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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Mon May 12 22:03:33 2008 +0200 (2008-05-12) | |

changeset 26874 | b2daa27fc0a7 |

parent 26765 | f2ea56490bfb |

child 26877 | c3bb1f397811 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

misc tuning;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

10 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

12 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

13 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

14 "foo_bar".

16 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

17 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

18 white space directly.

20 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

21 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

22 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

23 provides a proper context already.

25 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

26 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

27 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

29 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

30 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

31 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

32 swap theory imports.

35 *** Pure ***

37 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

38 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

40 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

41 There are three ways of invoking it:

43 (1) unused_thms

44 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

46 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

47 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

48 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

50 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

51 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

52 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

53 their ancestors.

55 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

56 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

57 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

58 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

59 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

60 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

61 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

63 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

64 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

65 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

67 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

68 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

69 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

70 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

71 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

73 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

75 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

76 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

77 update of theories within ML code.

79 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

81 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

82 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

83 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

84 INCOMPATIBILITY.

86 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

88 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

89 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

90 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

91 See HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

92 HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

94 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

95 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

96 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

97 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

98 situations.

100 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

101 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

102 predicates.

105 *** Document preparation ***

107 * Antiquotation "lemma" takes a proposition and a simple method text

108 as argument and asserts that the proposition is provable by the

109 corresponding method invocation. Prints text of proposition, as does

110 antiquotation "prop". A simple method text is either a method name or

111 a method name plus (optional) method arguments in parentheses,

112 mimicking the conventions known from Isar proof text. Useful for

113 illustration of presented theorems by particular examples.

116 *** HOL ***

118 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

119 Wellfounded_Relations to "Wellfounded.thy".

121 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

123 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

124 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

125 INCOMPATIBILITY.

127 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

128 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

130 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

131 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

133 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

134 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

135 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

137 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

138 the same name in theory Orderings:

140 less_trans

141 less_linear

142 le_imp_less_or_eq

143 le_less_trans

144 less_le_trans

145 less_not_sym

146 less_asym

148 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

149 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

150 and different variable names.

152 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

154 * Library/RBT.thy: New theory of red-black trees, an efficient

155 implementation of finite maps.

157 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

159 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

160 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

161 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

162 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

163 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

164 accordingly.

166 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

167 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

168 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

169 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

171 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

172 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

173 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

174 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

175 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

176 INCOMPATIBILITY.

178 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

179 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

181 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

182 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

183 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

185 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

187 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

188 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

190 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

191 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

193 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

194 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

196 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

197 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

198 INCOMPATIBILITY.

200 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

201 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

202 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

203 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

204 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

205 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

207 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

209 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

211 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

212 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

213 well-orders on sets and on types.

215 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

216 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

218 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

219 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

220 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

221 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

222 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

223 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

225 * Method "induction_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

226 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

227 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

228 and makes them available separately. See "HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy"

229 for examples,

231 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

232 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

233 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

235 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

236 with multithreading.

238 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

239 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

240 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

242 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

243 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

244 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

245 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

248 *** ZF ***

250 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

251 same session:

253 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

254 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

255 Int -> Int_ZF

256 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

257 Nat -> Nat_ZF

258 List -> List_ZF

259 Main -> Main_ZF

261 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

262 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

263 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

266 *** ML ***

268 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

269 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

271 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function. INCOMPATIBILITY.

273 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

274 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

276 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

277 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

278 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

279 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

280 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

282 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

283 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (after Poly/ML 5.2).

284 Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

287 *** System ***

289 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

290 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

291 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

293 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

294 way of changing the user's settings is via

295 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

296 script.

298 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

299 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

301 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

302 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

303 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

304 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

305 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

307 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

308 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

309 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

311 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

312 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

314 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to prevent

315 Isabelle from flooding interactive front-ends (notably ProofGeneral /

316 XEmacs).

318 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

319 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

320 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

322 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

323 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

327 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

328 -----------------------------------

330 *** General ***

332 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

333 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

334 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

335 legacy features will disappear eventually.

337 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

338 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

339 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

341 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

342 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

343 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

344 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

346 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

347 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

348 quotes.

350 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

351 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

352 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

353 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

354 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

355 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

356 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

357 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

358 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

360 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

361 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

362 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

363 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

364 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

365 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

367 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

368 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

369 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

370 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

372 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

373 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

374 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

375 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

376 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

377 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

379 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

380 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

381 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

382 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

383 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

384 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

385 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

386 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

388 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

389 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

390 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

391 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

392 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

393 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

394 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

396 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

397 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

398 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

400 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

401 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

402 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

403 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

404 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

405 limit is imposed.

407 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

408 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

409 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

410 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

411 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

412 and scalability.

414 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

415 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

418 *** Document preparation ***

420 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

421 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

422 current context.

424 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

425 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

427 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

428 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

429 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

432 *** Pure ***

434 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

435 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

436 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

437 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

438 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

439 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

440 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

441 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

442 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

443 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

445 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

446 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

447 sketch:

449 internal compilation:

450 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

451 writing SML code to a file:

452 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

453 writing OCaml code to a file:

454 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

455 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

456 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

458 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

459 method ``eval''

461 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

463 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

465 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

466 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

467 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

468 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

470 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

472 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

473 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

475 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

476 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

478 code_instance <and-list of instances>

479 {(target)}+

480 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

482 code_class <and_list of classes>

483 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

484 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

486 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

488 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

489 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

490 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

491 codegen".

493 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

494 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

495 annotations).

497 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

498 syntax.

500 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

501 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

502 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

503 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

504 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

505 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

507 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

508 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

509 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

510 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

511 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

512 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

513 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

514 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

515 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

516 equations, see section "definitions".

518 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

519 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

520 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

521 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

522 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

523 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

524 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

525 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

526 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

527 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

529 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

530 configuration options:

532 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

533 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

534 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

535 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

536 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

537 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

538 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

539 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

540 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

542 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

543 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

544 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

545 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

546 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

547 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

548 order.

550 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

551 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

552 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

553 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

554 context encountered later on.

556 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

557 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

558 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

559 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

561 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

562 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

563 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

564 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

565 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

566 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

568 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

569 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

570 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

571 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

572 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

573 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

574 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

575 more permissive.

577 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

578 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

579 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

580 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

581 maintainability of proof texts.

583 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

584 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

586 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

587 then guess x and y by clarify

589 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

590 proof tools being involved here.

592 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

593 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

594 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

595 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

596 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

597 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

598 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

599 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

601 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

602 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

603 certain special cases of literal facts:

605 have "A" by fact == note `A`

606 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

607 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

608 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

610 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

611 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

612 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

614 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

615 both named and unnamed ones.

617 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

619 def x == "t" and y == "u"

621 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

622 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

623 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

624 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

626 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

627 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

628 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

629 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

630 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

632 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

633 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

635 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

636 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

637 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

638 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

639 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

640 originally first one.

642 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

643 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

644 expected.

646 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

647 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

648 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

649 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

650 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

652 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

653 assumes "EX x. P x"

654 obtains x where "P x"

656 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

657 assumes "A & B"

658 obtains A and B

660 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

661 assumes "A | B"

662 obtains

663 A

664 | B

666 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

667 explicitly:

669 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

670 obtains "~ thesis"

672 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

673 obtains "thesis ==> something"

675 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

676 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

677 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

678 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

679 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

680 case_names).

682 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

683 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

684 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

685 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

687 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

688 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

689 top-level lemma.

691 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

692 introduction rule (default "that").

694 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

695 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

696 to occur.

698 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

699 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

700 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

701 representations independently of name spaces.

703 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

704 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

705 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

707 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

708 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

709 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

710 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

711 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

712 current context.

714 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

715 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

716 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

717 isar-ref manual. Examples:

719 axiomatization

720 eq (infix "===" 50) where

721 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

723 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

724 definition g where "g x = f x x"

726 abbreviation

727 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

728 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

730 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

731 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

732 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

733 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

734 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

735 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

736 entities from a monomorphic theory.

738 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

739 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

740 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

741 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

742 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

744 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

745 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

746 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

747 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

749 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

750 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

751 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

753 definition "K x _ = x"

755 inductive conj for A B

756 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

758 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

759 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

760 abbreviations on output.

762 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

763 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

764 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

765 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

767 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

768 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

769 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

770 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

771 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

772 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

773 `unfold_locales'; see below.

775 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

776 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

777 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

778 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

779 unfold predicates to assumptions.

781 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

782 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

783 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

785 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

786 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

787 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

788 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

789 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

791 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

792 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

794 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

795 definition specification element in the context of locale

796 partial_order.

798 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

799 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

800 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

801 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

802 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

803 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

804 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

805 examples.

807 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

808 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

809 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

810 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

811 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

813 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

814 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

815 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

816 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

817 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

819 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

820 (induct set: foo bar)

821 (induct pred: foo bar)

822 (induct type: foo bar)

824 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

825 new format.

827 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

828 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

830 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

831 considered a legacy feature.

833 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

834 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

836 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

837 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

838 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

839 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

841 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

842 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

843 manipulating the claset.

845 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

846 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

847 least one premise.

849 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

850 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

851 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

852 rule steps.

854 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

855 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

856 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

857 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

858 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

859 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

861 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

862 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

863 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

865 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

866 the graph browser tool.

868 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

869 default; use '!' option for full details.

872 *** HOL ***

874 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

875 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

876 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

877 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

878 multi-threading.

880 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

881 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

882 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

883 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

884 work with multi-threading.

886 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

887 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

888 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

889 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

890 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

892 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

894 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

895 equality.

897 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

898 the new 'class' package:

900 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

901 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

902 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

903 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

904 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

905 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

906 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

907 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

908 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

909 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

910 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

911 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

912 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

913 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

914 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

915 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

916 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

917 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

918 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

919 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

921 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

923 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

924 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

925 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

926 names.

928 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

929 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

931 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

932 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

933 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

934 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

935 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

937 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

938 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

939 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

940 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

942 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

944 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

945 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

946 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

947 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

948 INCOMPATIBILITY.

950 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

951 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

953 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

954 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

955 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

957 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

958 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

960 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

961 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

962 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

963 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

964 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

965 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

966 in the current context.

968 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

969 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

970 INCOMPATIBILITY.

972 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

973 with new class dense_linear_order.

975 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

977 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

978 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

980 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

981 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

982 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

983 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

985 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

986 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

988 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

990 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

991 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

992 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

993 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

994 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

995 le_meetI ~> le_infI

996 join_leI ~> le_supI

997 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

998 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

999 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

1000 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

1001 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

1002 join_comm ~> sup_commute

1003 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

1004 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

1005 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

1006 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

1007 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

1008 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

1009 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

1010 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

1011 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

1012 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

1013 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

1014 join_aci ~> sup_aci

1015 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

1016 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

1017 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

1018 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

1019 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

1020 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

1021 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

1022 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

1023 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

1024 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

1026 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

1027 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

1028 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

1029 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

1030 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

1031 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

1032 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

1033 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

1034 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

1035 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

1036 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

1037 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

1038 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

1039 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

1040 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

1041 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

1042 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

1044 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

1045 mono_join ~> mono_sup

1046 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

1047 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

1048 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

1049 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

1050 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

1051 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

1052 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

1053 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

1054 meet1I ~> inf1I

1055 meet2I ~> inf2I

1056 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

1057 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

1058 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

1059 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

1060 meet1E ~> inf1E

1061 meet2E ~> inf2E

1062 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

1063 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

1064 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1065 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

1066 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1067 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

1068 join1CI ~> sup1CI

1069 join2CI ~> sup2CI

1070 join1E ~> sup1E

1071 join2E ~> sup2E

1073 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

1074 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

1075 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

1076 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

1077 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

1078 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

1080 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

1081 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

1082 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

1083 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

1085 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

1086 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

1088 meet_min ~> inf_min

1089 join_max ~> sup_max

1091 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

1092 type "'a::size ==> bool"

1094 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

1095 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

1096 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

1097 "*.size".

1099 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

1100 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1102 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

1103 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

1104 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1106 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1108 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

1109 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

1110 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

1111 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

1112 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

1113 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

1114 numerals on all operations.

1116 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

1118 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

1120 * Code generator library theories:

1121 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

1122 languages.

1123 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

1124 languages.

1125 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

1126 codes; includes Code_Integer.

1127 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

1128 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

1129 denominator).

1130 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

1131 representable by rational numbers.

1132 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

1133 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

1134 includes Code_Integer.

1135 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

1136 target-language built-in integers.

1137 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

1138 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

1140 * New package for inductive predicates

1142 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

1144 inductive

1145 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1146 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1147 where

1148 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1149 | ...

1151 with full support for type-inference, rather than

1153 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1155 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1156 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1158 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

1159 intros

1160 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1161 ...

1163 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

1164 sets to be defined with the new package via

1166 inductive_set

1167 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1168 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1169 where

1170 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1171 | ...

1173 or

1175 inductive_set

1176 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1177 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1178 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1179 where

1180 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1181 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1182 | ...

1184 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

1186 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

1187 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

1189 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

1191 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

1192 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

1193 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

1194 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

1195 than before the actual inductive definition.

1197 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

1198 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

1199 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

1200 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

1201 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

1202 statements of the form

1204 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

1206 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

1207 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

1209 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

1211 - The format of the elimination rules is now

1213 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

1214 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

1215 ==> ... ==> P

1217 for predicates and

1219 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

1220 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

1221 ==> ... ==> P

1223 for sets rather than

1225 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

1226 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

1227 ==> ... ==> P

1229 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

1230 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

1231 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

1233 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

1234 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

1235 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

1237 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

1238 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

1239 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

1240 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

1241 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

1242 users are encouraged to use the new package.

1244 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

1245 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

1247 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

1248 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

1249 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

1250 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

1251 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

1252 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

1253 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

1254 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

1255 variable.

1257 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

1258 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

1259 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

1260 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

1261 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

1262 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

1264 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

1265 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

1266 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

1267 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

1268 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

1269 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

1270 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

1271 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

1272 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

1274 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

1275 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

1276 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

1277 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

1278 rat, etc.

1280 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

1281 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

1282 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

1284 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

1286 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

1287 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

1289 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

1290 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

1292 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

1293 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

1294 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1296 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

1297 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

1298 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1300 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

1302 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

1304 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

1305 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

1306 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

1307 positive/negative (in inequations).

1309 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

1310 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

1311 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

1312 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1314 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

1315 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

1316 algebraic operations.

1318 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

1319 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1321 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

1322 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1324 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

1325 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

1326 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

1327 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

1328 adapted.

1330 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

1331 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

1332 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

1333 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

1334 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

1336 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

1337 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

1338 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

1340 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

1341 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

1342 better use 'abbreviation'.

1344 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1346 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

1347 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

1348 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

1349 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

1350 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

1351 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

1352 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

1353 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

1355 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

1357 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

1358 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

1359 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

1360 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

1361 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

1362 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

1364 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

1365 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

1366 "A = B" (with priority 50).

1368 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

1369 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

1370 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

1371 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1373 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

1375 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

1376 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1378 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

1379 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

1381 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

1382 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

1383 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

1385 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

1386 True/False.

1388 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

1390 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

1392 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

1393 ``rule'' method.

1395 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

1396 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

1397 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

1398 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

1400 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

1401 zChaff is still supported as well.

1403 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

1404 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

1406 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

1407 Library.

1409 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

1411 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

1412 as greatest fixed-point.

1414 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

1415 association lists.

1417 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

1418 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

1419 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

1421 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

1422 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

1423 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1424 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

1425 behavior.

1427 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

1429 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

1430 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

1431 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

1432 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

1433 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

1434 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

1436 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

1437 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

1438 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

1439 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

1440 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

1441 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

1442 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

1444 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

1445 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

1447 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

1448 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

1449 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

1450 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

1451 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

1454 *** HOL-Complex ***

1456 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

1457 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

1458 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

1459 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

1460 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1462 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

1463 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

1464 and norm :: 'a => real.

1466 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

1467 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

1468 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1470 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

1471 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

1473 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

1474 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

1475 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

1476 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1478 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1479 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1480 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1481 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

1482 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1483 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1484 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1485 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1486 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1487 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1488 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

1489 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1490 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

1491 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

1492 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

1494 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

1495 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

1496 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

1497 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1499 approx <-- capprox

1500 HFinite <-- CFinite

1501 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

1502 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

1503 monad <-- cmonad

1504 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

1505 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

1506 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

1507 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

1510 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1512 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

1514 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

1515 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1517 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

1518 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1520 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

1521 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

1522 of algebraic structures.

1524 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

1527 *** HOL-Nominal ***

1529 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

1530 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

1531 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

1532 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

1535 *** ML ***

1537 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

1538 (even on SML/NJ).

1540 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

1541 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

1542 compile-time. For example:

1544 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

1545 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

1546 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

1547 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

1548 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

1549 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

1550 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

1551 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

1552 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

1553 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

1554 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

1555 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

1556 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

1557 ML {* @{context} *}

1558 ML {* @{theory} *}

1559 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

1560 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

1561 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

1562 ML {* @{simpset} *}

1563 ML {* @{claset} *}

1564 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

1566 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

1568 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

1569 ML_Context.trace enabled.

1571 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

1572 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

1573 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

1575 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

1576 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

1578 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

1579 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

1580 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

1582 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

1583 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

1584 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

1585 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

1586 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

1587 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

1588 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

1589 declarations and definitions.

1591 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

1592 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

1593 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

1594 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

1596 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

1597 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

1598 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

1599 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1601 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

1602 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

1603 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

1604 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

1605 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

1606 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

1608 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

1609 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

1610 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

1611 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

1612 attributes, methods, etc.

1614 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

1615 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

1616 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

1617 fold_map combinators.

1619 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

1620 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

1621 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

1622 derivation.

1624 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

1625 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

1626 achieve the old behaviour.

1628 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

1629 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

1630 statements.

1632 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

1633 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

1634 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

1636 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

1637 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

1638 some popular functions from term.ML:

1640 Term.variant -> Name.variant

1641 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

1642 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

1644 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

1645 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

1647 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

1648 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

1649 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

1650 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

1651 various freeze_thaw operations.

1653 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

1654 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

1655 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

1656 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

1657 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

1658 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

1659 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

1660 in a locale context).

1662 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

1663 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

1664 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

1665 which are considered legacy and await removal.

1667 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

1668 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

1669 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

1670 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

1671 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

1672 a mere theory instead of a full context.

1674 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

1675 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

1676 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

1677 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

1678 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

1680 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

1682 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

1683 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

1684 this:

1686 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

1688 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

1689 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

1690 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

1691 -- use plain ERROR instead.

1693 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

1694 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

1696 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

1697 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

1699 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

1700 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

1701 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

1702 batch mode.

1704 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

1705 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

1706 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

1707 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1709 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

1710 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

1711 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

1712 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

1713 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

1715 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

1716 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

1717 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

1718 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

1719 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

1720 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

1722 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

1723 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

1724 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

1725 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1727 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

1728 "Trueprop" etc.

1731 *** System ***

1733 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

1734 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

1735 Isabelle installations.

1737 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

1738 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

1739 code.

1741 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

1743 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

1744 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

1745 independent theories, according to the given theory header

1746 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

1747 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

1748 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

1749 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

1750 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

1751 Implementation manual.

1755 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

1756 ----------------------------------

1758 *** General ***

1760 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

1762 theory <name>

1763 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

1764 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

1765 begin

1767 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

1769 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

1771 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

1772 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

1773 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

1775 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

1776 relative and absolute paths.

1778 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

1779 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

1780 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

1781 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

1782 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

1783 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

1784 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

1785 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

1786 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

1788 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

1790 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

1791 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

1792 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

1794 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

1795 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

1797 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

1798 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

1799 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

1800 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

1802 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

1803 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

1805 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

1806 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

1807 faster.

1810 *** Document preparation ***

1812 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

1813 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

1814 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

1815 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

1816 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

1817 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

1819 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

1820 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

1821 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

1822 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

1823 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

1824 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

1825 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

1826 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

1827 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

1828 \isadroptag.

1830 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

1831 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

1832 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

1833 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

1834 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

1835 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

1836 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

1837 specified above.

1839 * Several new antiquotations:

1841 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

1843 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

1845 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

1846 argument is a known logical constant;

1848 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

1849 theorem applying a "style" to it

1851 @{ML text}

1853 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

1854 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

1855 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

1856 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

1857 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

1858 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

1859 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

1861 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

1862 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

1863 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

1864 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

1866 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

1867 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

1868 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

1870 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

1871 a proof context.

1873 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

1874 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

1876 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

1877 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

1879 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

1880 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

1881 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

1884 *** Pure ***

1886 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

1887 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

1888 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

1889 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

1890 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

1891 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

1892 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

1894 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

1895 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

1896 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

1897 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

1898 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

1899 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

1900 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

1901 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

1903 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

1904 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

1905 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

1907 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

1908 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

1909 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

1911 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

1912 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

1913 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

1914 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

1915 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1917 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

1918 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

1919 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

1920 axclasses vs. locales.

1922 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

1923 instead of base 26 numbers.

1925 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

1926 marks in schematic variable names.

1928 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

1929 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

1930 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

1932 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

1933 by simp

1935 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

1937 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

1938 annotations as "(00...)".

1940 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

1941 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

1942 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

1943 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

1944 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

1945 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

1946 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

1948 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

1949 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

1950 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

1951 specifications.

1953 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

1954 locally fixed variables as well.

1956 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

1957 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

1958 Limit.

1960 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

1961 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

1962 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

1963 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

1964 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

1965 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

1966 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

1968 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

1969 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

1970 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

1972 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1974 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

1975 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

1976 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

1977 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

1978 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

1979 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

1981 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

1982 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

1984 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

1985 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

1986 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

1988 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

1990 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

1991 theory development.

1993 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

1994 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

1995 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

1996 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

1998 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

1999 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

2000 quoted when used as identifier.

2003 *** Locales ***

2005 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

2006 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

2007 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

2008 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

2009 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

2010 commands is a follows:

2012 (1) interpretation expr inst

2013 (2) interpretation target < expr

2014 (3) interpret expr inst

2016 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

2017 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

2018 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

2019 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

2020 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

2021 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

2022 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

2023 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

2024 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

2025 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

2027 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

2028 'interpret' instead.

2030 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

2031 parameters.

2033 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

2034 redeclaration.

2036 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

2038 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

2039 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

2040 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

2041 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

2042 to attribute arguments as expected.

2044 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

2045 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

2046 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

2047 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

2048 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

2049 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

2050 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

2051 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

2052 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

2053 values to argument tokens explicitly.

2055 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

2056 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

2057 theorem statement in rare situations.

2059 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

2060 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

2063 *** Provers ***

2065 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

2066 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

2067 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

2068 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

2069 still available as 'simplesubst'.

2071 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

2072 and quasi orders.

2074 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

2075 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

2077 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

2078 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

2080 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

2081 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

2082 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2085 *** HOL ***

2087 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

2089 syntax (epsilon)

2090 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

2092 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

2093 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

2094 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

2095 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2097 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

2098 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

2099 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

2100 support corresponding Isar calculations.

2102 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

2103 instead of ":".

2105 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

2107 Old New

2108 {..n(} {..<n}

2109 {)n..} {n<..}

2110 {m..n(} {m..<n}

2111 {)m..n} {m<..n}

2112 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

2114 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

2115 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

2116 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

2118 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

2119 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

2121 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

2122 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

2123 interface.

2125 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

2126 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

2127 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

2128 be a tuple pattern.

2130 Some new syntax forms are available:

2132 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

2133 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

2134 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

2135 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

2137 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

2138 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

2140 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

2141 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

2142 (insert F x)'.

2144 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

2145 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

2146 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

2148 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

2149 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

2150 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

2152 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

2153 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

2154 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

2155 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

2156 in unstructured proof scripts.

2158 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

2159 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

2160 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

2161 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

2162 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

2163 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

2164 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

2165 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

2166 <record_name>_ext_type.

2168 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

2169 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

2170 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

2171 quite long.

2173 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

2174 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

2175 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

2176 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

2178 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

2179 type-variables in the term.

2181 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

2182 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

2183 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2184 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

2185 goals than previously.

2187 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

2188 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

2189 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

2190 just like y <= x.

2192 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

2193 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

2194 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

2195 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

2196 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

2197 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

2198 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

2200 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

2202 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

2203 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

2205 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

2206 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

2207 inequalities.

2209 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2210 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2212 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

2213 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

2214 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

2215 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

2216 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

2217 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

2218 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

2219 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

2220 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

2221 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

2222 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

2224 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

2226 zero_le_square

2227 not_square_less_zero

2229 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

2231 realpow_zero_zero

2232 realpow_two

2233 realpow_less

2234 zero_le_power

2235 realpow_two_le

2236 abs_realpow_two

2237 realpow_two_abs

2239 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

2241 * Theory List:

2243 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2244 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2246 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

2247 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

2248 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

2249 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

2251 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

2252 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

2255 *** HOL-Complex ***

2257 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

2258 integers in the reals.

2260 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2261 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2263 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

2264 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2265 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2266 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2267 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2269 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

2271 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

2273 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

2274 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

2276 hypreal = real star

2277 hypnat = nat star

2278 hcomplex = complex star

2280 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

2281 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2283 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

2285 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

2286 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

2287 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

2288 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

2289 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

2291 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2292 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

2293 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

2294 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

2295 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

2297 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

2298 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2300 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

2301 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

2302 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

2303 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

2304 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

2305 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

2306 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

2307 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

2308 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

2309 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

2310 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

2311 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

2312 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

2313 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

2314 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

2315 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

2316 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

2317 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

2318 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

2319 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

2320 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

2321 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

2322 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

2323 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

2325 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

2326 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

2327 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2329 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

2330 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

2331 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

2332 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

2333 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

2334 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

2335 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

2336 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

2337 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

2338 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

2339 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

2340 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

2341 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

2342 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

2343 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

2344 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

2345 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

2346 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

2347 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

2348 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

2349 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

2350 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

2351 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

2352 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2353 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2354 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

2355 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

2356 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

2357 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

2358 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

2359 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

2360 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

2361 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

2362 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

2363 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

2364 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

2365 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

2366 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

2367 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

2368 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

2369 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

2370 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

2371 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

2372 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

2373 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

2374 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

2375 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

2376 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

2377 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

2378 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

2379 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

2380 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

2381 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

2382 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

2384 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

2385 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

2386 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

2387 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

2388 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

2389 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

2390 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

2391 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

2392 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

2393 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

2394 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

2396 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

2397 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

2398 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

2399 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

2400 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

2401 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

2402 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

2403 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

2404 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

2405 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

2406 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

2407 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

2408 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

2409 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

2410 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

2411 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

2412 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

2413 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

2414 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

2415 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

2416 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

2418 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

2419 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

2420 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

2421 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

2422 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

2423 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

2425 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

2428 *** HOLCF ***

2430 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

2431 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

2432 type-inference.

2434 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

2435 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

2436 instead of exponential time).

2438 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

2439 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

2441 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

2443 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

2444 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

2445 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

2446 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

2447 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2448 syntax and examples.

2450 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

2451 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

2452 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

2453 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

2454 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

2456 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

2457 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2459 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

2460 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

2461 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

2462 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

2463 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

2464 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

2467 *** ZF ***

2469 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

2470 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

2471 of a homomorphism).

2473 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

2474 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

2475 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

2478 *** Cube ***

2480 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

2481 theories.

2484 *** ML ***

2486 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

2487 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

2489 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

2490 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

2491 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

2492 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

2493 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

2495 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

2496 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

2497 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

2498 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

2500 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

2501 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

2502 suggests how one can translate existing code:

2504 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

2505 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

2506 last_elem xs = List.last xs

2507 flat xss = List.concat xss

2508 seq fs = List.app fs

2509 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

2510 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

2512 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

2513 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

2515 x |> f f #> g

2516 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

2518 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

2520 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

2521 infix 2 ?;

2522 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

2523 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

2525 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

2526 infix operators.

2528 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

2529 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

2530 example:

2532 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

2533 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

2535 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

2536 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

2538 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

2539 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

2541 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

2542 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

2544 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

2545 available:

2547 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

2548 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

2549 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

2550 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

2552 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2553 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

2554 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

2555 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

2556 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

2558 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

2559 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

2560 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

2562 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2564 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

2565 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

2567 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

2568 Naive rewrites:

2570 make_keylist = AList.make

2571 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

2573 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

2574 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

2576 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

2577 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

2579 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

2580 Naive rewrites:

2582 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

2583 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

2585 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

2586 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

2587 lists.

2589 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

2590 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

2591 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

2592 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

2594 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

2595 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

2596 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

2597 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

2598 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

2599 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

2600 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

2601 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

2602 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

2603 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

2604 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

2605 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

2606 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

2607 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

2608 Output.raw have no effect.

2610 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

2611 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

2612 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

2614 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

2615 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

2616 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

2617 internal and external process view of file names are different.

2619 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

2620 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

2621 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

2622 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

2623 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

2624 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

2625 Library.sort_strings on result).

2627 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

2628 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

2629 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

2630 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

2632 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

2633 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

2634 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

2635 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

2636 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

2637 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

2638 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

2639 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

2640 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

2641 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

2642 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

2644 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

2645 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

2646 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

2647 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

2648 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

2649 with earlier declarations.

2651 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

2652 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

2653 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2655 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

2656 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

2657 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

2658 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

2659 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

2660 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

2662 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

2663 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

2665 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

2666 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

2668 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

2669 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

2670 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

2671 Theory.merge, etc.)

2673 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

2674 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

2675 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

2677 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

2679 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

2680 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

2681 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

2682 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

2684 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

2685 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

2686 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

2687 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

2688 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

2689 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

2690 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

2691 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

2693 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

2694 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

2695 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2697 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

2698 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

2699 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

2701 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

2702 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

2704 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2705 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2706 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2707 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2709 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

2711 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

2712 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

2713 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

2714 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

2715 (both increase the runtime).

2717 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

2718 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

2719 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

2721 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

2722 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

2723 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

2724 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

2725 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

2726 for further details.

2728 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

2729 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

2730 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

2731 scripts for the time being.

2733 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

2734 generated HTML files. For example:

2736 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

2737 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

2740 *** System ***

2742 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

2743 isabelle, isatool etc.).

2745 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

2746 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

2748 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

2749 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

2751 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

2752 distribution being used.

2754 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

2755 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

2756 theories.

2760 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

2761 --------------------------------

2763 *** General ***

2765 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

2766 Replaces linorder.ML.

2768 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

2769 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

2770 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

2771 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

2772 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

2773 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

2774 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

2775 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

2776 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

2777 existing theory and ML files.

2779 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

2781 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

2782 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

2783 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

2784 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

2786 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

2787 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

2788 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

2789 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

2791 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

2792 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

2793 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

2795 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

2796 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

2797 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

2798 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

2799 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

2801 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

2802 (i.e. intersections of classes),

2804 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

2805 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

2806 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

2809 *** Isar ***

2811 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

2812 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

2813 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

2814 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

2815 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

2816 emulations.

2817 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

2818 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

2819 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

2821 * Attributes "where" and "of":

2822 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

2823 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

2824 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

2825 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

2827 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

2828 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

2829 and derived forms.

2831 * Locales:

2832 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

2833 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

2834 "_axioms") in the premise.

2835 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

2836 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

2837 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

2838 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

2839 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

2840 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

2841 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

2842 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

2843 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

2844 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

2845 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

2846 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

2847 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

2848 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

2849 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

2850 with "locale (open)".

2851 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

2853 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

2854 (Isar) contexts.

2857 *** HOL ***

2859 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

2860 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

2861 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

2862 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

2863 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

2865 * Simplifier:

2866 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

2867 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

2868 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

2869 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

2870 to solve goals from the assumptions.

2871 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

2872 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

2873 is solved by simplification already.

2875 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

2876 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

2878 * Numerics:

2879 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

2880 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

2881 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

2882 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

2883 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

2884 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

2885 exponentiation).

2887 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

2889 * Records:

2890 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

2891 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

2892 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

2893 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

2894 (not enabled by default).

2895 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

2896 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

2897 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

2899 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

2900 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

2901 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

2903 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

2905 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

2907 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

2908 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

2910 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

2911 matrix theory to linear programming.

2913 * Unions and Intersections:

2914 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

2915 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

2916 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

2917 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

2919 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

2920 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

2921 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

2922 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

2924 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

2925 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

2927 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

2928 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

2930 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

2931 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

2932 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

2934 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

2935 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

2936 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

2937 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

2938 for examples.

2941 *** HOLCF ***

2943 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

2947 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

2948 ------------------------------

2950 *** General ***

2952 * Provers/simplifier:

2954 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

2955 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

2956 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

2957 the order of assumptions.

2959 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2961 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

2962 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

2964 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

2966 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

2968 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

2970 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

2971 kind of problem.

2973 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

2974 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

2975 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

2976 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

2977 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

2978 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

2979 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

2981 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

2983 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

2984 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

2985 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

2986 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

2987 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

2988 the simplifier would diverge.

2990 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

2992 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

2993 congruence is ignored.

2995 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

2996 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

2997 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

2999 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

3000 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

3001 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

3002 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

3004 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

3005 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

3006 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

3007 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

3008 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

3009 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

3010 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

3012 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

3013 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

3014 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

3015 assumption failed.

3017 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

3018 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

3019 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

3020 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

3021 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

3022 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

3023 on the old view without predicates;

3025 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

3026 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

3027 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

3029 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

3030 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

3031 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

3032 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

3033 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

3034 be given (the default is 40);

3036 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

3037 (batch-mode only);

3039 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

3040 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

3041 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

3043 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

3044 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

3045 for slight decrease in efficiency;

3047 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

3048 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

3050 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

3051 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

3054 *** HOL ***

3056 * arith(_tac)

3058 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

3059 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

3060 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

3061 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

3063 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

3065 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

3066 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

3067 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

3069 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

3070 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

3072 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

3073 are distributed over a sum of terms;

3075 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

3076 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

3077 "<=", "<" and "=").

3079 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

3080 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

3082 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

3083 definition;

3085 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

3086 Finite_Set);

3088 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

3089 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

3091 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

3092 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

3094 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

3095 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

3096 of the empty set.

3098 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

3099 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

3100 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

3101 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

3103 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

3105 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

3106 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

3107 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

3109 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

3111 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

3112 Fleuriot);

3114 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

3116 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

3117 Gray and Kramer);

3119 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

3121 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

3122 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

3124 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

3125 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

3126 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

3127 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

3128 assignment, exceptions.

3131 *** ZF ***

3133 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

3134 universe, etc.);

3136 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

3139 *** ML ***

3141 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

3142 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

3143 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

3145 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

3147 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

3148 up simprocs;

3151 *** Document preparation ***

3153 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

3154 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

3155 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

3157 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

3158 other packages

3160 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

3161 broke \Rightarrow)

3163 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

3164 textcomp package)

3168 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

3169 --------------------------------

3171 *** Document preparation ***

3173 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

3174 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

3175 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

3176 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

3177 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

3178 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

3180 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

3181 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

3182 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

3184 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

3185 blocks after section headings;

3187 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

3188 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

3190 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

3191 better in printed text;

3193 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

3194 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

3195 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

3197 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

3198 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

3199 location;

3202 *** Isar ***

3204 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

3205 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

3206 "case (Suc n)");

3207 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

3208 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

3209 instantiation of cases;

3210 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

3211 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

3212 rules without further ado;

3213 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

3214 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

3215 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

3216 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

3217 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

3218 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

3219 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

3220 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

3221 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

3222 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

3223 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

3224 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

3225 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

3226 below);

3227 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

3228 success (no backtracking);

3229 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

3230 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

3231 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

3232 General versions);

3233 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

3234 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

3236 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

3237 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

3238 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

3239 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

3240 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

3241 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

3242 fails:

3244 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

3246 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

3247 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

3249 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

3250 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

3251 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

3252 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

3253 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

3254 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

3255 some examples;

3257 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

3258 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

3259 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

3260 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

3261 qualified by the locale name);

3263 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

3264 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

3265 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

3266 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

3267 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

3269 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

3270 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

3271 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

3272 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

3273 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

3275 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

3277 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

3278 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

3279 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

3281 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

3283 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

3285 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

3287 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

3288 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

3289 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

3291 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

3292 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

3293 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

3294 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

3295 proof *scripts*;

3297 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

3298 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

3299 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

3300 especially important for locales);

3302 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

3303 mode;

3305 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

3306 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

3307 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

3308 situations;

3310 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

3311 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

3313 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

3314 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

3315 discontinued;

3317 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

3318 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

3319 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

3321 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

3322 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

3323 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

3324 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

3325 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

3326 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

3327 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3329 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

3330 of introduction rules;

3332 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

3333 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

3334 conditional rules;

3336 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

3338 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

3339 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

3341 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

3342 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

3344 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

3345 wf_induct_rule;

3348 *** HOL ***

3350 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

3351 follows:

3353 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

3354 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

3356 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

3357 binary representation internally;

3359 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

3360 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

3362 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

3363 are some hints on converting existing sources:

3365 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

3366 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

3367 to be spaced properly;

3369 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

3370 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

3372 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

3374 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

3376 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

3377 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

3379 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

3381 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

3382 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

3383 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

3384 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

3385 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

3387 * HOL/record package improvements:

3388 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

3389 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

3390 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

3391 declared as simp by default;

3392 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

3393 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

3394 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

3395 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3396 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3397 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

3398 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

3399 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

3400 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

3401 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

3403 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

3404 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

3405 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

3406 via 'generate_code' theory section;

3408 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

3410 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

3411 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

3412 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

3414 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

3415 (beware of argument permutation!);

3417 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

3419 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

3421 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

3422 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3423 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

3425 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

3426 in this (rare) case use:

3428 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

3429 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

3431 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

3432 MAY FAIL;

3434 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

3435 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

3436 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

3437 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

3439 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

3440 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

3441 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

3443 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

3444 expressions;

3446 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

3447 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3449 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3450 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

3451 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

3453 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

3455 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

3456 the "cases" method);

3458 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

3459 Florian Kammller);

3461 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

3462 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

3463 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

3465 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

3467 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

3470 *** HOLCF ***

3472 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

3473 operations;

3475 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

3476 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

3478 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

3479 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

3480 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

3482 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

3485 *** ZF ***

3487 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

3488 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

3489 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

3490 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

3492 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

3493 your theory on Main_ZFC;

3495 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

3496 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

3498 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

3499 typeless version of the formalism;

3501 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

3502 format;

3504 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

3505 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

3506 new-style theory format;

3508 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

3511 *** General ***

3513 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

3514 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

3515 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

3516 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

3518 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

3519 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

3521 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

3522 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

3523 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

3524 properly;

3526 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

3527 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

3529 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

3530 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

3531 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

3532 type variable);

3534 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

3535 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

3536 "type_brackets";

3538 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

3539 tokens into AST constants;

3541 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

3542 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

3543 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

3545 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

3546 practice);

3548 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

3549 addSafter;

3551 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

3552 as well;

3554 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

3555 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

3556 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

3557 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

3558 support requires further installations, e.g. from

3559 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

3561 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

3563 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

3564 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

3566 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

3567 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

3569 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

3570 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

3571 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

3573 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

3574 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

3575 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

3576 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

3577 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

3579 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

3580 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

3581 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

3582 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

3584 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

3585 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

3586 terminal);

3590 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

3591 -----------------------------------

3593 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3595 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

3596 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

3597 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

3599 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

3600 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

3601 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

3602 'split_rule (complete)';

3604 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

3605 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

3607 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

3609 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

3610 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

3611 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

3613 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

3614 operation;

3616 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

3618 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

3620 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

3621 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

3622 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

3624 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

3625 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

3628 *** Document preparation ***

3630 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

3631 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

3632 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

3633 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

3634 type-writer);

3636 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

3637 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

3639 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

3640 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

3642 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

3643 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

3644 definitions);

3646 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

3647 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

3648 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

3649 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

3651 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

3652 fonts;

3654 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

3655 generation;

3657 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

3660 *** Isar ***

3662 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

3663 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

3664 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

3665 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

3666 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

3668 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

3669 rules as well;

3671 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

3672 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

3673 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

3674 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

3676 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

3677 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

3679 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

3680 statements as well;

3682 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

3684 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

3685 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

3687 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

3688 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

3690 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

3692 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

3694 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

3695 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

3697 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

3698 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

3699 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

3701 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

3702 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

3703 the result to be shown in each case;

3705 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

3707 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

3710 *** HOL ***

3712 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

3713 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

3714 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

3715 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

3716 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

3718 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

3719 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

3720 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

3722 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

3723 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

3724 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

3725 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

3726 literature;

3728 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

3729 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

3730 operator \<Sum>;

3732 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

3733 HOL/subset.thy);

3735 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

3736 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

3737 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

3739 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

3740 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

3742 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

3743 rules with string literals);

3745 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

3746 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

3747 functions for the reals;

3749 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

3752 *** CTT ***

3754 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

3755 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

3757 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

3758 and Arith);

3761 *** General ***

3763 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

3764 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

3765 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

3766 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

3768 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

3769 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

3771 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

3772 as assumptions as well;

3774 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

3776 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

3780 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

3781 ----------------------------------

3783 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3785 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

3786 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

3787 issue the following ML commands:

3789 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

3790 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

3792 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

3793 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

3795 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

3797 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

3798 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

3800 select_equality -> some_equality

3801 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

3802 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

3803 selectI2 -> someI2

3804 selectI -> someI

3805 select1_equality -> some1_equality

3806 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

3807 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

3809 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

3811 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

3812 instead);

3814 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

3815 f.simps instead of f.rules;

3817 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

3819 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

3820 sometimes be needed;

3822 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

3824 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

3826 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

3827 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

3828 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

3830 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

3831 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

3833 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

3834 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

3836 syntax (symbols)

3837 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

3838 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

3840 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3842 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

3843 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

3844 internally;

3846 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

3847 changed from A/r to A//r;

3849 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

3850 proofs;

3852 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

3853 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

3855 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3856 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

3857 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

3858 "rule del";

3860 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

3862 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

3864 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

3865 lib/texinputs);

3868 *** Document preparation ***

3870 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

3871 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

3872 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

3873 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

3875 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

3876 including proper document sources;

3878 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

3879 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

3880 of isatool usedir;

3882 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

3883 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

3884 LaTeX debugging;

3886 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

3888 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

3889 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

3890 graph for 'all sessions';

3892 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

3893 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

3894 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

3897 *** Isar ***

3899 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

3900 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

3901 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

3903 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

3904 generalized existence reasoning;

3906 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

3907 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

3908 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

3909 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

3910 premises;

3912 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

3913 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

3914 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

3915 to theorems as "tags";

3917 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

3918 class/type/const name spaces;

3920 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

3921 indicate potential overloading;

3923 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

3925 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

3926 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

3928 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

3929 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

3930 with the version in Provers/classical;

3932 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

3933 case name 'antecedent';

3935 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

3936 to the current context is now done automatically);

3938 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

3939 for definining proof methods in ML;

3941 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3942 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

3943 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

3944 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

3946 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

3947 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

3949 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

3950 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

3951 well (including splits);

3953 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

3954 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

3956 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

3957 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

3959 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

3960 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

3961 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

3963 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

3964 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

3965 calculations;

3967 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

3968 method anyway;

3970 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

3971 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

3972 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

3974 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

3975 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

3976 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

3977 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

3979 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

3981 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

3983 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

3984 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

3985 proof states;

3987 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

3988 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

3989 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

3991 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

3992 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

3993 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

3994 (for HOL datatypes);

3996 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

3997 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

3998 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

4000 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

4002 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

4003 should instead use individual commands for printing items

4004 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

4006 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

4009 *** HOL ***

4011 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

4012 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

4013 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

4014 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

4015 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

4016 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

4018 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

4019 Clemens Ballarin;

4021 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

4022 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

4023 Rasmussen;

4025 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

4026 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

4027 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

4028 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

4029 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

4030 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

4032 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

4033 von Oheimb;

4035 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

4036 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

4038 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

4040 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

4041 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

4042 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

4044 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

4045 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

4046 well; admit "r" as field name;

4048 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

4049 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

4051 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

4052 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

4054 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

4055 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

4056 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

4057 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

4058 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

4059 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

4060 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

4062 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

4063 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

4064 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

4066 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

4067 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

4068 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

4070 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

4071 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

4072 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

4073 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

4074 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

4076 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

4077 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

4078 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

4079 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

4080 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

4081 each equation;

4083 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

4084 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

4085 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

4086 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

4088 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

4089 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

4091 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

4093 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

4094 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

4095 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

4097 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4099 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

4100 main HOL, but was unused);

4102 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

4103 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

4105 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

4106 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

4107 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

4108 bogus);

4111 *** ZF ***

4113 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

4114 expressions over nat and int;

4116 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

4117 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

4118 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

4120 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

4121 using the function intify;

4123 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

4124 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

4126 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

4127 simplification;

4129 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

4130 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4133 *** General ***

4135 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

4136 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

4138 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

4139 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

4141 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

4142 explicit make_elim);

4144 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

4145 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4146 use instead the strong form,

4147 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4148 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

4149 from destruct-rules;

4151 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

4152 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

4154 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

4156 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

4157 for hiding of names;

4159 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

4160 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

4161 situations;

4163 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

4164 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

4165 Poly/ML);

4167 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

4168 useful for remote X11);

4170 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

4172 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

4173 order;

4175 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

4176 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

4178 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

4179 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

4181 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

4182 overloading (usually false);

4184 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

4185 results;

4189 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

4190 --------------------------------

4192 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4194 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

4195 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

4196 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

4198 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

4200 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

4201 complement;

4203 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

4205 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

4206 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

4208 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4209 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4211 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

4212 to constants declared in the same theory;

4214 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

4215 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

4216 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

4218 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4220 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

4221 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

4222 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

4223 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

4224 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

4225 where the string argument is only a comment.

4228 *** Proof tools ***

4230 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

4231 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

4232 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

4233 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

4235 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

4236 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

4237 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

4238 matching.

4241 *** General ***

4243 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

4244 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

4245 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

4246 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

4247 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

4248 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

4250 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

4251 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

4252 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

4253 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

4254 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

4256 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

4257 Isabelle/Isar;

4259 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

4260 using the graph browser tool;

4262 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

4264 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

4265 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

4266 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

4267 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

4268 isatool doc ref);

4270 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

4271 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

4273 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

4274 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

4276 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

4277 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

4278 Isabelle;

4280 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

4282 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

4283 empty;

4285 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

4286 long arrows);

4288 * new print_mode "HTML";

4290 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

4291 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

4293 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

4294 mode and goal output format:

4296 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

4297 244c244

4298 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

4299 ---

4300 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

4301 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

4302 181c181

4303 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

4304 ---

4305 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

4307 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

4309 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

4311 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

4312 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

4313 result still apply;

4315 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

4316 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

4319 *** HOL ***

4321 ** HOL arithmetic **

4323 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

4324 int:

4326 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

4327 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

4328 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

4329 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

4330 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

4331 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

4332 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

4333 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

4335 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

4336 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

4337 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

4338 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

4339 simplifier.

4341 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

4342 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

4343 int(m) < int(n)'.

4345 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

4346 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

4347 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

4348 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

4349 type constraints;

4351 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

4352 arguments;

4354 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

4355 are now available;

4357 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

4358 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

4359 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

4360 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

4361 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

4362 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

4364 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

4367 ** HOL misc **

4369 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

4370 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

4372 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

4373 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

4375 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

4376 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

4377 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

4378 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

4380 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

4381 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

4382 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

4383 "mono" attribute);

4385 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

4386 (using function types) such as

4388 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

4390 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

4391 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

4392 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

4393 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

4395 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

4396 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

4398 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4399 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4401 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

4402 names rather than an ML expression;

4404 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

4405 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

4406 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

4407 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

4409 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4410 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

4411 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

4413 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

4414 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

4415 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

4417 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

4418 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

4420 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

4421 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

4422 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

4424 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

4426 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

4427 thus available for user theories;

4429 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

4430 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

4431 time;

4433 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

4434 several times and then mp;

4437 *** LK ***

4439 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

4440 formulas;

4442 * the simplifier is now installed

4444 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

4446 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

4449 *** ZF ***

4451 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

4452 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4454 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

4455 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4457 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

4459 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

4460 constructors;

4462 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

4463 type-checking rules;

4465 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

4466 to the claset;

4468 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

4469 if(P,x,y);

4472 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4474 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

4476 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

4477 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

4479 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

4481 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

4482 printing empty lines;

4484 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

4485 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

4486 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

4487 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

4489 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

4490 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

4491 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

4493 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

4494 now of type real instead of int;

4496 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

4497 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

4498 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

4499 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

4501 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

4502 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

4503 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

4504 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

4505 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

4509 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

4510 ----------------------------------

4512 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4514 * several changes of automated proof tools;

4516 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

4517 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

4519 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

4520 called `inj_on';

4522 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

4523 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

4524 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

4526 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

4527 required);

4529 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

4530 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

4531 now taken as an integer constant.

4533 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

4536 *** Proof tools ***

4538 * Simplifier:

4539 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

4540 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

4541 simplify.

4542 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

4543 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

4544 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

4545 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

4546 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

4548 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

4549 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

4550 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

4551 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

4552 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

4553 one (emitting a warning).

4554 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

4555 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

4556 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

4557 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

4558 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

4560 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

4561 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

4562 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

4563 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

4564 by Force_tac;

4566 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

4567 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

4569 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

4570 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

4571 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

4572 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

4573 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

4574 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

4575 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

4576 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

4577 split_all_tac for record fields.

4579 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

4580 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

4581 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

4582 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

4584 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

4585 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

4586 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

4587 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

4588 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

4589 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

4590 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

4591 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

4592 t is the name of the datatype).

4594 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

4595 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

4596 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

4597 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

4600 *** General ***

4602 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

4603 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

4604 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

4605 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

4606 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

4607 (backup your sources first!);

4609 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

4610 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

4612 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

4613 definitions that have local scope;

4615 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

4617 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

4618 (e.g. package initialization);

4620 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

4621 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

4623 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

4624 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

4626 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

4628 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

4630 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

4632 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

4635 *** HOL ***

4637 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

4639 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

4640 definitions such as

4642 inductive EVEN ODD

4643 intrs

4644 null "0 : EVEN"

4645 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

4646 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

4648 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

4649 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

4650 correctly (also ZF);

4652 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

4653 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

4654 contained in "induct";

4657 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

4658 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

4660 datatype

4661 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4662 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4663 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4664 | NUM 'a

4665 and

4666 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4667 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4668 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4670 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

4672 datatype

4673 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

4674 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

4676 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

4677 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

4679 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

4680 <function_name>.simps.

4682 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4684 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

4685 ancestor.

4686 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

4687 generic induct_tac instead.

4688 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

4689 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

4690 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

4691 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

4692 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

4693 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

4694 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

4695 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

4696 sort constraints.

4697 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

4698 of recursive argument.

4700 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

4701 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

4704 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

4705 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

4706 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

4707 support is as follows:

4709 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

4710 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

4712 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

4713 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

4715 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

4716 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

4718 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

4719 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

4720 the name of your record type.

4722 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

4724 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

4726 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

4727 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

4728 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

4729 solve record problems automatically.

4732 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

4733 default; theory Main includes everything;

4735 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

4737 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

4739 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

4741 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

4743 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

4744 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

4745 with add/delsplits);

4747 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

4748 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

4749 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

4750 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

4751 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

4752 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

4753 %u.f();

4755 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

4756 makes more sense);

4758 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4759 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4760 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4762 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

4763 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

4764 literature);

4766 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

4767 the well-founded relation;

4769 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

4770 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

4771 release ONLY.

4773 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

4774 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

4775 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4777 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

4779 * HOL/List:

4780 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

4781 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

4782 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

4783 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

4784 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

4785 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

4787 * HOL/Arith:

4788 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

4789 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

4790 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

4791 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

4793 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

4794 instead of "inverse";

4796 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

4797 of the multiset ordering;

4799 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

4800 (not included by default);

4802 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

4804 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

4805 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

4807 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4808 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4809 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4812 *** ZF ***

4814 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

4815 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

4817 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4818 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4819 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4821 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

4822 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

4823 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4825 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

4827 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4828 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4829 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4831 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

4832 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

4835 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4837 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

4838 also src/Pure/README;

4840 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

4841 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

4842 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

4843 print_data function becomes basically useless;

4845 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

4846 are qualified by default;

4848 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

4849 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

4850 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

4852 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

4853 cterm -> thm;

4855 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

4856 subgoal;

4858 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

4860 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

4861 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

4862 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

4863 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

4864 for example;

4868 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

4869 --------------------------------

4871 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4873 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

4874 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

4876 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

4877 simpset / simpset_ref;

4879 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

4880 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

4882 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

4884 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

4887 *** General Changes ***

4889 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

4890 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

4891 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

4892 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

4893 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

4894 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

4895 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

4896 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

4897 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

4898 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

4899 section;

4901 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

4902 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

4903 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

4904 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

4905 to patch your ML files accordingly;

4907 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

4908 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

4909 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

4911 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

4912 conditional equations;

4914 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

4916 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

4917 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

4918 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

4919 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

4921 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

4922 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

4924 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

4925 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

4927 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

4928 show_types);

4930 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

4932 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

4934 * removed old README and Makefiles;

4936 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

4938 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

4940 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

4941 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

4943 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

4944 (which abbreviates $HOME);

4946 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

4947 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

4948 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

4950 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

4951 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

4954 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4956 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

4957 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

4958 splitting it into several subgoals;

4960 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

4963 *** Simplifier ***

4965 * added simplification meta rules:

4966 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

4968 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

4969 logics (again);

4971 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

4973 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

4974 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

4975 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

4978 *** Syntax ***

4980 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

4982 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

4984 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

4986 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

4989 *** HOL ***

4991 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4992 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4994 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

4996 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

4997 protocol TLS;

4999 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

5001 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

5002 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

5003 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

5004 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

5005 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

5006 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

5008 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

5009 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

5010 are rewritten to

5011 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

5012 and those of the form

5013 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

5014 are rewritten to

5015 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

5017 * HOL/datatype

5018 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

5020 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5021 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

5022 ...

5023 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5024 )

5026 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

5028 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5029 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

5030 ...

5031 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5032 )

5033 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

5034 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

5035 split_list_case and split_option_case.

5037 * HOL/Arithmetic:

5038 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

5039 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

5040 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

5041 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

5042 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

5043 `standard'.

5045 * HOL/Lists:

5046 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

5047 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

5048 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

5050 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

5052 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

5053 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

5055 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

5056 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

5057 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

5060 *** HOLCF ***

5062 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

5064 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

5065 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

5067 * domain package:

5068 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

5069 . creates hierachical name space,

5070 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

5071 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

5072 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

5073 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

5074 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

5075 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

5077 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

5079 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

5080 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

5083 *** FOL and ZF ***

5085 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5086 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5088 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

5089 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

5093 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

5094 ------------------------------

5096 *** General Changes ***

5098 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

5099 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

5101 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

5103 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

5105 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

5106 messages and clean internal interface;

5108 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

5109 setting goals_limit);

5112 *** Syntax ***

5114 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

5115 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

5117 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

5118 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

5119 "symbols" syntax table;

5121 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

5122 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

5123 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

5124 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

5125 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

5127 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

5128 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

5129 version of xterm);

5131 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

5133 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

5134 access type of constant);

5137 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5139 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

5140 some limitations. Blast_tac...

5141 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

5142 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

5143 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

5144 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

5145 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

5146 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

5147 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

5149 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

5150 assumptions;

5152 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

5153 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

5154 (and access functions for it);

5156 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

5157 + functions for handling clasimpsets

5158 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

5159 safe steps.

5160 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

5161 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

5162 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

5164 *** Simplifier ***

5166 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

5167 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

5168 redex);

5170 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

5172 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

5174 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

5175 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

5176 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

5177 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

5180 *** HOL ***

5182 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

5183 also for type `nat';

5185 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

5186 datatypes and also for type `nat';

5188 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

5190 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

5191 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

5193 * primrec now also works with type nat;

5195 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

5196 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

5198 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

5199 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

5201 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

5202 infinite lists;

5204 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

5206 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

5207 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

5209 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

5211 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

5213 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

5215 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

5217 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

5218 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

5219 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

5220 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

5221 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

5222 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

5223 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

5224 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

5225 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

5228 *** ZF ***

5230 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

5231 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

5232 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

5236 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

5237 ---------------------------------

5239 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

5241 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

5243 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

5244 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

5245 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

5246 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

5248 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

5250 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

5251 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

5253 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

5255 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

5256 examples on HOL/Auth);

5258 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

5259 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

5261 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

5262 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

5266 New in Isabelle94-6

5267 -------------------

5269 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

5270 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

5272 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

5274 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

5276 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

5278 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

5280 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

5284 New in Isabelle94-5

5285 -------------------

5287 * reduced space requirements;

5289 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

5291 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

5293 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

5295 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

5299 New in Isabelle94-4

5300 -------------------

5302 * greatly reduced space requirements;

5304 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

5306 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

5307 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

5309 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

5310 Axiom of Choice;

5312 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

5314 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

5315 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

5317 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

5319 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

5320 translates to the operator "split";

5324 New in Isabelle94-3

5325 -------------------

5327 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

5328 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

5329 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

5331 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

5332 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

5333 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

5335 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

5337 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

5338 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

5340 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

5341 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

5343 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

5344 of the Axiom of Choice;

5348 New in Isabelle94-2

5349 -------------------

5351 * Significantly faster resolution;

5353 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

5354 freely;

5356 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

5357 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

5359 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

5360 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

5361 (theory_of_thm);

5363 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

5365 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

5366 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

5368 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

5369 have been removed;

5371 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

5373 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

5375 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

5376 types;

5378 :mode=text:wrap=hard:maxLineLen=72:

5380 $Id$