     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5891     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5892     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5893     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5894     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5895 
  5896     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5897     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5898     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5899     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5900     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5901     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5902     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5903     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5904     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5905     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5906     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5907     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5908     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5909     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5910     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5911     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5912     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5913     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5914     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5915     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5916     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5917     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5918     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5919     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5920     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5921     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5922     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5923     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5924 
  5925     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5926     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5927     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5928     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5929     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5930     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5931 
  5932     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5933     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5934     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5935     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5936 
  5937     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5938     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5939 
  5940     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5941     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5942 
  5943 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5944 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5945 
  5946 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5947 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5948 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5949 "*.size".
  5950 
  5951 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5955 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5956 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5957 
  5958 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5961 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5962 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5963 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5964 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5965 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5966 numerals on all operations.
  5967 
  5968 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5969 
  5970 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5971 
  5972 * Code generator library theories:
  5973   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5974     languages.
  5975   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5976     languages.
  5977   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5978     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5979   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5980   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5981     denominator).
  5982   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5983     representable by rational numbers.
  5984   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5985     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5986     includes Code_Integer.
  5987   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5988     target-language built-in integers.
  5989   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5990     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5991 
  5992 * New package for inductive predicates
  5993 
  5994   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5995 
  5996     inductive
  5997       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5998       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5999     where
  6000       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6001     | ...
  6002 
  6003   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6004 
  6005     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6006 
  6007     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6008     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6009 
  6010     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6011     intros
  6012       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6013       ...
  6014 
  6015   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6016   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6017 
  6018     inductive_set
  6019       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6020       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6021     where
  6022       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6023     | ...
  6024 
  6025   or
  6026 
  6027     inductive_set
  6028       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6029       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6030       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6031     where
  6032       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6033     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6034     | ...
  6035 
  6036   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6037 
  6038   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6039   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6040 
  6041   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6042 
  6043   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6044     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6045     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6046     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6047     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6048 
  6049   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6050     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6051     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6052     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6053     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6054     statements of the form
  6055 
  6056       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6057 
  6058     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6059     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6060 
  6061       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6062 
  6063   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6064 
  6065       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6066         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6067         ==> ... ==> P
  6068 
  6069     for predicates and
  6070 
  6071       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6072         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6073         ==> ... ==> P
  6074 
  6075     for sets rather than
  6076 
  6077       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6078         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6079         ==> ... ==> P
  6080 
  6081     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6082     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6083     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6084 
  6085   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6086     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6087     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6088 
  6089 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6090 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6091 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6092 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6093 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6094 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6095 
  6096 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6097 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6098 
  6099 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6100 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6101 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6102 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6103 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6104 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6105 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6106 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6107 variable.
  6108 
  6109 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6110 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6111 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6112 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6113   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6114   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6115 
  6116 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6117 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6118 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6119 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6120 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6121 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6122 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6123 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6124 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6125 
  6126 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6127 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6128 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6129 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6130 rat, etc.
  6131 
  6132 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6133 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6134 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6135 
  6136 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6137 
  6138 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6139 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6140 
  6141 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6142 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6143 
  6144 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6145 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6146 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6147 
  6148 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6149 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6151 
  6152 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6153 
  6154 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6155 
  6156 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6157 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6158 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6159 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6160 
  6161 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6162 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6163 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6164 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6165 
  6166 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6167 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6168 algebraic operations.
  6169 
  6170 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6172 
  6173 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6175 
  6176 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6177 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6178 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6179 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6180 adapted.
  6181  
  6182 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6183 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6184 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6185 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6186 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6187 
  6188 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6189 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6190 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6191 
  6192 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6194 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6195 
  6196 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6197 
  6198 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6199 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6200 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6201   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6202       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6203   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6204   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6205   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6206 
  6207 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6208 
  6209 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6210 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6211 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6212 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6213 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6214 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6215 
  6216 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6217 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6218 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6219 
  6220 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6221 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6222 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6224 
  6225 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6226 
  6227 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6228 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6229 
  6230 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6231 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6232 
  6233 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6234 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6235 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6236 
  6237 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6238 True/False.
  6239 
  6240 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6241 
  6242 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6243 
  6244 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasonin