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doc-src/Intro/intro.tex

author | paulson |

Mon Jul 22 16:16:51 1996 +0200 (1996-07-22) | |

changeset 1878 | ac8e534b4834 |

parent 1866 | a1a41b4b02e7 |

child 2656 | 71097a167f0b |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

Updated BibTeX identifiers

1 \documentstyle[a4,12pt,proof209,iman,extra]{article}

2 %% $Id$

3 %% run bibtex intro to prepare bibliography

4 %% run ../sedindex intro to prepare index file

5 %prth *(\(.*\)); \1;

6 %{\\out \(.*\)} {\\out val it = "\1" : thm}

8 \title{Introduction to Isabelle}

9 \author{{\em Lawrence C. Paulson}\\

10 Computer Laboratory \\ University of Cambridge \\[2ex]

11 {\small{\em Electronic mail\/}: {\tt lcp@cl.cam.ac.uk}}

12 }

13 \date{}

14 \makeindex

16 \underscoreoff

18 \setcounter{secnumdepth}{2} \setcounter{tocdepth}{2}

20 \sloppy

21 \binperiod %%%treat . like a binary operator

23 \newcommand\qeq{\stackrel{?}{\equiv}} %for disagreement pairs in unification

24 \newcommand{\nand}{\mathbin{\lnot\&}}

25 \newcommand{\xor}{\mathbin{\#}}

27 \pagenumbering{roman}

28 \begin{document}

29 \pagestyle{empty}

30 \begin{titlepage}

31 \maketitle

32 \thispagestyle{empty}

33 \vfill

34 {\small Copyright \copyright{} \number\year{} by Lawrence C. Paulson}

35 \end{titlepage}

37 \pagestyle{headings}

38 \part*{Preface}

39 \index{Isabelle!overview} \index{Isabelle!object-logics supported}

40 Isabelle~\cite{paulson-natural,paulson-found,paulson700} is a generic theorem

41 prover. It has been instantiated to support reasoning in several

42 object-logics:

43 \begin{itemize}

44 \item first-order logic, constructive and classical versions

45 \item higher-order logic, similar to that of Gordon's {\sc

46 hol}~\cite{mgordon-hol}

47 \item Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory~\cite{suppes72}

48 \item an extensional version of Martin-L\"of's Type Theory~\cite{nordstrom90}

49 \item the classical first-order sequent calculus, {\sc lk}

50 \item the modal logics $T$, $S4$, and $S43$

51 \item the Logic for Computable Functions~\cite{paulson87}

52 \end{itemize}

53 A logic's syntax and inference rules are specified declaratively; this

54 allows single-step proof construction. Isabelle provides control

55 structures for expressing search procedures. Isabelle also provides

56 several generic tools, such as simplifiers and classical theorem provers,

57 which can be applied to object-logics.

59 \index{ML}

60 Isabelle is a large system, but beginners can get by with a small

61 repertoire of commands and a basic knowledge of how Isabelle works. Some

62 knowledge of Standard~\ML{} is essential, because \ML{} is Isabelle's user

63 interface. Advanced Isabelle theorem proving can involve writing \ML{}

64 code, possibly with Isabelle's sources at hand. My book

65 on~\ML{}~\cite{paulson91} covers much material connected with Isabelle,

66 including a simple theorem prover. Users must be familiar with logic as

67 used in computer science; there are many good

68 texts~\cite{galton90,reeves90}.

70 \index{LCF}

71 {\sc lcf}, developed by Robin Milner and colleagues~\cite{mgordon79}, is an

72 ancestor of {\sc hol}, Nuprl, and several other systems. Isabelle borrows

73 ideas from {\sc lcf}: formulae are~\ML{} values; theorems belong to an

74 abstract type; tactics and tacticals support backward proof. But {\sc lcf}

75 represents object-level rules by functions, while Isabelle represents them

76 by terms. You may find my other writings~\cite{paulson87,paulson-handbook}

77 helpful in understanding the relationship between {\sc lcf} and Isabelle.

79 \index{Isabelle!release history} Isabelle was first distributed in 1986.

80 The 1987 version introduced a higher-order meta-logic with an improved

81 treatment of quantifiers. The 1988 version added limited polymorphism and

82 support for natural deduction. The 1989 version included a parser and

83 pretty printer generator. The 1992 version introduced type classes, to

84 support many-sorted and higher-order logics. The current version provides

85 greater support for theories and is much faster. Isabelle is still under

86 development and will continue to change.

88 \subsubsection*{Overview}

89 This manual consists of three parts. Part~I discusses the Isabelle's

90 foundations. Part~II, presents simple on-line sessions, starting with

91 forward proof. It also covers basic tactics and tacticals, and some

92 commands for invoking them. Part~III contains further examples for users

93 with a bit of experience. It explains how to derive rules define theories,

94 and concludes with an extended example: a Prolog interpreter.

96 Isabelle's Reference Manual and Object-Logics manual contain more details.

97 They assume familiarity with the concepts presented here.

100 \subsubsection*{Acknowledgements}

101 Tobias Nipkow contributed most of the section on defining theories.

102 Stefan Berghofer, Sara Kalvala and Markus Wenzel suggested improvements.

104 Tobias Nipkow has made immense contributions to Isabelle, including the

105 parser generator, type classes, and the simplifier. Carsten Clasohm and

106 Markus Wenzel made major contributions; Sonia Mahjoub and Karin Nimmermann

107 also helped. Isabelle was developed using Dave Matthews's Standard~{\sc

108 ml} compiler, Poly/{\sc ml}. Many people have contributed to Isabelle's

109 standard object-logics, including Martin Coen, Philippe de Groote, Philippe

110 No\"el. The research has been funded by the SERC (grants GR/G53279,

111 GR/H40570) and by ESPRIT (projects 3245: Logical Frameworks, and 6453:

112 Types).

114 \newpage

115 \pagestyle{plain} \tableofcontents

116 \newpage

118 \newfont{\sanssi}{cmssi12}

119 \vspace*{2.5cm}

120 \begin{quote}

121 \raggedleft

122 {\sanssi

123 You can only find truth with logic\\

124 if you have already found truth without it.}\\

125 \bigskip

127 G.K. Chesterton, {\em The Man who was Orthodox}

128 \end{quote}

130 \clearfirst \pagestyle{headings}

131 \include{foundations}

132 \include{getting}

133 \include{advanced}

135 \bibliographystyle{plain} \small\raggedright\frenchspacing

136 \bibliography{string,atp,funprog,general,logicprog,isabelle,theory,crossref}

138 \input{intro.ind}

139 \end{document}