NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Sep 14 21:23:06 2012 +0200 (2012-09-14)
changeset 49373 ab677b04cbf4
parent 49365 8aebe857aaaa
child 49388 1ffd5a055acf
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    10 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    11 
    12 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    13 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    14 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    15 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    16 dependencies properly.
    17 
    18 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    19 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    20 
    21 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    22 in old "ref" manual.
    23 
    24 
    25 *** Pure ***
    26 
    27 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    28 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    29 
    30 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    31 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    32 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    36 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    37 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    38 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    39 with some care where this is really required.
    40 
    41 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    42 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    43 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    44 
    45   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    46 
    47 
    48 *** HOL ***
    49 
    50 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    51 to lattice type classes.
    52 
    53 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a option".
    54 
    55 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
    56 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
    57 
    58   - Renamed constants:
    59 
    60       prefix ~> prefixeq
    61       strict_prefix ~> prefix
    62 
    63     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
    64 
    65   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
    66     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
    67     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
    68     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    69 
    70   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
    71     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
    72 
    73   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
    74     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
    75     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
    76     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77 
    78   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
    79     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
    80 
    81       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
    82       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
    83       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
    84       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
    85       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
    86       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
    87       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
    88       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
    89       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
    90       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
    91       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
    92       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
    93       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
    94       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
    95       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
    96       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
    97 
    98     INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 
   100 * HOL/Codatatype: New (co)datatype package with support for mixed,
   101 nested recursion and interesting non-free datatypes.
   102 
   103 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   104 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   105 
   106 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   107 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   108 
   109 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   110 expressions.
   111 
   112 * Quickcheck:
   113 
   114   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   115     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   116     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   117 
   118 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   119 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   120 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   121 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   122 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Sledgehammer:
   125 
   126   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   127     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   128   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   129   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   130   - Renamed options:
   131       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   132       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   133 
   134 
   135 *** Document preparation ***
   136 
   137 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   138 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   139 
   140 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   141 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   142 document/root.tex.
   143 
   144 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   145 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146 
   147 
   148 *** ML ***
   149 
   150 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   151 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   152 necessarily printing visible text.
   153 
   154 
   155 *** System ***
   156 
   157 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   158 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   159 for home-made configurations.
   160 
   161 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   162 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   163 
   164 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   165 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   166 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   167 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   168 
   169 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   170 
   171 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   172 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   173 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   174 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   175 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   176 
   177 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   178 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   179 
   180   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   181 
   182 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   183 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   184 
   185 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   186 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   187 "isabelle usedir".
   188 
   189 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   190 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   191 version of Isabelle.
   192 
   193 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   194 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   195 configuration.
   196 
   197 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   198 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   199 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   200 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   201 bundled as Isabelle component.
   202 
   203 
   204 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   205 ------------------------------
   206 
   207 *** General ***
   208 
   209 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   210 
   211   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   212     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   213   - markup for bound variables
   214   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   215   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   216   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   217     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   218 
   219 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   220 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   221 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   222 
   223 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   224 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   225 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   226 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   227 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   228 
   229   context
   230     fixes x y z :: 'a
   231     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   232   begin
   233 
   234   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   235 
   236   end
   237 
   238   thm my_trans
   239 
   240 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   241 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   242 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   243 
   244 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   245 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   246 
   247 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   248 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   249 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   250 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   251 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   252 
   253 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   254 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   255 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   256 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   257 indices of schematic variables.
   258 
   259 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   260 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   261 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   262 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   263 etc. was exploited.
   264 
   265 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   266 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   267 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   268 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   269 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   270 of the material of that old tutorial.
   271 
   272 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   273 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   274 manual.
   275 
   276 
   277 *** Pure ***
   278 
   279 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   280 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   281 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   282 
   283 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   284 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   285 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   286 undocumented feature.)
   287 
   288 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   289 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   290 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   291 
   292   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   293 
   294   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   295     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   296 
   297 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   298 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   299 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   300 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   301 
   302 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   303 
   304     num ~> num_token
   305     xnum ~> xnum_token
   306     xstr ~> str_token
   307 
   308 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   309 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   310 position information via constraints).
   311 
   312 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   313 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   314 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   317 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   318 
   319 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   320 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   321 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   324 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   327 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   328 
   329   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   330 
   331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   332 
   333 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   334 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   337 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   338 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   339 
   340 
   341 *** HOL ***
   342 
   343 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   344 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   345 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   346 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   347 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   348 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   349 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   350 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   351 possible.
   352 
   353 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   354 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   355 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   356 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   357 
   358 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   359 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360 
   361 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   362 
   363 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   364 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   365 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   366 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   367 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   368 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   369 
   370   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   371     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   372 
   373   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   374     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   375     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   376 
   377   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   378     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   379 
   380   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   381     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   382     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   383 
   384   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   385     Redefine using other integer operations.
   386 
   387 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   388 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   389 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   390 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   391 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   392 
   393   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   394     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   395     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   396     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   397     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   398 
   399     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   400     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   401 
   402   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   403     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   404     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   405     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   406     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   407     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   408     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   409     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   410 
   411   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   412     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   413     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   414     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   415 
   416   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   417     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   418     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   419     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   420 
   421   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   422     from type nat to type int.
   423 
   424 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   425 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   426 
   427   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   428     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   429     type.  Example syntax:
   430 
   431     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   432       is List.insert
   433 
   434     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   435     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   436     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   437     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   438     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   439     by the package.
   440 
   441   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   442     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   443     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   444     code generation for each constant.
   445 
   446   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   447     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   448     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   449     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   450     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   451 
   452   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   453     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   454     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   455 
   456 * Quotient package:
   457 
   458   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   459     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   460 
   461   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   462     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   463 
   464   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   465     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   466     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   469     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   472 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   473 
   474 * Quickcheck:
   475 
   476   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   477     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   478     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   479     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   480     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   481 
   482     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   483     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   484     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   485 
   486     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   487     continues searching for genuine ones.
   488 
   489     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   490     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   491     show genuine counterexamples.
   492 
   493   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   494     value generators for a given type and operations.
   495 
   496     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   497     constructors of that type.
   498 
   499   - Support for multisets.
   500 
   501   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   502 
   503   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   504     conjectures in a locale context.
   505 
   506 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   507 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   508 
   509 * Sledgehammer:
   510   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   511     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   512   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   513   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   514     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   515   - Sped up the minimizer.
   516   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   517   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   518   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   519 
   520 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   521 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   522 
   523 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   524 
   525 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   528 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   529 
   530   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   531 
   532 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   533 a list and a nat.
   534 
   535 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   536 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   537 
   538 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   539 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   540 default.
   541 
   542 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   543 
   544   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   545 
   546 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   547 
   548 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   549 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   550 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   551 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   552 one_case.
   553 
   554 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   555 the result of the fact expression.
   556 
   557 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   558 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   559 of some relation theorems:
   560 
   561   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   562   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   563   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   564   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   565   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   566   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   567 
   568 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   569 
   570 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   571 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   572 
   573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   574 
   575 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   576 to match the constant's name:
   577 
   578   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   579   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   580   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   581   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   582   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   583   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   584   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   585   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   586   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   587   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   588   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   589   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   590   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   591   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   592   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   593   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   594   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   595   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   596   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   597   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   598   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   599   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   600   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   601   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   602 
   603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   604 
   605 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   606 and corresponding theorem names:
   607 
   608   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   609 
   610   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   611 
   612   - Renamed theorems:
   613 
   614     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   615     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   616     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   617     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   618     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   619     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   620     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   621     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   622     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   623     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   624     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   625     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   626     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   627     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   628     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   629     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   630     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   631     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   632     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   633     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   634     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   635     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   636     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   637 
   638     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   639 
   640     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   641 
   642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   645 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   646 
   647   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   648   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   649   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   650   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   651   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   652   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   653   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   654   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   655   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   656   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   657   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   658   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   659   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   660   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   661   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   662   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   663   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   664   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   665   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   666   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   667   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   668 
   669 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   670 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   675 
   676   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   677   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   678   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   679   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   680   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   681   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   682   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   683   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   684   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   685   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   686   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   687   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   688   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   689   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   690   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   691   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   692   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   693   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   694 
   695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   696 
   697 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   698 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   699 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   700 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   701 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   702 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   703 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   704 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   705 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   706 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   707 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   708 
   709 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   710 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   711 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   712 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   713 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   714 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   715 
   716 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   717 through option types.
   718 
   719 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   720 relations.
   721 
   722 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   725 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   726 
   727   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   728   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   729   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   730   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   731   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   732   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   733   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   734   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   735   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   736   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   737   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   738   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   739   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   740   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   741   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   742   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   743   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   744   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   745   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   746   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   747   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   748   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   749   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   750   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   751   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   752   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   753   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   754   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   755   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   756   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   757   zless_le ~> less_le
   758   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   759   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   760   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   761 
   762 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   763 
   764   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   765 
   766 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   767 
   768 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   769 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   770 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   771 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   773 
   774 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   775 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   776 
   777 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   778 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   779 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   780 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   781 follows:
   782 
   783   Operations:
   784   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   785   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   786   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   787   del -> rbt_del
   788   delete -> rbt_delete
   789   ins -> rbt_ins
   790   insert -> rbt_insert
   791   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   792   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   793   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   794   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   795   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   796   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   797   tree_less -> rbt_less
   798   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   799   union -> rbt_union
   800   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   801   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   802 
   803   Lemmas:
   804   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   805   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   806   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   807   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   808   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   809   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   810   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   811   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   812   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   813   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   814   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   815   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   816   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   817   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   818   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   819   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   820   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   821   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   822   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   823   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   824   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   825   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   826   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   827   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   828   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   829   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   830   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   831   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   832   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   833   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   834   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   835   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   836   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   837   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   838   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   839   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   840   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   841   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   842   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   843   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   844   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   845   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   846   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   847   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   848   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   849   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   850   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   851   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   852   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   853   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   854   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   855   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   856   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   857   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   858   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   859   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   860   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   861   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   862   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   863   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   864   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   865   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   866   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   867   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   868   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   869   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   870   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   871   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   872   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   873   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   874   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   875   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   876   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   877   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   878   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   879   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   880   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   881   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   882   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   883   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   884   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   885   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   886   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   887 
   888 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   889 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   890 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892   Changed Operations:
   893   float_abs -> abs
   894   float_nprt -> nprt
   895   float_pprt -> pprt
   896   pow2 -> use powr
   897   round_down -> float_round_down
   898   round_up -> float_round_up
   899   scale -> exponent
   900 
   901   Removed Operations:
   902   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   903 
   904   Renamed Lemmas:
   905   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   906   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   907   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   908   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   909   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   910   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   911   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   912   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   913   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   914   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   915   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   916   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   917   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   918   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   919   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   920   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   921   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   922   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   923   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   924   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   925   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   926   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   927   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   928   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   929   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   930   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   931   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   932   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   933   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   934   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   935   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   936   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   937   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   938   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   939   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   940   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   941 
   942   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   943   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   944   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   945   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   946   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   947   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   948   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   949   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   950   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   951   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   952 
   953 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   954 association lists with distinct keys.
   955 
   956 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   957 annotated commands.
   958 
   959 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   960 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   961 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   962 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   963 
   964 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   965 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   966 instead.
   967 
   968   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   969   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   970   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   971   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   972   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   973   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   974   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   975   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   976   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   977   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   978   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   979   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   980   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   981   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   982   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   983   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   984   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   985   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   986   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   987   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   988   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   989   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   990   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   991   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   992   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   993   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   994   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   995   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   996   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   997   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   998   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   999   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1000   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1001   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1002   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1003   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1004   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1005   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1006   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1007   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1008   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1009 
  1010 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1011 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1012 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1013 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1014 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1015 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1016 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1017 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1018 
  1019 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1020 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1021 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1022 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1023 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1024 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1025 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1026 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1027 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1028 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1029 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1030 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032   Renamed constants:
  1033   measure -> emeasure
  1034   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1035   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1036   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1037   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1038 
  1039   Removed locales:
  1040   completeable_measure_space
  1041   finite_measure_space
  1042   finite_prob_space
  1043   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1044   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1045   finite_sigma_algebra
  1046   measure_space
  1047   pair_finite_prob_space
  1048   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1049   pair_finite_space
  1050   pair_sigma_algebra
  1051   product_sigma_algebra
  1052 
  1053   Removed constants:
  1054   conditional_space
  1055   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1056   image_space
  1057   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1058   pair_measure_generator
  1059   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1060   subvimage
  1061 
  1062   Replacement theorems:
  1063   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1064   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1065   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1066   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1067   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1068   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1069   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1070   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1071   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1072   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1073   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1074   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1075   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1076   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1077   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1078   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1079   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1080   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1081   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1082   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1083   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1084   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1085   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1086   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1087   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1088   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1089   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1090   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1091   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1092   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1093   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1094   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1095   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1096   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1097   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1098   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1099   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1100   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1101   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1102   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1103   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1104   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1105   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1106   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1107   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1108   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1109   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1110   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1111   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1112   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1113   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1114   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1115   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1116   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1117   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1118   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1119   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1120   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1121   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1122   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1123   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1124   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1125   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1126   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1127   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1128   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1129   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1130   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1131   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1132   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1133   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1134   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1135   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1136   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1137   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1138   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1139   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1140   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1141   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1142   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1143   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1144   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1145   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1146   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1147   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1148   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1149   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1150   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1151   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1152   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1153   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1154   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1155   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1156   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1157   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1158   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1159   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1160   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1161   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1162   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1163   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1164   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1165   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1166   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1167   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1168   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1169   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1170   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1171   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1172   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1173   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1174   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1175   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1176   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1177   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1178   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1179   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1180   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1181   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1182   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1183   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1184   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1185   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1186   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1187   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1188   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1189   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1190   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1191 
  1192 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1193 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1194 
  1195 
  1196 *** FOL ***
  1197 
  1198 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1199 
  1200 
  1201 *** ZF ***
  1202 
  1203 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1204 analysis.
  1205 
  1206 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1207 
  1208 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 
  1211 *** ML ***
  1212 
  1213 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1214 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1215 
  1216 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1217 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1218 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1219 
  1220 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1221 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1222 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1223 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1224 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1225 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1226 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1227 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1228 
  1229 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1230 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1231 
  1232 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1233 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1234 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1235 
  1236 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1237 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1238 
  1239 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1240 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1241 context as well.
  1242 
  1243 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1244 
  1245   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1246   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1247   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1248   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1249   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1250   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1251   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1252   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1253   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1254   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1255   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1256   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1257 
  1258 
  1259 *** System ***
  1260 
  1261 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1262 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1263 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1264 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1265 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1266 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1267 the generic user home was intended.
  1268 
  1269 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1270 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1271 
  1272 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1273 (not just JRE).
  1274 
  1275 
  1276 
  1277 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1278 ------------------------------------
  1279 
  1280 *** General ***
  1281 
  1282 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1283 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1284 
  1285   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1286     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1287     files for checking).
  1288 
  1289   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1290     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1291     positions.
  1292 
  1293   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1294     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1295     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1296 
  1297   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1298     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1299     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1300 
  1301   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1302     cores.
  1303 
  1304   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1305     versions (garbage collection).
  1306 
  1307 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1308 including some remaining limitations.
  1309 
  1310 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1311 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1312 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1313 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1314 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1318 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1319 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1320 
  1321 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1322 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1323 usedir option -Q.
  1324 
  1325 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1326 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1327 
  1328   long_names   ~> names_long
  1329   short_names  ~> names_short
  1330   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1331 
  1332 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1333 
  1334   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1335 
  1336 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1337 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1338 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1339 
  1340 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1341 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1342 
  1343 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1344   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1345   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1346   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1347     "Classical Reasoner".
  1348 
  1349 
  1350 *** HOL ***
  1351 
  1352 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1353 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1354 
  1355 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1356 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1357 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1358 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1359 class complete_linorder.
  1360 
  1361 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1362 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1363 
  1364 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1365 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1366 
  1367   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1368   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1369   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1370   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1371   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1372   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1373   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1374   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1375   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1376   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1377   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1378 
  1379 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1380 
  1381   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1382   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1383   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1384   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1385   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1386   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1387   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1388   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1389   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1390   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1391   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1392   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1393   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1394   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1395   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1396   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1397 
  1398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1399 
  1400 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1402 
  1403 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1404 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1405 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1406 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1407 
  1408 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1409 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1410 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1412 
  1413 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1414 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1415 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1416 
  1417 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1418 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1419 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1422 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1423 
  1424 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1425 
  1426     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1427     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1428 
  1429 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1430 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1431 
  1432 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1433 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1436 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1437 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1438 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1441   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1442   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1443   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1444   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1445   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1446   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1447 
  1448 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1449 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1452   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1453   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1454   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1455   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1456   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1457   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1458   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1459   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1460   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1461   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1462   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1463   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1464   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1465   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1466   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1467   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1468   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1469   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1470   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1471   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1472   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1473   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1474   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1475   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1476   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1477   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1478   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1479   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1480   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1481   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1482   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1483   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1484   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1485   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1486   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1487   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1488   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1489   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1490   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1491   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1492   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1493   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1494   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1495   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1496   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1497   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1498   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1499   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1500   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1501   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1502   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1503   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1504   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1505   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1506   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1507   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1508   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1509   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1510   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1511   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1512   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1513   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1514   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1515   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1516   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1517   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1518   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1519   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1520   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1521   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1522   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1523   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1524   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1525   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1526   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1527   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1528   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1529   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1530   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1531   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1532   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1533 
  1534 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1535 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1536 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1537 
  1538 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1539 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1540 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1541 
  1542 * Code generation:
  1543 
  1544   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1545     characters in the target language.
  1546 
  1547   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1548     instead.
  1549 
  1550   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1551 
  1552   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1553     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1554 
  1555       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1556 
  1557 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1560 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1561 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1562 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1563 syntax.
  1564 
  1565 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1566 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1567 
  1568 * Nitpick:
  1569   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1570   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1571   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1572     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Sledgehammer:
  1575   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1576   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1577     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1578   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1579     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1580   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1581     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1583     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1584   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1585     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1586 
  1587 * Metis:
  1588   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1589   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1590     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592 * Command 'try':
  1593   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1594     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1595   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1596     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1597 
  1598 * Quickcheck:
  1599   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1600     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1601   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1602     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1603   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1604     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1605     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1606     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1607   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1608     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1609 
  1610 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1611 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1612 
  1613 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1614 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1615 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1616 
  1617 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1618 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1620 
  1621 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1622 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1625 arithmetic.
  1626 
  1627 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1628 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1629 and lattice type classes.
  1630 
  1631 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1632 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1633 
  1634 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1635 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1636 
  1637 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1638 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1639 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1642   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1643   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1644   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1645 
  1646 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1647 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1648 constants:
  1649 
  1650   type inat   ~> type enat
  1651   Fin         ~> enat
  1652   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1653   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1654   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1655 
  1656 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1657 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1658 
  1659 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1660 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1661 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1662 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1663 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1664 
  1665 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1666 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1667 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1668 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1669 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1670 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1671 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1672 
  1673   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1674   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1675   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1676   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1677 
  1678 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1679 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1680 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1683   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1684   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1685   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1686   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1687   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1688   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1689   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1690   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1691   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1692   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1693   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1694   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1695   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1696   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1697   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1698   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1699   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1700   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1701   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1702   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1703   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1704   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1705   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1706   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1707   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1708   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1709   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1710   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1711   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1712   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1713   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1714   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1715   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1716   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1717   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1718   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1719   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1720   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1721   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1722   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1723   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1724   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1725   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1726   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1727   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1728   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1729   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1730   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1731   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1732   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1733 
  1734 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1735   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1736   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1737   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1738   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1739     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1740 
  1741 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742 
  1743   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1744   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1745   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1746   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1747   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1748   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1749   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1750   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1751   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1752   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1753   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1754   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1755   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1756   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1757   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1758   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1759   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1760   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1761   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1762   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1763   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1764   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1765   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1766   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1767   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1768 
  1769 
  1770 *** Document preparation ***
  1771 
  1772 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1773 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1774 same.
  1775 
  1776 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1777 result.
  1778 
  1779 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1780 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1781 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1782 
  1783 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1784 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1785 
  1786 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1787 like this:
  1788 
  1789   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1790   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1791 
  1792 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1793 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1794 layouts.
  1795 
  1796 
  1797 *** ML ***
  1798 
  1799 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1800 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1801 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1802 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1803 under external program control.
  1804 
  1805 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1806 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1807 
  1808 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1809 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1810 (better known as Proof General).
  1811 
  1812 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1813 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1814 
  1815 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1816 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1817 
  1818 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1819 (including quotes etc.).
  1820 
  1821 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1822 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1823 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1824 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1825 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1826 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1827 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1828 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1829 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1830 
  1831 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1832 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1833 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1834 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1835 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1836 
  1837 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1838 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1839 
  1840 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1841 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1842 
  1843 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1844 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1845 
  1846 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1847 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1848 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1849 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1850 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1851 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1852 proper Proof.context.
  1853 
  1854 
  1855 *** System ***
  1856 
  1857 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1858 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1859 
  1860 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1861 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1862 
  1863 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1864 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1865 
  1866   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1867   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1868   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1869   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1870   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1871 
  1872 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1873 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1876 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1877 example:
  1878 
  1879   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1880 
  1881 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1882 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1883 
  1884 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1885 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1886 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1887 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1888 
  1889 
  1890 
  1891 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1892 ----------------------------------
  1893 
  1894 *** General ***
  1895 
  1896 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1897 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1898 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1899 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1900 like this:
  1901 
  1902   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1903 
  1904 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1905 
  1906 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1907 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1908 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1909 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1910 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1911 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1912 
  1913 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1914 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1915 the following package declarations:
  1916 
  1917   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1918   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1919 
  1920 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1921 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1922 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1923 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1924 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1925 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1926 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1927 
  1928 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1929 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1930 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1931 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1932 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1933 
  1934 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1935 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1936 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1937 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1938 
  1939 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1940 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1941 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1942 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1943 
  1944   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1945 
  1946   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1947   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1948   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1949   show_types                    show_types
  1950   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1951   show_consts                   show_consts
  1952   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1953 
  1954   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1955   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1956   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1957 
  1958   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1959   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1960 
  1961   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1962 
  1963   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1964   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1965   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1966   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1967   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1968 
  1969 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1970 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1971 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1972 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1973 
  1974 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1978   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1979 
  1980 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1981 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1982 float_token.
  1983 
  1984 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1985 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1989 DejaVu Sans.
  1990 
  1991 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1992 
  1993 
  1994 *** Pure ***
  1995 
  1996 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1997 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1998 time.
  1999 
  2000 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2001 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2002 
  2003 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2004 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2005 
  2006 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2007 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2008 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2009 command already provided this functionality.
  2010 
  2011 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2012 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2013 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2014 without interpretations.
  2015 
  2016 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2017 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2018 
  2019 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2020 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2021 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2022 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2023 
  2024 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2025 'definition' instead.
  2026 
  2027 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2028 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2029 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2030 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2031 
  2032 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2033 constructors.
  2034 
  2035 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2036 the local file system.
  2037 
  2038 
  2039 *** HOL ***
  2040 
  2041 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2042 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2043 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2044 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2045 
  2046   declare [[coercion f]]
  2047 
  2048 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2049 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2050 
  2051   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2052 
  2053 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2054 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2055 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2056 other theories like this:
  2057 
  2058   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2059 
  2060 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2061 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2062 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2063 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2064 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2065 for examples.
  2066 
  2067 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2068 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2069 
  2070 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2071 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2072 
  2073 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2074 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2075 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2076 
  2077 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2078 functorial structure of types.
  2079 
  2080 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2081 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2082 
  2083 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2084 languages.
  2085 
  2086 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2087 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2089 
  2090 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2091 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2092 
  2093 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2094 combinators any longer.
  2095 
  2096 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2097 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2098 
  2099 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2100 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2101 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2102 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2103 
  2104   record 'a foo = ...
  2105   ...
  2106   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2107 
  2108 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2109 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2113 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2114 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2115 
  2116 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2117 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2118 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2119 
  2120 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2121 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2124 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2125 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2126 independently.
  2127 
  2128 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2129 counter example search.
  2130 
  2131 * Sledgehammer:
  2132   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2133     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2134     sledgehammer").
  2135   - Renamed commands:
  2136     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2137     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2138     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2139     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140   - Renamed options:
  2141     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2142     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2143     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2144     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2145     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147 * Nitpick:
  2148   - Renamed options:
  2149     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2150     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2151     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2153   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2154   - Added "whack" option.
  2155   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2156   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2157   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2158   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2159     higher cardinalities.
  2160   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2161 
  2162 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2163 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2164 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2165 
  2166     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2167 
  2168 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2169 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2170 
  2171 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2172 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2173 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2174 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2175 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2176 "smt_solver".
  2177 
  2178 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2179 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2180 
  2181 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2182 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2183 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2184 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2187   - Renamed:
  2188     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2189     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2190     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2191   - Added:
  2192     smt_verbose
  2193     smt_random_seed
  2194     smt_datatypes
  2195     smt_infer_triggers
  2196     smt_monomorph_limit
  2197     cvc3_options
  2198     remote_cvc3_options
  2199     remote_z3_options
  2200     yices_options
  2201 
  2202 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2203 header.
  2204 
  2205 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2206 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2207 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2208 
  2209   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2210 
  2211 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2214 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2219 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2222 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2223 
  2224 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2225 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2228 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2229 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2235 
  2236 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2237 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2238 
  2239 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2240 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2241 for congruent(2)).
  2242 
  2243 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2244 
  2245   types
  2246     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2247     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2248 
  2249   constants
  2250     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2251     True ~> HOL.True
  2252     False ~> HOL.False
  2253     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2254     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2255     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2256     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2257     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2258     The ~> HOL.The
  2259     All ~> HOL.All
  2260     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2261     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2262     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2263     If ~> HOL.If
  2264     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2265     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2266     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2267     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2268     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2269     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2270     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2271     op : ~> Set.member
  2272     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2273 
  2274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2277 
  2278     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2279     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2280     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2281     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2282     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2283     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2284     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2285     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2286 
  2287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289 * More stylized fact names:
  2290 
  2291   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2292   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2293   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2294   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2295 
  2296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2299 
  2300   constants
  2301     null ~> List.null
  2302 
  2303   facts
  2304     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2305     null_empty ~> null_def
  2306 
  2307 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2308 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2309 generation.
  2310 
  2311 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2312 Haskell code.
  2313 
  2314 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2315 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2316 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2317 
  2318 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2319 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2320 
  2321 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2322 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2323 
  2324 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2325 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2326 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2329 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2335 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2336 referred to by its qualified name.
  2337 
  2338   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2339   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2340   product ~>  Enum.product
  2341 
  2342 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2343 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2347 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2348 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2352 sort_key.
  2353 
  2354 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2358 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2359 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2360 
  2361   types
  2362     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2363               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2364               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2365         (depends on your needs)
  2366 
  2367   constants
  2368      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2369      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2370      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2371 
  2372 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2373 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2374 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2375 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2378 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2379 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2380 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2381 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2387 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2388 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2389 
  2390 
  2391 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2392 
  2393 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2394 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2395 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2396 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2397 compatibility.
  2398 
  2399 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2400 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2401 
  2402 
  2403 *** HOLCF ***
  2404 
  2405 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2406 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2407 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2409 
  2410 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2411 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2412 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2413 
  2414   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2415   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2416   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2417 
  2418 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2419 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2420 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2421 
  2422 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2423 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2424 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2425 domain definition now works:
  2426 
  2427   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2428 
  2429 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2430 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2431 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2432 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2433 
  2434   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2435     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2436 
  2437   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2438 
  2439 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2440 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2441 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2444 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2447 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2448 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2449 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2450 
  2451 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2452 
  2453 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2454 
  2455 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2461 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2462 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2463 
  2464 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2465 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2466 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2469 still supported as an input translation.
  2470 
  2471 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2472 
  2473   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2474   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2475   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2476   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2477   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2478   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2479   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2480 
  2481 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2482 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2483 
  2484   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2485   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2486   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2487   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2488   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2489   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2490 
  2491 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2492 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2495 
  2496   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2497   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2498   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2499   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2500 
  2501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2502 
  2503 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2504 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2507 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2510   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2511   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2512   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2513   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2514   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2515   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2516   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2517   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2518   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2519   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2520   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2521   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2522   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2523   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2524   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2525   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2526   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2527   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2528   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2529 
  2530 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2533   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2534   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2535   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2536   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2537   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2538   box_less             ~> box_below
  2539   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2540   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2541   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2542   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2543   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2544   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2545   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2546   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2547   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2548   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2549   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2550   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2551   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2552   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2553   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2554   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2555   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2556   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2557   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2558   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2559   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2560   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2561   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2562   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2563   up_less              ~> up_below
  2564   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2565   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2566   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2567   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2568   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2569   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2570   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2571   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2572   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2573   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2574   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2575   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2576   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2577 
  2578 
  2579 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2580 
  2581 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2582 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584 
  2585 *** ML ***
  2586 
  2587 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2588 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2589 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2590 
  2591 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2592 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2593 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2594 
  2595 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2596 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2597 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2598 
  2599 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2600 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2601 
  2602 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2603 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2604 
  2605 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2606 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2607 
  2608 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2609 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2610 
  2611 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2612 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2613 almost all situations.
  2614 
  2615 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2616 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2617 Isabelle/ML.
  2618 
  2619 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2620 meaning.
  2621 
  2622 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2623 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2624 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2625 
  2626 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2627 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2628 
  2629 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2630 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2631 
  2632 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2633 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2634 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2635 
  2636 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2637 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2638 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2639 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2640 configuration options.
  2641 
  2642 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2643 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2644 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2645 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2646 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2647 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2648 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2649 
  2650 
  2651 
  2652 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2653 ---------------------------------
  2654 
  2655 *** General ***
  2656 
  2657 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2658 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2659 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2660 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2661 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2662 their full internal name.
  2663 
  2664 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2665 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2666 Some hints on upgrading:
  2667 
  2668   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2669     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2670     which are independent of this issue.
  2671 
  2672   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2673     provides the following special forms:
  2674 
  2675       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2676       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2677       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2678 
  2679     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2680     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2681     extra variables".
  2682 
  2683     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2684     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2685     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2686     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2687     "logic".
  2688 
  2689   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2690     antiquotations:
  2691 
  2692       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2693       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2694       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2695       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2696 
  2697   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2698     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2699     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2700     antiquotations.
  2701 
  2702 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2703 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2704 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2705 diagnose syntax problems.
  2706 
  2707 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2708 
  2709 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2710 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2711 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2712 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2713 
  2714 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2715 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2716 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2717 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2718 
  2719 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2720 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2721 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2722 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2723 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2726 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2727 
  2728 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2729 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2730 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2731 
  2732   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2733 
  2734 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2735 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2736 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2737 
  2738 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2739 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2743 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2744 
  2745 
  2746 *** Pure ***
  2747 
  2748 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2749 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2750 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2751 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2752 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2753 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2754 inspect proof terms.
  2755 
  2756 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2757 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2758 are added internally.  For example:
  2759 
  2760   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2761 
  2762 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2763 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766 
  2767 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2768 'class' instead.
  2769 
  2770 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2771 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2775 invariants.
  2776 
  2777 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2778 user space functionality any longer.
  2779 
  2780 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2781 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2785 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2786 
  2787 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2788 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2789 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2790 
  2791 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2792 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2793 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2794 
  2795 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2796 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 
  2799 *** HOL ***
  2800 
  2801 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2802 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2803 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2804 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2805 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2806 
  2807 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2808 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2809 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2810 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2811 
  2812   fun
  2813     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2814   where
  2815     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2816 
  2817   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2818     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2819 
  2820   quotient_definition
  2821     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2822 
  2823 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2824 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2825 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2826 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2827 
  2828 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2829 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2830 
  2831 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2832 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2833 
  2834 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2838 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2839 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2840 
  2841 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2842 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2851 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852 
  2853 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2854 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2855 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2856 
  2857   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2858   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2859   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2860   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2861   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2862   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2863   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2864   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2865   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2866   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2867   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2868   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2869   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2870   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2871   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2872   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2873   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2874   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2875   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2876   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2877   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2878   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2879   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2880   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2881   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2882   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2883   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2884   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2885   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2886   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2887 
  2888 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2889 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2890 
  2891 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2892 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2893 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2894 
  2895 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2896 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2897 
  2898 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2899 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900 
  2901 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2902 
  2903 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2904 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905 
  2906 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2907 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2910 
  2911 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2912 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2913 
  2914 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2915 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2916 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2917 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2920   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2921   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2922   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2926 lattices):
  2927 
  2928     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2929     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2930 
  2931     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2932 
  2933     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2934     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2935     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2936     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2937     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2938     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2939     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2940     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2941     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2942     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2943     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2944     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2945     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2946 
  2947     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2948     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2949     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2950     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2951     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2952     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2953     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2954     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2955     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2956     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2957     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2958     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2959     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2960     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2961     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2962     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2963     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2964     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2965 
  2966   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2967   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2968 
  2969     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2970     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2971     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2972     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2973     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2974 
  2975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Refined field classes:
  2978   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2979     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2980     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2981   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2985   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2986   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2987   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2988     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2989   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2990     equal_neg_zero.
  2991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2994 sets to lattices:
  2995 
  2996   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2997   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2998   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2999   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3000   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3001   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3002   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3003   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3004   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3005   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3006 
  3007 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3008 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3009 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3010 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3011 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3012 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3015 multiset order:
  3016 
  3017   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3018     <= and <;
  3019   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3020     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3021     multiset_order;
  3022   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3023     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3024     generation;
  3025   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3026     if needed.
  3027 
  3028 Renamed:
  3029 
  3030   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3031   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3032   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3033 
  3034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3035 
  3036 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3037 
  3038 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3039 
  3040 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3041 
  3042 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3043 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3044 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046   Constants:
  3047   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3048   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3049   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3050   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3051   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3052   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3053   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3054   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3055   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3056   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3057   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3058   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3059   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3060 
  3061   Lemmas:
  3062   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3063   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3064   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3065   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3066   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3067   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3068   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3069   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3070   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3071   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3072   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3073   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3074   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3075 
  3076 * Sledgehammer:
  3077   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3078     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3079     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3080     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3081     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3082     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3083     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3085   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3086     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3087   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3088     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3089     is still experimental.)
  3090   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3091     full-typed mode.
  3092   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3093 
  3094 * Nitpick:
  3095   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3096   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3097   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3098     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3099   - Added support for quotient types.
  3100   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3101     constructs.
  3102   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3103     "termination" proofs).
  3104   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3105   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3106   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3107   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3108     record getters.
  3109   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3110   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3111   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3112   - Added "atoms" option.
  3113   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3114     problems.
  3115   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3116     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3117     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3119     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3123   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3124   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3125   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3126   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3127   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3128   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3129   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3130   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3131   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 
  3134 *** HOLCF ***
  3135 
  3136 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3137 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3138 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3141 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3142 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3143 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3146 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3147 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3148 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3149 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3152 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3153 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3156 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3159   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3160 
  3161 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3162 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3165   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3166   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3167   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3168   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3169 
  3170 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3171 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172 
  3173   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3174   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3175   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3176 
  3177 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3178 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3182 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3187 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 
  3190 *** ML ***
  3191 
  3192 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3193 
  3194     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3195     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3196 
  3197     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3198     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3199     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3200     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3201 
  3202     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3203     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3204     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3205 
  3206 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3207 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3208 
  3209 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3210 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3211 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3212 
  3213 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3214 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3215 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3216 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3217 
  3218 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3219 the context or even global references.
  3220 
  3221 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3222 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3223 
  3224 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3225 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3226 
  3227   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3228   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3229   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3230   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3231   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3232   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3233   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3234   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3235   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3236   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3237 
  3238 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3239 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3240 
  3241 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3242 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3243 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3244 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3245 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3246 
  3247 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3248 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3249 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3250 Theory_Data version.
  3251 
  3252 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3253 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3254 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3255 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3256 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3257 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3258 explicitly in rare situations.
  3259 
  3260 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3261 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3265 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3268 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3269 quite rare).
  3270 
  3271 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3272 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3275 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3276 terms.
  3277 
  3278 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3279 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3280 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3281 
  3282 
  3283 *** System ***
  3284 
  3285 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3286 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3287 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3288 
  3289 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3290 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3291 respectively.
  3292 
  3293 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3294 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3295 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3296 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3297 
  3298   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3299 
  3300 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3301 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3302 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3303 component.
  3304 
  3305 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3306 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3307 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3308 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3309 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3310 the user for manual installation.
  3311 
  3312 
  3313 
  3314 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3315 -------------------------------------
  3316 
  3317 *** General ***
  3318 
  3319 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3320 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3321 
  3322 
  3323 *** Pure ***
  3324 
  3325 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3326 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3327 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3328 
  3329 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3330 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3331 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3332 
  3333 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3334 interpretation.
  3335 
  3336 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3337 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 
  3340 *** Document preparation ***
  3341 
  3342 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3343 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3344 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3345 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3346 
  3347 
  3348 *** HOL ***
  3349 
  3350 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3351 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3352 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3353 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3354 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3355 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3356 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3357 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3358 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3359 
  3360 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3361 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3362 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3363 
  3364 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3365 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3366 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3367 
  3368 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3369 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3370 
  3371 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3372 
  3373 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3374 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3375 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3376 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3377 
  3378 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3379 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3380 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3381 "mirabelle" utility.
  3382 
  3383 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3384 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3385 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3386 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3387 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3388 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3389 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3390 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3391 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3392 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3393 
  3394 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3395 procedure only.
  3396 
  3397 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3398 
  3399 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3400 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3401 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3402 that fail later.
  3403 
  3404 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3405 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3406 
  3407 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3408 the same method as the approximation method.
  3409 
  3410 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3411 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3412 series expansion.
  3413 
  3414 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3415 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3416 
  3417 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3418 reals.
  3419 
  3420 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3421 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3422 
  3423 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3424 fixpoint theorem.
  3425 
  3426 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3427   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3428     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3429   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3430     accordingly
  3431   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3432     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3433   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3434     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3435 
  3436 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3437 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3438 lattice.
  3439 
  3440 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3441 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3442 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3443 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3444 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3445 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3449   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3450     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3451   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3452     le_inf_iff
  3453   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3454     sup_aci)
  3455   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3456   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3457   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3458     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3459     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3460     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3461     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3462     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3463     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3464     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3465     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3466     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3467     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3468   - authentic syntax for
  3469     Set.Pow
  3470     Set.image
  3471   - mere abbreviations:
  3472     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3473     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3474     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3475     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3476     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3477     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3478     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3479     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3480   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3481 
  3482 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3483 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3484 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3485 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3486 
  3487 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3488 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3489 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3492 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3495 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3496 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3497 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3500 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3501 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3502 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3503 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3504 
  3505 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3506 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3510 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3513 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3514 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3515 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3516 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3517 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3518 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3522     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3523     code_post       replaces    code post
  3524     etc.
  3525   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Renamed methods:
  3528     sizechange -> size_change
  3529     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3530   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3533 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3534 
  3535 * Renamed theorems:
  3536     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3537     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3538     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3539     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3540     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3541   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 
  3550 *** HOLCF ***
  3551 
  3552 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3553 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3554 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3555 
  3556 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3557 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3558 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3559 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3560 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3561 
  3562 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3563 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3564 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3565 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3566 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3567 
  3568 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3569 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3570 constructor are pre-configured.
  3571 
  3572 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3573 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3574 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3575 
  3576 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3577 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3578 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3579 as well.)
  3580 
  3581 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3582 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3583 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3584 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3585 examples.
  3586 
  3587 
  3588 *** ML ***
  3589 
  3590 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3591 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3592 
  3593 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3594 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3595 position, logical grouping etc.
  3596 
  3597 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3598 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3599 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3600 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3601 
  3602 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3603 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3604 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3605 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3606 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3607 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3608 
  3609 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3610 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3611 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3612 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3613 experiments with references.
  3614 
  3615 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3616 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3617 
  3618 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3619 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3620 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3621 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3622 
  3623 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3624 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3625 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3626 
  3627 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3628 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3629 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3637 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3638 
  3639 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3640 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3641 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3642 
  3643 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3644 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3645 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3648 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3649 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3653 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3654 instead of global theory.
  3655 
  3656 
  3657 *** System ***
  3658 
  3659 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3660 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3661 usedir option -q.
  3662 
  3663 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3664 also the system manual.
  3665 
  3666 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3667 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3668 
  3669 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3670 this is always enabled.
  3671 
  3672 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3673 
  3674 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3675 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3676 currently supported on Linux only.
  3677 
  3678 
  3679 
  3680 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3681 --------------------------------
  3682 
  3683 *** General ***
  3684 
  3685 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3686 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3687 
  3688   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3689     "isatool."
  3690 
  3691   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3692     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3693 
  3694   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3695     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3696 
  3697 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3698 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3699 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3700 
  3701 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3702 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3703 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3704 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3705 via "isabelle emacs".
  3706 
  3707 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3708 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3709 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3710 
  3711 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3712 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3713 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3714 
  3715 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3716 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3717 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3718 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3719 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3720 
  3721 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3722 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3723 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3724 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3725 
  3726 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3727 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3728 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3729 
  3730 
  3731 *** Pure ***
  3732 
  3733 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3734 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3735 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3736 
  3737 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3738 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3739 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3740 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3741 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3742 
  3743 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3744 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3745 useful in locale declarations.
  3746 
  3747 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3748 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3749 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3750 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3751 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3752 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3753 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3754 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3755 no longer generated.
  3756 
  3757 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3758 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3759 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3760 
  3761 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3762 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3763 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3764 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3765 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3766 
  3767 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3769 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3770 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3771 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3772 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3773 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3774 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3775 
  3776 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3777 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3778 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3779 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3780 
  3781 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3784 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3785 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3786 
  3787 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3788 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3791 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3792 in HOL, write
  3793 
  3794     class foo = ...
  3795 
  3796 instead of
  3797 
  3798     class foo = type + ...
  3799 
  3800 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3801 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3804 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3805 
  3806 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3807 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3808 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3809 
  3810 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3811 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3812 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3813 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3814 directly in regular applications.
  3815 
  3816 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3817 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3818 
  3819 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3820 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3821 
  3822 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3823 theory context.
  3824 
  3825 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3826 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3829 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3830 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3831 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3832 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3833 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3834 
  3835   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3836 
  3837 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3838 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3839 normalization.
  3840 
  3841 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3842 addressing etc.
  3843 
  3844 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3845 
  3846   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3847   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3848 
  3849 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3850 
  3851   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3852      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3853      parts of the code generator framework).
  3854 
  3855   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3856      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3857      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3858 
  3859 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3862 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3865 patterns, e.g.
  3866 
  3867     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3868 
  3869 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3870 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3871 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3872 hyphen:
  3873 
  3874     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3875 
  3876 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3877 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3878 
  3879 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3880 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3881 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3882 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3883 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3884 higher-order unification.
  3885 
  3886 
  3887 *** Document preparation ***
  3888 
  3889 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3890 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3891 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3892 
  3893 
  3894 *** HOL ***
  3895 
  3896 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3897 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3898 
  3899 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3900 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3901 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3902 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3903 Main, as before.
  3904 
  3905 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3906 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3907 
  3908 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3909 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3910 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3911 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3912 
  3913 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3914 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3915 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3916 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3917 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3918 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3919 
  3920 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3921 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3922 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3923 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3924 
  3925 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3926 menu.
  3927 
  3928 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3929 (contains the empty clause).
  3930 
  3931 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3932 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3933 
  3934 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3935 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3936 
  3937 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3938 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3939 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3942 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3943 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3944 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3945 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3946 
  3947 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3948 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3949 
  3950 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3951 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3952 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3953 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3954 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3955 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3956 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3957 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3958 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3959 
  3960 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3961 
  3962 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3963 
  3964 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3965 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3968 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3969 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3970 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3971 
  3972 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3973 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3974 
  3975     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3976     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3977     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3978     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3979     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3980     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3981     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3982     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3983 
  3984 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3985 theory Set.
  3986 
  3987 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3988 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3989 
  3990 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3991 
  3992 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3993 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3994 
  3995 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3996 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3997 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3998 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3999 allowed. For examples see
  4000 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4001 
  4002 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4003 
  4004 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4008 structure:
  4009 
  4010     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4011     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4012     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4013     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4014     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4015     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4016     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4017     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4018     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4019     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4020     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4021     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4022     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4023     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4024     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4025     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4026     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4027     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4028     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4029     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4030     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4031     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4032     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4033     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4034     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4035     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4036     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4037     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4038     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4039     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4040     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4041     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4042     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4043 
  4044     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4045     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4046     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4047     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4048     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4049     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4050     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4051     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4052     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4053     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4054 
  4055     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4056     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4057     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4058     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4059     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4060     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4061 
  4062 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4063 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4064 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4065 
  4066 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4067 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4068 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4069 
  4070 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4071 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4072 
  4073 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4074 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4075 
  4076 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4077 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4078 proofs, e.g.
  4079 
  4080   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4081 
  4082 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4083 
  4084 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4085 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4086 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4089 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4091 
  4092 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4093 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4094 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4098 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4099 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4100 preorder_class.*.
  4101 
  4102 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4103 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4104 
  4105 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4106 
  4107   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4108 
  4109 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4110 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4111 fold_image.
  4112 
  4113 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4114 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4115 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4116 the former will disappear at some point.
  4117 
  4118 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4119 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4120 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4121 
  4122 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4123 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4124 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4125 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4126 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4127 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4128 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4129 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4130 
  4131 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4132 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4133 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4134 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4135 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4136 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4137 
  4138     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4139     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4140     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4141     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4142     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4143     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4144     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4145 
  4146 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4147 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4148 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4149 
  4150 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4151 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4152 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4153 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4154 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4155 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4156 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4157 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4158 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4159 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4160 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4161 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4162 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4163 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4164 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4165 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4166 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4167 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4168 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4169 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4170 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4171 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4172 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4173 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4174 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4175 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4176 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4177 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4178 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4179 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4180 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4181 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4182 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4183 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4184 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4185 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4186 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4187 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4188 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4189 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4190 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4191 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4192 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4193 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4194 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4195 
  4196 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4199 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4200 
  4201 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4202 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4203 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4204 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4205 
  4206 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4207 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4208 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4209 theory RealVector.
  4210 
  4211 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4212 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4213 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4214 and inner products are included.
  4215 
  4216 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4217 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4218 supported.
  4219 
  4220 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4221 first diagonalization argument.
  4222 
  4223 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4224 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4225 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4226 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4227 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4228 
  4229     hide (open) const gcd
  4230     abbreviation gcd where
  4231       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4232     notation (output)
  4233       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4234 
  4235 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4236 
  4237 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4238 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4239 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4240 
  4241 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4242 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4243 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4244 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4245 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4246 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4247 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4248 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4249 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4250 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4251 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4252 cases.
  4253 
  4254 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4255 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4256 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4257 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4258 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4259 
  4260     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4261     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4262     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4263     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4264     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4265 
  4266 
  4267 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4268 
  4269 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4270 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4271 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4272 
  4273 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4274 
  4275 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4276 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4277 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4278 
  4279 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4280 
  4281 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4282 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4283 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4284 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4285 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4286 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4287 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4288 
  4289 
  4290 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4291 
  4292 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4293 
  4294 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4295 theory targets.
  4296 
  4297 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4298 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4299 'inductive' etc.
  4300 
  4301 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4302 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4303 
  4304 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4305 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4306 
  4307 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4308 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4309 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4310 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4311 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4312 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4313 the algorithm W:
  4314 
  4315  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4316  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4317          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4318 
  4319 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4320 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4321 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4322 
  4323 
  4324 *** HOLCF ***
  4325 
  4326 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4327 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4328 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4329 
  4330 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4331 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4332 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4333 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4334 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4335 
  4336 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4337 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4338 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4339 
  4340 
  4341 *** ZF ***
  4342 
  4343 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4344 
  4345 
  4346 *** ML ***
  4347 
  4348 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4349 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4350 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4351 5.2.1!
  4352 
  4353 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4354 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4355 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4356 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4357 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4358 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4359 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4360 
  4361 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4362 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4363 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4364 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4365 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4366 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4367 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4368 
  4369 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4370 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4371 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4372 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4373 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4374 
  4375 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4376 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4377 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4378 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4379 Method.add_method.
  4380 
  4381 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4382 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4383 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4384 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4385 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4386 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4387 
  4388 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4389 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4390 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4391 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4392 examples.
  4393 
  4394 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4395 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4396 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4397 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4398 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4399 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4400 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4401 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4402 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4403 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4404 
  4405 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4406 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4407 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4408 
  4409 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4410 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4411 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4412 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4413 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4414 resort for legacy applications.
  4415 
  4416 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4417 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4418 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4419 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4420 explicit runtime argument.
  4421 
  4422 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4423 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4424 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4425 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4426 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4429 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4430 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4431 theory state.
  4432 
  4433 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4434 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4435 
  4436   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4437   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4438   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4439   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4440   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4441   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4442   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4443   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4444   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4445   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4446 
  4447 
  4448 *** System ***
  4449 
  4450 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4451 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4452 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4453 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4454 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4455 
  4456 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4457 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4458 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4459 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4460 
  4461 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4462 
  4463 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4464 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4465 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4466 prover operations.
  4467 
  4468 
  4469 
  4470 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4471 -------------------------------
  4472 
  4473 *** General ***
  4474 
  4475 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4476 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4477 
  4478 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4479 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4480 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4481 provides a proper context already.
  4482 
  4483 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4484 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4485 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4486 
  4487 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4488 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4489 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4490 swap theory imports.
  4491 
  4492 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4493 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4494 
  4495 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4496 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4497 white space without escapes.
  4498 
  4499 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4500 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4501 "foo_bar".
  4502 
  4503 
  4504 *** Pure ***
  4505 
  4506 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4507 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4508 
  4509 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4510 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4511 
  4512 (1) unused_thms
  4513      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4514 
  4515 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4516      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4517      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4518 
  4519 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4520      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4521      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4522      their ancestors.
  4523 
  4524 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4525 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4526 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4527 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4528 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4529 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4530 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4531 
  4532 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4533 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4534 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4535 
  4536 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4537 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4538 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4539 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4540 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4541 
  4542 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4543 
  4544 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4545 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4546 update of theories within ML code.
  4547 
  4548 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4549 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4550 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4551 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4552 
  4553 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4554 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4555 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4559 
  4560 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4561 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4562 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4563 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4564 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4565 
  4566 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4567 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4568 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4569 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4570 situations.
  4571 
  4572 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4573 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4574 proof text.
  4575 
  4576 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4577 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4578 
  4579 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4580 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4581 predicates.
  4582 
  4583 
  4584 *** Document preparation ***
  4585 
  4586 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4587 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4588 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4589 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4590 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4591 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4592 
  4593 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4594 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4595 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4596 
  4597 
  4598 *** HOL ***
  4599 
  4600 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4601 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4602 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4603 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4604 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4605 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4606 
  4607 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4608 with multithreading.
  4609 
  4610 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4611 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4612 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4613 
  4614 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4615 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4616 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4617 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4620 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4621 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4622 and makes them available separately.  See
  4623 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4624 
  4625 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4626 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4627 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4628 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4629 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4630 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4631 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4632 the declared rules.
  4633 
  4634 This setup also deals with rules like
  4635 
  4636   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4637 
  4638 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4639 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4640 
  4641 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4642 
  4643   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4644 
  4645   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4646     definitions on => and bool.
  4647 
  4648   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4649     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4650     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4651 
  4652       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4653       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4654       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4655       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4656       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4657       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4658       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4659       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4660 
  4661   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4662     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4663     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4664 
  4665   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4666     The proof pattern
  4667 
  4668       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4669       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4670 
  4671     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4672     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4673 
  4674       have "EX S. P S"
  4675       proof
  4676         show "P S" <...>
  4677       qed
  4678 
  4679   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4680     The proof pattern
  4681 
  4682       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4683       also have "S = T" <...>
  4684       finally have "P T" .
  4685 
  4686     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4687     must be replaced by something like
  4688 
  4689       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4690       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4691       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4692 
  4693   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4694     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4695 
  4696       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4697 
  4698     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4699     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4700     type of the form
  4701 
  4702       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4703 
  4704     rather than
  4705 
  4706       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4707 
  4708 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4709 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4710 
  4711 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4714 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4718 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 
  4720 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4721 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4724 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4725 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4728 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4729 
  4730   less_trans
  4731   less_linear
  4732   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4733   le_less_trans
  4734   less_le_trans
  4735   less_not_sym
  4736   less_asym
  4737 
  4738 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4739 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4740 and different variable names.
  4741 
  4742 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4743 
  4744 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4745 finite maps.
  4746 
  4747 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4748 
  4749 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4750 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4751 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4752 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4753 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4754 accordingly.
  4755 
  4756 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4757 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4758 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4759 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4760 
  4761 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4762 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4763 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4764 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4765 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4769 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4772 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4773 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4774 
  4775 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4777 
  4778 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4779 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4780 
  4781 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4782 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4785 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4786 
  4787 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4788 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4792 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4795 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4796 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4797 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4798 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4799 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4800 
  4801 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4802 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4803 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4804 
  4805 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4806 
  4807 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4808 
  4809 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4810 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4811 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4812 
  4813 
  4814 *** ZF ***
  4815 
  4816 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4817 same session:
  4818 
  4819   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4820   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4821   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4822   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4823   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4824   List      -> List_ZF
  4825   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4826 
  4827 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4828 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4829 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4830 
  4831 
  4832 *** ML ***
  4833 
  4834 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4835 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4836 
  4837 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4838 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4839 
  4840 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4841 
  4842 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4843 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4844 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4845 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4846 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4849 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4850 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4851 
  4852 
  4853 *** System ***
  4854 
  4855 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4856 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4857 
  4858 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4859 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4860 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4861 
  4862 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4863 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4864 
  4865 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4866 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4867 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4868 
  4869 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4870 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4871 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4872 
  4873 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4874 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4875 
  4876 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4877 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4878 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4879 script.
  4880 
  4881 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4882 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4883 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4884 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4885 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4886 
  4887 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4888 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4889 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4890 
  4891 
  4892 
  4893 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4894 -----------------------------------
  4895 
  4896 *** General ***
  4897 
  4898 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4899 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4900 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4901 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4902 
  4903 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4904 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4905 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4908 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4909 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4910 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4911 
  4912 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4913 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4914 quotes.
  4915 
  4916 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4917 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4918 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4919 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4920 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4921 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4922 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4923 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4924 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4925 
  4926 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4927 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4928 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4929 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4930 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4931 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4932 
  4933 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4934 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4935 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4936 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4937 
  4938 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4939 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4940 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4941 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4942 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4943 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4944 
  4945 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4946 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4947 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4948 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4949 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4950 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4951 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4952 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4953 
  4954 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4955 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4956 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4957 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4958 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4959 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4960 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4961 
  4962 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4963 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4964 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4965 
  4966 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4967 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4968 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4969 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4970 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4971 limit is imposed.
  4972 
  4973 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4974 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4975 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4976 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4977 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4978 and scalability.
  4979 
  4980 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4981 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4982 
  4983 
  4984 *** Document preparation ***
  4985 
  4986 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4987 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4988 current context.
  4989 
  4990 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4991 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4992 
  4993 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4994 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4995 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4996 
  4997 
  4998 *** Pure ***
  4999 
  5000 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5001 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5002 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5003 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5004 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5005 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5006 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5007 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5008 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5009 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5010 
  5011 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5012 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5013 sketch:
  5014 
  5015     internal compilation:
  5016         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5017     writing SML code to a file:
  5018         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5019     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5020         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5021     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5022         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5023 
  5024     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5025         method ``eval''
  5026 
  5027 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5028 
  5029 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5030 
  5031     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5032     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5033     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5034     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5035 
  5036 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5037 
  5038     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5039       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5040 
  5041     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5042       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5043 
  5044     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5045       {(target)}+
  5046         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5047 
  5048     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5049       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5050         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5051 
  5052 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5053 
  5054 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5055 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5056 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5057 codegen".
  5058 
  5059 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5060 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5061 annotations).
  5062 
  5063 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5064 syntax.
  5065 
  5066 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5067 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5068 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5069 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5070 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5071 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5072 
  5073 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5074 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5075 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5076 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5077 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5078 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5079 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5080 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5081 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5082 equations, see section "definitions".
  5083 
  5084 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5085 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5086 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5087 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5088 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5089 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5090 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5091 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5092 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5093 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5094 
  5095 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5096 configuration options:
  5097 
  5098   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5099   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5100   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5101   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5102   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5103   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5104   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5105   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5106   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5107 
  5108 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5109 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5110 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5111 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5112 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5113 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5114 order.
  5115 
  5116 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5117 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5118 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5119 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5120 context encountered later on.
  5121 
  5122 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5123 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5124 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5125 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5126 
  5127 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5128 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5129 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5130 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5131 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5132 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5133 
  5134 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5135 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5136 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5137 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5138 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5139 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5140 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5141 more permissive.
  5142 
  5143 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5144 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5145 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5146 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5147 maintainability of proof texts.
  5148 
  5149 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5150 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5151 
  5152   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5153   then guess x and y by clarify
  5154 
  5155 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5156 proof tools being involved here.
  5157 
  5158 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5159 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5160 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5161 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5162 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5163 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5164 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5165 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5166 
  5167 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5168 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5169 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5170 
  5171   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5172   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5173   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5174   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5175 
  5176 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5177 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5178 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5179 
  5180 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5181 both named and unnamed ones.
  5182 
  5183 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5184 
  5185   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5186 
  5187 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5188 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5189 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5190 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5191 
  5192 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5193 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5194 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5195 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5196 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5197 
  5198 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5199 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5200 
  5201 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5202 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5203 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5204 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5205 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5206 originally first one.
  5207 
  5208 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5209 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5210 expected.
  5211 
  5212 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5213 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5214 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5215 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5216 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5217 
  5218   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5219     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5220     obtains x where "P x"
  5221 
  5222   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5223     assumes "A & B"
  5224     obtains A and B
  5225 
  5226   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5227     assumes "A | B"
  5228     obtains
  5229       A
  5230     | B
  5231 
  5232 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5233 explicitly:
  5234 
  5235   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5236     obtains "~ thesis"
  5237 
  5238   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5239     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5240 
  5241 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5242 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5243 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5244 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5245 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5246 case_names).
  5247 
  5248 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5249 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5250 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5251 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5252 
  5253 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5254 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5255 top-level lemma.
  5256 
  5257 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5258 introduction rule (default "that").
  5259 
  5260 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5261 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5262 to occur.
  5263 
  5264 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5265 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5266 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5267 representations independently of name spaces.
  5268 
  5269 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5270 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5271 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5272 
  5273 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5274 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5275 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5276 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5277 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5278 current context.
  5279 
  5280 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5281 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5282 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5283 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5284 
  5285   axiomatization
  5286     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5287     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5288 
  5289   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5290   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5291 
  5292   abbreviation
  5293     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5294     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5295 
  5296 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5297 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5298 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5299 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5300 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5301 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5302 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5303 
  5304 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5305 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5306 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5307 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5308 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5309 
  5310 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5311 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5312 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5313 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5314 
  5315 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5316 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5317 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5318 
  5319   definition "K x _ = x"
  5320 
  5321   inductive conj for A B
  5322   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5323 
  5324 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5325 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5326 abbreviations on output.
  5327 
  5328 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5329 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5330 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5331 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5332 
  5333 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5334 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5335 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5336 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5337 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5338 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5339 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5340 
  5341 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5342 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5343 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5344 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5345 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5346 
  5347 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5348 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5349 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5350 
  5351 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5352 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5353 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5354 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5355 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5356 
  5357   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5358     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5359 
  5360 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5361 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5362 partial_order.
  5363 
  5364 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5365 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5366 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5367 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5368 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5369 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5370 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5371 examples.
  5372 
  5373 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5374 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5375 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5376 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5377 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5378 
  5379 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5380 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5381 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5382 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5383 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5384 
  5385   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5386   (induct set: foo bar)
  5387   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5388   (induct type: foo bar)
  5389 
  5390 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5391 new format.
  5392 
  5393 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5394 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5395 
  5396 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5397 considered a legacy feature.
  5398 
  5399 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5400 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5401 
  5402 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5403 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5404 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5405 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5406 
  5407 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5408 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5409 manipulating the claset.
  5410 
  5411 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5412 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5413 least one premise.
  5414 
  5415 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5416 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5417 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5418 rule steps.
  5419 
  5420 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5421 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5422 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5423 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5424 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5425 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5426 
  5427 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5428 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5429 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5430 
  5431 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5432 the graph browser tool.
  5433 
  5434 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5435 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5436 
  5437 
  5438 *** HOL ***
  5439 
  5440 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5441 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5442 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5443 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5444 multi-threading.
  5445 
  5446 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5447 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5448 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5449 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5450 work with multi-threading.
  5451 
  5452 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5453 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5454 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5455 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5456 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5457 
  5458 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5459 
  5460 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5461 equality.
  5462 
  5463 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5464 the new 'class' package:
  5465 
  5466     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5467     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5468     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5469     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5470     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5471     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5472     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5473     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5474     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5475     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5476     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5477     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5478     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5479     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5480     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5481     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5482     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5483     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5484     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5485     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5486 
  5487 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5488 
  5489 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5490 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5491 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5492 names.
  5493 
  5494 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5495 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5496 
  5497 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5498 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5499 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5500 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5501 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5502 
  5503 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5504 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5505 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5506 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5507 
  5508 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5509 
  5510 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5511 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5512 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5513 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5515 
  5516 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5517 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5518 
  5519 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5520 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5521 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5522 
  5523 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5524 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5525 
  5526 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5527 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5528 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5529 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5530 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5531 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5532 in the current context.
  5533 
  5534 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5535 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5539 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5540 
  5541 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5542 
  5543     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5544     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5545 
  5546     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5547       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5548     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5549     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5550 
  5551     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5552     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5553 
  5554   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5555 
  5556     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5557     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5558     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5559     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5560     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5561     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5562     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5563     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5564     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5565     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5566     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5567     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5568     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5569     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5570     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5571     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5572     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5573     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5574     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5575     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5576     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5577     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5578     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5579     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5580     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5581     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5582     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5583     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5584     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5585     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5586     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5587     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5588     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5589     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5590     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5591 
  5592     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5593     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5594     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5595     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5596     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5597     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5598     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5599     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5600     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5601     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5602     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5603     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5604     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5605     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5606     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5607     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5608     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5609 
  5610     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5611     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5612     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5613     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5614     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5615     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5616     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5617     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5618     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5619     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5620     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5621     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5622     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5623     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5624     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5625     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5626     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5627     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5628     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5629     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5630     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5631     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5632     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5633     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5634     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5635     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5636     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5637     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5638 
  5639     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5640     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5641     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5642     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5643     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5644     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5645 
  5646     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5647     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5648     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5649     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5650 
  5651     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5652     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5653 
  5654     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5655     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5656 
  5657 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5658 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5659 
  5660 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5661 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5662 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5663 "*.size".
  5664 
  5665 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5667 
  5668 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5669 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5670 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5671 
  5672 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5673 
  5674 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5675 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5676 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5677 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5678 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5679 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5680 numerals on all operations.
  5681 
  5682 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5683 
  5684 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5685 
  5686 * Code generator library theories:
  5687   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5688     languages.
  5689   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5690     languages.
  5691   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5692     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5693   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5694   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5695     denominator).
  5696   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5697     representable by rational numbers.
  5698   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5699     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5700     includes Code_Integer.
  5701   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5702     target-language built-in integers.
  5703   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5704     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5705 
  5706 * New package for inductive predicates
  5707 
  5708   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5709 
  5710     inductive
  5711       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5712       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5713     where
  5714       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5715     | ...
  5716 
  5717   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5718 
  5719     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5720 
  5721     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5722     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5723 
  5724     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5725     intros
  5726       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5727       ...
  5728 
  5729   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5730   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5731 
  5732     inductive_set
  5733       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5734       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5735     where
  5736       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5737     | ...
  5738 
  5739   or
  5740 
  5741     inductive_set
  5742       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5743       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5744       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5745     where
  5746       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5747     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5748     | ...
  5749 
  5750   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5751 
  5752   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5753   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5754 
  5755   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5756 
  5757   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5758     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5759     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5760     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5761     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5762 
  5763   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5764     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5765     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5766     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5767     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5768     statements of the form
  5769 
  5770       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5771 
  5772     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5773     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5774 
  5775       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5776 
  5777   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5778 
  5779       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5780         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5781         ==> ... ==> P
  5782 
  5783     for predicates and
  5784 
  5785       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5786         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5787         ==> ... ==> P
  5788 
  5789     for sets rather than
  5790 
  5791       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5792         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5793         ==> ... ==> P
  5794 
  5795     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5796     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5797     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5798 
  5799   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5800     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5801     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5802 
  5803 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5804 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5805 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5806 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5807 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5808 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5809 
  5810 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5811 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5812 
  5813 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5814 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5815 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5816 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5817 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5818 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5819 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5820 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5821 variable.
  5822 
  5823 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5824 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5825 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5826 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5827   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5828   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5829 
  5830 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5831 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5832 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5833 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5834 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5835 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5836 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5837 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5838 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5839 
  5840 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5841 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5842 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5843 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5844 rat, etc.
  5845 
  5846 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5847 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5848 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5849 
  5850 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5851 
  5852 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5853 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5854 
  5855 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5856 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5857 
  5858 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5859 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5860 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5861 
  5862 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5863 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5865 
  5866 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5867 
  5868 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5869 
  5870 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5871 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5872 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5873 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5874 
  5875 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5876 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5877 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5878 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5879 
  5880 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5881 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5882 algebraic operations.
  5883 
  5884 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5886 
  5887 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5889 
  5890 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5891 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5892 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5893 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5894 adapted.
  5895 
  5896 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5897 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5898 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5899 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5900 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5901 
  5902 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5903 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5904 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5905 
  5906 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5907 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5908 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5909 
  5910 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5911 
  5912 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5913 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5914 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5915   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5916       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5917   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5918   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5919   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5920 
  5921 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5922 
  5923 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5924 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5925 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5926 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5927 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5928 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5929 
  5930 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5931 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5932 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5933 
  5934 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5935 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5936 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5938 
  5939 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5940 
  5941 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5942 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5943 
  5944 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5945 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5946 
  5947 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5948 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5949 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5950 
  5951 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5952 True/False.
  5953 
  5954 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5955 
  5956 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5957 
  5958 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5959 ``rule'' method.
  5960 
  5961 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5962 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5963 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5964 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5965 
  5966 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5967 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5968 
  5969 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5970 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5971 
  5972 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5973 Library.
  5974 
  5975 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5976 
  5977 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5978 as greatest fixed-point.
  5979 
  5980 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5981 association lists.
  5982 
  5983 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5984 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5985 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5986 
  5987 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5988 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5989 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5990 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5991 behavior.
  5992 
  5993 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5994 
  5995 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5996 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5997 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5998 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5999 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6000 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6001 
  6002 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6003 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6004 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6005 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6006 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6007 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6008 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6009 
  6010 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6011 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6012 
  6013 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6014 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6015 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6016 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6017 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6018 
  6019 
  6020 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6021 
  6022 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6023 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6024 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6025 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6027 
  6028 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6029 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6030 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6031 
  6032 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6033 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6034 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6035 
  6036 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6037 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6038 
  6039 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6040 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6041 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6043 
  6044   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6045   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6046   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6047   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6048   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6049   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6050   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6051   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6052   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6053   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6054   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6055   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6056   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6057   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6058   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6059 
  6060 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6061 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6062 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6063 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6064 
  6065   approx        <-- capprox
  6066   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6067   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6068   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6069   monad         <-- cmonad
  6070   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6071   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6072   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6073   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6074 
  6075 
  6076 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6077 
  6078 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6079 
  6080 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6082 
  6083 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6084 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6085 
  6086 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6087 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6088 of algebraic structures.
  6089 
  6090 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6091 
  6092 
  6093 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6094 
  6095 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6096 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6097 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6098 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6099 
  6100 
  6101 *** ML ***
  6102 
  6103 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6104 (even on SML/NJ).
  6105 
  6106 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6107 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6108 compile-time.  For example:
  6109 
  6110 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6111 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6112 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6113 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6114 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6115 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6116 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6117 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6118 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6119 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6120 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6121 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6122 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6123 ML {* @{context} *}
  6124 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6125 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6126 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6127 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6128 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6129 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6130 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6131 
  6132 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6133 
  6134 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6135 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6136 
  6137 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6138 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6139 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6140 
  6141 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6142 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6143 
  6144 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6145 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6146 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6147 
  6148 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6149 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6150 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6151 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6152 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6153 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6154 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6155 declarations and definitions.
  6156 
  6157 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6158 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6159 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6160 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6161 
  6162 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6163 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6164 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6165 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6166 
  6167 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6168 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6169 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6170 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6171 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6172 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6173 
  6174 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6175 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6176 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6177 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6178 attributes, methods, etc.
  6179 
  6180 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6181 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6182 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6183 fold_map combinators.
  6184 
  6185 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6186 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6187 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6188 derivation.
  6189 
  6190 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6191 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6192 achieve the old behaviour.
  6193 
  6194 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6195 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6196 statements.
  6197 
  6198 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6199 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6200 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6201 
  6202 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6203 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6204 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6205 
  6206   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6207   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6208   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6209 
  6210 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6211 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6212 
  6213 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6214 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6215 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6216 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6217 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6218 
  6219 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6220 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6221 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6222 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6223 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6224 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6225 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6226 in a locale context).
  6227 
  6228 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6229 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6230 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6231 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6232 
  6233 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6234 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6235 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6236 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6237 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6238 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6239 
  6240 * Isar: simplifi