NEWS
author nipkow
Mon May 04 16:01:36 2015 +0200 (2015-05-04)
changeset 60171 b3be7677461e
parent 60138 b11401808dac
child 60301 ff82ba1893c8
permissions -rw-r--r--
no more simp_legacy_precond
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of this file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 New in this Isabelle version
     7 ----------------------------
     8 
     9 *** HOL ***
    10 
    11 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 
    14 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
    15 ------------------------------
    16 
    17 *** General ***
    18 
    19 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
    20 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
    21 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
    22 
    23   context
    24   begin
    25 
    26   private definition ...
    27   private lemma ...
    28 
    29   qualified definition ...
    30   qualified lemma ...
    31 
    32   lemma ...
    33   theorem ...
    34 
    35   end
    36 
    37 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
    38 naming policy.
    39 
    40 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
    41 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
    43 
    44 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
    45 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
    46 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
    47 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
    48 
    49 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
    50 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
    51 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
    52 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    53 
    54 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
    55 theory context.
    56 
    57 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
    58 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
    59 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
    60 
    61 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
    62 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
    63 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
    64 sources.
    65 
    66 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
    67 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
    68 
    69 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
    70 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
    71 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
    72 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
    73 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. See also
    74 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach.thy and the included examples.
    75 
    76 
    77 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    78 
    79 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
    80 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
    81 
    82 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
    83 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
    84 in the buffer.
    85 
    86 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
    87 marker, SideKick parser.
    88 
    89 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
    90 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be opened
    91 in the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
    92 
    93 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
    94 Options / Text Area).
    95 
    96 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
    97 display of 'thy_deps', 'locale_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
    98 
    99 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
   100 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
   101 
   102 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
   103 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
   104 
   105 
   106 *** Document preparation ***
   107 
   108 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
   109 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
   110 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
   111 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
   112 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
   113 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
   114 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
   115 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
   118 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
   119 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
   120 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
   121 
   122 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
   123 style.
   124 
   125 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
   126 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
   127 
   128 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
   129 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
   130 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
   131 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
   132 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
   133 
   134 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
   135 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
   136 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
   137 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
   138 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
   139 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
   140 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141 
   142 
   143 *** Pure ***
   144 
   145 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
   146 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
   147 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
   148 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
   149 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
   150 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
   151 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
   152 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
   153 
   154 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
   155 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
   156 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
   157 
   158 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
   159 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
   160 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
   161 different index.
   162 
   163 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
   164 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
   165 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
   166 like "(- 1) ^ n".
   167 
   168 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
   169 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
   170 token category instead.
   171 
   172 
   173 *** HOL ***
   174 
   175 * New (co)datatype package:
   176   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
   177     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
   178     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   179     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   180     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   181   - Renamed theorems:
   182       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
   183       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
   184       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
   185       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
   186       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
   187       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
   188       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
   189       sel_map ~> map_sel
   190       sel_set ~> set_sel
   191       sel_split ~> split_sel
   192       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
   193       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
   194       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   195     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   196   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
   197     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
   198     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
   200     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
   201     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
   203     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
   204     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
   205     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
   206     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
   207     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
   208     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209   - Renamed theories:
   210       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
   211       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
   212       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
   213       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
   214       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
   215       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
   216     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
   218     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
   219     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
   220     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
   221     rel_sum (using inductive).
   222     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
   223     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
   224     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
   225     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
   226 
   227 * Old datatype package:
   228   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
   229     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
   230     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
   231     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
   232     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233   - Renamed theorems:
   234       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
   235     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236   - Renamed theory:
   237       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
   238     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Nitpick:
   241   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
   242     operations.
   243 
   244 * Sledgehammer:
   245   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
   246     default.
   247   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
   248     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
   249   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
   250     Removed sub-command:
   251       min
   252   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
   253     dramatically improved.
   254   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
   255 
   256 * Old and new SMT modules:
   257   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
   258     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
   259     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
   260     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
   261     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
   262     point to it.
   263     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
   265     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   266   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
   267     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
   268   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
   269     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
   270 
   271 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
   272 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
   273 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
   276 
   277 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
   278 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
   279 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
   280 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   281 
   282 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
   283 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   284 
   285 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
   286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287 
   288 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
   289 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
   290 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291 
   292 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
   293 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   294 
   295 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
   296 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
   297 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
   298 
   299 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
   300 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
   301 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
   302 needed.
   303 
   304 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
   305 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
   306 
   307 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
   308 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
   309 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
   310 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
   311 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
   312 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
   313 
   314 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
   315 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
   316 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
   317 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
   318 
   319 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
   320 type class hierarchy:
   321   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   322   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
   323   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
   324   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
   325 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
   328   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
   329   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
   330 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
   333 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
   334 
   335 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
   336   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
   337   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
   338   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
   339 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   340 
   341 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
   342 and part of theory Main.
   343   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
   344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345 
   346 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
   347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
   350 Fact rename:
   351     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
   352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353 
   354 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
   355 
   356 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
   357 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
   358 
   359 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
   360 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
   361 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
   362 
   363 * Library/Multiset:
   364   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
   365   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
   366     "Library/Multiset_Order".
   367   - Renamed multiset ordering:
   368       <# ~> #<#
   369       <=# ~> #<=#
   370       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
   371       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
   372     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   373   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
   374       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
   375       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
   376     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   377   - Renamed
   378       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
   379       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
   380       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
   381     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
   383   - Added attributes:
   384       image_mset.id [simp]
   385       image_mset_id [simp]
   386       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
   387       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
   388       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
   389       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
   390       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
   391       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
   392     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
   395 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
   396 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
   397 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
   400 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
   401 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
   402 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
   403 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
   404 examples.
   405 
   406 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
   407   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
   408   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
   409   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
   410     projection
   411 
   412 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
   413 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
   414 
   415 
   416 *** ML ***
   417 
   418 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
   419 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
   420 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
   421 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
   422 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
   423 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
   424 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
   425 
   426 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
   427 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
   428 
   429 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
   430 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
   431 
   432 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
   433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
   436 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
   437 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
   438 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
   439 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
   440 nested.
   441 
   442 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
   443 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
   444 
   445 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
   446 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
   447 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
   448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
   451 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
   452 Thm.term_of etc.
   453 
   454 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
   455 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
   456 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
   459 PARALLEL_GOALS.
   460 
   461 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
   462 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
   463 
   464 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
   465 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
   466 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
   469 Input.source (with formal position information).
   470 
   471 
   472 *** System ***
   473 
   474 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
   475 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
   476 
   477 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
   478 
   479 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
   480 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
   481 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
   482 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
   486 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
   487 
   488 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
   489 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
   490 menu Global Options / Appearance.
   491 
   492 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
   493 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
   494 
   495 
   496 
   497 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
   498 ---------------------------------
   499 
   500 *** General ***
   501 
   502 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
   503 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
   504 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
   505 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
   506 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
   507 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
   508 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
   509 some examples.
   510 
   511 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
   512 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
   513 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
   514 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
   515 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
   516 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
   517 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
   518 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
   519 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
   520 
   521 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
   522 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
   523 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
   524 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
   525 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
   526 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
   527 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
   528 proof tools.
   529 
   530 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
   531 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
   532 supports input via ` (backquote).
   533 
   534 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
   535 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
   536 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
   537 
   538 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
   539 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
   540 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
   541 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   542 
   543 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
   544 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
   545 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
   546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   547 
   548 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
   549 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
   550 
   551 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
   552 not check existence within the file-system.
   553 
   554 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
   555 isar-ref, jedit, system.
   556 
   557 
   558 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   559 
   560 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
   561 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
   562 buffer.
   563 
   564 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
   565 to PIDE hyperlinks.
   566 
   567 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   568 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   569 
   570 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   571 auxiliary ML files.
   572 
   573 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
   574 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
   575 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
   576 
   577 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
   578 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
   579 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   580 
   581 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
   582 item, depending on Isabelle options.
   583 
   584 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
   585 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
   586 caret".
   587 
   588 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   589 completion popup and context-menu.
   590 
   591 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   592 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   593 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   594 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   595 
   596 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   597 to highlight text via regular expression.
   598 
   599 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   600 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   601 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   602 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   603 
   604 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   605 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   606 
   607 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
   608 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
   609 
   610 * Improved monitor panel.
   611 
   612 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   613 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   614 
   615 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   616 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   617 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   618 
   619 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   620 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   621 within the context.
   622 
   623 
   624 *** Pure ***
   625 
   626 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   627 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   628 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   629 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   630 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   631 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   632 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   633 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   634 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   635 
   636 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   637 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   638 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   639 renaming needs to be applied:
   640 
   641   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   642   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   643   all            ~>  Pure.all
   644   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   645   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   646 
   647 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   648 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   649 old constants:
   650 
   651 setup {*
   652   fn thy => thy
   653     |> Sign.root_path
   654     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   655     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   656     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   657     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   658 *}
   659 
   660 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   661 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   662 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   663 
   664 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   665 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   666 instantiated theorem.
   667 
   668 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   669 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   670 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   671 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   672 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   673 
   674   attribute_setup standard =
   675     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   676 
   677 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   678 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   679 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   680 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   681 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   682 
   683 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   684 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   685 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   686 
   687 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   688 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   689 
   690 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   691 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   692 
   693 
   694 *** HOL ***
   695 
   696 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   697 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   706 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   712 with the given constants.
   713 
   714 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   715 operations on records.
   716 
   717 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   718 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   719 
   720 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   721 
   722 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   723 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   724 
   725 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   726 
   727 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   728 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   729 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   730 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   731 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   732 
   733 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   734 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   735 
   736 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   737   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   738   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   739   part of theory "Main".
   740 
   741   Theory renamings:
   742     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   743     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   744     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   745     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   746     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   747     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   748     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   749     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   750     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   751     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   752     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   753     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   754     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   755     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   756     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   757     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   758     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   759     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   760     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   761     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   762     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   763     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   764 
   765   New theories:
   766     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   767     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   768     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   769     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   770     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   771 
   772   Discontinued theories:
   773     BNF/BNF.thy
   774     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   775 
   776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   777 
   778 * New (co)datatype package:
   779   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   780   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   781     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   782   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   783     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   784   - Renamed commands:
   785       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   786       primrec_new ~> primrec
   787       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   788     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   790     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   791     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   793     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   794     using "prim(co)rec".
   795     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   797     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   798     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   800     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   801     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   802     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Old datatype package:
   805   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   806     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   807     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   809     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   810     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   811 
   812 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   813   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   814   BNF-based datatype package.
   815 
   816   Renamed constants:
   817     Option.set ~> set_option
   818     Option.map ~> map_option
   819     option_rel ~> rel_option
   820 
   821   Renamed theorems:
   822     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   823     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   824     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   825     option.recs ~> option.rec
   826     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   827     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   828     map.simps ~> list.map
   829     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   830     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   831     the.simps ~> option.sel
   832 
   833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   834 
   835 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   836     sum_map ~> map_sum
   837     map_pair ~> map_prod
   838     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   839     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   840     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   841     set_rel ~> rel_set
   842     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   843     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   844     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   845     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   846 
   847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 * Lifting and Transfer:
   850   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
   851   - stronger reflexivity prover
   852   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
   853   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
   854     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
   855     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
   856       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
   857       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
   858       automatically
   859     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
   860     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
   861       automatically for datatypes
   862   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
   863     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
   864       more
   865       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
   867       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
   868       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
   870       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
   871       INCOMPATIBILITY.
   872   - registration of code equations is more robust
   873     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   874   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
   875     form
   876     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
   878     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
   880     Code_Numeral.natural
   881     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   882   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
   883     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   886 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   887 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   888 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   889 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   890 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   891 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   894 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   895 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   896 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   897 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   898 
   899 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   900 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   901 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   902 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   903 
   904 * Sledgehammer:
   905   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   906   - MaSh overhaul:
   907     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   908       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   909     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   910       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   911       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   912       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   913   - New option:
   914       smt_proofs
   915   - Renamed options:
   916       isar_compress ~> compress
   917       isar_try0 ~> try0
   918 
   919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   920 
   921 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   922 
   923 * Nitpick:
   924   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   925     take infinite values.
   926   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   927     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   928   - Removed "std" option.
   929   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   930     "hide_types".
   931 
   932 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   933 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   936 
   937 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   938   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   939   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   940     SUP instead uniformly.
   941   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   942     or SUP and Sup.
   943   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   944   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   945   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   946     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   947     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   948 
   949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   950 
   951 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   952 
   953 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   954 
   955   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   956   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   957   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   958   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   959 
   960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   961 
   962 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   963 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   964 
   965 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   966 
   967     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   968     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   969     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   970     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   971     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   972     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   973     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   974     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   975     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   976     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   977     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   978     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   979     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   980     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   981     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   982     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   983     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   984     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   985     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   986     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   987     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   988     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   989     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   990     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   991     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   992     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   993     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   994     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   995     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   996     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   997     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   998     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   999     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  1000     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  1001     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  1002     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  1003     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  1004     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  1005     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  1006     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  1007     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  1008     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  1009     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  1010     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  1011     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  1012     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  1013     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  1014     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  1015     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  1016     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  1017     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  1018     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  1019     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  1020     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  1021     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  1022     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  1023     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  1024     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  1025     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  1026 
  1027   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  1028   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  1029   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  1030     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  1031 
  1032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  1035 
  1036   Fact consolidations:
  1037     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  1038     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  1039     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  1040     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  1041     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  1042     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  1043     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  1044     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  1045     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  1046     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  1047     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  1048     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  1049     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  1050     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  1051     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  1052     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  1053     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  1054     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  1055     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  1056     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  1057     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  1058     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  1059     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  1060     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  1061     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  1062     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  1063     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  1064     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  1065     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  1066     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  1067     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  1068     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  1069     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  1070     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  1071     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  1072     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  1073     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  1074     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  1075     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  1076     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  1077 
  1078 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  1079 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  1080 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  1081 
  1082 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  1083 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  1084 
  1085 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  1086 
  1087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  1090 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1091 
  1092 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  1093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  1096     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  1097 
  1098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  1101   consolidation:
  1102     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  1103     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  1104 
  1105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  1108   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  1109   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  1110   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  1111     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  1112   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  1113     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  1114   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  1115 
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  1119 
  1120     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1121     add_commute ~> add.commute
  1122     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1123     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1124     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1125     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  1126     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  1127     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  1128     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  1129     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  1130     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  1131     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  1132     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  1133 
  1134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  1137 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  1138 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  1139 
  1140 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  1141     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  1142     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  1143     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  1144     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  1145 
  1146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1147 
  1148 * Fact name consolidation:
  1149     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  1150     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  1151     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  1152     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  1153     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  1154 
  1155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1156 
  1157 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  1158 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  1159 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  1160 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  1161 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  1162 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  1163 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  1164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  1167 
  1168 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  1169 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  1170 
  1171 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  1172 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  1173 
  1174 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  1175 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  1176 or the brute way with
  1177 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  1178 
  1179 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  1180 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  1181 stating boundedness of sets.
  1182 
  1183 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  1184 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  1185 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  1188   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  1189   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  1190   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  1191   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  1192   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  1193   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  1194   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  1195   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  1196   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  1197   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  1198   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  1199 
  1200   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  1201 
  1202   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  1203 
  1204     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  1205     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  1206     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  1207     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  1208     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  1209 
  1210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1211 
  1212 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  1213   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  1214 
  1215   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  1216 
  1217   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  1218 
  1219   - removed constant isDiff
  1220 
  1221   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  1222     input syntax.
  1223 
  1224   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  1225 
  1226   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  1227 
  1228   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  1229 
  1230   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  1231 
  1232   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  1233     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  1234     has_vector_derivative.
  1235 
  1236   - Other renamings:
  1237     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  1238     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  1239     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  1240     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  1241     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  1242     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  1243     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  1244 
  1245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1246 
  1247 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  1248 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  1249 in continuous_intros.
  1250 
  1251 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  1252 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  1253 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  1254 
  1255 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  1256 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  1257 especially removes
  1258 
  1259     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  1260 
  1261 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  1262     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  1263 
  1264 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  1265 
  1266   Renamings:
  1267     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  1268     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  1269     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  1270     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  1271     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  1272     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  1273     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  1274     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  1275     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  1276     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  1277     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  1278     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  1279 
  1280     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  1281     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  1282     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  1283 
  1284   Removed theorems:
  1285     complex_zero_def
  1286     complex_add_def
  1287     complex_minus_def
  1288     complex_diff_def
  1289     complex_one_def
  1290     complex_mult_def
  1291     complex_inverse_def
  1292     complex_scaleR_def
  1293 
  1294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1295 
  1296 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  1297 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1298 
  1299 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  1300 
  1301 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  1302 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  1303 
  1304 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  1305 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1306 
  1307 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  1308 
  1309 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  1310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1311 
  1312 * HOL-Word:
  1313   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  1314     of "word_arith_wis".
  1315   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  1316     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  1317     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  1318 
  1319 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  1320   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  1321   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  1322   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  1323     (except the AFP)
  1324 
  1325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1326 
  1327 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  1328   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  1329   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  1330     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  1331   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  1332     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  1333     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  1334     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  1335     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  1336     intervals.
  1337   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  1338     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  1339     - renamed theorems:
  1340         interval ~> box
  1341         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  1342         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  1343         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  1344         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  1345         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  1346         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  1347         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  1348         open_interval ~> open_box
  1349         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  1350         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  1351         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  1352         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  1353         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  1354         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  1355         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  1356         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  1357         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  1358         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  1359         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  1360         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  1361         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  1362         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  1363         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  1364         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  1365         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  1366         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  1367         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  1368         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  1369         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  1370         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  1371         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  1372         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  1373 
  1374     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  1375         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  1376         has_integral + has_integral_real
  1377         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  1378         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  1379         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  1380         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  1381         integral_const + integral_const_real
  1382         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  1383         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  1384         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  1385         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  1386         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  1387         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  1388         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  1389         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  1390         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  1391         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  1392 
  1393   - renamed theorems:
  1394     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  1395     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  1396     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  1397 
  1398 * HOL-Probability:
  1399   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  1400 
  1401     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  1402       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  1403 
  1404     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  1405 
  1406   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  1407     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  1408 
  1409     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  1410     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  1411     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  1412     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  1413     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  1414     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  1415     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  1416     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  1417     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  1418     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  1419     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  1420     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  1421     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  1422     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  1423     integral_indicator          ~>
  1424          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  1425     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  1426     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  1427     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  1428 
  1429     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  1430          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  1431 
  1432     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  1433          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  1434 
  1435     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  1436          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  1437 
  1438     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  1439          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  1440          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  1441 
  1442     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  1443          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1444 
  1445     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  1446          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  1447 
  1448     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  1449          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  1450          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  1451 
  1452     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  1453          nn_integral_real_affine
  1454 
  1455     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  1456          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  1457 
  1458     The following theorems where removed:
  1459 
  1460     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  1461     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  1462     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  1463     lebesgue_integral_multc
  1464     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  1465     integral_cmul_indicator
  1466     integral_real
  1467 
  1468   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  1469     distributed random variables.
  1470 
  1471 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  1472 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  1473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1474 
  1475 
  1476 *** Scala ***
  1477 
  1478 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  1479 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  1480 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  1481 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  1482 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  1485 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 
  1488 *** ML ***
  1489 
  1490 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  1491 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  1492 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  1493 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  1494 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  1495 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  1496 
  1497 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  1498 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1499 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  1500 actually belongs to it).
  1501 
  1502 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  1503 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  1504 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  1505 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  1506 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  1507 of schematic variables.
  1508 
  1509 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  1510 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  1513 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  1514 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515 
  1516 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  1517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1518 
  1519 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  1520 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  1521 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  1522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  1525 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1526 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  1527 formal context.
  1528 
  1529 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  1530 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  1533 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  1534 
  1535 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  1536 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  1537 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  1538 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  1539 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1540 
  1541 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1542 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1543 purposes.
  1544 
  1545 
  1546 *** System ***
  1547 
  1548 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1549 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1550 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1551 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1552 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1553 
  1554 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1555 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1556 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1557 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1558 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1559 settings variable.
  1560 
  1561 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1562 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1563 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1564 
  1565 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1566 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1567 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1568 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1569 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1570 
  1571 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1572 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1573 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1574 
  1575 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1576 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1577 
  1578 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1579 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1580 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1581 
  1582 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1583 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1584 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1585 processing is started.
  1586 
  1587 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1588 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1589 
  1590 
  1591 
  1592 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1593 -------------------------------------
  1594 
  1595 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1596 
  1597 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1598 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1599 
  1600 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1601 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1602 
  1603 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1604 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1605 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1606 
  1607 
  1608 *** System ***
  1609 
  1610 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1611 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1612 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1613 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1614 
  1615 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1616 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1617 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1618 
  1619 
  1620 
  1621 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1622 -------------------------------------
  1623 
  1624 *** General ***
  1625 
  1626 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1627 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1628 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1631 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1634 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1635 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1636 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1637 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1638 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1639 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1640 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1641 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1642 syntax.
  1643 
  1644 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1645 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1646 
  1647 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1648 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1649 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1650 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1651 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1652 
  1653 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1655 
  1656 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1657 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1658 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1659 
  1660 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1661 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1662 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1663 
  1664 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1665 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1666 
  1667 
  1668 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1669 
  1670 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1671 Documentation panel.
  1672 
  1673 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1674 documentation.
  1675 
  1676 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1677 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1678 
  1679 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1680 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1681 normal editing and checking process.
  1682 
  1683 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1684 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1685 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1686 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1687 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1688 
  1689 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1690 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1691 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1692 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1693 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1694 
  1695 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1696 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1697 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1698 
  1699 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1700 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1701 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1702 to resolve conflict.
  1703 
  1704 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1705 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1706 
  1707 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1708 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1709 such command executions while editing.
  1710 
  1711 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1712 document content.
  1713 
  1714 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1715 toplevel theorem statements.
  1716 
  1717 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1718 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1719 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1720 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1721 
  1722 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1723 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1724 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1725 
  1726 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1727 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1728 
  1729 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1730 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1731 
  1732 
  1733 *** Pure ***
  1734 
  1735 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1736 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1737 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1738 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1739 details.
  1740 
  1741 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1742 
  1743 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1744 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1745 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1746 
  1747 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749 
  1750 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1751 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1752 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1753 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1754 
  1755 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1756 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1757 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1760 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1761 
  1762 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1763 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1764 situations.
  1765 
  1766 
  1767 *** HOL ***
  1768 
  1769 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1770 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1774 
  1775 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1776 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1777 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1778 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1779 
  1780   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1781 
  1782 * Code generator:
  1783   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1784     'code_instance'.
  1785   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1786     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1787 
  1788 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1789 examples.
  1790 
  1791 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1792 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1793 to distinguish both when desired.
  1794 
  1795 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1796 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1797 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1798 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1801 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1802 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1803 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1804 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1805 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1806 
  1807 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1808 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1809 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1810 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1811 
  1812 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1813 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1814 
  1815 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1816 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1817 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1818 
  1819 * Lifting:
  1820   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1821     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1822       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1823       transfer rules
  1824     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1825       correspondence relation can be generated
  1826     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1827       parametricity
  1828     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1829   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1830   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1831     copies
  1832   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1833     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1834     anonymous context)
  1835   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1836     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1837   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1838     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1839   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1840     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1841 
  1842 * Transfer:
  1843   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1844     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1845   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1846   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1847     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1848   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1849 
  1850 * Reification and reflection:
  1851   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1852     "Reification".
  1853   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1854   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1856 
  1857 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1858   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1859     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1860     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1861   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1862     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1863   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1864     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1865     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1866     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1867     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1868     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1869     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1870     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1871   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1872     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1873   - Fact renames:
  1874       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1875       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1879 
  1880 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1881 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1882 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1884 
  1885 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1886 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1887 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1888 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1889 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1890 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1891 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1892 lemmas.
  1893 
  1894 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1895 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1896 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1897 
  1898 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1899 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1900 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1901 
  1902 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1903 top and bottom elements.
  1904 
  1905 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1906 
  1907 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1908 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1909 
  1910  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1911    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1912    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1913 
  1914  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1915    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1916    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1917 
  1918    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1919    arbitrary filter.
  1920 
  1921  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1922    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1923    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1924    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1925    on a compact set.
  1926 
  1927  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1928    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1929    linear_continuum_topology).
  1930 
  1931  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1932    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1933    on all sequences converging to x.
  1934 
  1935  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1936    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1937    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1938    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1939    left or right.
  1940 
  1941  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1942 
  1943      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1944 
  1945  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1946    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1947 
  1948  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1949    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1950    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1951    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1952    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1953    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1954 
  1955  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1956 
  1957    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1958 
  1959    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1960      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1961 
  1962    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1963 
  1964    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1965      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1966 
  1967    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1968 
  1969    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1970 
  1971  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1972 
  1973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 * Nitpick:
  1976   - Added option "spy".
  1977   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1978 
  1979 * Sledgehammer:
  1980   - Renamed option:
  1981       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1982     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1984   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1985   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1986 
  1987 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1988 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1989 
  1990 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1991   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1992   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1993     generated code.
  1994   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1995   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1996   - Fact renames:
  1997     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1998     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1999     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  2000 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  2003 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  2004 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  2005 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  2006 
  2007 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  2008 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  2009 
  2010 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2011 
  2012 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  2013 
  2014     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  2015     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  2016 
  2017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  2020 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  2021 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  2022 
  2023 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  2024 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  2025 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  2026 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 * HOL-BNF:
  2029   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  2030     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  2031     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  2032     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  2033   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  2034     coinduct).
  2035   - Renamed keywords:
  2036     data ~> datatype_new
  2037     codata ~> codatatype
  2038     bnf_def ~> bnf
  2039   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  2040     discs ~> disc
  2041     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  2042     map_id' ~> map_id
  2043     sels ~> sel
  2044     set_map' ~> set_map
  2045     sets ~> set
  2046 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048 
  2049 *** ML ***
  2050 
  2051 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  2052 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  2053 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  2054 Examples.thy in particular.
  2055 
  2056 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  2057 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  2058 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  2059 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  2060 
  2061 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  2062 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  2063 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  2064 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  2065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2066 
  2067 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  2068 
  2069     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  2070     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  2071 
  2072 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2073 
  2074 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  2075 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  2076 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  2077 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  2078 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  2079 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  2080 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  2081 
  2082 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  2083 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  2084 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  2085 clasets separately from the context.
  2086 
  2087 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  2088 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  2089 
  2090 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  2091 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  2092 
  2093 
  2094 *** System ***
  2095 
  2096 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  2097 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  2100 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2101 
  2102 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  2103 settings variable.
  2104 
  2105 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  2106 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  2107 always pdf.
  2108 
  2109 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  2110 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  2111 
  2112 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  2113 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  2114 
  2115 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  2116 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  2117 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  2118 
  2119 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  2120 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  2121 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  2122 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  2123 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2124 for HTML presentation of theories.
  2125 
  2126 
  2127 
  2128 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  2129 -----------------------------------
  2130 
  2131 *** General ***
  2132 
  2133 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  2134 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  2135 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  2136 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  2137 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  2138 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  2139 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  2140 
  2141 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  2142 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  2143 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  2144 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  2145 
  2146 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  2147 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  2148 
  2149 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  2150 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  2151 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  2152 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  2153 dependencies properly.
  2154 
  2155 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  2156 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  2157 
  2158 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  2159 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  2160 
  2161 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  2162 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  2163 and "class ... context ...".
  2164 
  2165 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  2166 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  2167 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  2168 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  2169 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  2170 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  2171 
  2172 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  2173 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  2174 
  2175 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  2176 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  2177 
  2178 
  2179 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2180 
  2181 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  2182 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  2183 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  2184 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  2185 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  2186 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  2187 
  2188 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  2189 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  2190 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  2191 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  2192 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  2193 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  2194 
  2195 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  2196 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  2197 browser on demand.
  2198 
  2199 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  2200 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  2201 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  2202 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  2203 
  2204 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  2205 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  2206 
  2207 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  2208 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  2209 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  2210 potentially infinite message streams.
  2211 
  2212 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  2213 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  2214 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  2215 schemes.
  2216 
  2217 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  2218 symbols.
  2219 
  2220 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  2221 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  2222 
  2223 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  2224 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  2225 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  2226 
  2227 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  2228 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  2229 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  2230 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  2231 
  2232 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  2233 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  2234 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  2235 
  2236 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  2237 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  2238 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  2239 Isabelle distribution.
  2240 
  2241 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  2242 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  2243 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  2244 
  2245 
  2246 *** Pure ***
  2247 
  2248 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  2249 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  2250 
  2251 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  2252 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  2253 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2256 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  2257 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  2258 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  2259 with some care where this is really required.
  2260 
  2261 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  2262 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  2263 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  2264 
  2265   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  2266 
  2267 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  2268 a Hasse diagram.
  2269 
  2270 
  2271 *** HOL ***
  2272 
  2273 * Sledgehammer:
  2274 
  2275   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  2276     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  2277   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  2278   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  2279   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  2280   - Renamed options:
  2281       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  2282       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  2283       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  2284       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  2285 
  2286 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  2287 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  2288 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  2289 
  2290 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  2291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Lifting:
  2294   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  2295   - quot_del attribute
  2296   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  2297 
  2298 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  2299 expressions.
  2300 
  2301 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  2302 pointfree expressions.
  2303 
  2304 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  2305 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  2306 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  2307 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  2308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309 
  2310 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  2311 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  2312 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  2313 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  2314 accordingly.
  2315 
  2316 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  2317 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2318 
  2319 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  2320 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2323 
  2324 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  2325 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  2326 
  2327 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  2328 
  2329 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  2330 
  2331   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  2332   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  2333 
  2334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  2337 
  2338   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  2339   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  2340 
  2341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  2344 
  2345   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  2346     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  2347     output f x converges to G.
  2348 
  2349   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  2350     infinity (at_bot).
  2351 
  2352   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  2353     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  2354 
  2355   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  2356     at_top".
  2357 
  2358 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  2361 lattice type classes.
  2362 
  2363 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  2364 
  2365     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  2366     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  2367 
  2368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  2371 changes as follows.
  2372 
  2373   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  2374 
  2375       prefix ~> prefixeq
  2376       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  2377 
  2378   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  2379     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  2380     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  2381     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  2382 
  2383   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  2384     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  2385     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  2386 
  2387   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  2388     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  2389     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  2390     Library/Prefix_Order.
  2391 
  2392   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  2393     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  2394 
  2395       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  2396       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  2397       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  2398       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  2399       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  2400       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  2401       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  2402       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  2403       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  2404       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  2405       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  2406       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  2407       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  2408       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  2409       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  2410       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  2411 
  2412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2413 
  2414 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  2415 
  2416 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  2417 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  2418 
  2419 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  2420 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  2421 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  2422 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  2423 
  2424   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  2425   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  2426   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  2427   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  2428   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  2429   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  2430   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  2431   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  2432   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  2433   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  2434 
  2435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2436 
  2437 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  2438 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  2439 Data").
  2440 
  2441 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  2442 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  2443 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  2444 code.
  2445 
  2446 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  2447 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  2448 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  2449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2450 
  2451 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  2452 
  2453 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  2454 
  2455 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  2456 
  2457   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  2458   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  2459 
  2460 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  2461 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  2462 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  2463 
  2464   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  2465 
  2466     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  2467     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  2468     cart_base i  removed
  2469     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  2470 
  2471   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  2472 
  2473   Renamed lemmas:
  2474 
  2475     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  2476     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  2477     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  2478     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  2479     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  2480     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  2481     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  2482     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  2483     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  2484     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  2485 
  2486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * HOL/Probability:
  2489 
  2490   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  2491 
  2492   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  2493     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  2494     (borel_measurable_induct).
  2495 
  2496   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  2497     projective family).
  2498 
  2499 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  2500 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  2501 
  2502 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  2503 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  2504 datatypes.
  2505 
  2506 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  2507 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  2508 
  2509 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  2510 trees for the code generator.
  2511 
  2512 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  2513 Lifting/Transfer.
  2514 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  2517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2518 
  2519 
  2520 *** Document preparation ***
  2521 
  2522 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  2523 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  2524 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  2525 
  2526 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  2527 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  2528 
  2529 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  2530 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  2531 document/root.tex.
  2532 
  2533 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  2534 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 
  2537 *** ML ***
  2538 
  2539 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2540 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2541 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2542 
  2543 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2544 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2545 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2546 
  2547 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2548 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2549 necessarily printing visible text.
  2550 
  2551 
  2552 *** System ***
  2553 
  2554 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2555 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2556 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2557 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2558 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2559 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2560 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2561 
  2562 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2563 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2564 
  2565   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2566 
  2567 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2568 
  2569 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2570 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2571 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2572 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2573 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2574 
  2575 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2576 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2577 
  2578 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2579 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2580 
  2581 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2585 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2586 version of Isabelle.
  2587 
  2588 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2589 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2590 
  2591 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2592 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2593 for home-made settings.
  2594 
  2595 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2596 
  2597 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2598 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2599 configuration.
  2600 
  2601 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2602 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2603 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2604 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2605 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2606 
  2607 
  2608 
  2609 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2610 ------------------------------
  2611 
  2612 *** General ***
  2613 
  2614 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2615 
  2616   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2617     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2618   - markup for bound variables
  2619   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2620   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2621   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2622     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2623 
  2624 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2625 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2626 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2627 
  2628 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2629 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2630 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2631 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2632 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2633 
  2634   context
  2635     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2636     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2637   begin
  2638 
  2639   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2640 
  2641   end
  2642 
  2643   thm my_trans
  2644 
  2645 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2646 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2647 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2648 
  2649 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2650 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2651 
  2652 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2653 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2654 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2655 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2656 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2657 
  2658 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2659 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2660 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2661 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2662 indices of schematic variables.
  2663 
  2664 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2665 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2666 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2667 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2668 etc. was exploited.
  2669 
  2670 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2671 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2672 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2673 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2674 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2675 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2676 
  2677 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2678 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2679 manual.
  2680 
  2681 
  2682 *** Pure ***
  2683 
  2684 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2685 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2686 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2687 
  2688 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2689 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2690 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2691 undocumented feature.)
  2692 
  2693 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2694 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2695 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2696 
  2697   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2698 
  2699   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2700     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2701 
  2702 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2703 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2704 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2705 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2706 
  2707 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2708 
  2709     num ~> num_token
  2710     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2711     xstr ~> str_token
  2712 
  2713 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2714 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2715 position information via constraints).
  2716 
  2717 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2718 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2719 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2720 
  2721 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2722 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2723 
  2724 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2725 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2726 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2727 
  2728 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2729 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2732 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2733 
  2734   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2735 
  2736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2737 
  2738 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2739 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2742 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2743 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2744 
  2745 
  2746 *** HOL ***
  2747 
  2748 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2749 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2750 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2751 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2752 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2753 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2754 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2755 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2756 possible.
  2757 
  2758 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2759 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2760 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2761 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2762 
  2763 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2764 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2767 
  2768 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2769 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2770 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2771 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2772 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2773 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2774 
  2775   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2776     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2777 
  2778   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2779     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2780     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2781 
  2782   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2783     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2784 
  2785   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2786     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2787     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2788 
  2789   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2790     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2791 
  2792 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2793 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2794 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2795 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2796 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2797 
  2798   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2799     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2800     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2801     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2802     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2803 
  2804     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2805     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2806 
  2807   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2808     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2809     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2810     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2811     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2812     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2813     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2814     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2815 
  2816   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2817     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2818     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2819     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2820 
  2821   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2822     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2823     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2824     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2825 
  2826   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2827     from type nat to type int.
  2828 
  2829 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2830 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2831 
  2832   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2833     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2834     type.  Example syntax:
  2835 
  2836     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2837       is List.insert
  2838 
  2839     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2840     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2841     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2842     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2843     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2844     by the package.
  2845 
  2846   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2847     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2848     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2849     code generation for each constant.
  2850 
  2851   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2852     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2853     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2854     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2855     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2856 
  2857   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2858     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2859     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2860 
  2861 * Quotient package:
  2862 
  2863   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2864     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2865 
  2866   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2867     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2868 
  2869   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2870     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2871     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2872 
  2873   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2874     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2877 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2878 
  2879 * Quickcheck:
  2880 
  2881   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2882     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2883     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2884     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2885     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2886 
  2887     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2888     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2889     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2890 
  2891     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2892     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2893 
  2894     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2895     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2896     show genuine counterexamples.
  2897 
  2898   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2899     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2900 
  2901     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2902     constructors of that type.
  2903 
  2904   - Support for multisets.
  2905 
  2906   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2907 
  2908   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2909     conjectures in a locale context.
  2910 
  2911 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2912 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2913 
  2914 * Sledgehammer:
  2915   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2916     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2917   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2918   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2919     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2920   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2921   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2922   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2923   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2924 
  2925 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2926 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2927 
  2928 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2929 
  2930 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2933 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2934 
  2935   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2936 
  2937 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2938 a list and a nat.
  2939 
  2940 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2941 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2942 
  2943 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2944 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2945 default.
  2946 
  2947 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2948 
  2949   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2950 
  2951 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2952 
  2953 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2954 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2955 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2956 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2957 one_case.
  2958 
  2959 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2960 the result of the fact expression.
  2961 
  2962 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2963 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2964 of some relation theorems:
  2965 
  2966   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2967   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2968   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2969   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2970   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2971   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2972 
  2973 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2974 
  2975 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2976 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2977 
  2978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2981 to match the constant's name:
  2982 
  2983   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2984   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2985   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2986   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2987   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2988   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2989   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2990   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2991   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2992   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2993   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2994   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2995   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2996   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2997   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2998   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2999   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  3000   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  3001   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  3002   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  3003   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  3004   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3005   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  3006   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  3007 
  3008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  3011 and corresponding theorem names:
  3012 
  3013   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  3014 
  3015   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  3016 
  3017   - Renamed theorems:
  3018 
  3019     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  3020     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  3021     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  3022     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  3023     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  3024     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  3025     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  3026     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  3027     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  3028     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  3029     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  3030     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  3031     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  3032     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  3033     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  3034     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  3035     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  3036     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  3037     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  3038     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  3039     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  3040     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  3041     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  3042 
  3043     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  3044 
  3045     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  3046 
  3047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3048 
  3049 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  3050 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3051 
  3052   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  3053   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  3054   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  3055   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  3056   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  3057   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  3058   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  3059   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  3060   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  3061   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  3062   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  3063   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  3064   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  3065   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  3066   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  3067   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  3068   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  3069   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  3070   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  3071   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  3072   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  3073 
  3074 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  3075 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  3080 
  3081   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  3082   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  3083   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  3084   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  3085   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  3086   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  3087   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  3088   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  3089   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  3090   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  3091   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  3092   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  3093   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  3094   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  3095   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  3096   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  3097   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  3098   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  3099 
  3100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  3103 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  3104 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  3105 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  3106 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  3107 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  3108 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  3109 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  3110 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  3111 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  3112 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  3113 
  3114 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  3115 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  3116 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  3117 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  3118 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  3119 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  3120 
  3121 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  3122 through option types.
  3123 
  3124 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  3125 relations.
  3126 
  3127 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  3131 
  3132   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  3133   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  3134   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  3135   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  3136   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3137   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3138   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  3139   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3140   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  3141   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3142   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  3143   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  3144   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3145   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3146   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3147   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  3148   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  3149   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  3150   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3151   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3152   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  3153   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  3154   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3155   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3156   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  3157   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3158   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  3159   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  3160   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  3161   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  3162   zless_le ~> less_le
  3163   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  3164   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  3165   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  3166 
  3167 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  3168 
  3169   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  3170 
  3171 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  3172 
  3173 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  3174 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  3175 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  3176 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  3177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3178 
  3179 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3180 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  3181 
  3182 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  3183 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  3184 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  3185 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  3186 follows:
  3187 
  3188   Operations:
  3189   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  3190   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  3191   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  3192   del -> rbt_del
  3193   delete -> rbt_delete
  3194   ins -> rbt_ins
  3195   insert -> rbt_insert
  3196   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  3197   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  3198   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  3199   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  3200   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  3201   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  3202   tree_less -> rbt_less
  3203   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  3204   union -> rbt_union
  3205   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  3206   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  3207 
  3208   Lemmas:
  3209   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  3210   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  3211   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  3212   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  3213   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  3214   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  3215   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  3216   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  3217   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  3218   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  3219   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  3220   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  3221   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  3222   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  3223   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  3224   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  3225   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  3226   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  3227   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  3228   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  3229   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  3230   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  3231   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  3232   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  3233   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  3234   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  3235   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  3236   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  3237   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  3238   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  3239   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  3240   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  3241   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  3242   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  3243   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  3244   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  3245   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  3246   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  3247   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  3248   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  3249   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  3250   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  3251   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  3252   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  3253   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  3254   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  3255   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  3256   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  3257   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  3258   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  3259   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  3260   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  3261   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  3262   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  3263   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  3264   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  3265   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  3266   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  3267   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  3268   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  3269   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  3270   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  3271   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  3272   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  3273   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  3274   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  3275   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  3276   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  3277   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  3278   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  3279   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  3280   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  3281   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  3282   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  3283   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  3284   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  3285   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  3286   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  3287   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  3288   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  3289   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  3290   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  3291   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  3292 
  3293 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  3294 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  3295 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297   Changed Operations:
  3298   float_abs -> abs
  3299   float_nprt -> nprt
  3300   float_pprt -> pprt
  3301   pow2 -> use powr
  3302   round_down -> float_round_down
  3303   round_up -> float_round_up
  3304   scale -> exponent
  3305 
  3306   Removed Operations:
  3307   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  3308 
  3309   Renamed Lemmas:
  3310   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  3311   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  3312   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  3313   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  3314   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  3315   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  3316   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  3317   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  3318   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  3319   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  3320   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  3321   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  3322   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  3323   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  3324   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  3325   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  3326   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  3327   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  3328   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  3329   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  3330   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  3331   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  3332   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  3333   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  3334   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  3335   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  3336   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  3337   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  3338   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  3339   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  3340   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  3341   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  3342   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  3343   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  3344   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  3345   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  3346 
  3347   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  3348   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  3349   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  3350   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  3351   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  3352   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  3353   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  3354   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  3355   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  3356   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  3357 
  3358 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  3359 association lists with distinct keys.
  3360 
  3361 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  3362 annotated commands.
  3363 
  3364 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  3365 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  3366 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  3367 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3368 
  3369 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  3370 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  3371 instead.
  3372 
  3373   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  3374   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  3375   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  3376   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  3377   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  3378   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  3379   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  3380   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  3381   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3382   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  3383   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  3384   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  3385   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  3386   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3387   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3388   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  3389   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3390   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  3391   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  3392   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  3393   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  3394   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  3395   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  3396   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  3397   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  3398   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  3399   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  3400   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  3401   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  3402   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3403   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  3404   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3405   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  3406   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  3407   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  3408   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  3409   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  3410   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  3411   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  3412   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  3413   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  3414 
  3415 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  3416 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  3417 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  3418 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  3419 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  3420 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  3421 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  3422 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  3423 
  3424 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  3425 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  3426 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  3427 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  3428 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  3429 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  3430 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  3431 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  3432 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  3433 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  3434 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  3435 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437   Renamed constants:
  3438   measure -> emeasure
  3439   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  3440   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  3441   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  3442   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  3443 
  3444   Removed locales:
  3445   completeable_measure_space
  3446   finite_measure_space
  3447   finite_prob_space
  3448   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  3449   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  3450   finite_sigma_algebra
  3451   measure_space
  3452   pair_finite_prob_space
  3453   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  3454   pair_finite_space
  3455   pair_sigma_algebra
  3456   product_sigma_algebra
  3457 
  3458   Removed constants:
  3459   conditional_space
  3460   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3461   image_space
  3462   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  3463   pair_measure_generator
  3464   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  3465   subvimage
  3466 
  3467   Replacement theorems:
  3468   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  3469   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  3470   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  3471   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  3472   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  3473   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  3474   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  3475   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3476   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  3477   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  3478   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  3479   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3480   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  3481   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  3482   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  3483   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  3484   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3485   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3486   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  3487   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3488   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  3489   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  3490   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  3491   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  3492   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  3493   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  3494   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  3495   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  3496   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  3497   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  3498   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  3499   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  3500   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  3501   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  3502   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  3503   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  3504   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  3505   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  3506   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  3507   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  3508   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  3509   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  3510   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  3511   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  3512   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  3513   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  3514   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  3515   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  3516   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  3517   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  3518   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  3519   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  3520   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3521   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3522   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  3523   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  3524   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  3525   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  3526   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3527   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  3528   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  3529   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  3530   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  3531   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  3532   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  3533   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  3534   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  3535   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  3536   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  3537   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  3538   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  3539   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3540   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3541   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3542   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3543   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3544   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3545   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3546   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3547   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3548   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3549   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3550   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3551   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3552   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3553   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3554   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3555   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3556   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3557   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3558   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3559   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3560   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3561   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3562   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3563   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3564   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3565   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3566   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3567   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3568   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3569   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3570   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3571   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3572   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3573   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3574   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3575   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3576   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3577   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3578   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3579   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3580   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3581   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3582   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3583   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3584   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3585   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3586   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3587   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3588   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3589   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3590   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3591   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3592   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3593   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3594   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3595   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3596 
  3597 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3598 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3599 
  3600 
  3601 *** FOL ***
  3602 
  3603 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3604 
  3605 
  3606 *** ZF ***
  3607 
  3608 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3609 analysis.
  3610 
  3611 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3612 
  3613 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 
  3616 *** ML ***
  3617 
  3618 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3619 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3620 
  3621 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3622 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3623 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3624 
  3625 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3626 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3627 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3628 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3629 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3630 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3631 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3632 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3633 
  3634 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3635 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3636 
  3637 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3638 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3639 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3640 
  3641 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3642 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3645 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3646 context as well.
  3647 
  3648 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3649 
  3650   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3651   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3652   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3653   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3654   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3655   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3656   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3657   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3658   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3659   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3660   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3661   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3662 
  3663 
  3664 *** System ***
  3665 
  3666 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3667 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3668 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3669 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3670 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3671 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3672 the generic user home was intended.
  3673 
  3674 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3675 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3676 
  3677 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3678 (not just JRE).
  3679 
  3680 
  3681 
  3682 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3683 ------------------------------------
  3684 
  3685 *** General ***
  3686 
  3687 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3688 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3689 
  3690   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3691     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3692     files for checking).
  3693 
  3694   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3695     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3696     positions.
  3697 
  3698   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3699     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3700     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3701 
  3702   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3703     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3704     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3705 
  3706   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3707     cores.
  3708 
  3709   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3710     versions (garbage collection).
  3711 
  3712 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3713 including some remaining limitations.
  3714 
  3715 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3716 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3717 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3718 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3719 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3723 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3724 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3725 
  3726 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3727 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3728 usedir option -Q.
  3729 
  3730 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3731 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3732 
  3733   long_names   ~> names_long
  3734   short_names  ~> names_short
  3735   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3736 
  3737 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3738 
  3739   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3740 
  3741 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3742 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3743 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3744 
  3745 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3746 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3747 
  3748 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3749   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3750   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3751   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3752     "Classical Reasoner".
  3753 
  3754 
  3755 *** HOL ***
  3756 
  3757 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3758 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3761 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3762 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3763 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3764 class complete_linorder.
  3765 
  3766 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3767 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3768 
  3769 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3770 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3771 
  3772   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3773   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3774   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3775   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3776   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3777   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3778   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3779   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3780   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3781   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3782   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3783 
  3784 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3785 
  3786   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3787   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3788   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3789   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3790   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3791   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3792   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3793   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3794   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3795   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3796   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3797   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3798   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3799   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3800   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3801   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3802 
  3803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3807 
  3808 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3809 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3810 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3811 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3814 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3815 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3817 
  3818 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3819 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3820 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3821 
  3822 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3823 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3824 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3825 
  3826 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3827 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3828 
  3829 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3830 
  3831     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3832     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3833 
  3834 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3835 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3838 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3841 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3842 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3843 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3844 
  3845   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3846   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3847   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3848   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3849   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3850   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3851   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3852 
  3853 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3854 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3857   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3858   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3859   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3860   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3861   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3862   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3863   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3864   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3865   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3866   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3867   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3868   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3869   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3870   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3871   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3872   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3873   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3874   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3875   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3876   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3877   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3878   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3879   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3880   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3881   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3882   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3883   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3884   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3885   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3886   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3887   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3888   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3889   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3890   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3891   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3892   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3893   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3894   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3895   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3896   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3897   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3898   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3899   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3900   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3901   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3902   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3903   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3904   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3905   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3906   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3907   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3908   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3909   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3910   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3911   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3912   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3913   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3914   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3915   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3916   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3917   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3918   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3919   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3920   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3921   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3922   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3923   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3924   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3925   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3926   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3927   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3928   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3929   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3930   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3931   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3932   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3933   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3934   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3935   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3936   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3937   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3938 
  3939 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3940 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3941 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3942 
  3943 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3944 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3945 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3946 
  3947 * Code generation:
  3948 
  3949   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3950     characters in the target language.
  3951 
  3952   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3953     instead.
  3954 
  3955   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3956 
  3957   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3958     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3959 
  3960       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3961 
  3962 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3965 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3966 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3967 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3968 syntax.
  3969 
  3970 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3971 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3972 
  3973 * Nitpick:
  3974   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3975   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3976   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3977     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978 
  3979 * Sledgehammer:
  3980   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3981   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3982     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3983   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3984     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3985   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3986     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3988     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3989   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3990     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 
  3992 * Metis:
  3993   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3995     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997 * Command 'try':
  3998   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3999     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  4001     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  4002 
  4003 * Quickcheck:
  4004   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  4005     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4006   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  4007     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  4008   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  4009     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  4010     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  4011     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  4012   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  4013     (formly in HOL/Library).
  4014 
  4015 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4016 use 'partial_function' instead.
  4017 
  4018 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  4019 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  4020 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  4021 
  4022 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  4023 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  4024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  4027 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  4030 arithmetic.
  4031 
  4032 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  4033 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  4034 and lattice type classes.
  4035 
  4036 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  4037 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  4038 
  4039 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  4040 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  4041 
  4042 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  4043 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  4044 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  4047   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  4048   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  4049   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  4050 
  4051 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  4052 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  4053 constants:
  4054 
  4055   type inat   ~> type enat
  4056   Fin         ~> enat
  4057   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  4058   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  4059   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  4060 
  4061 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  4062 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  4065 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  4066 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  4067 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  4068 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  4069 
  4070 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  4071 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  4072 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  4073 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  4074 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  4075 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  4076 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4077 
  4078   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  4079   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  4080   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  4081   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  4082 
  4083 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  4084 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  4085 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  4088   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  4089   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  4090   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  4091   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  4092   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  4093   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  4094   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  4095   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  4096   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  4097   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  4098   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  4099   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  4100   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  4101   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  4102   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  4103   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  4104   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  4105   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  4106   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  4107   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  4108   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  4109   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  4110   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  4111   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  4112   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  4113   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  4114   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  4115   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  4116   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4117   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  4118   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  4119   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  4120   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  4121   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  4122   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  4123   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  4124   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  4125   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  4126   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  4127   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  4128   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  4129   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  4130   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  4131   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  4132   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  4133   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  4134   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  4135   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  4136   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  4137   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  4138 
  4139 * Session HOL-Probability:
  4140   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  4141   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  4142   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  4143   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  4144     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4147 
  4148   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  4149   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  4150   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4151   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  4152   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  4153   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  4154   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  4155   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  4156   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  4157   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  4158   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4159   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  4160   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  4161   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  4162   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  4163   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  4164   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  4165   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  4166   UU_I ~> bottomI
  4167   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  4168   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4169   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  4170   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  4171   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  4172   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  4173 
  4174 
  4175 *** Document preparation ***
  4176 
  4177 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  4178 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  4179 same.
  4180 
  4181 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  4182 result.
  4183 
  4184 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  4185 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  4186 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  4187 
  4188 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  4189 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  4190 
  4191 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  4192 like this:
  4193 
  4194   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  4195   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  4196 
  4197 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  4198 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  4199 layouts.
  4200 
  4201 
  4202 *** ML ***
  4203 
  4204 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  4205 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  4206 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  4207 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  4208 under external program control.
  4209 
  4210 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  4211 data, which requires explicit setup.
  4212 
  4213 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  4214 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  4215 (better known as Proof General).
  4216 
  4217 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  4218 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  4219 
  4220 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  4221 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  4222 
  4223 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  4224 (including quotes etc.).
  4225 
  4226 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  4227 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  4228 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  4229 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  4230 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  4231 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  4232 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  4233 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  4234 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  4235 
  4236 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  4237 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  4238 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4239 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  4240 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  4241 
  4242 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  4243 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  4244 
  4245 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  4246 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  4247 
  4248 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  4249 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  4250 
  4251 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  4252 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  4253 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  4254 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  4255 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  4256 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  4257 proper Proof.context.
  4258 
  4259 
  4260 *** System ***
  4261 
  4262 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  4263 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  4264 
  4265 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  4266 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  4267 
  4268 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  4269 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  4270 
  4271   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  4272   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  4273   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  4274   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  4275   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  4276 
  4277 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  4278 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  4281 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  4282 example:
  4283 
  4284   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  4285 
  4286 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  4287 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  4288 
  4289 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  4290 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  4291 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  4292 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  4293 
  4294 
  4295 
  4296 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  4297 ----------------------------------
  4298 
  4299 *** General ***
  4300 
  4301 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  4302 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  4303 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  4304 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  4305 like this:
  4306 
  4307   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  4308 
  4309 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  4310 
  4311 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  4312 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  4313 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  4314 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  4315 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  4316 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  4317 
  4318 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  4319 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  4320 the following package declarations:
  4321 
  4322   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  4323   \usepackage{textcomp}
  4324 
  4325 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  4326 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  4327 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  4328 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  4329 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  4330 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  4331 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  4332 
  4333 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  4334 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  4335 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  4336 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  4337 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  4338 
  4339 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  4340 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  4341 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  4342 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  4345 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  4346 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  4347 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  4348 
  4349   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  4350 
  4351   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  4352   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  4353   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  4354   show_types                    show_types
  4355   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  4356   show_consts                   show_consts
  4357   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  4358 
  4359   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  4360   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  4361   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  4362 
  4363   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  4364   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  4365 
  4366   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  4367 
  4368   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  4369   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  4370   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  4371   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  4372   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  4373 
  4374 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  4375 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  4376 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  4377 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  4378 
  4379 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  4380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  4383   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  4384 
  4385 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  4386 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  4387 float_token.
  4388 
  4389 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  4390 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  4391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  4394 DejaVu Sans.
  4395 
  4396 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  4397 
  4398 
  4399 *** Pure ***
  4400 
  4401 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  4402 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  4403 time.
  4404 
  4405 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  4406 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  4409 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  4412 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  4413 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  4414 command already provided this functionality.
  4415 
  4416 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  4417 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  4418 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  4419 without interpretations.
  4420 
  4421 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  4422 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  4423 
  4424 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  4425 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  4426 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  4427 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  4428 
  4429 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4430 'definition' instead.
  4431 
  4432 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  4433 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  4434 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  4435 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  4436 
  4437 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  4438 constructors.
  4439 
  4440 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  4441 the local file system.
  4442 
  4443 
  4444 *** HOL ***
  4445 
  4446 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  4447 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  4448 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  4449 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  4450 
  4451   declare [[coercion f]]
  4452 
  4453 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  4454 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  4455 
  4456   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  4457 
  4458 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  4459 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  4460 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  4461 other theories like this:
  4462 
  4463   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  4464 
  4465 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  4466 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  4467 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  4468 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  4469 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  4470 for examples.
  4471 
  4472 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  4473 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4474 
  4475 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  4476 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  4477 
  4478 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  4479 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  4480 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  4481 
  4482 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  4483 functorial structure of types.
  4484 
  4485 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  4486 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  4487 
  4488 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  4489 languages.
  4490 
  4491 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  4492 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  4493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4494 
  4495 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  4496 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4497 
  4498 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  4499 combinators any longer.
  4500 
  4501 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  4502 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  4503 
  4504 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  4505 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  4506 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  4507 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  4508 
  4509   record 'a foo = ...
  4510   ...
  4511   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  4512 
  4513 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  4514 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  4515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4516 
  4517 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  4518 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  4519 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  4520 
  4521 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  4522 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  4523 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  4524 
  4525 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  4526 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4527 
  4528 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  4529 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  4530 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  4531 independently.
  4532 
  4533 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  4534 counter example search.
  4535 
  4536 * Sledgehammer:
  4537   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  4538     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  4539     sledgehammer").
  4540   - Renamed commands:
  4541     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4542     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4543     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4544     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4545   - Renamed options:
  4546     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4547     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4548     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4549     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4550     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4551 
  4552 * Nitpick:
  4553   - Renamed options:
  4554     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4555     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4556     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4558   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4559   - Added "whack" option.
  4560   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4561   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4562   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4563   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4564     higher cardinalities.
  4565   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4566 
  4567 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4568 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4569 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4570 
  4571     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4572 
  4573 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4574 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4575 
  4576 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4577 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4578 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4579 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4580 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4581 "smt_solver".
  4582 
  4583 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4584 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4585 
  4586 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4587 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4588 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4589 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4592   - Renamed:
  4593     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4594     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4595     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596   - Added:
  4597     smt_verbose
  4598     smt_random_seed
  4599     smt_datatypes
  4600     smt_infer_triggers
  4601     smt_monomorph_limit
  4602     cvc3_options
  4603     remote_cvc3_options
  4604     remote_z3_options
  4605     yices_options
  4606 
  4607 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4608 header.
  4609 
  4610 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4611 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4612 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4613 
  4614   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4615 
  4616 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4617 
  4618 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4619 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4620 
  4621 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4622 
  4623 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4624 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4627 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4628 
  4629 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4630 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631 
  4632 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4633 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4634 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4635 
  4636 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4642 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 
  4644 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4645 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4646 for congruent(2)).
  4647 
  4648 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4649 
  4650   types
  4651     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4652     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4653 
  4654   constants
  4655     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4656     True ~> HOL.True
  4657     False ~> HOL.False
  4658     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4659     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4660     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4661     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4662     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4663     The ~> HOL.The
  4664     All ~> HOL.All
  4665     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4666     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4667     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4668     If ~> HOL.If
  4669     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4670     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4671     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4672     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4673     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4674     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4675     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4676     op : ~> Set.member
  4677     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4678 
  4679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4682 
  4683     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4684     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4685     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4686     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4687     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4688     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4689     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4690     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4691 
  4692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * More stylized fact names:
  4695 
  4696   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4697   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4698   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4699   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4700 
  4701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4702 
  4703 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4704 
  4705   constants
  4706     null ~> List.null
  4707 
  4708   facts
  4709     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4710     null_empty ~> null_def
  4711 
  4712 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4713 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4714 generation.
  4715 
  4716 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4717 Haskell code.
  4718 
  4719 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4720 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4721 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4724 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4727 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4728 
  4729 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4730 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4731 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4734 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4735 
  4736 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4738 
  4739 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4740 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4741 referred to by its qualified name.
  4742 
  4743   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4744   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4745   product ~>  Enum.product
  4746 
  4747 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4748 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4750 
  4751 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4752 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4753 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4755 
  4756 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4757 sort_key.
  4758 
  4759 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4761 
  4762 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4763 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4764 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4765 
  4766   types
  4767     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4768               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4769               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4770         (depends on your needs)
  4771 
  4772   constants
  4773      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4774      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4775      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4776 
  4777 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4778 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4779 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4780 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4781 
  4782 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4783 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4784 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4785 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4786 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4792 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4793 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4794 
  4795 
  4796 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4797 
  4798 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4799 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4800 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4801 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4802 compatibility.
  4803 
  4804 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4805 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4806 
  4807 
  4808 *** HOLCF ***
  4809 
  4810 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4811 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4812 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4816 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4817 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4818 
  4819   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4820   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4821   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4822 
  4823 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4824 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4825 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4828 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4829 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4830 domain definition now works:
  4831 
  4832   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4833 
  4834 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4835 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4836 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4837 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4838 
  4839   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4840     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4841 
  4842   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4843 
  4844 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4845 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4846 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4849 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4850 
  4851 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4852 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4853 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4854 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4855 
  4856 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4857 
  4858 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4861 
  4862 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4864 
  4865 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4866 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4867 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4868 
  4869 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4870 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4871 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4872 
  4873 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4874 still supported as an input translation.
  4875 
  4876 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4877 
  4878   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4879   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4880   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4881   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4882   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4883   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4884   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4885 
  4886 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4887 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4890   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4891   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4892   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4893   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4894   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4895 
  4896 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4897 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4898 
  4899 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4900 
  4901   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4902   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4903   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4904   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4905 
  4906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4907 
  4908 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4909 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4912 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4913 
  4914   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4915   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4916   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4917   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4918   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4919   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4920   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4921   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4922   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4923   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4924   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4925   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4926   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4927   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4928   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4929   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4930   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4931   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4932   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4933   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4934 
  4935 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4936 
  4937   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4938   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4939   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4940   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4941   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4942   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4943   box_less             ~> box_below
  4944   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4945   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4946   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4947   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4948   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4949   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4950   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4951   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4952   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4953   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4954   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4955   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4956   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4957   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4958   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4959   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4960   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4961   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4962   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4963   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4964   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4965   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4966   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4967   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4968   up_less              ~> up_below
  4969   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4970   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4971   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4972   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4973   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4974   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4975   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4976   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4977   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4978   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4979   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4980   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4981   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4982 
  4983 
  4984 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4985 
  4986 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4987 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4988 
  4989 
  4990 *** ML ***
  4991 
  4992 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4993 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4994 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4995 
  4996 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4997 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4998 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4999 
  5000 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  5001 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  5002 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  5003 
  5004 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  5005 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  5006 
  5007 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  5008 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  5009 
  5010 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  5011 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  5012 
  5013 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  5014 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  5015 
  5016 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  5017 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  5018 almost all situations.
  5019 
  5020 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  5021 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  5022 Isabelle/ML.
  5023 
  5024 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  5025 meaning.
  5026 
  5027 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  5028 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  5029 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  5030 
  5031 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  5032 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  5033 
  5034 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  5035 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  5036 
  5037 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  5038 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  5039 @{thms} for most purposes.
  5040 
  5041 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  5042 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  5043 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  5044 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  5045 configuration options.
  5046 
  5047 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  5048 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  5049 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  5050 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  5051 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  5052 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  5053 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  5054 
  5055 
  5056 
  5057 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  5058 ---------------------------------
  5059 
  5060 *** General ***
  5061 
  5062 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  5063 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  5064 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  5065 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  5066 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  5067 their full internal name.
  5068 
  5069 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  5070 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  5071 Some hints on upgrading:
  5072 
  5073   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  5074     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  5075     which are independent of this issue.
  5076 
  5077   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  5078     provides the following special forms:
  5079 
  5080       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  5081       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  5082       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  5083 
  5084     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  5085     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  5086     extra variables".
  5087 
  5088     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  5089     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  5090     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  5091     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  5092     "logic".
  5093 
  5094   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  5095     antiquotations:
  5096 
  5097       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  5098       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  5099       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  5100       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  5101 
  5102   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  5103     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  5104     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  5105     antiquotations.
  5106 
  5107 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  5108 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  5109 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  5110 diagnose syntax problems.
  5111 
  5112 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  5113 
  5114 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  5115 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  5116 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  5117 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  5118 
  5119 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  5120 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  5121 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  5122 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5123 
  5124 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  5125 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  5126 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  5127 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  5128 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5129 
  5130 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  5131 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  5132 
  5133 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  5134 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  5135 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  5136 
  5137   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  5138 
  5139 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  5140 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  5141 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  5142 
  5143 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  5144 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  5145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  5148 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  5149 
  5150 
  5151 *** Pure ***
  5152 
  5153 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  5154 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  5155 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  5156 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  5157 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  5158 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  5159 inspect proof terms.
  5160 
  5161 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  5162 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  5163 are added internally.  For example:
  5164 
  5165   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  5166 
  5167 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  5168 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5169 
  5170 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5171 
  5172 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5173 'class' instead.
  5174 
  5175 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  5176 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  5177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5178 
  5179 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  5180 invariants.
  5181 
  5182 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  5183 user space functionality any longer.
  5184 
  5185 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  5186 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  5187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  5190 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  5191 
  5192 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  5193 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  5194 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  5195 
  5196 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  5197 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  5198 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  5199 
  5200 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  5201 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5202 
  5203 
  5204 *** HOL ***
  5205 
  5206 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  5207 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  5208 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  5209 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  5210 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  5211 
  5212 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  5213 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  5214 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  5215 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  5216 
  5217   fun
  5218     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  5219   where
  5220     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  5221 
  5222   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  5223     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  5224 
  5225   quotient_definition
  5226     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  5227 
  5228 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  5229 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  5230 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  5231 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  5232 
  5233 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  5234 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  5235 
  5236 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  5237 separate HOL-SMT session.
  5238 
  5239 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  5240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5241 
  5242 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  5243 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  5244 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  5245 
  5246 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  5247 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5248 
  5249 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  5250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5251 
  5252 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  5253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5254 
  5255 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  5256 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5257 
  5258 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  5259 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  5260 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5261 
  5262   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  5263   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  5264   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  5265   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  5266   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  5267   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  5268   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  5269   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  5270   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  5271   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  5272   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  5273   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  5274   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  5275   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  5276   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  5277   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  5278   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  5279   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  5280   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  5281   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  5282   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  5283   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  5284   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  5285   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  5286   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  5287   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  5288   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  5289   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  5290   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  5291   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  5292 
  5293 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  5294 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  5295 
  5296 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  5297 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  5298 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5299 
  5300 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  5301 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  5302 
  5303 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  5304 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5305 
  5306 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  5307 
  5308 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  5309 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5310 
  5311 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  5312 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5313 
  5314 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5315 
  5316 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  5317 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  5318 
  5319 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  5320 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  5321 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  5322 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5323 
  5324 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  5325   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  5326   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  5327   - inverse, divide: Rings
  5328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5329 
  5330 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  5331 lattices):
  5332 
  5333     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  5334     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  5335 
  5336     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  5337 
  5338     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  5339     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  5340     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5341     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  5342     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5343     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  5344     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  5345     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  5346     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  5347     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  5348     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  5349     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  5350     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  5351 
  5352     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  5353     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  5354     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  5355     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  5356     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  5357     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  5358     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  5359     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  5360     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  5361     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  5362     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  5363     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  5364     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  5365     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  5366     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  5367     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  5368     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  5369     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  5370 
  5371   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  5372   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  5373 
  5374     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  5375     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  5376     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  5377     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  5378     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  5379 
  5380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Refined field classes:
  5383   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  5384     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  5385     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  5386   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  5387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5388 
  5389 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  5390   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  5391   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  5392   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  5393     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  5394   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  5395     equal_neg_zero.
  5396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5397 
  5398 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  5399 sets to lattices:
  5400 
  5401   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  5402   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  5403   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  5404   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  5405   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  5406   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  5407   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  5408   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  5409   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  5410   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  5411 
  5412 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  5413 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  5414 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  5415 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  5416 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  5417 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5418 
  5419 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  5420 multiset order:
  5421 
  5422   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  5423     <= and <;
  5424   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  5425     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  5426     multiset_order;
  5427   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  5428     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  5429     generation;
  5430   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  5431     if needed.
  5432 
  5433 Renamed:
  5434 
  5435   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  5436   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  5437   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  5438 
  5439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5440 
  5441 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  5442 
  5443 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  5444 
  5445 * Theory List: added transpose.
  5446 
  5447 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  5448 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  5449 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5450 
  5451   Constants:
  5452   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  5453   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  5454   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  5455   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  5456   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  5457   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  5458   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  5459   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  5460   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  5461   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  5462   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  5463   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  5464   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  5465 
  5466   Lemmas:
  5467   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5468   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  5469   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  5470   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  5471   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  5472   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  5473   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  5474   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  5475   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  5476   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  5477   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  5478   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  5479   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  5480 
  5481 * Sledgehammer:
  5482   - Renamed ATP commands:
  5483     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  5484     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  5485     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  5486     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  5487     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  5488     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  5490   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  5491     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  5492   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  5493     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  5494     is still experimental.)
  5495   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  5496     full-typed mode.
  5497   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  5498 
  5499 * Nitpick:
  5500   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  5501   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  5502   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  5503     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  5504   - Added support for quotient types.
  5505   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  5506     constructs.
  5507   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  5508     "termination" proofs).
  5509   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  5510   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  5511   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  5512   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  5513     record getters.
  5514   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  5515   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  5516   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  5517   - Added "atoms" option.
  5518   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  5519     problems.
  5520   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  5521     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  5522     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5523   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  5524     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5525   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5526 
  5527 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  5528   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  5529   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  5530   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  5531   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  5532   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  5533   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  5534   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  5535   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  5536   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 
  5539 *** HOLCF ***
  5540 
  5541 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5542 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5543 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5544 
  5545 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5546 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5547 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5548 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5549 
  5550 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5551 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5552 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5553 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5554 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5555 
  5556 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5557 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5558 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5559 
  5560 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5561 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5562 
  5563   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5564   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5565 
  5566 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5567 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5568 
  5569   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5570   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5571   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5572   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5573   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5574 
  5575 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5576 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5577 
  5578   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5579   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5580   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5581 
  5582 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5583 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5585 
  5586 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5587 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5590 
  5591 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5592 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5593 
  5594 
  5595 *** ML ***
  5596 
  5597 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5598 
  5599     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5600     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5601 
  5602     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5603     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5604     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5605     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5606 
  5607     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5608     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5609     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5610 
  5611 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5612 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5613 
  5614 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5615 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5616 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5617 
  5618 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5619 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5620 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5621 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5622 
  5623 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5624 the context or even global references.
  5625 
  5626 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5627 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5628 
  5629 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5630 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5631 
  5632   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5633   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5634   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5635   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5636   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5637   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5638   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5639   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5640   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5641   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5642 
  5643 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5644 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5645 
  5646 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5647 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5648 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5649 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5650 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5651 
  5652 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5653 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5654 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5655 Theory_Data version.
  5656 
  5657 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5658 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5659 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5660 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5661 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5662 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5663 explicitly in rare situations.
  5664 
  5665 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5666 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5668 
  5669 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5670 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5671 
  5672 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5673 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5674 quite rare).
  5675 
  5676 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5677 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5678 
  5679 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5680 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5681 terms.
  5682 
  5683 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5684 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5685 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5686 
  5687 
  5688 *** System ***
  5689 
  5690 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5691 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5692 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5693 
  5694 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5695 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5696 respectively.
  5697 
  5698 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5699 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5700 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5701 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5702 
  5703   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5704 
  5705 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5706 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5707 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5708 component.
  5709 
  5710 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5711 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5712 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5713 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5714 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5715 the user for manual installation.
  5716 
  5717 
  5718 
  5719 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5720 -------------------------------------
  5721 
  5722 *** General ***
  5723 
  5724 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5725 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5726 
  5727 
  5728 *** Pure ***
  5729 
  5730 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5731 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5732 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5733 
  5734 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5735 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5736 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5737 
  5738 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5739 interpretation.
  5740 
  5741 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5742 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5743 
  5744 
  5745 *** Document preparation ***
  5746 
  5747 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5748 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5749 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5750 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5751 
  5752 
  5753 *** HOL ***
  5754 
  5755 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5756 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5757 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5758 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5759 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5760 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5761 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5762 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5763 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5764 
  5765 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5766 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5767 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5768 
  5769 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5770 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5771 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5772 
  5773 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5774 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5775 
  5776 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5777 
  5778 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5779 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5780 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5781 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5782 
  5783 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5784 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5785 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5786 "mirabelle" utility.
  5787 
  5788 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5789 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5790 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5791 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5792 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5793 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5794 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5795 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5796 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5797 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5798 
  5799 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5800 procedure only.
  5801 
  5802 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5803 
  5804 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5805 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5806 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5807 that fail later.
  5808 
  5809 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5810 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5811 
  5812 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5813 the same method as the approximation method.
  5814 
  5815 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5816 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5817 series expansion.
  5818 
  5819 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5820 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5821 
  5822 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5823 reals.
  5824 
  5825 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5826 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5827 
  5828 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5829 fixpoint theorem.
  5830 
  5831 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5832   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5833     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5834   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5835     accordingly
  5836   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5837     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5838   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5839     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5840 
  5841 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5842 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5843 lattice.
  5844 
  5845 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5846 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5847 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5848 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5849 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5850 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5852 
  5853 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5854   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5855     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5856   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5857     le_inf_iff
  5858   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5859     sup_aci)
  5860   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5861   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5862   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5863     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5864     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5865     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5866     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5867     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5868     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5869     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5870     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5871     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5872     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5873   - authentic syntax for
  5874     Set.Pow
  5875     Set.image
  5876   - mere abbreviations:
  5877     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5878     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5879     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5880     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5881     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5882     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5883     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5884     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5885   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5886 
  5887 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5888 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5889 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5890 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5891 
  5892 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5893 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5894 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5895 
  5896 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5897 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5898 
  5899 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5900 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5901 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5902 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5905 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5906 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5907 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5908 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5909 
  5910 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5911 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5913 
  5914 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5915 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5916 
  5917 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5918 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5919 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5920 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5921 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5922 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5923 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5925 
  5926 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5927     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5928     code_post       replaces    code post
  5929     etc.
  5930   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * Renamed methods:
  5933     sizechange -> size_change
  5934     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5935   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5938 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5939 
  5940 * Renamed theorems:
  5941     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5942     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5943     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5944     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5945     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5946   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5950 
  5951 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 
  5955 *** HOLCF ***
  5956 
  5957 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5958 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5959 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5960 
  5961 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5962 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5963 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5964 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5965 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5966 
  5967 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5968 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5969 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5970 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5971 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5972 
  5973 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5974 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5975 constructor are pre-configured.
  5976 
  5977 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5978 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5979 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5980 
  5981 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5982 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5983 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5984 as well.)
  5985 
  5986 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5987 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5988 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5989 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5990 examples.
  5991 
  5992 
  5993 *** ML ***
  5994 
  5995 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5996 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5997 
  5998 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5999 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  6000 position, logical grouping etc.
  6001 
  6002 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  6003 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  6004 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  6005 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  6006 
  6007 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  6008 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  6009 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  6010 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  6011 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  6012 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  6013 
  6014 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  6015 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  6016 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  6017 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  6018 experiments with references.
  6019 
  6020 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  6021 parallel tactical reasoning.
  6022 
  6023 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  6024 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  6025 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  6026 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  6027 
  6028 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  6029 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  6030 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  6031 
  6032 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  6033 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  6034 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6035 
  6036 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6037 
  6038 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  6039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6040 
  6041 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  6042 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  6043 
  6044 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  6045 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  6046 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  6047 
  6048 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  6049 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  6050 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6051 
  6052 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  6053 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  6054 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  6055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 
  6057 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6058 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  6059 instead of global theory.
  6060 
  6061 
  6062 *** System ***
  6063 
  6064 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  6065 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  6066 usedir option -q.
  6067 
  6068 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  6069 also the system manual.
  6070 
  6071 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  6072 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  6073 
  6074 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  6075 this is always enabled.
  6076 
  6077 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  6078 
  6079 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  6080 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  6081 currently supported on Linux only.
  6082 
  6083 
  6084 
  6085 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  6086 --------------------------------
  6087 
  6088 *** General ***
  6089 
  6090 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  6091 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6092 
  6093   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  6094     "isatool."
  6095 
  6096   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  6097     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  6098 
  6099   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  6100     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  6101 
  6102 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  6103 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  6104 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  6105 
  6106 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  6107 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  6108 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  6109 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  6110 via "isabelle emacs".
  6111 
  6112 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  6113 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  6114 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  6115 
  6116 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  6117 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  6118 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  6119 
  6120 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  6121 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  6122 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  6123 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  6124 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  6125 
  6126 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  6127 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  6128 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  6129 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6130 
  6131 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  6132 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  6133 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  6134 
  6135 
  6136 *** Pure ***
  6137 
  6138 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  6139 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  6140 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  6141 
  6142 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  6143 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  6144 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  6145 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  6146 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  6147 
  6148 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  6149 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  6150 useful in locale declarations.
  6151 
  6152 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  6153 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  6154 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  6155 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  6156 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  6157 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  6158 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  6159 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  6160 no longer generated.
  6161 
  6162 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  6163 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  6164 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  6165 
  6166 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  6167 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  6168 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  6169 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  6170 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  6171 
  6172 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6173 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  6174 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  6175 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  6176 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  6177 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  6178 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  6179 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  6180 
  6181 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  6182 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  6183 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  6184 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  6185 
  6186 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6187 
  6188 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  6189 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  6190 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  6191 
  6192 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  6193 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6194 
  6195 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  6196 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  6197 in HOL, write
  6198 
  6199     class foo = ...
  6200 
  6201 instead of
  6202 
  6203     class foo = type + ...
  6204 
  6205 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  6206 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6207 
  6208 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  6209 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  6210 
  6211 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  6212 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  6213 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  6214 
  6215 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  6216 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  6217 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  6218 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  6219 directly in regular applications.
  6220 
  6221 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  6222 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  6223 
  6224 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  6225 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  6226 
  6227 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  6228 theory context.
  6229 
  6230 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  6231 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6232 
  6233 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  6234 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  6235 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  6236 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  6237 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  6238 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  6239 
  6240   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  6241 
  6242 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  6243 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  6244 normalization.
  6245 
  6246 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  6247 addressing etc.
  6248 
  6249 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  6250 
  6251   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  6252   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  6253 
  6254 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6255 
  6256   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  6257      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  6258      parts of the code generator framework).
  6259 
  6260   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  6261      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  6262      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  6263 
  6264 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6265 
  6266 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  6267 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6268 
  6269 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  6270 patterns, e.g.
  6271