doc-src/Intro/intro.tex
author paulson
Mon Jul 22 16:16:51 1996 +0200 (1996-07-22)
changeset 1878 ac8e534b4834
parent 1866 a1a41b4b02e7
child 2656 71097a167f0b
permissions -rw-r--r--
Updated BibTeX identifiers
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     8 \title{Introduction to Isabelle}   
     9 \author{{\em Lawrence C. Paulson}\\
    10         Computer Laboratory \\ University of Cambridge \\[2ex]
    11         {\small{\em Electronic mail\/}: {\tt lcp@cl.cam.ac.uk}}
    12 }
    13 \date{} 
    14 \makeindex
    15 
    16 \underscoreoff
    17 
    18 \setcounter{secnumdepth}{2} \setcounter{tocdepth}{2}
    19 
    20 \sloppy
    21 \binperiod     %%%treat . like a binary operator
    22 
    23 \newcommand\qeq{\stackrel{?}{\equiv}}  %for disagreement pairs in unification
    24 \newcommand{\nand}{\mathbin{\lnot\&}} 
    25 \newcommand{\xor}{\mathbin{\#}}
    26 
    27 \pagenumbering{roman} 
    28 \begin{document}
    29 \pagestyle{empty}
    30 \begin{titlepage}
    31 \maketitle 
    32 \thispagestyle{empty}
    33 \vfill
    34 {\small Copyright \copyright{} \number\year{} by Lawrence C. Paulson}
    35 \end{titlepage}
    36 
    37 \pagestyle{headings}
    38 \part*{Preface}
    39 \index{Isabelle!overview} \index{Isabelle!object-logics supported}
    40 Isabelle~\cite{paulson-natural,paulson-found,paulson700} is a generic theorem
    41 prover.  It has been instantiated to support reasoning in several
    42 object-logics:
    43 \begin{itemize}
    44 \item first-order logic, constructive and classical versions
    45 \item higher-order logic, similar to that of Gordon's {\sc
    46 hol}~\cite{mgordon-hol}
    47 \item Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory~\cite{suppes72}
    48 \item an extensional version of Martin-L\"of's Type Theory~\cite{nordstrom90}
    49 \item the classical first-order sequent calculus, {\sc lk}
    50 \item the modal logics $T$, $S4$, and $S43$
    51 \item the Logic for Computable Functions~\cite{paulson87}
    52 \end{itemize}
    53 A logic's syntax and inference rules are specified declaratively; this
    54 allows single-step proof construction.  Isabelle provides control
    55 structures for expressing search procedures.  Isabelle also provides
    56 several generic tools, such as simplifiers and classical theorem provers,
    57 which can be applied to object-logics.
    58 
    59 \index{ML}
    60 Isabelle is a large system, but beginners can get by with a small
    61 repertoire of commands and a basic knowledge of how Isabelle works.  Some
    62 knowledge of Standard~\ML{} is essential, because \ML{} is Isabelle's user
    63 interface.  Advanced Isabelle theorem proving can involve writing \ML{}
    64 code, possibly with Isabelle's sources at hand.  My book
    65 on~\ML{}~\cite{paulson91} covers much material connected with Isabelle,
    66 including a simple theorem prover.  Users must be familiar with logic as
    67 used in computer science; there are many good
    68 texts~\cite{galton90,reeves90}.
    69 
    70 \index{LCF}
    71 {\sc lcf}, developed by Robin Milner and colleagues~\cite{mgordon79}, is an
    72 ancestor of {\sc hol}, Nuprl, and several other systems.  Isabelle borrows
    73 ideas from {\sc lcf}: formulae are~\ML{} values; theorems belong to an
    74 abstract type; tactics and tacticals support backward proof.  But {\sc lcf}
    75 represents object-level rules by functions, while Isabelle represents them
    76 by terms.  You may find my other writings~\cite{paulson87,paulson-handbook}
    77 helpful in understanding the relationship between {\sc lcf} and Isabelle.
    78 
    79 \index{Isabelle!release history} Isabelle was first distributed in 1986.
    80 The 1987 version introduced a higher-order meta-logic with an improved
    81 treatment of quantifiers.  The 1988 version added limited polymorphism and
    82 support for natural deduction.  The 1989 version included a parser and
    83 pretty printer generator.  The 1992 version introduced type classes, to
    84 support many-sorted and higher-order logics.  The current version provides
    85 greater support for theories and is much faster.  Isabelle is still under
    86 development and will continue to change.
    87 
    88 \subsubsection*{Overview} 
    89 This manual consists of three parts.  Part~I discusses the Isabelle's
    90 foundations.  Part~II, presents simple on-line sessions, starting with
    91 forward proof.  It also covers basic tactics and tacticals, and some
    92 commands for invoking them.  Part~III contains further examples for users
    93 with a bit of experience.  It explains how to derive rules define theories,
    94 and concludes with an extended example: a Prolog interpreter.
    95 
    96 Isabelle's Reference Manual and Object-Logics manual contain more details.
    97 They assume familiarity with the concepts presented here.
    98 
    99 
   100 \subsubsection*{Acknowledgements} 
   101 Tobias Nipkow contributed most of the section on defining theories.
   102 Stefan Berghofer, Sara Kalvala and Markus Wenzel suggested improvements.
   103 
   104 Tobias Nipkow has made immense contributions to Isabelle, including the
   105 parser generator, type classes, and the simplifier.  Carsten Clasohm and
   106 Markus Wenzel made major contributions; Sonia Mahjoub and Karin Nimmermann
   107 also helped.  Isabelle was developed using Dave Matthews's Standard~{\sc
   108   ml} compiler, Poly/{\sc ml}.  Many people have contributed to Isabelle's
   109 standard object-logics, including Martin Coen, Philippe de Groote, Philippe
   110 No\"el.  The research has been funded by the SERC (grants GR/G53279,
   111 GR/H40570) and by ESPRIT (projects 3245: Logical Frameworks, and 6453:
   112 Types).
   113 
   114 \newpage
   115 \pagestyle{plain} \tableofcontents 
   116 \newpage
   117 
   118 \newfont{\sanssi}{cmssi12}
   119 \vspace*{2.5cm}
   120 \begin{quote}
   121 \raggedleft
   122 {\sanssi
   123 You can only find truth with logic\\
   124 if you have already found truth without it.}\\
   125 \bigskip
   126 
   127 G.K. Chesterton, {\em The Man who was Orthodox}
   128 \end{quote}
   129 
   130 \clearfirst  \pagestyle{headings}
   131 \include{foundations}
   132 \include{getting}
   133 \include{advanced}
   134 
   135 \bibliographystyle{plain} \small\raggedright\frenchspacing
   136 \bibliography{string,atp,funprog,general,logicprog,isabelle,theory,crossref}
   137 
   138 \input{intro.ind}
   139 \end{document}