NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu May 09 16:40:58 2019 +0200 (4 months ago)
changeset 70258 b4534d72dd22
parent 70237 7e9269c188d6
child 70260 22cfcfcadd8b
permissions -rw-r--r--
more NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2019 (June 2019)
     8 -------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * The font collection "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from
    13 the existing "DejaVu" fonts, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    14 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    15 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    16 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    17 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    18 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    20 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    21 
    22 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    23 
    24 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    25 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    26 
    27 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    28 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    29 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )". Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    36 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    37 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    38 automatically.
    39 
    40 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    41 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Commands 'generate_file', 'export_generated_files', and
    45 'compile_generated_files' support a stateless (PIDE-conformant) model
    46 for generated sources and compiled binaries of other languages. The
    47 compilation process is managed in Isabelle/ML, and results exported to
    48 the session database for further use (e.g. with "isabelle export" or
    49 "isabelle build -e").
    50 
    51 
    52 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    53 
    54 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    55 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    56 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    57 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    58 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", it now
    59 defaults to 1, but 0 works as well.
    60 
    61 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    62 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    63 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    64 
    65 * Further markup and rendering for "plain text" (e.g. informal prose)
    66 and "raw text" (e.g. verbatim sources). This improves the visual
    67 appearance of formal comments inside the term language, or in general
    68 for repeated alternation of formal and informal text.
    69 
    70 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    71 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    72 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    73 ongoing document processing.
    74 
    75 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    76 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    77 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    78 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    79 
    80 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    81 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    82 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    83 Isabelle component).
    84 
    85 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    86 overview column.
    87 
    88 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    89 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    90 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    91 separated from option "-s".
    92 
    93 * The Isabelle/jEdit desktop application uses the same options as
    94 "isabelle jedit" for its internal "isabelle build" process: the implicit
    95 option "-o system_heaps" (or "-s") has been discontinued. This reduces
    96 the potential for surprise wrt. command-line tools.
    97 
    98 * The official download of the Isabelle/jEdit application already
    99 contains heap images for Isabelle/HOL within its main directory: thus
   100 the first encounter becomes faster and more robust (e.g. when run from a
   101 read-only directory).
   102 
   103 * Isabelle DejaVu fonts are available with hinting by default, which is
   104 relevant for low-resolution displays. This may be disabled via system
   105 option "isabelle_fonts_hinted = false" in
   106 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/preferences -- it occasionally yields better
   107 results.
   108 
   109 * OpenJDK 11 has quite different font rendering, with better glyph
   110 shapes and improved sub-pixel anti-aliasing. In some situations results
   111 might be *worse* than Oracle Java 8, though -- a proper HiDPI / UHD
   112 display is recommended.
   113 
   114 * OpenJDK 11 supports GTK version 2.2 and 3 (according to system
   115 property jdk.gtk.version). The factory default is version 3, but
   116 ISABELLE_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS includes "-Djdk.gtk.version=2.2" to make
   117 this more conservative (as in Java 8). Depending on the GTK theme
   118 configuration, "-Djdk.gtk.version=3" might work better or worse.
   119 
   120 
   121 *** Document preparation ***
   122 
   123 * Document markers are formal comments of the form \<^marker>\<open>marker_body\<close> that
   124 are stripped from document output: the effect is to modify the semantic
   125 presentation context or to emit markup to the PIDE document. Some
   126 predefined markers are taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative,
   127 e.g. \<^marker>\<open>contributor arg\<close> or \<^marker>\<open>license arg\<close> and produce PIDE markup that
   128 can retrieved from the document database.
   129 
   130 * Old-style command tags %name are re-interpreted as markers with
   131 proof-scope \<^marker>\<open>tag (proof) name\<close> and produce LaTeX environments as
   132 before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: multiple markers are composed in
   133 canonical order, resulting in a reversed list of tags in the
   134 presentation context.
   135 
   136 * Marker \<^marker>\<open>tag name\<close> does not apply to the proof of a top-level goal
   137 statement by default (e.g. 'theorem', 'lemma'). This is a subtle change
   138 of semantics wrt. old-style %name.
   139 
   140 * In Isabelle/jEdit, the string "\tag" may be completed to a "\<^marker>\<open>tag \<close>"
   141 template.
   142 
   143 * Document antiquotation option "cartouche" indicates if the output
   144 should be delimited as cartouche; this takes precedence over the
   145 analogous option "quotes".
   146 
   147 * Many document antiquotations are internally categorized as "embedded"
   148 and expect one cartouche argument, which is typically used with the
   149 \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> notation (e.g. \<^term>\<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>). The cartouche
   150 delimiters are stripped in output of the source (antiquotation option
   151 "source"), but it is possible to enforce delimiters via option
   152 "source_cartouche", e.g. @{term [source_cartouche] \<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>}.
   153 
   154 
   155 *** Isar ***
   156 
   157 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
   158 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
   159 
   160 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
   161 precedence over goal/proof. This is particularly relevant for the
   162 headless PIDE session and server.
   163 
   164 * Command keywords of kind thy_decl / thy_goal may be more specifically
   165 fit into the traditional document model of "definition-statement-proof"
   166 via thy_defn / thy_stmt / thy_goal_defn / thy_goal_stmt.
   167 
   168 
   169 *** HOL ***
   170 
   171 * Command 'export_code' produces output as logical files within the
   172 theory context, as well as formal session exports that can be
   173 materialized via command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build
   174 -e" (with 'export_files' in the session ROOT). Isabelle/jEdit also
   175 provides a virtual file-system "isabelle-export:" that can be explored
   176 in the regular file-browser. A 'file_prefix' argument allows to specify
   177 an explicit name prefix for the target file (SML, OCaml, Scala) or
   178 directory (Haskell); the default is "export" with a consecutive number
   179 within each theory.
   180 
   181 * Command 'export_code': the 'file' argument is now legacy and will be
   182 removed soon: writing to the physical file-system is not well-defined in
   183 a reactive/parallel application like Isabelle. The empty 'file' argument
   184 has been discontinued already: it is superseded by the file-browser in
   185 Isabelle/jEdit on "isabelle-export:". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * Command 'code_reflect' no longer supports the 'file' argument: it has
   188 been superseded by 'file_prefix' for stateless file management as in
   189 'export_code'. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   192 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith supersedes Nums as library for
   195 proper integer arithmetic. The library is located via standard
   196 invocations of "ocamlfind" (via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND settings variable).
   197 The environment provided by "isabelle ocaml_setup" already contains this
   198 tool and the required packages. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   201 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for 'code_stmts'
   205 antiquotation. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   208 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   209 
   210 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter> (not the corresponding binding operators)
   211 now have the same precedence as any other prefix function symbol. Minor
   212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   215 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   216 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   217 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   218 retained as migration auxiliary. Abbreviations MINIMUM and MAXIMUM
   219 are gone INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   222 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*, are
   223 not used by default any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using declare
   224 image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   225 
   226 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   227 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   228 
   229 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   230 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   231 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint
   234 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute have been renamed to
   237 sum_mset.swap and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * ML structure Inductive: slightly more conventional naming schema.
   241 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * ML: Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   244 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators
   245 Named_Target.theory_map[_result] to lift specifications to the global
   246 theory level.
   247 
   248 * Theory HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: 'case_of_simps' now supports
   249 overlapping and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested
   250 patterns. It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which
   251 assumes sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   252 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Theory HOL-Library.Multiset: the <Union># operator now has the same
   256 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   257 
   258 * Theory HOL-Library.Cardinal_Notations has been discontinued in favor
   259 of the bundle cardinal_syntax (available in theory Main). Minor
   260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Session HOL-Library and HOL-Number_Theory: Exponentiation by squaring,
   263 used for computing powers in class "monoid_mult" and modular
   264 exponentiation.
   265 
   266 * Session HOL-Computational_Algebra: Formal Laurent series and overhaul
   267 of Formal power series.
   268 
   269 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: More material on residue rings in
   270 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   271 
   272 * Session HOL-Analysis: Better organization and much more material
   273 at the level of abstract topological spaces.
   274 
   275 * Session HOL-Algebra: Free abelian groups, etc., ported from HOL Light;
   276  algebraic closure of a field by de Vilhena and Baillon.
   277 
   278 * Session HOL-Homology has been added. It is a port of HOL Light's
   279 homology library, with new proofs of "invariance of domain" and related
   280 results.
   281 
   282 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   283 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   284 retrieved via "isabelle build -e HOL-SPARK-Examples" on the
   285 command-line.
   286 
   287 * Sledgehammer:
   288   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has been
   289     updated.
   290   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   291     less time (in most cases).
   292 
   293 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   294 
   295 * Session HOL-Word:
   296   * New theory More_Word as comprehensive entrance point.
   297   * Merged type class bitss into type class bits.
   298   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 
   301 *** ML ***
   302 
   303 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   304 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   305 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   306 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   307 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   308 
   309   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   310   module Isabelle.Pure where
   311     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   312     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   313     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   314     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   315   \<close>
   316 
   317 See also commands 'export_generated_files' and 'compile_generated_files'
   318 to use the results.
   319 
   320 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   321 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   322 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   323 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   324 ">" as separator. For example:
   325 
   326   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   327   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   328 
   329   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   330   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   331 
   332   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   333   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   334 
   335 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   336 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   337 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   338 observes the official standard).
   339 
   340 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   341 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   342 
   343 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   344 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   345 useful.
   346 
   347 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   348 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   349 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead, or
   350 the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   353 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   354 
   355 
   356 *** System ***
   357 
   358 * Update to OpenJDK 11: the current long-term support version of Java.
   359 
   360 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   361 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   362 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   363 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   364 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   365 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   366 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   367 are gradually phased out.
   368 
   369 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   370 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   371 
   372 * System option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   373 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   374 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   375 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   376 
   377 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   378 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   379 Isabelle/PIDE.
   380 
   381 * The command-line tool "isabelle build -e" retrieves theory exports
   382 from the session build database, using 'export_files' in session ROOT
   383 entries.
   384 
   385 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   386 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   387 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   388 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   389 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   390 dump".
   391 
   392 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   393 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   394 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   395 
   396 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   397 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   398 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   399 component).
   400 
   401 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   402 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   403 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   404 
   405 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   406 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   407 is no longer required.
   408 
   409 * OCaml tools and libraries are now accesed via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND,
   410 which needs to point to a suitable version of "ocamlfind" (e.g. via
   411 OPAM, see below). INCOMPATIBILITY: settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and
   412 ISABELLE_OCAMLC are no longer supported.
   413 
   414 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   415 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   416 
   417   isabelle ghc_setup
   418   isabelle ghc_stack
   419 
   420   isabelle ocaml_setup
   421   isabelle ocaml_opam
   422 
   423 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   424 (and corresponding directory contents):
   425 
   426   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   427   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   428   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   429 
   430   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   431   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   432 
   433 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   434 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   435 
   436   ISABELLE_GHC
   437 
   438   ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND
   439 
   440 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   441 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   442 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT, or by resetting these variables in
   443 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings.
   444 
   445 
   446 
   447 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   448 ---------------------------------
   449 
   450 *** General ***
   451 
   452 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   453 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   454 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   455 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   456 
   457 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   458 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   459 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   460 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   461 
   462 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   463 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   466 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   467 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   468 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   469 avoid this.
   470 
   471 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   472 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   473 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   474 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   475 
   476 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   477 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   478 instead.
   479 
   480 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   481 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   482 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   484 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   485 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   486 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   487 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   488 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   489 syntax), use option "-m".
   490 
   491 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   495 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   496 without specific Prover IDE management.
   497 
   498 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   499 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   500 context.
   501 
   502 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   503 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   504 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   505 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   506 
   507   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   508 
   509 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   510 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   511 
   512 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   513 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   514 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   515 output.
   516 
   517 
   518 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   519 
   520 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   521 for session management:
   522 
   523   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   524     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   525 
   526   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   527     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   528 
   529   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   530     and -S
   531 
   532   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   533     theories
   534 
   535   Examples:
   536     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   537     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   538     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   539     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   540     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   541 
   542 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   543 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   544 
   545 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   546 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   547 
   548 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   549 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   550 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   551 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   552 arguments into this format.
   553 
   554 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   555 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   556 
   557 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   558 functions (e.g. State output).
   559 
   560 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   561 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   562 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   563 
   564 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   565 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   566 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   569 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   570 
   571 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   572 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   573 Isabelle".
   574 
   575 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   576 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   577 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   578 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   579 Unicode content when saving the file.
   580 
   581 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   582 
   583 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   584 
   585 
   586 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   587 
   588 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   589 Isabelle/jEdit.
   590 
   591 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   592 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   593 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   594 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   595 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   596 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   597 
   598 
   599 *** Document preparation ***
   600 
   601 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   602 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   603 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   604 are supported:
   605 
   606   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   607   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   608   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   609 
   610 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   611 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   612 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   613 
   614 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   615 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   616 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   617 
   618 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   619 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   620 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   621 
   622 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   623 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   624 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   625 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   626 
   627 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   628 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   629 
   630 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   631 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   632 normally need to import.
   633 
   634 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   635 session name verbatim.
   636 
   637 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   638 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   639 
   640 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   641 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   642 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   645 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   646 anymore.
   647 
   648 
   649 *** Isar ***
   650 
   651 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   652 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   653 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   654 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   655 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   656 
   657 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   658 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   659 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   660 
   661 
   662 *** Pure ***
   663 
   664 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   665 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   666 
   667 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   668 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   669 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   670 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   671 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   672 
   673 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   674 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   675 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   676 duplicate constant declarations.
   677 
   678 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   679 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   680 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   681 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   682 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   683 
   684 
   685 *** HOL ***
   686 
   687 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   688 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   689 
   690 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   691 
   692   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   693 
   694   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   695     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   696     constraints instead.
   697 
   698   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   699 
   700   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   701     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   702     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   703     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   704 
   705   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   706     standard target languages.
   707 
   708   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   709     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   710     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   711     HOL string values and vice versa.
   712 
   713   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   714     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   715 
   716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   717 
   718 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   719 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   720 
   721 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   722 
   723 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   724 former axioms:
   725 
   726   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   727 
   728 are replaced by:
   729 
   730   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   731 
   732 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   733 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   734 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   735 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   736 
   737 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   738 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   739 
   740 * Clarifed theorem names:
   741 
   742   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   743   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   744 
   745 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * SMT module:
   748 
   749   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   750     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   753     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   754     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   757 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   758 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   767 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   771 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   772 Renamed:
   773 
   774   span_inc ~> span_superset
   775   span_superset ~> span_base
   776   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   777 
   778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   781 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   784 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   785 
   786 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   787 
   788   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   789     input syntax
   790 
   791   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   792 
   793 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   794 
   795 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   798 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   802   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   803   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   804   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   805 
   806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   809 
   810   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   811   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   812   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   813   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   814   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   815 
   816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817 
   818 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   819 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   820 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   821 broken proofs.
   822 
   823 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   824 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   825 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   826 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   827 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   828 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   829 
   830 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   831 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   832 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   833 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   834 examples.
   835 
   836 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   837 
   838 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   839 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   842 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   843 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   847 infix/prefix notation.
   848 
   849 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   850 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   854 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   856 
   857 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   858 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   862 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   863 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   864 
   865 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   866 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   867 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   868 
   869 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   870 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   871 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   872 
   873 
   874 *** ML ***
   875 
   876 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   877 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   878 
   879 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   880 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   881 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   882 "isabelle process".
   883 
   884 
   885 *** System ***
   886 
   887 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   888 longer supported.
   889 
   890 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   891 support has been discontinued.
   892 
   893 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   894 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   895 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   898 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   899 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   900 quotes):
   901 
   902   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   903   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   904 
   905   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   906   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   907 
   908   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   909   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   910 
   911 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   912   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   913   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   914   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   915 
   916 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   917 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   918 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   919 only.
   920 
   921 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   922 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   923 up-to-date status of a session.
   924 
   925 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   926 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   927 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   928 directory.
   929 
   930 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   931 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   932 
   933 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   934 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   935 
   936 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   937 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   938 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   939 See also the "system" manual.
   940 
   941 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   942 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   943 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   944 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   945 been discontinued.
   946 
   947 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   948 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   951 repository for the generated session files.
   952 
   953 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   954 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   955 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   956 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   957 ISABELLE_HOME).
   958 
   959 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   960 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   961 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   962 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   963 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   964 
   965 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   966 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   967 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   968 
   969 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   970 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   971 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   972 32/64 bit.
   973 
   974 
   975 
   976 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   977 ----------------------------------
   978 
   979 *** General ***
   980 
   981 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   982 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   983 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   984 
   985 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   986 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   987 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   988 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   989 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   990 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   991 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   992 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   993 
   994 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   995 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   996 just the theory base name as before).
   997 
   998 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   999 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
  1000 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
  1001 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
  1002 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
  1003 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
  1004 imports" helps to update theory imports.
  1005 
  1006 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
  1007 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
  1008 leads to the follow renamings:
  1009 
  1010   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
  1011   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
  1012   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
  1013   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
  1014   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
  1015 
  1016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1017 
  1018 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
  1019 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
  1020 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
  1021 
  1022 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
  1023 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
  1024 
  1025 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
  1026 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
  1027 antiquotations:
  1028 
  1029   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1030     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
  1031   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1032     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
  1033   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
  1034 
  1035 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
  1036 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
  1037 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
  1038 tutorial on code generation.
  1039 
  1040 
  1041 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1042 
  1043 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
  1044 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
  1045 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
  1046 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
  1047 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
  1048 
  1049 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
  1050 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
  1051 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
  1052 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
  1053 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
  1054 effectively always enabled.
  1055 
  1056 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
  1057 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
  1058 buffers.
  1059 
  1060 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
  1061 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
  1062 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
  1063 represented by a different border color.
  1064 
  1065 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
  1066 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
  1067 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
  1068 
  1069 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
  1070 document in the default web browser.
  1071 
  1072 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
  1073 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
  1074 used for formal checking.
  1075 
  1076 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
  1077 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
  1078 enabled at all times.
  1079 
  1080 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
  1081 
  1082 
  1083 *** Pure ***
  1084 
  1085 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
  1086 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
  1087 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
  1088 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1089 
  1090 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
  1091   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
  1092     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
  1093   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
  1094     malformed.
  1095   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
  1096     malformed.
  1097 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
  1100 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
  1101 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 
  1104 *** HOL ***
  1105 
  1106 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
  1107 
  1108 * SMT module:
  1109   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
  1110     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
  1111     disabled by default.
  1112   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
  1113   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1114 
  1115 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1116 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1117 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1121 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1122 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1124 
  1125 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1126 of "Complex_Main").
  1127 
  1128 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1129 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130 
  1131 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1133 
  1134 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1135 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1138 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1141 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1142 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1143 
  1144 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1145 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1148 
  1149 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1150 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1151 
  1152 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1153 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1154 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1155 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1156 
  1157 * Generalized some facts:
  1158     measure_induct_rule
  1159     measure_induct
  1160     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1161     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1162     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1163     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1167 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1168 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1169 euclidean size.
  1170 
  1171 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1172   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1173   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1174     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1175     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1176   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1177     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1179 
  1180 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1181 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1182 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1183 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1186   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1187   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1188 
  1189 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1190 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1193 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1194 
  1195 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1196 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1197 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1203 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1204 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1205 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1206 
  1207 syntax (ASCII)
  1208   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1209   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1210   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1211 
  1212 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1213 multisets have been renamed:
  1214 
  1215   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1216   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1217 
  1218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1221 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1222 
  1223 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1224 
  1225 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1226 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1227 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1228 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1229 
  1230 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1231 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1232 
  1233 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1234 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1235 
  1236 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1237 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1238 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1239 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242 
  1243 *** System ***
  1244 
  1245 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1246 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1247 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1248 
  1249 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1250 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1251 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1252 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1253 
  1254 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1255 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1256 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1257 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1258 
  1259 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1260 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1261 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1262 unchanged.
  1263 
  1264 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1265 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1268 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1269 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1270 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1271 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1272 
  1273 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1274 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1275 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1276 
  1277 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1278 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1279 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1280 
  1281 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1282 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1283 
  1284   isabelle imports -I -a
  1285   isabelle imports -U -a
  1286   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1287   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1288 
  1289 
  1290 
  1291 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1292 -------------------------------------
  1293 
  1294 *** General ***
  1295 
  1296 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1297   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1298     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1300     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1301     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1302     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1303     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1304 
  1305 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1306 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1307 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1308 
  1309 bundle foo
  1310 begin
  1311   declare a [simp]
  1312   declare b [intro]
  1313 end
  1314 
  1315 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1316 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1317 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1318 
  1319 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1320 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1321 discontinued.
  1322 
  1323 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1324 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1325 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1326 
  1327 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1328 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1329 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1330 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1331 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1332 
  1333 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1334 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1335 
  1336 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1337 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1338 
  1339 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1340 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1341 examples.
  1342 
  1343 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1344 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1345 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1346 
  1347 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1348 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1349 
  1350 
  1351 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1352 
  1353 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1354 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1355 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1356 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1357 
  1358 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1359 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1360 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1361 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1362 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1363 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1364 
  1365 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1366 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1367 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1368 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1369 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1370 
  1371 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1372 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1373 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1374 
  1375 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1376 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1377 
  1378 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1379 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1380 
  1381 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1382 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1383 
  1384 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1385 
  1386 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1387 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1388 systematic renaming.
  1389 
  1390 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1391 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1392 theorem statement.
  1393 
  1394 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1395 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1396 
  1397 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1398 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1399 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1400 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1401 
  1402 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1403 following independent stages:
  1404 
  1405   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1406   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1407   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1408   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1409 
  1410 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1411 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1412 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1413 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1414 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1415 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1416 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1417 
  1418 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1419 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1420 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1421 
  1422 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1423 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1424 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1425 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1426 
  1427 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1428 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1429 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1430 
  1431 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1432 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1433 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1434 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1435 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1436 old keymaps.
  1437 
  1438 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1439 and diverse:
  1440 
  1441   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1442   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1443   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1444 
  1445 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1446 have to be changed.
  1447 
  1448 
  1449 *** Document preparation ***
  1450 
  1451 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1452 
  1453 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1454 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1455 
  1456 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1457 this allows special forms of document output.
  1458 
  1459 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1460 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1461 derivatives.
  1462 
  1463 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1464 
  1465 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1466 Isabelle2015).
  1467 
  1468 
  1469 *** Isar ***
  1470 
  1471 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1472 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1473 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1474 
  1475 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1476 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1477 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1478 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1479 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1482 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1483 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1484 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1485 
  1486 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1487 context.
  1488 
  1489 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1490 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1491 
  1492 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1493 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1494 
  1495 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1496 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1497 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1498 
  1499 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1500 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1502 
  1503 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1504 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1505 definitions.
  1506 
  1507 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1508 expression, e.g.
  1509 
  1510   (use facts in simp)
  1511   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1512 
  1513 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1514 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1515 
  1516 
  1517 *** Pure ***
  1518 
  1519 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1520 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1521 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1522 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1523 
  1524 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1525 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1526 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1527 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1528 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1529 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1530 
  1531 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1532 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1533 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1534 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1535 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1536 types where this is really intended.
  1537 
  1538 
  1539 *** HOL ***
  1540 
  1541 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1542 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1543 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1544 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1545 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1546 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1547 
  1548 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1549 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1550 
  1551 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1552 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1553 
  1554 * Sledgehammer:
  1555   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1556   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1557 
  1558 * (Co)datatype package:
  1559   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1560     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1561     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1562     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1563   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1564     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1565   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1566     to the map function.
  1567   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1568   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1569        terms of map and set
  1570        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1571   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1572        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1573     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1574   - Renamed lemmas:
  1575       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1576       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1577     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1579   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1580     equivalent) form.
  1581     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582 
  1583 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1584 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1585 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1586 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1589 
  1590   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1591   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1592 
  1593 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1594 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1595 eliminated altogether.
  1596 
  1597 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1598 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1599 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1600 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1601 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1602 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1603 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1604 
  1605 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1609 
  1610     setsum ~> sum
  1611     setprod ~> prod
  1612     listsum ~> sum_list
  1613     listprod ~> prod_list
  1614 
  1615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1618     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1619     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1620     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1621     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1622     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1623     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1624     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1625     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1626     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1627     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1628     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1629     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1630     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1631     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1632     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1633     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1634     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1635     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1636     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1637     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1638     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1639     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1640     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1641     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1642     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1643     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1644     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1645     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1646     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1648 
  1649 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1650 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1651 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1654 
  1655 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1656 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1657 
  1658   - Logical representation:
  1659     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1660     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1661       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1662     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1663       are non-canonical.
  1664   - Printing and parsing:
  1665     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1666       (as before).
  1667     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1668     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1669       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1670       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1671     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1672       printed as their logical representation.
  1673   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1674     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1675   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1676 
  1677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1678 
  1679 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1680 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1681 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1682 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1685 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1686 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1687 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1688 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1691 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1694 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1695 
  1696 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1697 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1698 interface for the generated code.
  1699 
  1700 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1701 spelt out explicitly.
  1702 
  1703 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1704 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1705 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1706 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1707 
  1708 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1709 products.
  1710 
  1711 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1712 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1713 
  1714 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1715 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1716 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1717 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1718 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1719 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1720 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1724 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1725 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1729 
  1730   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1731   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1732   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1733 
  1734 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1735   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1736     le_add_same_cancel1
  1737     le_add_same_cancel2
  1738     less_add_same_cancel1
  1739     less_add_same_cancel2
  1740     add_le_same_cancel1
  1741     add_le_same_cancel2
  1742     add_less_same_cancel1
  1743     add_less_same_cancel2
  1744 
  1745 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1746   superseeded by a more general version:
  1747     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1748     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1749     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1750     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1751     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1752     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1753     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1754     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1758 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1761 
  1762 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1763 
  1764   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1765   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1766 
  1767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1768 
  1769 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1771 
  1772 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1773 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1774 A)".
  1775 
  1776 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1777 
  1778 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1779 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1780 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1781 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1784 dioid.
  1785 
  1786 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1787 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1788 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1789 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1792 of a more general type also:
  1793   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1794   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1795   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1796   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1797   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1798   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1799   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1800   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1801   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1802   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1803   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1804   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1805   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1806   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1807   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1808   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1809   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1810   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1811   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1812   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1813   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1814   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1815   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1816   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1817   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1818   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1819   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1820   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1821   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1822   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1823   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1824   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1825   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1826   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1827   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1828   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1829   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1830   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1831   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1832   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1833   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1834   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1835   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1836   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1837   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1838   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1839   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1840   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1841   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1842   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1843   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1844   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1845   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1846   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1847   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1848   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1849   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1850   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1851   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1852   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1853   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1854   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1855   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1856   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1857   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1858   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1859   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1860   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1861   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1862   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1863   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1864   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1865   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1866   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1867   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1868   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1869   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1870   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1871   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1872   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1873   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1874   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1875   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1876   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1877   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1878   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1879   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1880   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1881 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1882 
  1883 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1884 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1885 
  1886 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1887 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1888 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1889 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1890 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1891 
  1892 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1893 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1894 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1895 once.
  1896 
  1897 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1898 set_mset rather than count.
  1899 
  1900   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1901     by default.
  1902 
  1903   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1904     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1905 
  1906   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1907     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1908 
  1909   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1910     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1911 
  1912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1913 
  1914 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1915 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1916 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1917 underscores.
  1918 
  1919 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1920 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1921 relation.
  1922 
  1923 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1924 everywhere fix bijections.
  1925 
  1926 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1927 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1928 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1929 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1930 
  1931 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1932 
  1933 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1934 
  1935 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1936 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1937 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1938 
  1939 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1940 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1941 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1942 
  1943 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1944 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1945 
  1946 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1947 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1948 domain.
  1949 
  1950 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1951 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1952 
  1953   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1954   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1955 
  1956 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1957 Probability Mass Functions.
  1958 
  1959 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1960 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1961 folding over a list in random order.
  1962 
  1963 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1964 subprobability distributions.
  1965 
  1966 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1967 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1968 
  1969     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1970     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1971     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1972     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1973     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1974     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1975     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1976     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1977     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1978     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1979     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1980     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1981     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1982     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1983     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1984     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1985     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1986     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1987     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1988     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1989     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1990     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1991 
  1992 Some functions have been renamed:
  1993     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1994 
  1995 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1996     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1997     #\<subset># ~> <
  1998     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1999     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  2000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  2003 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  2004 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  2005 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  2006 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2007 
  2008 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  2009 been renamed:
  2010 
  2011     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  2012     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  2013     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  2014     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  2015     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  2016     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  2017     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  2018     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  2019     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  2020 
  2021     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  2022     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  2023     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  2024     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  2025     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  2026     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  2027     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  2028     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  2029     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  2030     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  2031     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  2032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2033 
  2034 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  2035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2036 
  2037 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  2038 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  2039 
  2040     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2041     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2042     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2043     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2044     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  2045     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2046     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2047     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2048     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  2049     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  2050     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  2051     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  2052     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  2053     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2054     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2055     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2056     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2057 
  2058 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  2059 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  2060 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  2061 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  2062 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  2063 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064 
  2065 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  2066 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  2067 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068 
  2069 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  2070 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  2071 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2072 
  2073 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  2074 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  2075 removed or changed:
  2076 
  2077   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  2078   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  2079   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  2080   union_single_eq_diff
  2081   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2082   diff_single_eq_union
  2083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2084 
  2085 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  2086 to use add_mset instead of single:
  2087 
  2088   mset_add
  2089   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2090   diff_single_eq_union
  2091   union_single_eq_diff
  2092   union_single_eq_member
  2093   add_eq_conv_diff
  2094   insert_noteq_member
  2095   add_eq_conv_ex
  2096   multi_member_split
  2097   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  2098   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  2099   mset_subset_insertD
  2100   insert_subset_eq_iff
  2101   insert_union_subset_iff
  2102   multi_psub_of_add_self
  2103   inter_add_left1
  2104   inter_add_left2
  2105   inter_add_right1
  2106   inter_add_right2
  2107   sup_union_left1
  2108   sup_union_left2
  2109   sup_union_right1
  2110   sup_union_right2
  2111   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  2112   multi_nonempty_split
  2113   mset_insort
  2114   mset_update
  2115   mult1I
  2116   less_add
  2117   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2118   rel_mset_Zero
  2119   msed_map_invL
  2120   msed_map_invR
  2121   msed_rel_invL
  2122   msed_rel_invR
  2123   le_multiset_right_total
  2124   multiset_induct
  2125   multiset_induct2_size
  2126   multiset_induct2
  2127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2130 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2131 element:
  2132 
  2133   image_mset
  2134   mset
  2135   replicate_mset
  2136   mult1
  2137   pred_mset
  2138   rel_mset'
  2139   mset_insort
  2140 
  2141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2144 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2145 
  2146   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2147   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2148   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2149   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2150   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2151   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2152   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2153   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2154   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2155   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2156   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2157   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2158   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2159   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2160   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2161   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2162   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2163   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2164   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2168 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2169 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2173 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2174 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2177 multisets:
  2178 
  2179   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2180   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2181 
  2182 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2183 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2184 
  2185   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2186   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2187 
  2188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2191 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2192 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2193 
  2194 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2195 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2196 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2197 
  2198 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2199 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2200 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2201 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2202 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2203 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2204 
  2205 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2206 the following renaming
  2207 
  2208   prefixeq -> prefix
  2209   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2210   suffixeq -> suffix
  2211   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2212 
  2213 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2214 
  2215 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2216 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2217 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2218 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2219 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2220 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2223 theories.
  2224 
  2225 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2226 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2227 
  2228 
  2229 *** ML ***
  2230 
  2231 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2232 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2233 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2234 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2238 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2239 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2240 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2241 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2242 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2243 superseded by General.Div.
  2244 
  2245 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2246 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2249 with approximative output quality.
  2250 
  2251 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2252 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2255 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2256 requiring separate files.
  2257 
  2258 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2259 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2260 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2261 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2262 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2263 
  2264 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2265 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2266 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2267 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2268 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2269 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2270 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2271 
  2272 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2273 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2277 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2278 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2279 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2282 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284 
  2285 *** System ***
  2286 
  2287 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2288 
  2289 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2290 much less disk space.
  2291 
  2292 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2293 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2294 particular:
  2295 
  2296   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2297     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2298   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2299   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2300 
  2301 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2302 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2303 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2304 
  2305 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2306 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2307 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2308 return code 1.
  2309 
  2310 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2311 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2312 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2313 
  2314 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2315 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2316 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2317 
  2318 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2319 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2320 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2321 by default).
  2322 
  2323 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2324 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2325 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2326 resulting log files.
  2327 
  2328 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2329 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2330 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2331 implicit default via option -p.
  2332 
  2333 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2334 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2335 
  2336 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2337 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2338 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2339 
  2340 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2341 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2342 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2343 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2344 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2347 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2348 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2349 
  2350 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2351 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2352 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2353 
  2354 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2355 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2356 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2357 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2358 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2359 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2360 been discontinued.
  2361 
  2362 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2363 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2364 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2365 
  2366 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2367 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2368 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2369 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2370 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2371 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2372 
  2373 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2374 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2375 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2376 connection).
  2377 
  2378 
  2379 
  2380 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2381 -----------------------------------
  2382 
  2383 *** General ***
  2384 
  2385 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2386 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2387 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2388 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2389 examples that do require HOL.
  2390 
  2391 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2392 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2393 
  2394 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2395 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2396 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2397 has been removed (see below).
  2398 
  2399 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2400 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2401 
  2402 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2403 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2404 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2405 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2406 
  2407 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2408 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2409 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2410 meaning.
  2411 
  2412 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2413 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2414 to update old sources.
  2415 
  2416 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2417 
  2418   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2419   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2420   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2421   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2422 
  2423 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2424 accordingly.
  2425 
  2426 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2427 'theorem'.
  2428 
  2429 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2430 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2431 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2432 
  2433 
  2434 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2435 
  2436 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2437 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2438 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2439 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2440 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2441 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2442 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2443 any effect on the running ML program.
  2444 
  2445 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2446 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2447 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2448 update.
  2449 
  2450 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2451 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2452 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2453 
  2454 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2455 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2456 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2457 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2458 visibility.
  2459 
  2460 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2461 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2462 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2463 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2464 panel.
  2465 
  2466 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2467 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2468 
  2469 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2470 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2471 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2472 
  2473 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2474 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2475 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2476 
  2477 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2478 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2479 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2480 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2481 
  2482 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2483 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2484 the editor.
  2485 
  2486 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2487 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2488 
  2489 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2490 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2491 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2492 instead.
  2493 
  2494 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2495 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2496 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2497 
  2498 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2499 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2500 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2501 
  2502 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2503 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2504 
  2505 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2506 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2507 
  2508 
  2509 *** Document preparation ***
  2510 
  2511 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2512 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2513 
  2514 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2515 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2516 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2517 
  2518 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2519 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2520 follows:
  2521 
  2522   \<^item>  itemize
  2523   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2524   \<^descr>  description
  2525 
  2526 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2527 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2528 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2529 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2530 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2531 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2532 
  2533 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2534 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2535 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2536 
  2537 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2538 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2539 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2540 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2541 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2542 
  2543 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2544 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2545 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2546 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2547 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2548 
  2549 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2550 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2551 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2552 
  2553 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2554 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2555 
  2556 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2557 
  2558 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2559 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2560 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2561 
  2562 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2563 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2564 
  2565 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2566 entities of the Isar language.
  2567 
  2568 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2569 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2570 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2571 
  2572 
  2573 *** Isar ***
  2574 
  2575 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2576 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2577 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2578 example:
  2579 
  2580   have result: "C x y"
  2581     if "A x" and "B y"
  2582     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2583     <proof>
  2584 
  2585 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2586 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2587 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2588 
  2589   {
  2590     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2591     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2592     have "C x y" <proof>
  2593   }
  2594   note result = this
  2595 
  2596 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2597 instead of 'assume' above.
  2598 
  2599 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2600 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2601 
  2602   assume result: "C x y"
  2603     if "A x" and "B y"
  2604     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2605 
  2606 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2607 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2608 
  2609 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2610 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2611 example:
  2612 
  2613   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2614 
  2615 is equivalent to:
  2616 
  2617   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2618 
  2619 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2620 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2621 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2622 follows:
  2623 
  2624   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2625 
  2626 or:
  2627 
  2628   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2629 
  2630 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2631 
  2632   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2633 
  2634 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2635 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2636 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2637 of the local context elements yet.
  2638 
  2639 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2640 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2641 
  2642   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2643   then have something
  2644   proof cases
  2645     case a
  2646     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2647   next
  2648     case b
  2649     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2650   next
  2651     case c
  2652     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2653   qed
  2654 
  2655 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2656 
  2657   case a: (c xs)
  2658   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2659 
  2660 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2661 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2662 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2663 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2664 and always put attributes in front.
  2665 
  2666 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2667 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2668 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2669 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2670 
  2671 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2672 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2673 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2674 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2675 
  2676   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2677     supply [simp] = a
  2678   proof
  2679     show A by simp
  2680   next
  2681     show A by simp
  2682   qed
  2683 
  2684 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2685 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2686 
  2687 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2688 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2689 
  2690 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2691 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2692 
  2693 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2694 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2695 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2696 manual.
  2697 
  2698 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2699 ('apply' scripts).
  2700 
  2701 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2702 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2703 example:
  2704 
  2705 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2706   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2707 proof goal_cases
  2708   case (1 x)
  2709   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2710 next
  2711   case (2 y z)
  2712   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2713 qed
  2714 
  2715 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2716   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2717 proof goal_cases
  2718   case prems: 1
  2719   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2720 next
  2721   case prems: 2
  2722   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2723 qed
  2724 
  2725 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2726 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2727 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2728 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2729 
  2730 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2731 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2732 
  2733 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2734 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2735 
  2736 
  2737 *** Pure ***
  2738 
  2739 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2740 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2741 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2742 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2743 
  2744 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2745 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2748 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2749 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2750 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2751 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2752 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2753 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2754 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2755 
  2756   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2757   begin
  2758     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2759   end
  2760 
  2761   locale morphism =
  2762     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2763     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2764   begin
  2765     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2766   end
  2767 
  2768 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2769 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2770 
  2771 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2772 'defines'.
  2773 
  2774 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2775 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2776 
  2777 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2778 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2779 
  2780 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2781 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2782 
  2783 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2784 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2785 exploited.
  2786 
  2787 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2788 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2789 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2790 
  2791 
  2792 *** HOL ***
  2793 
  2794 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2795 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2796 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2797 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2798 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2799 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2802 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2803 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2804 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2805 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2806 
  2807 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2808 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2809 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2810 simplify porting old theories:
  2811 
  2812   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2813 
  2814   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2815 
  2816   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2817   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2818 
  2819   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2820 
  2821   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2822   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2823 
  2824   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2825 
  2826   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2827     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2828 
  2829   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2830   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2831   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2832 
  2833   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2834   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2835   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2836 
  2837 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2838 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2839 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2840 
  2841 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2842 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2843 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2844 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2845 
  2846 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2847 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2848 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2849 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2850 
  2851 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2852 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2853 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2854 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2857 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2858 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2860 
  2861 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2862 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2863 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2864 
  2865 Consolidated facts:
  2866   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2867   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2868   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2869   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2870   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2871   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2872   split_split ~> prod.split
  2873   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2874   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2875   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2876   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2877   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2878   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2879   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2880   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2881   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2882   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2883   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2884   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2885   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2886   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2887   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2888   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2889   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2890   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2891   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2892   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2893   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2894   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2895   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2896   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2897   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2898   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2899   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2900   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2901 
  2902 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2903   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2904   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2905   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2906   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2907 
  2908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909 
  2910 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2911 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2912 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2913 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2914 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2915 
  2916 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2917   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2918   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2919   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2920   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2921   real_of_one of_int_1
  2922   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2923   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2924   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2925   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2926   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2927   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2928   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2929   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2930   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2931   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2932   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2933   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2934   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2935   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2936   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2937   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2938   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2939 
  2940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2943 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2946 
  2947 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2948 
  2949 * Sledgehammer:
  2950   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2951   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2952     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2953   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2954   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2955   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2956     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2957   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2958 
  2959 * Nitpick:
  2960   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2961   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2962   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2963   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2964   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2965 
  2966 * (Co)datatype package:
  2967   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2968     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2969   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2970   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2971     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2973     being defined.
  2974   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2975 
  2976 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2977 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2978 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2979 
  2980 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2981 
  2982 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2983 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2984 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2985 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2986 
  2987 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2991 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2992 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2993 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2994 
  2995 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2996 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2997 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2998 
  2999 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  3000 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  3001 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  3002 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  3003 
  3004 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  3005 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  3006 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  3007 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3008 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  3009 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  3010 during instantiation.
  3011 
  3012 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  3013 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  3014 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  3017 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  3018 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  3019 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  3020 
  3021   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3022   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3023 
  3024 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Library/Multiset:
  3027   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  3028       < ~> <#
  3029       > ~> >#
  3030       <= ~> <=#
  3031       >= ~> >=#
  3032       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  3033       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  3034     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3035   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  3036       \<subset>#
  3037       \<subseteq>#
  3038       \<supset>#
  3039       \<supseteq>#
  3040   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  3041     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  3042     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  3043     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  3044     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  3045     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  3046     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3047   - Renamed conversions:
  3048       multiset_of ~> mset
  3049       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  3050       set_of ~> set_mset
  3051     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3052   - Renamed lemmas:
  3053       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3054       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  3055       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3056     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3057   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  3058     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  3059     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  3060     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3061 
  3062 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  3063 
  3064 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  3065 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  3066 chain-complete partial orders.
  3067 
  3068 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  3069 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  3070 
  3071 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  3072 periodic functions.
  3073 
  3074 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  3075 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  3076 GCD.
  3077 
  3078 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  3079 
  3080 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  3081 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3082 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  3083 
  3084 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  3085 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  3086 
  3087 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  3088 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  3089 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  3090 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  3091 
  3092 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  3093 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  3094 
  3095 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  3096 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  3097 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  3098 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  3099 properties.
  3100 
  3101 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  3102 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  3103 
  3104 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  3105 structures.
  3106 
  3107 
  3108 *** ML ***
  3109 
  3110 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  3111 system are available:
  3112 
  3113   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3114   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3115   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3116 
  3117 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3118 
  3119 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3120 Isar proof method.
  3121 
  3122 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3123 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3124 breaks.
  3125 
  3126 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3127 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3128 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3131 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3132 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3133 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3134 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3135 
  3136 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3137 
  3138   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3139   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3140 
  3141   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3142   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3143 
  3144 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3145 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3146 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3147 
  3148 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3149 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3150 instead (with proper context).
  3151 
  3152 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3153 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3154 
  3155 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3156 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3157 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3158 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3159 the proof context discipline.
  3160 
  3161 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3162 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3163 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3164 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3165 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 
  3168 *** System ***
  3169 
  3170 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3171 
  3172 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3173 conflations:
  3174 
  3175     hence  ~>  then have
  3176     thus   ~>  then show
  3177 
  3178 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3179 maintainability of proofs.
  3180 
  3181 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3182 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3183 performance.
  3184 
  3185 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3186 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3187 
  3188     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3189 
  3190 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3191 space.
  3192 
  3193 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3194 platforms as follows.
  3195 
  3196   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3197     associated with the main app bundle
  3198 
  3199   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3200     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3201     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3202 
  3203   - isabelle build: settings
  3204     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3205 
  3206 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3207 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3208 
  3209 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3210 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3211 required after change.
  3212 
  3213 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3214 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3215 
  3216 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3217 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3218 
  3219 
  3220 
  3221 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3222 ------------------------------
  3223 
  3224 *** General ***
  3225 
  3226 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3227 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3228 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3229 
  3230   context
  3231   begin
  3232 
  3233   private definition ...
  3234   private lemma ...
  3235 
  3236   qualified definition ...
  3237   qualified lemma ...
  3238 
  3239   lemma ...
  3240   theorem ...
  3241 
  3242   end
  3243 
  3244 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3245 naming policy.
  3246 
  3247 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3248 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3249 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3250 
  3251 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3252 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3253 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3254 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3255 
  3256 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3257 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3258 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3262 theory context.
  3263 
  3264 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3265 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3266 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3267 
  3268 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3269 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3270 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3271 sources.
  3272 
  3273 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3274 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3275 
  3276 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3277 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3278 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3279 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3280 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3281 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3282 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3283 
  3284 
  3285 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3286 
  3287 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3288 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3289 
  3290 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3291 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3292 in the buffer.
  3293 
  3294 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3295 marker, SideKick parser.
  3296 
  3297 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3298 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3299 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3300 
  3301 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3302 Options / Text Area).
  3303 
  3304 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3305 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3306 
  3307 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3308 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3309 
  3310 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3311 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3312 
  3313 
  3314 *** Document preparation ***
  3315 
  3316 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3317 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3318 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3319 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3320 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3321 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3322 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3323 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3326 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3327 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3328 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3329 
  3330 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3331 style.
  3332 
  3333 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3334 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3335 
  3336 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3337 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3338 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3339 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3340 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3341 
  3342 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3343 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3344 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3345 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3346 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3347 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3348 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3349 
  3350 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3351 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3352 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3354 
  3355 
  3356 *** Pure ***
  3357 
  3358 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3359 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3360 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3361 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3362 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3363 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3364 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3365 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3366 
  3367 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3368 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3369 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3370 
  3371 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3372 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3373 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3374 different index.
  3375 
  3376 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3377 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3378 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3379 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3380 
  3381 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3382 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3383 token category instead.
  3384 
  3385 
  3386 *** HOL ***
  3387 
  3388 * New (co)datatype package:
  3389   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3390     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3391     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3392     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3393     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3394   - Renamed theorems:
  3395       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3396       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3397       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3398       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3399       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3400       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3401       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3402       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3403       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3404       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3405       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3406       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3407       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3408     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3410     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3411     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3413     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3414     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3415   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3416     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3417     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3418     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3419     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3420     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3421     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422   - Renamed theories:
  3423       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3424       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3425       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3426       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3427       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3428       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3429     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3431     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3432     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3433     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3434     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3435     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3436     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3437     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3438     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3439   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3440     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3441     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3442     rules.
  3443 
  3444 * Old datatype package:
  3445   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3446     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3447     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3448     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3449     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450   - Renamed theorems:
  3451       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3452     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453   - Renamed theory:
  3454       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3455     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Nitpick:
  3458   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3459     operations.
  3460 
  3461 * Sledgehammer:
  3462   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3463     default.
  3464   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3465     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3466   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3467     Removed sub-command:
  3468       min
  3469   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3470     dramatically improved.
  3471   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3472 
  3473 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3474   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3475     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3476     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3477     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3478     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3479     point to it.
  3480     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3482     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3484     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3485   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3486     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3487 
  3488 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3489 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3490 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3491 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3492 
  3493 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3494 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3495 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3498 
  3499 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3500 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3501 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3502 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3505 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3511 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3512 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3515 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3518 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3519 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3520 
  3521 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3522 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3523 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3524 needed.
  3525 
  3526 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3527 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3528 
  3529 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3530 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3531 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3532 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3533 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3534 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3535 
  3536 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3537 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3538 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3539 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3540 
  3541 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3542 type class hierarchy:
  3543   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3544   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3545   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3546   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3547 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3550   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3551   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3552 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3555 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3556 
  3557 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3558   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3559   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3560   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3561 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3562 
  3563 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3564 and part of theory Main.
  3565   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3572 Fact rename:
  3573     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3575 
  3576 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3577 
  3578 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3579 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3580 
  3581 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3582 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3583 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3584 
  3585 * Library/Multiset:
  3586   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3587   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3588     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3589   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3590       <# ~> #<#
  3591       <=# ~> #<=#
  3592       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3593       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3594     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3595   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3596       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3597       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3598     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599   - Renamed
  3600       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3601       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3602       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3603     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3605   - Added attributes:
  3606       image_mset.id [simp]
  3607       image_mset_id [simp]
  3608       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3609       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3610       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3611       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3612       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3613       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3614     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3617 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3618 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3619 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3622 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3623 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3624 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3625 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3626 examples.
  3627 
  3628 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3629   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3630   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3631   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3632     projection
  3633 
  3634 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3635 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3636 
  3637 
  3638 *** ML ***
  3639 
  3640 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3641 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3642 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3643 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3644 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3645 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3647 
  3648 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3649 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3650 
  3651 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3652 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3653 
  3654 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656 
  3657 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3658 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3659 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3660 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3661 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3662 nested.
  3663 
  3664 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3665 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3668 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3669 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3673 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3674 Thm.term_of etc.
  3675 
  3676 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3677 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3678 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3681 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3682 
  3683 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3684 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3685 
  3686 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3687 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3688 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3691 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3692 
  3693 
  3694 *** System ***
  3695 
  3696 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3697 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3698 
  3699 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3700 
  3701 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3702 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3703 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3704 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3708 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3709 
  3710 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3711 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3712 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3713 
  3714 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3715 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3716 
  3717 
  3718 
  3719 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3720 ---------------------------------
  3721 
  3722 *** General ***
  3723 
  3724 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3725 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3726 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3727 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3728 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3729 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3730 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3731 some examples.
  3732 
  3733 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3734 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3735 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3736 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3737 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3738 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3739 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3740 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3741 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3742 
  3743 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3744 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3745 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3746 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3747 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3748 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3749 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3750 proof tools.
  3751 
  3752 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3753 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3754 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3755 
  3756 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3757 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3758 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3759 
  3760 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3761 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3762 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3763 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3766 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3767 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3771 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3772 
  3773 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3774 not check existence within the file-system.
  3775 
  3776 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3777 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3778 
  3779 
  3780 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3781 
  3782 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3783 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3784 buffer.
  3785 
  3786 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3787 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3788 
  3789 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3790 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3791 
  3792 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3793 auxiliary ML files.
  3794 
  3795 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3796 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3797 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3798 
  3799 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3800 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3801 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3802 
  3803 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3804 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3805 
  3806 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3807 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3808 caret".
  3809 
  3810 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3811 completion popup and context-menu.
  3812 
  3813 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3814 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3815 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3816 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3817 
  3818 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3819 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3820 
  3821 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3822 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3823 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3824 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3825 
  3826 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3827 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3828 
  3829 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3830 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3831 
  3832 * Improved monitor panel.
  3833 
  3834 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3835 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3836 
  3837 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3838 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3839 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3840 
  3841 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3842 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3843 within the context.
  3844 
  3845 
  3846 *** Pure ***
  3847 
  3848 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3849 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3850 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3851 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3852 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3853 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3854 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3855 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3856 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3857 
  3858 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3859 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3860 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3861 renaming needs to be applied:
  3862 
  3863   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3864   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3865   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3866   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3867   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3868 
  3869 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3870 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3871 old constants:
  3872 
  3873 setup {*
  3874   fn thy => thy
  3875     |> Sign.root_path
  3876     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3877     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3878     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3879     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3880 *}
  3881 
  3882 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3883 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3884 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3885 
  3886 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3887 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3888 instantiated theorem.
  3889 
  3890 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3891 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3892 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3893 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3894 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3895 
  3896   attribute_setup standard =
  3897     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3898 
  3899 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3900 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3901 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3902 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3903 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3904 
  3905 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3906 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3907 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3908 
  3909 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3910 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3911 
  3912 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3913 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3914 
  3915 
  3916 *** HOL ***
  3917 
  3918 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3919 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3923 
  3924 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3928 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3934 with the given constants.
  3935 
  3936 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3937 operations on records.
  3938 
  3939 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3940 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3945 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3946 
  3947 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3948 
  3949 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3950 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3951 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3952 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3953 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3956 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3959   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3960   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3961   part of theory "Main".
  3962 
  3963   Theory renamings:
  3964     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3965     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3966     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3967     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3968     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3969     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3970     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3971     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3972     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3973     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3974     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3975     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3976     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3977     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3978     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3979     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3980     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3981     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3982     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3983     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3984     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3985     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3986 
  3987   New theories:
  3988     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3989     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3990     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3991     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3992     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3993 
  3994   Discontinued theories:
  3995     BNF/BNF.thy
  3996     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3997 
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * New (co)datatype package:
  4001   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  4002   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  4003     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  4004   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  4005     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  4006   - Renamed commands:
  4007       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  4008       primrec_new ~> primrec
  4009       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  4010     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  4012     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  4013     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  4015     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  4016     using "prim(co)rec".
  4017     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  4019     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  4020     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  4022     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  4023     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  4024     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Old datatype package:
  4027   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  4028     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  4029     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  4031     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  4032     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4033 
  4034 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  4035   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  4036   BNF-based datatype package.
  4037 
  4038   Renamed constants:
  4039     Option.set ~> set_option
  4040     Option.map ~> map_option
  4041     option_rel ~> rel_option
  4042 
  4043   Renamed theorems:
  4044     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  4045     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  4046     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  4047     option.recs ~> option.rec
  4048     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  4049     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  4050     map.simps ~> list.map
  4051     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  4052     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  4053     the.simps ~> option.sel
  4054 
  4055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  4058     sum_map ~> map_sum
  4059     map_pair ~> map_prod
  4060     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  4061     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  4062     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  4063     set_rel ~> rel_set
  4064     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  4065     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  4066     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  4067     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  4068 
  4069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * Lifting and Transfer:
  4072   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  4073   - stronger reflexivity prover
  4074   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  4075   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  4076     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  4077     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  4078       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  4079       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  4080       automatically
  4081     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  4082     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  4083       automatically for datatypes
  4084   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  4085     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  4086       more
  4087       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  4089       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  4090       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4091     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  4092       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  4093       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094   - registration of code equations is more robust
  4095     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  4097     form
  4098     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  4100     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4101   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  4102     Code_Numeral.natural
  4103     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  4105     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4106 
  4107 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  4108 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  4109 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  4110 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  4111 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  4112 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  4113 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4116 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4117 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4118 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4119 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4120 
  4121 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4122 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4123 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4124 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4125 
  4126 * Sledgehammer:
  4127   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4128   - MaSh overhaul:
  4129     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4130       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4131     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4132       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4133       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4134       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4135   - New option:
  4136       smt_proofs
  4137   - Renamed options:
  4138       isar_compress ~> compress
  4139       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4140 
  4141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4144 
  4145 * Nitpick:
  4146   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4147     take infinite values.
  4148   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4149     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4150   - Removed "std" option.
  4151   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4152     "hide_types".
  4153 
  4154 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4155 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4158 
  4159 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4160   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4161   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4162     SUP instead uniformly.
  4163   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4164     or SUP and Sup.
  4165   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4166   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4167   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4168     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4169     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4170 
  4171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4174 
  4175 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4176 
  4177   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4178   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4179   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4180   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4181 
  4182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4183 
  4184 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4185 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4186 
  4187 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4188 
  4189     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4190     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4191     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4192     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4193     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4194     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4195     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4196     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4197     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4198     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4199     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4200     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4201     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4202     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4203     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4204     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4205     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4206     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4207     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4208     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4209     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4210     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4211     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4212     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4213     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4214     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4215     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4216     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4217     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4218     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4219     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4220     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4221     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4222     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4223     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4224     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4225     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4226     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4227     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4228     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4229     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4230     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4231     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4232     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4233     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4234     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4235     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4236     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4237     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4238     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4239     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4240     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4241     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4242     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4243     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4244     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4245     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4246     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4247     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4248 
  4249   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4250   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4251   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4252     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4253 
  4254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4257 
  4258   Fact consolidations:
  4259     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4260     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4261     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4262     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4263     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4264     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4265     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4266     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4267     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4268     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4269     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4270     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4271     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4272     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4273     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4274     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4275     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4276     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4277     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4278     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4279     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4280     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4281     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4282     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4283     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4284     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4285     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4286     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4287     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4288     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4289     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4290     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4291     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4292     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4293     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4294     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4295     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4296     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4297     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4298     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4299 
  4300 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4301 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4302 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4303 
  4304 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4305 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4306 
  4307 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4308 
  4309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4312 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4313 
  4314 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4316 
  4317 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4318     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4319 
  4320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4323   consolidation:
  4324     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4325     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4326 
  4327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4330   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4331   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4332   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4333     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4334   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4335     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4336   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4337 
  4338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4339 
  4340 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4341 
  4342     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4343     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4344     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4345     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4346     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4347     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4348     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4349     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4350     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4351     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4352     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4353     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4354     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4355 
  4356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4359 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4360 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4361 
  4362 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4363     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4364     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4365     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4366     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4367 
  4368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Fact name consolidation:
  4371     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4372     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4373     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4374     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4375     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4376 
  4377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4380 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4381 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4382 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4383 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4384 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4385 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4387 
  4388 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4389 
  4390 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4391 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4392 
  4393 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4394 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4395 
  4396 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4397 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4398 or the brute way with
  4399 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4400 
  4401 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4402 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4403 stating boundedness of sets.
  4404 
  4405 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4406 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4407 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4408 
  4409 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4410   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4411   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4412   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4413   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4414   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4415   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4416   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4417   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4418   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4419   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4420   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4421 
  4422   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4423 
  4424   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4425 
  4426     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4427     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4428     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4429     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4430     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4431 
  4432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4433 
  4434 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4435   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4436 
  4437   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4438 
  4439   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4440 
  4441   - removed constant isDiff
  4442 
  4443   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4444     input syntax.
  4445 
  4446   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4447 
  4448   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4449 
  4450   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4451 
  4452   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4453 
  4454   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4455     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4456     has_vector_derivative.
  4457 
  4458   - Other renamings:
  4459     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4460     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4461     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4462     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4463     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4464     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4465     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4466 
  4467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4468 
  4469 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4470 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4471 in continuous_intros.
  4472 
  4473 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4474 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4475 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4476 
  4477 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4478 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4479 especially removes
  4480 
  4481     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4482 
  4483 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4484     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4485 
  4486 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4487 
  4488   Renamings:
  4489     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4490     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4491     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4492     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4493     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4494     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4495     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4496     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4497     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4498     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4499     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4500     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4501 
  4502     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4503     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4504     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4505 
  4506   Removed theorems:
  4507     complex_zero_def
  4508     complex_add_def
  4509     complex_minus_def
  4510     complex_diff_def
  4511     complex_one_def
  4512     complex_mult_def
  4513     complex_inverse_def
  4514     complex_scaleR_def
  4515 
  4516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4519 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4522 
  4523 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4524 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4525 
  4526 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4527 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4528 
  4529 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4530 
  4531 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4533 
  4534 * HOL-Word:
  4535   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4536     of "word_arith_wis".
  4537   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4538     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4539     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4540 
  4541 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4542   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4543   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4544   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4545     (except the AFP)
  4546 
  4547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4550   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4551   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4552     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4553   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4554     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4555     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4556     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4557     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4558     intervals.
  4559   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4560     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4561     - renamed theorems:
  4562         interval ~> box
  4563         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4564         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4565         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4566         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4567         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4568         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4569         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4570         open_interval ~> open_box
  4571         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4572         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4573         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4574         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4575         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4576         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4577         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4578         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4579         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4580         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4581         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4582         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4583         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4584         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4585         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4586         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4587         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4588         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4589         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4590         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4591         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4592         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4593         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4594         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4595 
  4596     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4597         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4598         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4599         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4600         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4601         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4602         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4603         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4604         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4605         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4606         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4607         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4608         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4609         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4610         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4611         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4612         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4613         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4614 
  4615   - renamed theorems:
  4616     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4617     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4618     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4619 
  4620 * HOL-Probability:
  4621   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4622 
  4623     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4624       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4625 
  4626     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4627 
  4628   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4629     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4630 
  4631     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4632     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4633     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4634     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4635     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4636     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4637     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4638     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4639     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4640     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4641     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4642     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4643     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4644     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4645     integral_indicator          ~>
  4646          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4647     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4648     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4649     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4650 
  4651     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4652          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4653 
  4654     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4655          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4656 
  4657     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4658          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4659 
  4660     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4661          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4662          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4663 
  4664     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4665          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4666 
  4667     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4668          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4669 
  4670     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4671          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4672          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4673 
  4674     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4675          nn_integral_real_affine
  4676 
  4677     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4678          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4679 
  4680     The following theorems where removed:
  4681 
  4682     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4683     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4684     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4685     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4686     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4687     integral_cmul_indicator
  4688     integral_real
  4689 
  4690   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4691     distributed random variables.
  4692 
  4693 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4694 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 
  4698 *** Scala ***
  4699 
  4700 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4701 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4702 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4703 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4704 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4705 
  4706 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4707 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 
  4710 *** ML ***
  4711 
  4712 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4713 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4714 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4715 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4716 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4717 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4718 
  4719 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4720 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4721 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4722 actually belongs to it).
  4723 
  4724 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4725 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4726 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4727 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4728 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4729 of schematic variables.
  4730 
  4731 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4732 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4735 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4736 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4742 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4743 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4747 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4749 formal context.
  4750 
  4751 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4752 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4755 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4756 
  4757 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4758 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4759 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4760 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4761 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4762 
  4763 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4764 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4765 purposes.
  4766 
  4767 
  4768 *** System ***
  4769 
  4770 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4771 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4772 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4773 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4774 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4775 
  4776 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4777 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4778 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4779 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4780 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4781 settings variable.
  4782 
  4783 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4784 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4785 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4786 
  4787 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4788 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4789 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4790 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4791 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4792 
  4793 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4794 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4795 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4796 
  4797 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4798 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4799 
  4800 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4801 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4802 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4803 
  4804 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4805 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4806 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4807 processing is started.
  4808 
  4809 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4810 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4811 
  4812 
  4813 
  4814 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4815 -------------------------------------
  4816 
  4817 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4818 
  4819 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4820 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4821 
  4822 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4823 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4824 
  4825 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4826 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4827 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4828 
  4829 
  4830 *** System ***
  4831 
  4832 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4833 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4834 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4835 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4836 
  4837 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4838 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4839 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4840 
  4841 
  4842 
  4843 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4844 -------------------------------------
  4845 
  4846 *** General ***
  4847 
  4848 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4849 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4850 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4853 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4856 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4857 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4858 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4859 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4860 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4861 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4862 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4863 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4864 syntax.
  4865 
  4866 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4867 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4870 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4871 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4872 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4873 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4874 
  4875 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4879 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4880 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4881 
  4882 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4883 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4884 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4885 
  4886 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4887 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4888 
  4889 
  4890 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4891 
  4892 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4893 Documentation panel.
  4894 
  4895 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4896 documentation.
  4897 
  4898 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4899 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4900 
  4901 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4902 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4903 normal editing and checking process.
  4904 
  4905 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4906 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4907 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4908 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4909 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4910 
  4911 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4912 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4913 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4914 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4915 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4916 
  4917 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4918 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4919 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4920 
  4921 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4922 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4923 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4924 to resolve conflict.
  4925 
  4926 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4927 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4928 
  4929 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4930 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4931 such command executions while editing.
  4932 
  4933 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4934 document content.
  4935 
  4936 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4937 toplevel theorem statements.
  4938 
  4939 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4940 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4941 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4942 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4943 
  4944 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4945 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4946 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4947 
  4948 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4949 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4950 
  4951 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4952 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4953 
  4954 
  4955 *** Pure ***
  4956 
  4957 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4958 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4959 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4960 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4961 details.
  4962 
  4963 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4964 
  4965 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4966 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4967 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4968 
  4969 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4973 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4974 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4975 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4976 
  4977 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4978 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4979 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4980 
  4981 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4982 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4983 
  4984 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4985 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4986 situations.
  4987 
  4988 
  4989 *** HOL ***
  4990 
  4991 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4992 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4994 
  4995 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4996 
  4997 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4998 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4999 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  5000 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  5001 
  5002   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  5003 
  5004 * Code generator:
  5005   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  5006     'code_instance'.
  5007   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  5008     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  5009 
  5010 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  5011 examples.
  5012 
  5013 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  5014 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  5015 to distinguish both when desired.
  5016 
  5017 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  5018 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  5019 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  5020 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  5023 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  5024 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  5025 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  5026 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  5027 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5028 
  5029 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  5030 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  5031 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5032 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  5033 
  5034 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  5035 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  5036 
  5037 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  5038 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  5039 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  5040 
  5041 * Lifting:
  5042   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  5043     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  5044       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  5045       transfer rules
  5046     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  5047       correspondence relation can be generated
  5048     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  5049       parametricity
  5050     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  5051   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  5052   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  5053     copies
  5054   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  5055     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  5056     anonymous context)
  5057   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  5058     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5059   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  5060     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  5061   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  5062     INCOMPATIBILITY
  5063 
  5064 * Transfer:
  5065   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  5066     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  5067   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  5068   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  5069     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  5070   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  5071 
  5072 * Reification and reflection:
  5073   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  5074     "Reification".
  5075   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  5076   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  5077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5078 
  5079 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  5080   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  5081     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5082     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  5083   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  5084     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  5085   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  5086     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  5087     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  5088     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  5089     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  5090     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  5091     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  5092     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  5093   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  5094     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  5095   - Fact renames:
  5096       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  5097       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  5098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5099 
  5100 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  5101 
  5102 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  5103 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  5104 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  5105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5106 
  5107 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  5108 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  5109 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  5110 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  5111 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  5112 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  5113 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5114 lemmas.
  5115 
  5116 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5117 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5118 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5121 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5122 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5123 
  5124 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5125 top and bottom elements.
  5126 
  5127 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5128 
  5129 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5130 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5131 
  5132  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5133    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5134    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5135 
  5136  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5137    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5138    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5139 
  5140    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5141    arbitrary filter.
  5142 
  5143  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5144    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5145    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5146    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5147    on a compact set.
  5148 
  5149  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5150    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5151    linear_continuum_topology).
  5152 
  5153  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5154    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5155    on all sequences converging to x.
  5156 
  5157  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5158    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5159    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5160    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5161    left or right.
  5162 
  5163  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5164 
  5165      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5166 
  5167  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5168    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5169 
  5170  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5171    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5172    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5173    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5174    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5175    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5176 
  5177  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5178 
  5179    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5180 
  5181    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5182      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5183 
  5184    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5185 
  5186    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5187      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5188 
  5189    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5190 
  5191    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5192 
  5193  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5194 
  5195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5196 
  5197 * Nitpick:
  5198   - Added option "spy".
  5199   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5200 
  5201 * Sledgehammer:
  5202   - Renamed option:
  5203       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5204     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5205   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5206   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5207   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5208 
  5209 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5210 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5211 
  5212 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5213   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5214   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5215     generated code.
  5216   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5217   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5218   - Fact renames:
  5219     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5220     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5221     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5222 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5223 
  5224 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5225 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5226 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5227 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5228 
  5229 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5230 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5231 
  5232 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5233 
  5234 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5235 
  5236     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5237     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5238 
  5239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5240 
  5241 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5242 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5243 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5244 
  5245 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5246 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5247 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5248 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5249 
  5250 * HOL-BNF:
  5251   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5252     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5253     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5254     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5255   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5256     coinduct).
  5257   - Renamed keywords:
  5258     data ~> datatype_new
  5259     codata ~> codatatype
  5260     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5261   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5262     discs ~> disc
  5263     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5264     map_id' ~> map_id
  5265     sels ~> sel
  5266     set_map' ~> set_map
  5267     sets ~> set
  5268 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5269 
  5270 
  5271 *** ML ***
  5272 
  5273 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5274 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5275 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5276 Examples.thy in particular.
  5277 
  5278 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5279 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5280 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5281 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5282 
  5283 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5284 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5285 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5286 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5288 
  5289 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5290 
  5291     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5292     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5293 
  5294 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5295 
  5296 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5297 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5298 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5299 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5300 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5301 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5302 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5303 
  5304 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5305 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5306 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5307 clasets separately from the context.
  5308 
  5309 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5310 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5311 
  5312 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5313 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5314 
  5315 
  5316 *** System ***
  5317 
  5318 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5319 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5320 
  5321 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5322 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5323 
  5324 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5325 settings variable.
  5326 
  5327 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5328 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5329 always pdf.
  5330 
  5331 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5332 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5333 
  5334 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5335 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5336 
  5337 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5338 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5339 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5340 
  5341 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5342 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5343 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5344 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5345 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5346 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5347 
  5348 
  5349 
  5350 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5351 -----------------------------------
  5352 
  5353 *** General ***
  5354 
  5355 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5356 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5357 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5358 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5359 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5360 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5361 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5362 
  5363 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5364 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5365 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5366 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5367 
  5368 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5369 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5370 
  5371 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5372 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5373 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5374 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5375 dependencies properly.
  5376 
  5377 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5378 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5379 
  5380 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5381 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5382 
  5383 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5384 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5385 and "class ... context ...".
  5386 
  5387 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5388 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5389 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5390 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5391 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5392 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5393 
  5394 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5395 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5396 
  5397 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5398 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5399 
  5400 
  5401 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5402 
  5403 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5404 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5405 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5406 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5407 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5408 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5409 
  5410 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5411 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5412 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5413 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5414 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5415 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5416 
  5417 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5418 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5419 browser on demand.
  5420 
  5421 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5422 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5423 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5424 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5425 
  5426 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5427 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5428 
  5429 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5430 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5431 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5432 potentially infinite message streams.
  5433 
  5434 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5435 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5436 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5437 schemes.
  5438 
  5439 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5440 symbols.
  5441 
  5442 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5443 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5444 
  5445 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5446 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5447 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5448 
  5449 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5450 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5451 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5452 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5453 
  5454 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5455 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5456 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5457 
  5458 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5459 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5460 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5461 Isabelle distribution.
  5462 
  5463 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5464 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5465 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5466 
  5467 
  5468 *** Pure ***
  5469 
  5470 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5471 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5472 
  5473 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5474 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5475 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5478 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5479 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5480 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5481 with some care where this is really required.
  5482 
  5483 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5484 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5485 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5486 
  5487   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5488 
  5489 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5490 a Hasse diagram.
  5491 
  5492 
  5493 *** HOL ***
  5494 
  5495 * Sledgehammer:
  5496 
  5497   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5498     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5499   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5500   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5501   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5502   - Renamed options:
  5503       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5504       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5505       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5506       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5507 
  5508 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5509 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5510 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5511 
  5512 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Lifting:
  5516   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5517   - quot_del attribute
  5518   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5519 
  5520 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5521 expressions.
  5522 
  5523 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5524 pointfree expressions.
  5525 
  5526 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5527 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5528 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5529 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5531 
  5532 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5533 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5534 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5535 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5536 accordingly.
  5537 
  5538 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5539 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5542 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5545 
  5546 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5547 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5548 
  5549 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5550 
  5551 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5552 
  5553   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5554   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5555 
  5556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5559 
  5560   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5561   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5562 
  5563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5564 
  5565 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5566 
  5567   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5568     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5569     output f x converges to G.
  5570 
  5571   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5572     infinity (at_bot).
  5573 
  5574   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5575     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5576 
  5577   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5578     at_top".
  5579 
  5580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5583 lattice type classes.
  5584 
  5585 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5586 
  5587     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5588     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5589 
  5590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5593 changes as follows.
  5594 
  5595   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5596 
  5597       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5598       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5599 
  5600   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5601     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5602     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5603     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5604 
  5605   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5606     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5607     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5608 
  5609   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5610     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5611     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5612     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5613 
  5614   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5615     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5616 
  5617       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5618       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5619       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5620       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5621       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5622       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5623       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5624       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5625       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5626       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5627       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5628       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5629       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5630       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5631       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5632       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5633 
  5634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5635 
  5636 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5637 
  5638 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5639 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5640 
  5641 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5642 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5643 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5644 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5645 
  5646   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5647   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5648   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5649   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5650   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5651   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5652   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5653   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5654   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5655   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5656 
  5657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5660 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5661 Data").
  5662 
  5663 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5664 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5665 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5666 code.
  5667 
  5668 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5669 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5670 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5672 
  5673 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5674 
  5675 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5676 
  5677 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5678 
  5679   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5680   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5681 
  5682 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5683 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5684 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5685 
  5686   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5687 
  5688     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5689     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5690     cart_base i  removed
  5691     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5692 
  5693   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5694 
  5695   Renamed lemmas:
  5696 
  5697     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5698     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5699     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5700     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5701     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5702     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5703     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5704     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5705     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5706     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5707 
  5708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 * HOL/Probability:
  5711 
  5712   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5713 
  5714   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5715     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5716     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5717 
  5718   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5719     projective family).
  5720 
  5721 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5722 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5723 
  5724 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5725 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5726 datatypes.
  5727 
  5728 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5729 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5730 
  5731 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5732 trees for the code generator.
  5733 
  5734 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5735 Lifting/Transfer.
  5736 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5737 
  5738 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5740 
  5741 
  5742 *** Document preparation ***
  5743 
  5744 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5745 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5746 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5747 
  5748 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5749 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5750 
  5751 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5752 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5753 document/root.tex.
  5754 
  5755 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5756 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5757 
  5758 
  5759 *** ML ***
  5760 
  5761 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5762 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5763 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5764 
  5765 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5766 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5767 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5768 
  5769 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5770 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5771 necessarily printing visible text.
  5772 
  5773 
  5774 *** System ***
  5775 
  5776 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5777 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5778 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5779 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5780 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5781 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5782 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5783 
  5784 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5785 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5786 
  5787   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5788 
  5789 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5790 
  5791 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5792 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5793 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5794 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5795 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5796 
  5797 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5798 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5799 
  5800 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5801 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5802 
  5803 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5805 
  5806 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5807 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5808 version of Isabelle.
  5809 
  5810 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5811 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5812 
  5813 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5814 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5815 for home-made settings.
  5816 
  5817 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5818 
  5819 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5820 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5821 configuration.
  5822 
  5823 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5824 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5825 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5826 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5827 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5828 
  5829 
  5830 
  5831 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5832 ------------------------------
  5833 
  5834 *** General ***
  5835 
  5836 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5837 
  5838   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5839     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5840   - markup for bound variables
  5841   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5842   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5843   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5844     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5845 
  5846 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5847 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5848 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5849 
  5850 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5851 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5852 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5853 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5854 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5855 
  5856   context
  5857     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5858     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5859   begin
  5860 
  5861   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5862 
  5863   end
  5864 
  5865   thm my_trans
  5866 
  5867 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5868 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5869 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5870 
  5871 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5872 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5873 
  5874 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5875 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5876 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5877 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5878 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5879 
  5880 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5881 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5882 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5883 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5884 indices of schematic variables.
  5885 
  5886 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5887 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5888 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5889 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5890 etc. was exploited.
  5891 
  5892 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5893 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5894 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5895 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5896 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5897 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5898 
  5899 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5900 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5901 manual.
  5902 
  5903 
  5904 *** Pure ***
  5905 
  5906 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5907 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5908 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5909 
  5910 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5911 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5912 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5913 undocumented feature.)
  5914 
  5915 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5916 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5917 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5918 
  5919   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5920 
  5921   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5922     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5923 
  5924 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5925 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5926 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5927 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5928 
  5929 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5930 
  5931     num ~> num_token
  5932     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5933     xstr ~> str_token
  5934 
  5935 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5936 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5937 position information via constraints).
  5938 
  5939 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5940 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5941 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5942 
  5943 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5944 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5945 
  5946 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5947 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5948 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5949 
  5950 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5951 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5952 
  5953 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5954 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5955 
  5956   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5957 
  5958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5961 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5962 
  5963 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5964 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5965 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5966 
  5967 
  5968 *** HOL ***
  5969 
  5970 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5971 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5972 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5973 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5974 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5975 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5976 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5977 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5978 possible.
  5979 
  5980 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5981 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5982 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5983 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5984 
  5985 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5986 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5987 
  5988 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5989 
  5990 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5991 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5992 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5993 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5994 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5995 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5996 
  5997   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5998     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5999 
  6000   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  6001     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  6002     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  6003 
  6004   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  6005     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  6006 
  6007   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  6008     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  6009     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  6010 
  6011   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  6012     Redefine using other integer operations.
  6013 
  6014 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  6015 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  6016 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  6017 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  6018 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  6019 
  6020   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  6021     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  6022     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  6023     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  6024     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  6025 
  6026     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  6027     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  6028 
  6029   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  6030     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  6031     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  6032     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  6033     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  6034     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  6035     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  6036     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  6037 
  6038   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  6039     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  6040     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  6041     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  6042 
  6043   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  6044     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  6045     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  6046     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  6047 
  6048   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  6049     from type nat to type int.
  6050 
  6051 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  6052 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  6053 
  6054   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  6055     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  6056     type.  Example syntax:
  6057 
  6058     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  6059       is List.insert
  6060 
  6061     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  6062     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  6063     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  6064     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  6065     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  6066     by the package.
  6067 
  6068   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  6069     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  6070     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  6071     code generation for each constant.
  6072 
  6073   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  6074     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  6075     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  6076     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  6077     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  6078 
  6079   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  6080     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  6081     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  6082 
  6083 * Quotient package:
  6084 
  6085   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  6086     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  6087 
  6088   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  6089     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  6090 
  6091   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  6092     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  6093     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6094 
  6095   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  6096     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6097 
  6098 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  6099 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  6100 
  6101 * Quickcheck:
  6102 
  6103   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  6104     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  6105     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  6106     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  6107     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  6108 
  6109     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  6110     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  6111     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  6112 
  6113     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6114     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6115 
  6116     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6117     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6118     show genuine counterexamples.
  6119 
  6120   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6121     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6122 
  6123     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6124     constructors of that type.
  6125 
  6126   - Support for multisets.
  6127 
  6128   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6129 
  6130   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6131     conjectures in a locale context.
  6132 
  6133 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6134 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6135 
  6136 * Sledgehammer:
  6137   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6138     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6139   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6140   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6141     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6142   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6143   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6144   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6145   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6146 
  6147 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6148 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6149 
  6150 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6151 
  6152 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6153 
  6154 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6155 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6156 
  6157   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6158 
  6159 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6160 a list and a nat.
  6161 
  6162 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6163 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6164 
  6165 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6166 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6167 default.
  6168 
  6169 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6170 
  6171   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6172 
  6173 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6174 
  6175 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6176 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6177 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6178 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6179 one_case.
  6180 
  6181 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6182 the result of the fact expression.
  6183 
  6184 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6185 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6186 of some relation theorems:
  6187 
  6188   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6189   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6190   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6191   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6192   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6193   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6194 
  6195 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6196 
  6197 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6198 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6199 
  6200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6201 
  6202 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6203 to match the constant's name:
  6204 
  6205   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6206   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6207   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6208   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6209   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6210   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6211   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6212   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6213   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6214   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6215   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6216   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6217   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6218   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6219   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6220   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6221   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6222   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6223   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6224   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6225   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6226   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6227   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6228   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6229 
  6230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6231 
  6232 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6233 and corresponding theorem names:
  6234 
  6235   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6236 
  6237   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6238 
  6239   - Renamed theorems:
  6240 
  6241     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6242     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6243     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6244     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6245     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6246     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6247     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6248     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6249     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6250     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6251     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6252     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6253     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6254     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6255     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6256     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6257     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6258     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2