NEWS
author blanchet
Fri Sep 21 16:45:06 2012 +0200 (2012-09-21)
changeset 49510 ba50d204095e
parent 49481 818bf31759e7
child 49532 6f7cc8e42716
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed "Codatatype" directory "BNF" (and corresponding session) -- this opens the door to no-nonsense session names like "HOL-BNF-LFP"
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    10 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    11 
    12 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    13 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    14 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    15 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    16 dependencies properly.
    17 
    18 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    19 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    20 
    21 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    22 in old "ref" manual.
    23 
    24 
    25 *** Pure ***
    26 
    27 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    28 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    29 
    30 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    31 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    32 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    36 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    37 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    38 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    39 with some care where this is really required.
    40 
    41 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    42 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    43 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    44 
    45   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    46 
    47 
    48 *** HOL ***
    49 
    50 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalised properties of bounded
    51 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
    52 
    53 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    54 to lattice type classes.
    55 
    56 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a option".
    57 
    58 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
    59 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
    60 
    61   - Renamed constants:
    62 
    63       prefix ~> prefixeq
    64       strict_prefix ~> prefix
    65 
    66     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
    67 
    68   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
    69     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
    70     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
    71     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    72 
    73   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
    74     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
    75 
    76   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
    77     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
    78     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
    79     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    80 
    81   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
    82     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
    83 
    84       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
    85       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
    86       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
    87       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
    88       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
    89       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
    90       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
    91       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
    92       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
    93       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
    94       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
    95       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
    96       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
    97       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
    98       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
    99       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   100 
   101     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   102 
   103 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   104 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   105 non-free datatypes.
   106 
   107 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   108 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   109 
   110 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   111 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   112 
   113 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   114 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   115 
   116 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   117 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   118 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   119 
   120 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   121 expressions.
   122 
   123 * Quickcheck:
   124 
   125   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   126     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   127     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   128 
   129 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   130 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   131 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   132 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   133 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Sledgehammer:
   136 
   137   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   138     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   139   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   140   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   141   - Renamed options:
   142       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   143       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   144 
   145 
   146 *** Document preparation ***
   147 
   148 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   149 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   150 
   151 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   152 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   153 document/root.tex.
   154 
   155 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   156 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157 
   158 
   159 *** ML ***
   160 
   161 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   162 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   163 necessarily printing visible text.
   164 
   165 
   166 *** System ***
   167 
   168 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   169 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   170 for home-made configurations.
   171 
   172 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   173 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   174 
   175 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   176 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   177 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   178 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   179 
   180 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   181 
   182 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   183 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   184 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   185 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   186 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   187 
   188 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   189 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   190 
   191   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   192 
   193 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   194 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   195 
   196 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   197 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   198 "isabelle usedir".
   199 
   200 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   201 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   202 version of Isabelle.
   203 
   204 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   205 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   206 configuration.
   207 
   208 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   209 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   210 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   211 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   212 bundled as Isabelle component.
   213 
   214 
   215 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   216 ------------------------------
   217 
   218 *** General ***
   219 
   220 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   221 
   222   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   223     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   224   - markup for bound variables
   225   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   226   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   227   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   228     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   229 
   230 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   231 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   232 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   233 
   234 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   235 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   236 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   237 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   238 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   239 
   240   context
   241     fixes x y z :: 'a
   242     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   243   begin
   244 
   245   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   246 
   247   end
   248 
   249   thm my_trans
   250 
   251 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   252 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   253 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   254 
   255 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   256 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   257 
   258 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   259 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   260 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   261 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   262 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   263 
   264 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   265 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   266 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   267 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   268 indices of schematic variables.
   269 
   270 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   271 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   272 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   273 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   274 etc. was exploited.
   275 
   276 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   277 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   278 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   279 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   280 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   281 of the material of that old tutorial.
   282 
   283 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   284 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   285 manual.
   286 
   287 
   288 *** Pure ***
   289 
   290 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   291 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   292 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   293 
   294 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   295 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   296 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   297 undocumented feature.)
   298 
   299 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   300 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   301 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   302 
   303   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   304 
   305   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   306     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   307 
   308 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   309 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   310 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   311 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   312 
   313 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   314 
   315     num ~> num_token
   316     xnum ~> xnum_token
   317     xstr ~> str_token
   318 
   319 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   320 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   321 position information via constraints).
   322 
   323 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   324 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   325 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   328 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   329 
   330 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   331 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   332 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   335 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   338 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   339 
   340   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   341 
   342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   343 
   344 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   345 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   346 
   347 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   348 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   349 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   350 
   351 
   352 *** HOL ***
   353 
   354 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   355 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   356 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   357 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   358 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   359 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   360 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   361 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   362 possible.
   363 
   364 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   365 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   366 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   367 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   368 
   369 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   370 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   373 
   374 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   375 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   376 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   377 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   378 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   379 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   380 
   381   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   382     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   383 
   384   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   385     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   386     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   387 
   388   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   389     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   390 
   391   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   392     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   393     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   394 
   395   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   396     Redefine using other integer operations.
   397 
   398 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   399 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   400 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   401 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   402 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   403 
   404   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   405     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   406     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   407     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   408     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   409 
   410     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   411     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   412 
   413   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   414     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   415     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   416     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   417     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   418     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   419     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   420     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   421 
   422   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   423     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   424     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   425     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   426 
   427   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   428     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   429     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   430     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   431 
   432   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   433     from type nat to type int.
   434 
   435 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   436 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   437 
   438   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   439     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   440     type.  Example syntax:
   441 
   442     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   443       is List.insert
   444 
   445     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   446     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   447     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   448     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   449     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   450     by the package.
   451 
   452   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   453     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   454     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   455     code generation for each constant.
   456 
   457   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   458     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   459     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   460     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   461     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   462 
   463   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   464     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   465     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   466 
   467 * Quotient package:
   468 
   469   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   470     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   471 
   472   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   473     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   474 
   475   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   476     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   477     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   480     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   481 
   482 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   483 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   484 
   485 * Quickcheck:
   486 
   487   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   488     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   489     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   490     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   491     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   492 
   493     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   494     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   495     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   496 
   497     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   498     continues searching for genuine ones.
   499 
   500     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   501     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   502     show genuine counterexamples.
   503 
   504   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   505     value generators for a given type and operations.
   506 
   507     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   508     constructors of that type.
   509 
   510   - Support for multisets.
   511 
   512   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   513 
   514   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   515     conjectures in a locale context.
   516 
   517 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   518 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   519 
   520 * Sledgehammer:
   521   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   522     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   523   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   524   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   525     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   526   - Sped up the minimizer.
   527   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   528   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   529   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   530 
   531 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   532 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   533 
   534 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   535 
   536 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   537 
   538 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   539 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   540 
   541   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   542 
   543 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   544 a list and a nat.
   545 
   546 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   547 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   548 
   549 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   550 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   551 default.
   552 
   553 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   554 
   555   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   556 
   557 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   558 
   559 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   560 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   562 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   563 one_case.
   564 
   565 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   566 the result of the fact expression.
   567 
   568 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   569 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   570 of some relation theorems:
   571 
   572   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   573   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   574   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   575   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   576   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   577   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   578 
   579 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   580 
   581 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   582 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   583 
   584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   587 to match the constant's name:
   588 
   589   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   590   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   591   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   592   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   593   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   594   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   595   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   596   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   597   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   598   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   599   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   600   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   601   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   602   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   603   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   604   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   605   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   606   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   607   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   608   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   609   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   610   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   611   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   612   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   613 
   614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   617 and corresponding theorem names:
   618 
   619   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   620 
   621   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   622 
   623   - Renamed theorems:
   624 
   625     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   626     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   627     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   628     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   629     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   630     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   631     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   632     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   633     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   634     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   635     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   636     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   637     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   638     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   639     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   640     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   641     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   642     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   643     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   644     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   645     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   646     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   647     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   648 
   649     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   650 
   651     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   652 
   653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   656 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   657 
   658   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   659   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   660   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   661   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   662   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   663   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   664   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   665   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   666   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   667   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   668   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   669   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   670   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   671   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   672   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   673   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   674   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   675   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   676   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   677   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   678   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   679 
   680 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   681 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   682 
   683 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   684 
   685 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   686 
   687   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   688   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   689   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   690   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   691   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   692   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   693   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   694   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   695   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   696   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   697   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   698   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   699   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   700   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   701   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   702   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   703   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   704   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   705 
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   709 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   710 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   711 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   712 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   713 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   714 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   715 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   716 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   717 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   718 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   719 
   720 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   721 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   722 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   723 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   724 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   725 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   726 
   727 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   728 through option types.
   729 
   730 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   731 relations.
   732 
   733 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   734 
   735 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   736 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   737 
   738   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   739   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   740   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   741   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   742   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   743   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   744   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   745   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   746   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   747   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   748   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   749   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   750   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   751   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   752   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   753   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   754   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   755   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   756   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   757   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   758   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   759   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   760   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   761   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   762   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   763   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   764   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   765   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   766   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   767   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   768   zless_le ~> less_le
   769   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   770   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   771   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   772 
   773 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   774 
   775   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   776 
   777 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   778 
   779 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   780 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   781 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   782 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   786 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   787 
   788 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   789 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   790 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   791 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   792 follows:
   793 
   794   Operations:
   795   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   796   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   797   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   798   del -> rbt_del
   799   delete -> rbt_delete
   800   ins -> rbt_ins
   801   insert -> rbt_insert
   802   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   803   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   804   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   805   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   806   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   807   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   808   tree_less -> rbt_less
   809   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   810   union -> rbt_union
   811   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   812   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   813 
   814   Lemmas:
   815   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   816   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   817   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   818   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   819   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   820   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   821   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   822   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   823   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   824   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   825   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   826   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   827   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   828   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   829   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   830   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   831   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   832   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   833   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   834   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   835   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   836   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   837   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   838   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   839   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   840   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   841   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   842   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   843   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   844   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   845   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   846   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   847   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   848   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   849   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   850   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   851   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   852   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   853   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   854   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   855   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   856   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   857   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   858   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   859   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   860   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   861   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   862   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   863   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   864   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   865   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   866   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   867   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   868   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   869   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   870   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   871   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   872   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   873   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   874   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   875   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   876   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   877   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   878   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   879   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   880   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   881   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   882   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   883   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   884   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   885   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   886   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   887   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   888   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   889   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   890   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   891   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   892   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   893   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   894   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   895   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   896   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   897   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   898 
   899 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   900 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   901 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902 
   903   Changed Operations:
   904   float_abs -> abs
   905   float_nprt -> nprt
   906   float_pprt -> pprt
   907   pow2 -> use powr
   908   round_down -> float_round_down
   909   round_up -> float_round_up
   910   scale -> exponent
   911 
   912   Removed Operations:
   913   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   914 
   915   Renamed Lemmas:
   916   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   917   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   918   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   919   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   920   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   921   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   922   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   923   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   924   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   925   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   926   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   927   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   928   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   929   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   930   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   931   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   932   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   933   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   934   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   935   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   936   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   937   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   938   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   939   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   940   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   941   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   942   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   943   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   944   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   945   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   946   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   947   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   948   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   949   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   950   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   951   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   952 
   953   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   954   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   955   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   956   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   957   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   958   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   959   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   960   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   961   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   962   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   963 
   964 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   965 association lists with distinct keys.
   966 
   967 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   968 annotated commands.
   969 
   970 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   971 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   972 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   973 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   974 
   975 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   976 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   977 instead.
   978 
   979   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   980   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   981   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   982   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   983   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   984   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   985   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   986   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   987   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   988   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   989   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   990   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   991   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   992   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   993   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   994   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   995   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   996   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   997   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   998   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   999   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1000   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1001   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1002   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1003   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1004   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1005   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1006   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1007   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1008   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1009   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1010   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1011   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1012   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1013   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1014   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1015   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1016   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1017   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1018   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1019   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1020 
  1021 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1022 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1023 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1024 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1025 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1026 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1027 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1028 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1029 
  1030 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1031 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1032 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1033 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1034 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1035 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1036 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1037 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1038 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1039 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1040 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1041 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1042 
  1043   Renamed constants:
  1044   measure -> emeasure
  1045   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1046   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1047   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1048   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1049 
  1050   Removed locales:
  1051   completeable_measure_space
  1052   finite_measure_space
  1053   finite_prob_space
  1054   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1055   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1056   finite_sigma_algebra
  1057   measure_space
  1058   pair_finite_prob_space
  1059   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1060   pair_finite_space
  1061   pair_sigma_algebra
  1062   product_sigma_algebra
  1063 
  1064   Removed constants:
  1065   conditional_space
  1066   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1067   image_space
  1068   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1069   pair_measure_generator
  1070   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1071   subvimage
  1072 
  1073   Replacement theorems:
  1074   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1075   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1076   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1077   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1078   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1079   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1080   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1081   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1082   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1083   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1084   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1085   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1086   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1087   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1088   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1089   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1090   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1091   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1092   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1093   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1094   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1095   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1096   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1097   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1098   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1099   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1100   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1101   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1102   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1103   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1104   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1105   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1106   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1107   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1108   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1109   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1110   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1111   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1112   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1113   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1114   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1115   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1116   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1117   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1118   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1119   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1120   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1121   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1122   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1123   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1124   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1125   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1126   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1127   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1128   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1129   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1130   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1131   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1132   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1133   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1134   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1135   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1136   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1137   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1138   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1139   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1140   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1141   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1142   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1143   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1144   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1145   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1146   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1147   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1148   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1149   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1150   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1151   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1152   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1153   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1154   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1155   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1156   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1157   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1158   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1159   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1160   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1161   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1162   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1163   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1164   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1165   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1166   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1167   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1168   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1169   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1170   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1171   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1172   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1173   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1174   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1175   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1176   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1177   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1178   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1179   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1180   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1181   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1182   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1183   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1184   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1185   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1186   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1187   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1188   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1189   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1190   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1191   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1192   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1193   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1194   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1195   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1196   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1197   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1198   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1199   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1200   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1201   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1202 
  1203 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1204 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1205 
  1206 
  1207 *** FOL ***
  1208 
  1209 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1210 
  1211 
  1212 *** ZF ***
  1213 
  1214 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1215 analysis.
  1216 
  1217 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1218 
  1219 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 
  1222 *** ML ***
  1223 
  1224 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1225 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1226 
  1227 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1228 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1229 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1230 
  1231 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1232 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1233 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1234 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1235 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1236 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1237 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1238 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1239 
  1240 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1241 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1242 
  1243 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1244 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1245 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1246 
  1247 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1248 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1249 
  1250 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1251 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1252 context as well.
  1253 
  1254 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1255 
  1256   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1257   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1258   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1259   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1260   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1261   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1262   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1263   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1264   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1265   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1266   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1267   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1268 
  1269 
  1270 *** System ***
  1271 
  1272 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1273 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1274 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1275 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1276 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1277 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1278 the generic user home was intended.
  1279 
  1280 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1281 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1282 
  1283 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1284 (not just JRE).
  1285 
  1286 
  1287 
  1288 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1289 ------------------------------------
  1290 
  1291 *** General ***
  1292 
  1293 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1294 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1295 
  1296   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1297     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1298     files for checking).
  1299 
  1300   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1301     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1302     positions.
  1303 
  1304   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1305     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1306     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1307 
  1308   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1309     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1310     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1311 
  1312   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1313     cores.
  1314 
  1315   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1316     versions (garbage collection).
  1317 
  1318 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1319 including some remaining limitations.
  1320 
  1321 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1322 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1323 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1324 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1325 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1329 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1330 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1331 
  1332 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1333 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1334 usedir option -Q.
  1335 
  1336 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1337 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1338 
  1339   long_names   ~> names_long
  1340   short_names  ~> names_short
  1341   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1342 
  1343 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1344 
  1345   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1346 
  1347 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1348 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1349 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1350 
  1351 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1352 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1353 
  1354 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1355   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1356   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1357   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1358     "Classical Reasoner".
  1359 
  1360 
  1361 *** HOL ***
  1362 
  1363 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1364 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1365 
  1366 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1367 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1368 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1369 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1370 class complete_linorder.
  1371 
  1372 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1373 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1374 
  1375 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1376 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1377 
  1378   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1379   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1380   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1381   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1382   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1383   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1384   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1385   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1386   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1387   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1388   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1389 
  1390 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1391 
  1392   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1393   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1394   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1395   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1396   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1397   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1398   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1399   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1400   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1401   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1402   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1403   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1404   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1405   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1406   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1407   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1408 
  1409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1410 
  1411 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1415 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1416 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1417 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1418 
  1419 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1420 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1421 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1425 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1426 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1427 
  1428 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1429 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1430 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1431 
  1432 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1433 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1434 
  1435 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1436 
  1437     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1438     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1439 
  1440 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1441 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1444 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1445 
  1446 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1447 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1448 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1449 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1452   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1453   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1454   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1455   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1456   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1457   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1458 
  1459 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1460 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1463   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1464   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1465   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1466   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1467   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1468   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1469   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1470   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1471   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1472   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1473   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1474   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1475   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1476   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1477   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1478   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1479   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1480   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1481   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1482   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1483   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1484   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1485   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1486   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1487   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1488   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1489   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1490   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1491   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1492   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1493   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1494   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1495   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1496   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1497   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1498   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1499   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1500   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1501   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1502   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1503   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1504   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1505   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1506   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1507   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1508   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1509   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1510   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1511   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1512   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1513   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1514   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1515   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1516   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1517   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1518   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1519   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1520   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1521   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1522   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1523   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1524   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1525   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1526   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1527   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1528   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1529   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1530   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1531   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1532   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1533   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1534   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1535   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1536   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1537   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1538   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1539   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1540   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1541   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1542   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1543   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1544 
  1545 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1546 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1547 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1548 
  1549 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1550 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1551 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1552 
  1553 * Code generation:
  1554 
  1555   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1556     characters in the target language.
  1557 
  1558   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1559     instead.
  1560 
  1561   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1562 
  1563   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1564     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1565 
  1566       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1567 
  1568 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1571 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1572 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1573 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1574 syntax.
  1575 
  1576 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1577 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1578 
  1579 * Nitpick:
  1580   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1581   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1582   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1583     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Sledgehammer:
  1586   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1587   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1588     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1589   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1590     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1591   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1592     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1594     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1595   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1596     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * Metis:
  1599   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1601     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 * Command 'try':
  1604   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1605     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1607     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1608 
  1609 * Quickcheck:
  1610   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1611     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1612   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1613     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1614   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1615     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1616     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1617     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1618   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1619     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1620 
  1621 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1622 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1623 
  1624 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1625 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1626 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1627 
  1628 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1629 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1633 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1636 arithmetic.
  1637 
  1638 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1639 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1640 and lattice type classes.
  1641 
  1642 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1643 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1644 
  1645 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1646 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1647 
  1648 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1649 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1650 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1653   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1654   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1655   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1656 
  1657 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1658 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1659 constants:
  1660 
  1661   type inat   ~> type enat
  1662   Fin         ~> enat
  1663   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1664   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1665   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1666 
  1667 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1668 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1669 
  1670 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1671 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1672 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1673 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1674 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1675 
  1676 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1677 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1678 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1679 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1680 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1681 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1682 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1683 
  1684   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1685   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1686   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1687   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1688 
  1689 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1690 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1691 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1694   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1695   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1696   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1697   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1698   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1699   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1700   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1701   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1702   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1703   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1704   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1705   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1706   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1707   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1708   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1709   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1710   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1711   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1712   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1713   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1714   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1715   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1716   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1717   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1718   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1719   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1720   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1721   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1722   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1723   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1724   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1725   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1726   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1727   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1728   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1729   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1730   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1731   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1732   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1733   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1734   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1735   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1736   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1737   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1738   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1739   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1740   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1741   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1742   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1743   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1744 
  1745 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1746   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1747   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1748   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1749   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1750     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751 
  1752 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1753 
  1754   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1755   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1756   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1757   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1758   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1759   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1760   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1761   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1762   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1763   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1764   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1765   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1766   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1767   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1768   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1769   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1770   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1771   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1772   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1773   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1774   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1775   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1776   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1777   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1778   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1779 
  1780 
  1781 *** Document preparation ***
  1782 
  1783 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1784 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1785 same.
  1786 
  1787 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1788 result.
  1789 
  1790 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1791 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1792 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1793 
  1794 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1795 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1796 
  1797 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1798 like this:
  1799 
  1800   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1801   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1802 
  1803 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1804 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1805 layouts.
  1806 
  1807 
  1808 *** ML ***
  1809 
  1810 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1811 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1812 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1813 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1814 under external program control.
  1815 
  1816 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1817 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1818 
  1819 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1820 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1821 (better known as Proof General).
  1822 
  1823 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1824 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1825 
  1826 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1827 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1828 
  1829 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1830 (including quotes etc.).
  1831 
  1832 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1833 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1834 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1835 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1836 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1837 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1838 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1839 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1840 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1841 
  1842 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1843 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1844 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1845 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1846 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1847 
  1848 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1849 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1850 
  1851 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1852 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1853 
  1854 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1855 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1856 
  1857 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1858 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1859 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1860 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1861 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1862 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1863 proper Proof.context.
  1864 
  1865 
  1866 *** System ***
  1867 
  1868 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1869 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1870 
  1871 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1872 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1873 
  1874 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1875 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1876 
  1877   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1878   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1879   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1880   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1881   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1882 
  1883 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1884 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1885 
  1886 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1887 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1888 example:
  1889 
  1890   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1891 
  1892 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1893 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1894 
  1895 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1896 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1897 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1898 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1899 
  1900 
  1901 
  1902 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1903 ----------------------------------
  1904 
  1905 *** General ***
  1906 
  1907 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1908 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1909 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1910 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1911 like this:
  1912 
  1913   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1914 
  1915 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1916 
  1917 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1918 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1919 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1920 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1921 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1922 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1923 
  1924 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1925 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1926 the following package declarations:
  1927 
  1928   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1929   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1930 
  1931 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1932 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1933 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1934 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1935 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1936 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1937 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1938 
  1939 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1940 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1941 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1942 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1943 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1944 
  1945 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1946 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1947 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1948 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1949 
  1950 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1951 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1952 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1953 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1954 
  1955   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1956 
  1957   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1958   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1959   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1960   show_types                    show_types
  1961   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1962   show_consts                   show_consts
  1963   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1964 
  1965   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1966   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1967   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1968 
  1969   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1970   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1971 
  1972   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1973 
  1974   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1975   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1976   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1977   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1978   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1979 
  1980 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1981 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1982 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1983 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1984 
  1985 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1989   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1990 
  1991 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1992 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1993 float_token.
  1994 
  1995 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1996 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2000 DejaVu Sans.
  2001 
  2002 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2003 
  2004 
  2005 *** Pure ***
  2006 
  2007 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2008 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2009 time.
  2010 
  2011 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2012 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2015 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2016 
  2017 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2018 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2019 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2020 command already provided this functionality.
  2021 
  2022 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2023 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2024 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2025 without interpretations.
  2026 
  2027 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2028 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2029 
  2030 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2031 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2032 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2033 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2034 
  2035 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2036 'definition' instead.
  2037 
  2038 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2039 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2040 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2041 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2042 
  2043 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2044 constructors.
  2045 
  2046 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2047 the local file system.
  2048 
  2049 
  2050 *** HOL ***
  2051 
  2052 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2053 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2054 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2055 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2056 
  2057   declare [[coercion f]]
  2058 
  2059 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2060 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2061 
  2062   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2063 
  2064 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2065 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2066 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2067 other theories like this:
  2068 
  2069   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2070 
  2071 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2072 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2073 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2074 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2075 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2076 for examples.
  2077 
  2078 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2079 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2080 
  2081 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2082 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2083 
  2084 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2085 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2086 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2087 
  2088 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2089 functorial structure of types.
  2090 
  2091 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2092 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2093 
  2094 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2095 languages.
  2096 
  2097 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2098 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2100 
  2101 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2102 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2105 combinators any longer.
  2106 
  2107 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2108 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2109 
  2110 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2111 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2112 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2113 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2114 
  2115   record 'a foo = ...
  2116   ...
  2117   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2118 
  2119 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2120 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2124 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2125 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2126 
  2127 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2128 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2129 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2130 
  2131 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2132 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2133 
  2134 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2135 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2136 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2137 independently.
  2138 
  2139 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2140 counter example search.
  2141 
  2142 * Sledgehammer:
  2143   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2144     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2145     sledgehammer").
  2146   - Renamed commands:
  2147     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2148     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2149     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2150     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151   - Renamed options:
  2152     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2153     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2154     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2155     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2156     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2157 
  2158 * Nitpick:
  2159   - Renamed options:
  2160     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2161     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2162     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2163   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2164   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2165   - Added "whack" option.
  2166   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2167   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2168   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2169   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2170     higher cardinalities.
  2171   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2172 
  2173 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2174 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2175 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2176 
  2177     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2178 
  2179 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2180 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2181 
  2182 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2183 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2184 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2185 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2186 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2187 "smt_solver".
  2188 
  2189 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2190 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2191 
  2192 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2193 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2194 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2195 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2198   - Renamed:
  2199     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2200     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2201     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2202   - Added:
  2203     smt_verbose
  2204     smt_random_seed
  2205     smt_datatypes
  2206     smt_infer_triggers
  2207     smt_monomorph_limit
  2208     cvc3_options
  2209     remote_cvc3_options
  2210     remote_z3_options
  2211     yices_options
  2212 
  2213 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2214 header.
  2215 
  2216 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2217 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2218 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2219 
  2220   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2221 
  2222 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2225 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2226 
  2227 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2230 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2233 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2234 
  2235 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2236 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2239 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2240 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2246 
  2247 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2248 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2249 
  2250 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2251 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2252 for congruent(2)).
  2253 
  2254 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2255 
  2256   types
  2257     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2258     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2259 
  2260   constants
  2261     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2262     True ~> HOL.True
  2263     False ~> HOL.False
  2264     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2265     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2266     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2267     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2268     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2269     The ~> HOL.The
  2270     All ~> HOL.All
  2271     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2272     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2273     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2274     If ~> HOL.If
  2275     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2276     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2277     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2278     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2279     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2280     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2281     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2282     op : ~> Set.member
  2283     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2284 
  2285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2288 
  2289     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2290     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2291     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2292     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2293     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2294     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2295     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2296     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2297 
  2298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2299 
  2300 * More stylized fact names:
  2301 
  2302   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2303   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2304   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2305   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2306 
  2307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2310 
  2311   constants
  2312     null ~> List.null
  2313 
  2314   facts
  2315     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2316     null_empty ~> null_def
  2317 
  2318 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2319 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2320 generation.
  2321 
  2322 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2323 Haskell code.
  2324 
  2325 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2326 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2327 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2328 
  2329 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2330 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2331 
  2332 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2333 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2334 
  2335 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2336 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2337 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2340 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2346 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2347 referred to by its qualified name.
  2348 
  2349   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2350   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2351   product ~>  Enum.product
  2352 
  2353 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2354 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2358 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2359 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2363 sort_key.
  2364 
  2365 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2369 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2370 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2371 
  2372   types
  2373     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2374               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2375               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2376         (depends on your needs)
  2377 
  2378   constants
  2379      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2380      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2381      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2382 
  2383 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2384 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2385 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2386 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2387 
  2388 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2389 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2390 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2391 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2392 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396 
  2397 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2398 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2399 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2400 
  2401 
  2402 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2403 
  2404 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2405 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2406 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2407 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2408 compatibility.
  2409 
  2410 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2411 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2412 
  2413 
  2414 *** HOLCF ***
  2415 
  2416 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2417 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2418 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2420 
  2421 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2422 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2423 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2426   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2427   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2428 
  2429 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2430 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2431 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2432 
  2433 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2434 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2435 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2436 domain definition now works:
  2437 
  2438   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2439 
  2440 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2441 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2442 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2443 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2444 
  2445   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2446     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2447 
  2448   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2449 
  2450 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2451 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2452 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453 
  2454 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2455 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2458 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2459 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2460 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2461 
  2462 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2463 
  2464 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465 
  2466 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2472 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2473 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2474 
  2475 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2476 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2477 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2478 
  2479 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2480 still supported as an input translation.
  2481 
  2482 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2483 
  2484   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2485   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2486   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2487   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2488   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2489   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2490   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2491 
  2492 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2493 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2496   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2497   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2498   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2499   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2500   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2501 
  2502 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2503 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2504 
  2505 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2506 
  2507   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2508   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2509   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2510   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2511 
  2512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2515 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2518 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2521   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2522   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2523   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2524   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2525   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2526   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2527   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2528   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2529   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2530   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2531   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2532   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2533   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2534   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2535   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2536   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2537   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2538   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2539   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2540 
  2541 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2542 
  2543   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2544   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2545   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2546   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2547   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2548   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2549   box_less             ~> box_below
  2550   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2551   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2552   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2553   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2554   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2555   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2556   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2557   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2558   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2559   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2560   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2561   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2562   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2563   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2564   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2565   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2566   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2567   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2568   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2569   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2570   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2571   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2572   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2573   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2574   up_less              ~> up_below
  2575   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2576   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2577   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2578   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2579   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2580   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2581   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2582   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2583   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2584   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2585   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2586   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2587   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2588 
  2589 
  2590 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2591 
  2592 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2593 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 
  2596 *** ML ***
  2597 
  2598 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2599 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2600 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2601 
  2602 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2603 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2604 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2605 
  2606 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2607 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2608 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2609 
  2610 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2611 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2612 
  2613 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2614 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2615 
  2616 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2617 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2618 
  2619 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2620 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2621 
  2622 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2623 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2624 almost all situations.
  2625 
  2626 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2627 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2628 Isabelle/ML.
  2629 
  2630 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2631 meaning.
  2632 
  2633 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2634 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2635 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2636 
  2637 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2638 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2639 
  2640 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2641 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2642 
  2643 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2644 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2645 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2646 
  2647 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2648 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2649 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2650 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2651 configuration options.
  2652 
  2653 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2654 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2655 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2656 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2657 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2658 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2659 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2660 
  2661 
  2662 
  2663 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2664 ---------------------------------
  2665 
  2666 *** General ***
  2667 
  2668 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2669 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2670 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2671 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2672 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2673 their full internal name.
  2674 
  2675 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2676 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2677 Some hints on upgrading:
  2678 
  2679   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2680     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2681     which are independent of this issue.
  2682 
  2683   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2684     provides the following special forms:
  2685 
  2686       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2687       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2688       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2689 
  2690     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2691     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2692     extra variables".
  2693 
  2694     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2695     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2696     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2697     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2698     "logic".
  2699 
  2700   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2701     antiquotations:
  2702 
  2703       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2704       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2705       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2706       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2707 
  2708   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2709     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2710     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2711     antiquotations.
  2712 
  2713 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2714 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2715 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2716 diagnose syntax problems.
  2717 
  2718 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2719 
  2720 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2721 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2722 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2723 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2724 
  2725 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2726 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2727 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2728 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2731 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2732 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2733 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2734 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2737 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2738 
  2739 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2740 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2741 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2742 
  2743   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2744 
  2745 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2746 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2747 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2748 
  2749 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2750 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2752 
  2753 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2754 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2755 
  2756 
  2757 *** Pure ***
  2758 
  2759 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2760 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2761 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2762 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2763 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2764 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2765 inspect proof terms.
  2766 
  2767 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2768 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2769 are added internally.  For example:
  2770 
  2771   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2772 
  2773 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2774 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2779 'class' instead.
  2780 
  2781 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2782 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2786 invariants.
  2787 
  2788 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2789 user space functionality any longer.
  2790 
  2791 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2792 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2796 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2797 
  2798 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2799 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2800 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2801 
  2802 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2803 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2804 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2805 
  2806 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2807 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809 
  2810 *** HOL ***
  2811 
  2812 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2813 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2814 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2815 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2816 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2817 
  2818 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2819 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2820 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2821 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2822 
  2823   fun
  2824     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2825   where
  2826     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2827 
  2828   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2829     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2830 
  2831   quotient_definition
  2832     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2833 
  2834 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2835 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2836 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2837 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2838 
  2839 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2840 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2841 
  2842 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2843 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2844 
  2845 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2846 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2849 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2850 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2851 
  2852 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2853 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2854 
  2855 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2860 
  2861 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2862 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2865 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2866 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2867 
  2868   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2869   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2870   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2871   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2872   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2873   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2874   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2875   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2876   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2877   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2878   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2879   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2880   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2881   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2882   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2883   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2884   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2885   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2886   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2887   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2888   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2889   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2890   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2891   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2892   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2893   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2894   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2895   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2896   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2897   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2898 
  2899 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2900 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2901 
  2902 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2903 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2904 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2905 
  2906 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2907 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2908 
  2909 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2910 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2913 
  2914 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2915 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2918 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2919 
  2920 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2923 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2924 
  2925 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2926 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2927 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2928 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2931   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2932   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2933   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2935 
  2936 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2937 lattices):
  2938 
  2939     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2940     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2941 
  2942     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2943 
  2944     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2945     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2946     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2947     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2948     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2949     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2950     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2951     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2952     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2953     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2954     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2955     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2956     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2957 
  2958     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2959     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2960     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2961     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2962     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2963     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2964     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2965     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2966     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2967     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2968     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2969     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2970     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2971     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2972     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2973     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2974     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2975     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2976 
  2977   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2978   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2979 
  2980     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2981     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2982     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2983     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2984     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2985 
  2986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * Refined field classes:
  2989   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2990     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2991     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2992   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2996   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2997   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2998   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2999     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3000   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3001     equal_neg_zero.
  3002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3005 sets to lattices:
  3006 
  3007   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3008   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3009   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3010   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3011   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3012   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3013   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3014   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3015   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3016   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3017 
  3018 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3019 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3020 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3021 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3022 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3023 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3026 multiset order:
  3027 
  3028   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3029     <= and <;
  3030   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3031     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3032     multiset_order;
  3033   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3034     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3035     generation;
  3036   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3037     if needed.
  3038 
  3039 Renamed:
  3040 
  3041   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3042   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3043   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3044 
  3045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3048 
  3049 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3050 
  3051 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3052 
  3053 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3054 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3055 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057   Constants:
  3058   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3059   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3060   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3061   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3062   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3063   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3064   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3065   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3066   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3067   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3068   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3069   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3070   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3071 
  3072   Lemmas:
  3073   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3074   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3075   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3076   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3077   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3078   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3079   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3080   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3081   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3082   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3083   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3084   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3085   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3086 
  3087 * Sledgehammer:
  3088   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3089     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3090     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3091     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3092     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3093     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3094     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3096   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3097     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3098   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3099     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3100     is still experimental.)
  3101   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3102     full-typed mode.
  3103   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3104 
  3105 * Nitpick:
  3106   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3107   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3108   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3109     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3110   - Added support for quotient types.
  3111   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3112     constructs.
  3113   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3114     "termination" proofs).
  3115   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3116   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3117   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3118   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3119     record getters.
  3120   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3121   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3122   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3123   - Added "atoms" option.
  3124   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3125     problems.
  3126   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3127     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3128     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3130     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3134   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3135   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3136   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3137   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3138   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3139   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3140   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3141   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3142   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 
  3145 *** HOLCF ***
  3146 
  3147 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3148 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3149 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3152 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3153 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3154 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3155 
  3156 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3157 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3158 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3159 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3160 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161 
  3162 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3163 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3164 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3167 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3170   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3171 
  3172 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3173 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3176   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3177   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3178   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3179   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3180 
  3181 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3182 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3185   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3186   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3187 
  3188 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3189 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3193 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3198 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 
  3201 *** ML ***
  3202 
  3203 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3204 
  3205     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3206     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3207 
  3208     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3209     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3210     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3211     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3212 
  3213     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3214     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3215     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3216 
  3217 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3218 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3219 
  3220 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3221 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3222 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3223 
  3224 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3225 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3226 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3227 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3228 
  3229 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3230 the context or even global references.
  3231 
  3232 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3233 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3234 
  3235 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3236 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3237 
  3238   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3239   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3240   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3241   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3242   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3243   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3244   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3245   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3246   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3247   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3248 
  3249 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3250 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3251 
  3252 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3253 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3254 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3255 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3256 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3257 
  3258 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3259 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3260 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3261 Theory_Data version.
  3262 
  3263 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3264 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3265 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3266 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3267 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3268 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3269 explicitly in rare situations.
  3270 
  3271 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3272 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3276 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3279 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3280 quite rare).
  3281 
  3282 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3283 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3286 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3287 terms.
  3288 
  3289 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3290 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3291 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3292 
  3293 
  3294 *** System ***
  3295 
  3296 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3297 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3298 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3299 
  3300 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3301 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3302 respectively.
  3303 
  3304 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3305 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3306 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3307 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3308 
  3309   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3310 
  3311 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3312 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3313 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3314 component.
  3315 
  3316 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3317 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3318 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3319 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3320 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3321 the user for manual installation.
  3322 
  3323 
  3324 
  3325 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3326 -------------------------------------
  3327 
  3328 *** General ***
  3329 
  3330 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3331 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3332 
  3333 
  3334 *** Pure ***
  3335 
  3336 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3337 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3338 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3339 
  3340 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3341 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3342 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3343 
  3344 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3345 interpretation.
  3346 
  3347 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3348 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3349 
  3350 
  3351 *** Document preparation ***
  3352 
  3353 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3354 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3355 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3356 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3357 
  3358 
  3359 *** HOL ***
  3360 
  3361 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3362 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3363 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3364 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3365 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3366 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3367 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3368 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3369 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3370 
  3371 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3372 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3373 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3374 
  3375 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3376 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3377 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3378 
  3379 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3380 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3381 
  3382 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3383 
  3384 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3385 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3386 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3387 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3388 
  3389 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3390 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3391 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3392 "mirabelle" utility.
  3393 
  3394 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3395 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3396 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3397 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3398 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3399 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3400 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3401 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3402 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3403 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3404 
  3405 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3406 procedure only.
  3407 
  3408 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3409 
  3410 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3411 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3412 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3413 that fail later.
  3414 
  3415 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3416 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3417 
  3418 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3419 the same method as the approximation method.
  3420 
  3421 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3422 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3423 series expansion.
  3424 
  3425 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3426 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3427 
  3428 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3429 reals.
  3430 
  3431 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3432 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3433 
  3434 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3435 fixpoint theorem.
  3436 
  3437 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3438   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3439     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3440   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3441     accordingly
  3442   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3443     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3444   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3445     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3446 
  3447 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3448 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3449 lattice.
  3450 
  3451 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3452 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3453 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3454 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3455 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3456 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3460   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3461     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3462   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3463     le_inf_iff
  3464   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3465     sup_aci)
  3466   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3467   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3468   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3469     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3470     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3471     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3472     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3473     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3474     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3475     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3476     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3477     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3478     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3479   - authentic syntax for
  3480     Set.Pow
  3481     Set.image
  3482   - mere abbreviations:
  3483     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3484     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3485     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3486     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3487     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3488     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3489     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3490     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3491   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3492 
  3493 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3494 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3495 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3496 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3497 
  3498 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3499 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3500 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3503 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3506 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3507 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3508 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3511 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3512 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3513 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3514 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3515 
  3516 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3517 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3521 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3524 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3525 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3526 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3527 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3528 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3529 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3533     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3534     code_post       replaces    code post
  3535     etc.
  3536   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Renamed methods:
  3539     sizechange -> size_change
  3540     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3541   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3542 
  3543 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3544 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3545 
  3546 * Renamed theorems:
  3547     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3548     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3549     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3550     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3551     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3552   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 
  3561 *** HOLCF ***
  3562 
  3563 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3564 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3565 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3566 
  3567 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3568 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3569 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3570 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3571 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3572 
  3573 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3574 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3575 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3576 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3577 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3578 
  3579 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3580 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3581 constructor are pre-configured.
  3582 
  3583 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3584 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3585 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3586 
  3587 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3588 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3589 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3590 as well.)
  3591 
  3592 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3593 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3594 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3595 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3596 examples.
  3597 
  3598 
  3599 *** ML ***
  3600 
  3601 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3602 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3603 
  3604 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3605 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3606 position, logical grouping etc.
  3607 
  3608 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3609 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3610 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3611 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3612 
  3613 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3614 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3615 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3616 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3617 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3618 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3619 
  3620 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3621 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3622 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3623 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3624 experiments with references.
  3625 
  3626 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3627 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3628 
  3629 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3630 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3631 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3632 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3633 
  3634 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3635 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3636 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3637 
  3638 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3639 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3640 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3648 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3649 
  3650 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3651 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3652 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3653 
  3654 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3655 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3656 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3659 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3660 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3664 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3665 instead of global theory.
  3666 
  3667 
  3668 *** System ***
  3669 
  3670 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3671 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3672 usedir option -q.
  3673 
  3674 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3675 also the system manual.
  3676 
  3677 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3678 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3679 
  3680 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3681 this is always enabled.
  3682 
  3683 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3684 
  3685 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3686 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3687 currently supported on Linux only.
  3688 
  3689 
  3690 
  3691 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3692 --------------------------------
  3693 
  3694 *** General ***
  3695 
  3696 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3697 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3698 
  3699   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3700     "isatool."
  3701 
  3702   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3703     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3704 
  3705   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3706     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3707 
  3708 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3709 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3710 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3711 
  3712 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3713 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3714 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3715 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3716 via "isabelle emacs".
  3717 
  3718 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3719 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3720 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3721 
  3722 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3723 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3724 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3725 
  3726 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3727 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3728 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3729 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3730 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3731 
  3732 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3733 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3734 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3735 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3736 
  3737 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3738 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3739 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3740 
  3741 
  3742 *** Pure ***
  3743 
  3744 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3745 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3746 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3747 
  3748 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3749 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3750 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3751 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3752 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3753 
  3754 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3755 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3756 useful in locale declarations.
  3757 
  3758 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3759 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3760 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3761 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3762 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3763 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3764 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3765 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3766 no longer generated.
  3767 
  3768 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3769 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3770 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3771 
  3772 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3773 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3774 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3775 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3776 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3777 
  3778 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3780 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3781 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3782 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3783 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3784 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3785 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3786 
  3787 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3788 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3789 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3790 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3791 
  3792 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3795 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3796 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3797 
  3798 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3799 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3802 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3803 in HOL, write
  3804 
  3805     class foo = ...
  3806 
  3807 instead of
  3808 
  3809     class foo = type + ...
  3810 
  3811 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3812 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3815 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3816 
  3817 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3818 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3819 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3820 
  3821 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3822 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3823 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3824 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3825 directly in regular applications.
  3826 
  3827 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3828 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3829 
  3830 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3831 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3832 
  3833 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3834 theory context.
  3835 
  3836 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3837 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3838 
  3839 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3840 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3841 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3842 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3843 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3844 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3845 
  3846   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3847 
  3848 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3849 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3850 normalization.
  3851 
  3852 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3853 addressing etc.
  3854 
  3855 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3856 
  3857   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3858   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3859 
  3860 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3861 
  3862   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3863      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3864      parts of the code generator framework).
  3865 
  3866   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3867      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3868      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3869 
  3870 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3873 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3876 patterns, e.g.
  3877 
  3878     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3879 
  3880 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3881 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3882 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3883 hyphen:
  3884 
  3885     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3886 
  3887 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3888 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3889 
  3890 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3891 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3892 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3893 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3894 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3895 higher-order unification.
  3896 
  3897 
  3898 *** Document preparation ***
  3899 
  3900 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3901 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3902 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3903 
  3904 
  3905 *** HOL ***
  3906 
  3907 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3908 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3909 
  3910 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3911 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3912 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3913 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3914 Main, as before.
  3915 
  3916 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3917 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3918 
  3919 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3920 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3921 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3922 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3923 
  3924 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3925 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3926 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3927 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3928 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3929 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3930 
  3931 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3932 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3933 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3934 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3935 
  3936 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3937 menu.
  3938 
  3939 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3940 (contains the empty clause).
  3941 
  3942 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3943 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3944 
  3945 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3946 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3947 
  3948 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3949 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3950 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3953 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3954 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3955 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3956 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3957 
  3958 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3959 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3960 
  3961 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3962 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3963 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3964 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3965 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3966 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3967 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3968 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3969 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3970 
  3971 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3972 
  3973 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3974 
  3975 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3976 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977 
  3978 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3979 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3980 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3981 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3982 
  3983 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3984 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3985 
  3986     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3987     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3988     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3989     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3990     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3991     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3992     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3993     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3994 
  3995 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3996 theory Set.
  3997 
  3998 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3999 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4000 
  4001 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4002 
  4003 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4004 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4005 
  4006 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4007 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4008 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4009 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4010 allowed. For examples see
  4011 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4012 
  4013 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4014 
  4015 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4019 structure:
  4020 
  4021     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4022     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4023     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4024     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4025     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4026     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4027     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4028     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4029     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4030     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4031     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4032     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4033     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4034     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4035     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4036     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4037     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4038     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4039     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4040     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4041     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4042     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4043     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4044     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4045     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4046     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4047     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4048     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4049     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4050     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4051     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4052     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4053     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4054 
  4055     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4056     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4057     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4058     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4059     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4060     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4061     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4062     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4063     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4064     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4065 
  4066     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4067     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4068     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4069     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4070     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4071     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4072 
  4073 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4074 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4075 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4076 
  4077 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4078 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4079 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4080 
  4081 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4082 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4085 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4086 
  4087 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4088 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4089 proofs, e.g.
  4090 
  4091   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4092 
  4093 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4094 
  4095 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4096 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4097 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4100 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4104 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4105 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4109 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4110 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4111 preorder_class.*.
  4112 
  4113 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4114 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4115 
  4116 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4117 
  4118   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4119 
  4120 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4121 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4122 fold_image.
  4123 
  4124 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4125 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4126 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4127 the former will disappear at some point.
  4128 
  4129 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4130 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4131 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4132 
  4133 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4134 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4135 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4136 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4137 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4138 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4139 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4140 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4141 
  4142 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4143 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4144 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4145 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4146 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4147 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4148 
  4149     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4150     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4151     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4152     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4153     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4154     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4155     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4156 
  4157 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4158 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4159 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4160 
  4161 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4162 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4163 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4164 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4165 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4166 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4167 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4168 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4169 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4170 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4171 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4172 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4173 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4174 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4175 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4176 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4177 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4178 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4179 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4180 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4181 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4182 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4183 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4184 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4185 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4186 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4187 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4188 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4189 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4190 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4191 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4192 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4193 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4194 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4195 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4196 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4197 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4198 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4199 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4200 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4201 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4202 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4203 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4204 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4205 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4206 
  4207 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4208 
  4209 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4210 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4211 
  4212 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4213 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4214 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4215 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4216 
  4217 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4218 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4219 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4220 theory RealVector.
  4221 
  4222 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4223 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4224 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4225 and inner products are included.
  4226 
  4227 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4228 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4229 supported.
  4230 
  4231 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4232 first diagonalization argument.
  4233 
  4234 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4235 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4236 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4237 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4238 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4239 
  4240     hide (open) const gcd
  4241     abbreviation gcd where
  4242       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4243     notation (output)
  4244       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4245 
  4246 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4247 
  4248 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4249 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4250 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4253 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4254 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4255 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4256 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4257 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4258 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4259 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4260 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4261 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4262 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4263 cases.
  4264 
  4265 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4266 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4267 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4268 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4269 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4270 
  4271     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4272     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4273     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4274     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4275     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4276 
  4277 
  4278 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4279 
  4280 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4281 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4282 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4283 
  4284 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4285 
  4286 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4287 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4288 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4289 
  4290 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4291 
  4292 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4293 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4294 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4295 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4296 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4297 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4298 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4299 
  4300 
  4301 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4302 
  4303 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4304 
  4305 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4306 theory targets.
  4307 
  4308 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4309 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4310 'inductive' etc.
  4311 
  4312 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4313 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4314 
  4315 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4316 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4317 
  4318 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4319 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4320 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4321 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4322 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4323 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4324 the algorithm W:
  4325 
  4326  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4327  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4328          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4329 
  4330 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4331 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4332 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4333 
  4334 
  4335 *** HOLCF ***
  4336 
  4337 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4338 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4339 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4340 
  4341 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4342 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4343 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4344 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4345 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4348 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4349 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 
  4352 *** ZF ***
  4353 
  4354 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4355 
  4356 
  4357 *** ML ***
  4358 
  4359 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4360 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4361 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4362 5.2.1!
  4363 
  4364 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4365 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4366 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4367 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4368 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4369 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4370 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4371 
  4372 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4373 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4374 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4375 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4376 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4377 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4378 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4379 
  4380 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4381 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4382 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4383 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4384 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4385 
  4386 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4387 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4388 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4389 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4390 Method.add_method.
  4391 
  4392 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4393 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4394 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4395 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4396 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4397 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4398 
  4399 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4400 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4401 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4402 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4403 examples.
  4404 
  4405 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4406 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4407 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4408 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4409 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4410 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4411 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4412 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4413 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4414 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4415 
  4416 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4417 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4418 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4419 
  4420 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4421 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4422 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4423 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4424 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4425 resort for legacy applications.
  4426 
  4427 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4428 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4429 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4430 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4431 explicit runtime argument.
  4432 
  4433 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4434 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4435 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4436 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4437 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4440 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4441 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4442 theory state.
  4443 
  4444 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4445 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4446 
  4447   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4448   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4449   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4450   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4451   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4452   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4453   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4454   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4455   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4456   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4457 
  4458 
  4459 *** System ***
  4460 
  4461 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4462 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4463 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4464 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4465 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4466 
  4467 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4468 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4469 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4470 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4471 
  4472 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4473 
  4474 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4475 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4476 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4477 prover operations.
  4478 
  4479 
  4480 
  4481 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4482 -------------------------------
  4483 
  4484 *** General ***
  4485 
  4486 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4487 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4488 
  4489 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4490 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4491 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4492 provides a proper context already.
  4493 
  4494 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4495 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4496 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4497 
  4498 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4499 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4500 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4501 swap theory imports.
  4502 
  4503 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4504 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4505 
  4506 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4507 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4508 white space without escapes.
  4509 
  4510 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4511 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4512 "foo_bar".
  4513 
  4514 
  4515 *** Pure ***
  4516 
  4517 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4518 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4519 
  4520 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4521 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4522 
  4523 (1) unused_thms
  4524      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4525 
  4526 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4527      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4528      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4529 
  4530 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4531      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4532      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4533      their ancestors.
  4534 
  4535 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4536 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4537 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4538 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4539 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4540 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4541 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4542 
  4543 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4544 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4545 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4546 
  4547 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4548 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4549 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4550 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4551 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4552 
  4553 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4554 
  4555 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4556 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4557 update of theories within ML code.
  4558 
  4559 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4560 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4561 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4562 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4563 
  4564 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4565 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4566 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568 
  4569 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4570 
  4571 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4572 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4573 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4574 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4575 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4576 
  4577 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4578 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4579 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4580 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4581 situations.
  4582 
  4583 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4584 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4585 proof text.
  4586 
  4587 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4589 
  4590 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4591 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4592 predicates.
  4593 
  4594 
  4595 *** Document preparation ***
  4596 
  4597 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4598 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4599 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4600 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4601 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4602 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4603 
  4604 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4605 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4606 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4607 
  4608 
  4609 *** HOL ***
  4610 
  4611 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4612 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4613 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4614 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4615 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4616 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4617 
  4618 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4619 with multithreading.
  4620 
  4621 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4622 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4623 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4624 
  4625 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4626 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4627 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4628 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4629 
  4630 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4631 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4632 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4633 and makes them available separately.  See
  4634 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4635 
  4636 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4637 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4638 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4639 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4640 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4641 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4642 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4643 the declared rules.
  4644 
  4645 This setup also deals with rules like
  4646 
  4647   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4648 
  4649 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4650 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4651 
  4652 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4653 
  4654   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4655 
  4656   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4657     definitions on => and bool.
  4658 
  4659   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4660     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4661     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4662 
  4663       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4664       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4665       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4666       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4667       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4668       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4669       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4670       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4671 
  4672   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4673     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4674     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4675 
  4676   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4677     The proof pattern
  4678 
  4679       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4680       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4681 
  4682     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4683     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4684 
  4685       have "EX S. P S"
  4686       proof
  4687         show "P S" <...>
  4688       qed
  4689 
  4690   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4691     The proof pattern
  4692 
  4693       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4694       also have "S = T" <...>
  4695       finally have "P T" .
  4696 
  4697     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4698     must be replaced by something like
  4699 
  4700       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4701       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4702       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4703 
  4704   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4705     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4706 
  4707       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4708 
  4709     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4710     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4711     type of the form
  4712 
  4713       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4714 
  4715     rather than
  4716 
  4717       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4718 
  4719 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4720 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4721 
  4722 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4723 
  4724 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4725 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4727 
  4728 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4729 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4732 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4735 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4736 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4739 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4740 
  4741   less_trans
  4742   less_linear
  4743   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4744   le_less_trans
  4745   less_le_trans
  4746   less_not_sym
  4747   less_asym
  4748 
  4749 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4750 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4751 and different variable names.
  4752 
  4753 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4754 
  4755 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4756 finite maps.
  4757 
  4758 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4759 
  4760 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4761 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4762 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4763 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4764 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4765 accordingly.
  4766 
  4767 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4768 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4769 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4770 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4771 
  4772 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4773 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4774 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4775 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4776 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4780 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4781 
  4782 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4783 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4784 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4785 
  4786 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4790 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4791 
  4792 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4793 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4794 
  4795 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4796 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4797 
  4798 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4799 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4801 
  4802 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4803 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4806 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4807 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4808 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4809 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4810 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4813 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4814 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4815 
  4816 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4817 
  4818 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4819 
  4820 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4821 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4822 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4823 
  4824 
  4825 *** ZF ***
  4826 
  4827 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4828 same session:
  4829 
  4830   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4831   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4832   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4833   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4834   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4835   List      -> List_ZF
  4836   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4837 
  4838 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4839 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4840 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4841 
  4842 
  4843 *** ML ***
  4844 
  4845 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4846 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4847 
  4848 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4849 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4850 
  4851 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4852 
  4853 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4854 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4855 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4856 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4857 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4858 
  4859 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4860 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4861 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4862 
  4863 
  4864 *** System ***
  4865 
  4866 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4867 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4868 
  4869 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4870 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4871 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4872 
  4873 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4874 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4875 
  4876 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4877 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4878 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4879 
  4880 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4881 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4882 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4883 
  4884 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4885 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4886 
  4887 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4888 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4889 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4890 script.
  4891 
  4892 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4893 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4894 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4895 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4896 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4897 
  4898 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4899 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4900 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4901 
  4902 
  4903 
  4904 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4905 -----------------------------------
  4906 
  4907 *** General ***
  4908 
  4909 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4910 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4911 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4912 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4913 
  4914 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4915 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4916 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4917 
  4918 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4919 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4920 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4921 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4922 
  4923 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4924 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4925 quotes.
  4926 
  4927 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4928 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4929 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4930 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4931 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4932 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4933 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4934 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4935 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4936 
  4937 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4938 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4939 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4940 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4941 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4942 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4943 
  4944 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4945 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4946 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4947 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4948 
  4949 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4950 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4951 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4952 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4953 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4954 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4955 
  4956 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4957 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4958 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4959 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4960 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4961 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4962 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4963 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4964 
  4965 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4966 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4967 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4968 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4969 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4970 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4971 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4972 
  4973 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4974 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4975 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4976 
  4977 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4978 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4979 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4980 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4981 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4982 limit is imposed.
  4983 
  4984 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4985 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4986 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4987 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4988 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4989 and scalability.
  4990 
  4991 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4992 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4993 
  4994 
  4995 *** Document preparation ***
  4996 
  4997 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4998 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4999 current context.
  5000 
  5001 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5002 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5003 
  5004 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5005 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5006 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5007 
  5008 
  5009 *** Pure ***
  5010 
  5011 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5012 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5013 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5014 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5015 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5016 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5017 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5018 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5019 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5020 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5021 
  5022 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5023 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5024 sketch:
  5025 
  5026     internal compilation:
  5027         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5028     writing SML code to a file:
  5029         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5030     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5031         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5032     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5033         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5034 
  5035     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5036         method ``eval''
  5037 
  5038 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5039 
  5040 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5041 
  5042     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5043     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5044     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5045     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5046 
  5047 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5048 
  5049     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5050       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5051 
  5052     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5053       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5054 
  5055     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5056       {(target)}+
  5057         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5058 
  5059     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5060       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5061         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5062 
  5063 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5064 
  5065 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5066 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5067 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5068 codegen".
  5069 
  5070 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5071 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5072 annotations).
  5073 
  5074 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5075 syntax.
  5076 
  5077 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5078 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5079 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5080 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5082 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5083 
  5084 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5085 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5086 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5087 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5088 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5089 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5090 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5091 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5092 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5093 equations, see section "definitions".
  5094 
  5095 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5096 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5097 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5098 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5099 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5100 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5101 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5102 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5103 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5104 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5105 
  5106 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5107 configuration options:
  5108 
  5109   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5110   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5111   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5112   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5113   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5114   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5115   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5116   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5117   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5118 
  5119 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5120 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5121 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5122 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5123 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5124 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5125 order.
  5126 
  5127 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5128 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5129 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5130 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5131 context encountered later on.
  5132 
  5133 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5134 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5135 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5136 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5137 
  5138 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5139 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5140 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5141 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5142 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5143 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5144 
  5145 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5146 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5147 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5148 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5149 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5150 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5151 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5152 more permissive.
  5153 
  5154 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5155 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5156 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5157 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5158 maintainability of proof texts.
  5159 
  5160 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5161 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5162 
  5163   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5164   then guess x and y by clarify
  5165 
  5166 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5167 proof tools being involved here.
  5168 
  5169 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5170 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5171 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5172 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5173 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5174 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5175 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5176 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5177 
  5178 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5179 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5180 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5181 
  5182   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5183   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5184   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5185   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5186 
  5187 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5188 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5189 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5190 
  5191 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5192 both named and unnamed ones.
  5193 
  5194 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5195 
  5196   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5197 
  5198 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5199 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5200 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5201 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5202 
  5203 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5204 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5205 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5206 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5207 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5208 
  5209 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5210 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5211 
  5212 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5213 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5214 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5215 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5216 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5217 originally first one.
  5218 
  5219 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5220 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5221 expected.
  5222 
  5223 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5224 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5225 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5226 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5227 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5228 
  5229   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5230     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5231     obtains x where "P x"
  5232 
  5233   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5234     assumes "A & B"
  5235     obtains A and B
  5236 
  5237   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5238     assumes "A | B"
  5239     obtains
  5240       A
  5241     | B
  5242 
  5243 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5244 explicitly:
  5245 
  5246   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5247     obtains "~ thesis"
  5248 
  5249   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5250     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5251 
  5252 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5253 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5254 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5255 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5256 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5257 case_names).
  5258 
  5259 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5260 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5261 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5262 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5263 
  5264 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5265 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5266 top-level lemma.
  5267 
  5268 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5269 introduction rule (default "that").
  5270 
  5271 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5272 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5273 to occur.
  5274 
  5275 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5276 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5277 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5278 representations independently of name spaces.
  5279 
  5280 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5281 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5282 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5283 
  5284 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5285 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5286 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5287 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5288 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5289 current context.
  5290 
  5291 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5292 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5293 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5294 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5295 
  5296   axiomatization
  5297     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5298     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5299 
  5300   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5301   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5302 
  5303   abbreviation
  5304     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5305     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5306 
  5307 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5308 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5309 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5310 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5311 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5312 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5313 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5314 
  5315 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5316 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5317 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5318 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5319 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5320 
  5321 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5322 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5323 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5324 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5325 
  5326 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5327 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5328 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5329 
  5330   definition "K x _ = x"
  5331 
  5332   inductive conj for A B
  5333   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5334 
  5335 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5336 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5337 abbreviations on output.
  5338 
  5339 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5340 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5341 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5342 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5343 
  5344 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5345 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5346 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5347 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5348 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5349 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5350 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5351 
  5352 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5353 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5354 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5355 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5356 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5357 
  5358 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5359 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5360 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5361 
  5362 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5363 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5364 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5365 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5366 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5367 
  5368   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5369     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5370 
  5371 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5372 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5373 partial_order.
  5374 
  5375 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5376 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5377 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5378 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5379 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5380 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5381 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5382 examples.
  5383 
  5384 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5385 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5386 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5387 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5388 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5389 
  5390 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5391 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5392 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5393 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5394 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5395 
  5396   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5397   (induct set: foo bar)
  5398   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5399   (induct type: foo bar)
  5400 
  5401 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5402 new format.
  5403 
  5404 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5405 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5406 
  5407 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5408 considered a legacy feature.
  5409 
  5410 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5411 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5412 
  5413 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5414 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5415 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5416 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5417 
  5418 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5419 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5420 manipulating the claset.
  5421 
  5422 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5423 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5424 least one premise.
  5425 
  5426 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5427 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5428 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5429 rule steps.
  5430 
  5431 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5432 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5433 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5434 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5435 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5436 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5437 
  5438 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5439 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5440 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5441 
  5442 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5443 the graph browser tool.
  5444 
  5445 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5446 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5447 
  5448 
  5449 *** HOL ***
  5450 
  5451 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5452 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5453 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5454 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5455 multi-threading.
  5456 
  5457 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5458 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5459 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5460 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5461 work with multi-threading.
  5462 
  5463 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5464 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5465 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5466 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5467 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5468 
  5469 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5470 
  5471 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5472 equality.
  5473 
  5474 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5475 the new 'class' package:
  5476 
  5477     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5478     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5479     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5480     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5481     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5482     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5483     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5484     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5485     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5486     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5487     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5488     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5489     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5490     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5491     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5492     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5493     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5494     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5495     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5496     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5497 
  5498 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5499 
  5500 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5501 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5502 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5503 names.
  5504 
  5505 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5506 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5507 
  5508 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5509 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5510 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5511 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5512 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5513 
  5514 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5515 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5516 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5517 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5518 
  5519 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5520 
  5521 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5522 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5523 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5524 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5526 
  5527 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5528 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5529 
  5530 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5531 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5532 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5535 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5536 
  5537 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5538 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5539 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5540 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5541 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5542 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5543 in the current context.
  5544 
  5545 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5546 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548 
  5549 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5550 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5551 
  5552 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5553 
  5554     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5555     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5556 
  5557     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5558       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5559     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5560     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5561 
  5562     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5563     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5564 
  5565   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5566 
  5567     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5568     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5569     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5570     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5571     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5572     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5573     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5574     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5575     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5576     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5577     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5578     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5579     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5580     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5581     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5582     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5583     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5584     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5585     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5586     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5587     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5588     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5589     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5590     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5591     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5592     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5593     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5594     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5595     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5596     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5597     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5598     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5599     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5600     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5601     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5602 
  5603     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5604     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5605     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5606     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5607     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5608     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5609     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5610     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5611     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5612     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5613     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5614     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5615     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5616     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5617     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5618     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5619     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5620 
  5621     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5622     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5623     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5624     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5625     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5626     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5627     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5628     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5629     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5630     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5631     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5632     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5633     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5634     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5635     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5636     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5637     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5638     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5639     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5640     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5641     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5642     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5643     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5644     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5645     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5646     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5647     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5648     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5649 
  5650     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5651     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5652     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5653     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5654     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5655     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5656 
  5657     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5658     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5659     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5660     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5661 
  5662     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5663     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5664 
  5665     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5666     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5667 
  5668 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5669 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5670 
  5671 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5672 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5673 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5674 "*.size".
  5675 
  5676 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5678 
  5679 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5680 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5681 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5682 
  5683 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5684 
  5685 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5686 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5687 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5688 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5689 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5690 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5691 numerals on all operations.
  5692 
  5693 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5694 
  5695 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5696 
  5697 * Code generator library theories:
  5698   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5699     languages.
  5700   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5701     languages.
  5702   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5703     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5704   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5705   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5706     denominator).
  5707   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5708     representable by rational numbers.
  5709   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5710     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5711     includes Code_Integer.
  5712   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5713     target-language built-in integers.
  5714   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5715     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5716 
  5717 * New package for inductive predicates
  5718 
  5719   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5720 
  5721     inductive
  5722       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5723       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5724     where
  5725       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5726     | ...
  5727 
  5728   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5729 
  5730     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5731 
  5732     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5733     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5734 
  5735     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5736     intros
  5737       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5738       ...
  5739 
  5740   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5741   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5742 
  5743     inductive_set
  5744       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5745       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5746     where
  5747       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5748     | ...
  5749 
  5750   or
  5751 
  5752     inductive_set
  5753       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5754       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5755       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5756     where
  5757       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5758     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5759     | ...
  5760 
  5761   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5762 
  5763   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5764   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5765 
  5766   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5767 
  5768   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5769     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5770     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5771     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5772     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5773 
  5774   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5775     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5776     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5777     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5778     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5779     statements of the form
  5780 
  5781       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5782 
  5783     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5784     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5785 
  5786       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5787 
  5788   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5789 
  5790       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5791         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5792         ==> ... ==> P
  5793 
  5794     for predicates and
  5795 
  5796       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5797         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5798         ==> ... ==> P
  5799 
  5800     for sets rather than
  5801 
  5802       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5803         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5804         ==> ... ==> P
  5805 
  5806     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5807     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5808     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5809 
  5810   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5811     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5812     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5813 
  5814 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5815 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5816 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5817 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5818 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5819 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5820 
  5821 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5822 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5823 
  5824 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5825 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5826 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5827 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5828 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5829 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5830 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5831 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5832 variable.
  5833 
  5834 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5835 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5836 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5837 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5838   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5839   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5840 
  5841 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5842 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5843 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5844 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5845 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5846 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5847 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5848 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5849 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5850 
  5851 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5852 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5853 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5854 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5855 rat, etc.
  5856 
  5857 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5858 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5859 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5860 
  5861 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5862 
  5863 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5864 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5865 
  5866 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5867 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5868 
  5869 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5870 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5871 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5872 
  5873 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5874 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5876 
  5877 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5878 
  5879 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5880 
  5881 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5882 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5883 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5884 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5885 
  5886 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5887 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5888 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5889 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5890 
  5891 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5892 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5893 algebraic operations.
  5894 
  5895 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5897 
  5898 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5902 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5903 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5904 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5905 adapted.
  5906 
  5907 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5908 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5909 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5910 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5911 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5912 
  5913 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5914 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5915 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5916 
  5917 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5918 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5919 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5920 
  5921 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5922 
  5923 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5924 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5925 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5926   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5927       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5928   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5929   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5930   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5931 
  5932 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5933 
  5934 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5935 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5936 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5937 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5938 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5939 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5940 
  5941 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5942 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5943 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5944 
  5945 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5946 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5947 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5949 
  5950 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5951 
  5952 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5953 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5954 
  5955 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5956 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5957 
  5958 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5959 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5960 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5961 
  5962 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5963 True/False.
  5964 
  5965 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5966 
  5967 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5968 
  5969 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5970 ``rule'' method.
  5971 
  5972 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5973 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5974 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5975 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5976 
  5977 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5978 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5979 
  5980 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5981 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5982 
  5983 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5984 Library.
  5985 
  5986 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5987 
  5988 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5989 as greatest fixed-point.
  5990 
  5991 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5992 association lists.
  5993 
  5994 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5995 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5996 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5997 
  5998 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5999 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6000 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6002 behavior.
  6003 
  6004 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6005 
  6006 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6007 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6008 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6009 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6010 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6011 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6012 
  6013 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6014 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6015 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6016 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6017 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6018 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6019 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6020 
  6021 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6022 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6023 
  6024 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6025 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6026 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6027 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6028 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6029 
  6030 
  6031 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6032 
  6033 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6034 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6035 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6036 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6038 
  6039 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6040 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6041 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6042 
  6043 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6044 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6045 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6046 
  6047 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6048 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6049 
  6050 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6051 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6052 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6054 
  6055   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6056   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6057   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6058   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6059   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6060   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6061   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6062   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6063   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6064   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6065   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6066   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6067   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6068   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6069   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6070 
  6071 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6072 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6073 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6074 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6075 
  6076   approx        <-- capprox
  6077   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6078   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6079   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6080   monad         <-- cmonad
  6081   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6082   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6083   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6084   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6085 
  6086 
  6087 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6088 
  6089 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6090 
  6091 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6093 
  6094 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6095 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6096 
  6097 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6098 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6099 of algebraic structures.
  6100 
  6101 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6102 
  6103 
  6104 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6105 
  6106 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6107 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6108 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6109 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6110 
  6111 
  6112 *** ML ***
  6113 
  6114 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6115 (even on SML/NJ).
  6116 
  6117 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6118 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6119 compile-time.  For example:
  6120 
  6121 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6122 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6123 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6124 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6125 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6126 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6127 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6128 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6129 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6130 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6131 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6132 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6133 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6134 ML {* @{context} *}
  6135 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6136 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6137 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6138 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6139 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6140 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6141 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6142 
  6143 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6144 
  6145 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6146 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6147 
  6148 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6149 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6150 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6151 
  6152 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6153 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6154 
  6155 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6156 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6157 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6158 
  6159 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6160 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6161 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6162 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6163 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6164 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6165 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6166 declarations and definitions.
  6167 
  6168 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6169 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6170 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6171 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6172 
  6173 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6174 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6175 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6176 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6177 
  6178 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6179 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6180 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6181 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6182 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6183 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6184 
  6185 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6186 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6187 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6188 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6189 attributes, methods, etc.
  6190 
  6191 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6192 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6193 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6194 fold_map combinators.
  6195 
  6196 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6197 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6198 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6199 derivation.
  6200 
  6201 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6202 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6203 achieve the old behaviour.
  6204 
  6205 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6206 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6207 statements.
  6208 
  6209 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6210 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6211 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6212 
  6213 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6214 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6215 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6216 
  6217   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6218   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6219   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6220 
  6221 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6222 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6223 
  6224 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6225 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6226 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6227 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6228 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6229 
  6230 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6231 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6232 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6233 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6234 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6235 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6236 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6237 in a locale context).
  6238 
  6239 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)