NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Jul 25 12:38:54 2012 +0200 (2012-07-25)
changeset 48497 ba61aceaa18a
parent 48431 6efff142bb54
child 48574 4af9f3122138
permissions -rw-r--r--
some updates on "Building a repository version of Isabelle";
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    19 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    20 
    21 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    22 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    23 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    27 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    28 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    29 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    30 with some care where this is really required.
    31 
    32 
    33 *** HOL ***
    34 
    35 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    36 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    37 
    38 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    39 expressions.
    40 
    41 * Quickcheck:
    42 
    43   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    44     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    45     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    46 
    47 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    48 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    49 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    50 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    51 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Sledgehammer:
    54 
    55   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    56     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    57   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    58   - Renamed options:
    59       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    60       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Document preparation ***
    64 
    65 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    66 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    67 
    68 
    69 *** System ***
    70 
    71 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
    72 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
    73 configuration.
    74 
    75 
    76 
    77 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
    78 ------------------------------
    79 
    80 *** General ***
    81 
    82 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    83 
    84   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    85     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    86   - markup for bound variables
    87   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
    88   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    89   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    90     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    91 
    92 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    93 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    94 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    95 
    96 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    97 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    98 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    99 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   100 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   101 
   102   context
   103     fixes x y z :: 'a
   104     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   105   begin
   106 
   107   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   108 
   109   end
   110 
   111   thm my_trans
   112 
   113 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   114 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   115 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   116 
   117 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   118 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   119 
   120 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   121 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   122 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   123 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   124 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   125 
   126 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   127 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   128 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   129 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   130 indices of schematic variables.
   131 
   132 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   133 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   134 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   135 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   136 etc. was exploited.
   137 
   138 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   139 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   140 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   141 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   142 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   143 of the material of that old tutorial.
   144 
   145 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   146 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   147 manual.
   148 
   149 
   150 *** Pure ***
   151 
   152 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   153 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   154 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   155 
   156 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   157 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   158 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   159 undocumented feature.)
   160 
   161 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   162 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   163 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   164 
   165   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   166 
   167   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   168     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   169 
   170 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   171 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   172 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   173 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   174 
   175 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   176 
   177     num ~> num_token
   178     xnum ~> xnum_token
   179     xstr ~> str_token
   180 
   181 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   182 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   183 position information via constraints).
   184 
   185 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   186 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   187 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   190 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   191 
   192 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   193 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   194 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   197 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   200 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   201 
   202   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   203 
   204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   207 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   210 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   211 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   212 
   213 
   214 *** HOL ***
   215 
   216 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   217 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   218 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   219 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   220 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   221 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   222 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   223 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   224 possible.
   225 
   226 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   227 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   228 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   229 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   230 
   231 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   232 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   235 
   236 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   237 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   238 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   239 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   240 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   241 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   242 
   243   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   244     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   245 
   246   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   247     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   248     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   249 
   250   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   251     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   252 
   253   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   254     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   255     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   256 
   257   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   258     Redefine using other integer operations.
   259 
   260 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   261 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   262 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   263 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   264 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   265 
   266   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   267     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   268     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   269     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   270     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   271 
   272     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   273     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   274 
   275   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   276     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   277     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   278     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   279     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   280     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   281     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   282     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   283 
   284   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   285     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   286     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   287     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   288 
   289   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   290     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   291     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   292     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   293 
   294   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   295     from type nat to type int.
   296 
   297 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   298 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   299 
   300   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   301     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   302     type.  Example syntax:
   303 
   304     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   305       is List.insert
   306 
   307     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   308     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   309     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   310     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   311     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   312     by the package.
   313 
   314   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   315     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   316     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   317     code generation for each constant.
   318 
   319   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   320     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   321     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   322     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   323     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   324 
   325   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   326     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   327     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   328 
   329 * Quotient package:
   330 
   331   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   332     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   333 
   334   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   335     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   336 
   337   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   338     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   339     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   340 
   341   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   342     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   343 
   344 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   345 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   346 
   347 * Quickcheck:
   348 
   349   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   350     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   351     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   352     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   353     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   354 
   355     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   356     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   357     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   358 
   359     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   360     continues searching for genuine ones.
   361 
   362     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   363     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   364     show genuine counterexamples.
   365 
   366   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   367     value generators for a given type and operations.
   368 
   369     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   370     constructors of that type.
   371 
   372   - Support for multisets.
   373 
   374   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   375 
   376   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   377     conjectures in a locale context.
   378 
   379 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   380 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   381 
   382 * Sledgehammer:
   383   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   384     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   385   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   386   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   387     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   388   - Sped up the minimizer.
   389   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   390   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   391   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   392 
   393 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   394 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   395 
   396 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   397 
   398 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   401 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   402 
   403   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   404 
   405 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   406 a list and a nat.
   407 
   408 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   409 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   410 
   411 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   412 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   413 default.
   414 
   415 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   416 
   417   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   418 
   419 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   420 
   421 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   422 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   423 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   424 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   425 one_case.
   426 
   427 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   428 the result of the fact expression.
   429 
   430 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   431 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   432 of some relation theorems:
   433 
   434   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   435   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   436   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   437   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   438   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   439   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   440 
   441 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   442 
   443 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   444 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   445 
   446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 
   448 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   449 to match the constant's name:
   450 
   451   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   452   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   453   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   454   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   455   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   456   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   457   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   458   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   459   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   460   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   461   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   462   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   463   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   464   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   465   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   466   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   467   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   468   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   469   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   470   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   471   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   472   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   473   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   474   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   475 
   476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   479 and corresponding theorem names:
   480 
   481   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   482 
   483   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   484 
   485   - Renamed theorems:
   486 
   487     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   488     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   489     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   490     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   491     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   492     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   493     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   494     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   495     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   496     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   497     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   498     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   499     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   500     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   501     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   502     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   503     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   504     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   505     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   506     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   507     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   508     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   509     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   510 
   511     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   512 
   513     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   514 
   515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   516 
   517 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   518 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   519 
   520   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   521   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   522   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   523   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   524   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   525   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   526   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   527   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   528   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   529   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   530   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   531   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   532   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   533   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   534   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   535   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   536   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   537   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   538   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   539   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   540   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   541 
   542 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   543 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   544 
   545 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   546 
   547 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   548 
   549   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   550   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   551   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   552   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   553   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   554   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   555   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   556   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   557   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   558   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   559   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   560   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   561   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   562   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   563   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   564   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   565   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   566   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   567 
   568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   569 
   570 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   571 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   572 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   573 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   574 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   575 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   576 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   577 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   578 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   579 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   580 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   581 
   582 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   583 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   584 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   585 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   586 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   587 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   588 
   589 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   590 through option types.
   591 
   592 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   593 relations.
   594 
   595 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   596 
   597 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   598 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   599 
   600   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   601   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   602   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   603   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   604   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   605   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   606   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   607   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   608   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   609   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   610   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   611   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   612   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   613   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   614   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   615   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   616   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   617   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   618   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   619   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   620   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   621   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   622   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   623   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   624   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   625   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   626   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   627   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   628   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   629   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   630   zless_le ~> less_le
   631   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   632   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   633   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   634 
   635 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   636 
   637   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   638 
   639 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   640 
   641 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   642 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   643 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   644 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   648 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   649 
   650 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   651 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   652 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   653 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   654 follows:
   655 
   656   Operations:
   657   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   658   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   659   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   660   del -> rbt_del
   661   delete -> rbt_delete
   662   ins -> rbt_ins
   663   insert -> rbt_insert
   664   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   665   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   666   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   667   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   668   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   669   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   670   tree_less -> rbt_less
   671   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   672   union -> rbt_union
   673   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   674   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   675 
   676   Lemmas:
   677   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   678   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   679   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   680   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   681   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   682   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   683   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   684   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   685   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   686   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   687   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   688   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   689   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   690   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   691   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   692   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   693   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   694   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   695   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   696   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   697   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   698   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   699   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   700   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   701   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   702   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   703   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   704   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   705   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   706   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   707   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   708   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   709   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   710   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   711   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   712   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   713   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   714   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   715   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   716   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   717   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   718   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   719   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   720   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   721   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   722   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   723   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   724   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   725   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   726   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   727   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   728   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   729   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   730   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   731   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   732   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   733   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   734   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   735   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   736   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   737   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   738   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   739   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   740   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   741   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   742   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   743   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   744   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   745   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   746   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   747   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   748   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   749   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   750   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   751   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   752   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   753   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   754   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   755   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   756   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   757   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   758   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   759   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   760 
   761 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   762 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   763 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765   Changed Operations:
   766   float_abs -> abs
   767   float_nprt -> nprt
   768   float_pprt -> pprt
   769   pow2 -> use powr
   770   round_down -> float_round_down
   771   round_up -> float_round_up
   772   scale -> exponent
   773 
   774   Removed Operations:
   775   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   776 
   777   Renamed Lemmas:
   778   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   779   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   780   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   781   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   782   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   783   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   784   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   785   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   786   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   787   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   788   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   789   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   790   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   791   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   792   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   793   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   794   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   795   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   796   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   797   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   798   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   799   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   800   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   801   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   802   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   803   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   804   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   805   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   806   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   807   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   808   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   809   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   810   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   811   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   812   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   813   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   814 
   815   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   816   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   817   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   818   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   819   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   820   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   821   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   822   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   823   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   824   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   825 
   826 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   827 association lists with distinct keys.
   828 
   829 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   830 annotated commands.
   831 
   832 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   833 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   834 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   835 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   838 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   839 instead.
   840 
   841   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   842   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   843   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   844   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   845   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   846   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   847   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   848   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   849   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   850   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   851   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   852   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   853   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   854   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   855   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   856   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   857   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   858   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   859   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   860   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   861   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   862   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   863   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   864   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   865   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   866   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   867   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   868   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   869   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   870   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   871   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   872   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   873   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   874   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   875   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   876   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   877   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   878   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   879   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   880   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   881   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   882 
   883 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   884 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   885 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   886 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   887 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   888 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   889 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   890 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   891 
   892 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   893 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   894 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   895 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   896 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   897 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   898 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   899 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   900 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   901 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   902 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   903 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905   Renamed constants:
   906   measure -> emeasure
   907   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   908   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   909   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   910   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   911 
   912   Removed locales:
   913   completeable_measure_space
   914   finite_measure_space
   915   finite_prob_space
   916   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   917   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   918   finite_sigma_algebra
   919   measure_space
   920   pair_finite_prob_space
   921   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   922   pair_finite_space
   923   pair_sigma_algebra
   924   product_sigma_algebra
   925 
   926   Removed constants:
   927   conditional_space
   928   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   929   image_space
   930   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   931   pair_measure_generator
   932   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   933   subvimage
   934 
   935   Replacement theorems:
   936   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   937   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   938   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   939   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   940   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   941   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   942   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   943   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   944   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   945   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   946   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   947   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   948   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   949   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   950   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   951   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   952   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   953   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   954   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   955   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   956   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   957   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   958   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   959   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   960   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   961   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   962   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   963   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   964   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   965   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   966   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   967   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   968   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   969   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   970   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   971   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   972   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   973   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   974   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   975   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   976   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   977   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   978   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   979   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   980   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
   981   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
   982   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
   983   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
   984   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
   985   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
   986   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
   987   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
   988   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   989   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
   990   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
   991   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
   992   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
   993   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
   994   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   995   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
   996   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
   997   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
   998   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   999   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1000   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1001   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1002   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1003   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1004   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1005   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1006   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1007   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1008   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1009   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1010   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1011   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1012   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1013   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1014   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1015   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1016   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1017   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1018   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1019   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1020   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1021   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1022   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1023   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1024   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1025   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1026   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1027   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1028   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1029   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1030   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1031   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1032   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1033   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1034   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1035   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1036   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1037   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1038   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1039   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1040   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1041   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1042   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1043   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1044   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1045   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1046   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1047   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1048   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1049   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1050   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1051   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1052   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1053   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1054   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1055   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1056   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1057   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1058   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1059   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1060   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1061   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1062   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1063   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1064 
  1065 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1066 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1067 
  1068 
  1069 *** FOL ***
  1070 
  1071 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1072 
  1073 
  1074 *** ZF ***
  1075 
  1076 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1077 analysis.
  1078 
  1079 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1080 
  1081 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 
  1084 *** ML ***
  1085 
  1086 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1087 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1088 
  1089 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1090 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1091 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1092 
  1093 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1094 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1095 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1096 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1097 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1098 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1099 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1100 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1101 
  1102 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1103 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1104 
  1105 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1106 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1107 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1108 
  1109 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1110 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1113 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1114 context as well.
  1115 
  1116 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1117 
  1118   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1119   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1120   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1121   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1122   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1123   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1124   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1125   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1126   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1127   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1128   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1129   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1130 
  1131 
  1132 *** System ***
  1133 
  1134 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1135 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1136 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1137 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1138 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1139 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1140 the generic user home was intended.
  1141 
  1142 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1143 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1144 
  1145 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1146 (not just JRE).
  1147 
  1148 
  1149 
  1150 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1151 ------------------------------------
  1152 
  1153 *** General ***
  1154 
  1155 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1156 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1157 
  1158   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1159     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1160     files for checking).
  1161 
  1162   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1163     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1164     positions.
  1165 
  1166   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1167     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1168     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1169 
  1170   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1171     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1172     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1173 
  1174   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1175     cores.
  1176 
  1177   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1178     versions (garbage collection).
  1179 
  1180 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1181 including some remaining limitations.
  1182 
  1183 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1184 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1185 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1186 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1187 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1191 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1192 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1193 
  1194 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1195 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1196 usedir option -Q.
  1197 
  1198 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1199 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1200 
  1201   long_names   ~> names_long
  1202   short_names  ~> names_short
  1203   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1204 
  1205 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1206 
  1207   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1208 
  1209 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1210 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1211 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1212 
  1213 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1214 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1215 
  1216 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1217   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1218   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1219   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1220     "Classical Reasoner".
  1221 
  1222 
  1223 *** HOL ***
  1224 
  1225 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1226 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1227 
  1228 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1229 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1230 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1231 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1232 class complete_linorder.
  1233 
  1234 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1235 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1236 
  1237 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1238 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1239 
  1240   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1241   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1242   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1243   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1244   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1245   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1246   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1247   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1248   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1249   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1250   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1251 
  1252 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1253 
  1254   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1255   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1256   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1257   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1258   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1259   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1260   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1261   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1262   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1263   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1264   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1265   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1266   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1267   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1268   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1269   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1270 
  1271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1272 
  1273 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1275 
  1276 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1277 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1278 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1279 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1280 
  1281 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1282 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1283 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1287 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1288 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1289 
  1290 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1291 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1292 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1293 
  1294 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1295 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1296 
  1297 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1298 
  1299     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1300     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1301 
  1302 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1303 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1306 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1307 
  1308 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1309 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1310 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1311 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1312 
  1313   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1314   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1315   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1316   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1317   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1318   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1319   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1320 
  1321 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1322 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1323 
  1324   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1325   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1326   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1327   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1328   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1329   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1330   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1331   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1332   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1333   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1334   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1335   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1336   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1337   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1338   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1339   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1340   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1341   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1342   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1343   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1344   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1345   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1346   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1347   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1348   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1349   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1350   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1351   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1352   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1353   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1354   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1355   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1356   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1357   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1358   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1359   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1360   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1361   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1362   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1363   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1364   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1365   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1366   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1367   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1368   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1369   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1370   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1371   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1372   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1373   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1374   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1375   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1376   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1377   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1378   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1379   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1380   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1381   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1382   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1383   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1384   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1385   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1386   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1387   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1388   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1389   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1390   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1391   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1392   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1393   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1394   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1395   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1396   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1397   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1398   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1399   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1400   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1401   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1402   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1403   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1404   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1405   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1406 
  1407 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1408 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1409 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1410 
  1411 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1412 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1413 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1414 
  1415 * Code generation:
  1416 
  1417   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1418     characters in the target language.
  1419 
  1420   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1421     instead.
  1422 
  1423   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1424 
  1425   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1426     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1427 
  1428       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1429 
  1430 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1431 
  1432 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1433 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1434 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1435 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1436 syntax.
  1437 
  1438 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1439 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1440 
  1441 * Nitpick:
  1442   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1443   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1444   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1445     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * Sledgehammer:
  1448   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1449   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1450     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1451   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1452     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1453   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1454     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1456     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1457   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1458     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 * Metis:
  1461   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1463     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1464 
  1465 * Command 'try':
  1466   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1467     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1469     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1470 
  1471 * Quickcheck:
  1472   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1473     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1474   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1475     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1476   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1477     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1478     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1479     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1480   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1481     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1482 
  1483 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1484 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1485 
  1486 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1487 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1488 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1489 
  1490 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1491 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1495 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1496 
  1497 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1498 arithmetic.
  1499 
  1500 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1501 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1502 and lattice type classes.
  1503 
  1504 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1505 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1506 
  1507 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1508 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1509 
  1510 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1511 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1512 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1513 
  1514   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1515   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1516   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1517   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1518 
  1519 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1520 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1521 constants:
  1522 
  1523   type inat   ~> type enat
  1524   Fin         ~> enat
  1525   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1526   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1527   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1528 
  1529 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1530 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1533 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1534 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1535 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1536 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1537 
  1538 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1539 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1540 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1541 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1542 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1543 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1544 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1545 
  1546   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1547   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1548   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1549   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1550 
  1551 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1552 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1553 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1556   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1557   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1558   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1559   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1560   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1561   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1562   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1563   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1564   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1565   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1566   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1567   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1568   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1569   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1570   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1571   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1572   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1573   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1574   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1575   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1576   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1577   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1578   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1579   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1580   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1581   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1582   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1583   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1584   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1585   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1586   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1587   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1588   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1589   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1590   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1591   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1592   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1593   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1594   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1595   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1596   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1597   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1598   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1599   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1600   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1601   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1602   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1603   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1604   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1605   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1606 
  1607 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1608   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1609   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1610   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1611   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1612     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1615 
  1616   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1617   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1618   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1619   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1620   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1621   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1622   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1623   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1624   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1625   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1626   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1627   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1628   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1629   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1630   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1631   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1632   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1633   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1634   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1635   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1636   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1637   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1638   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1639   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1640   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1641 
  1642 
  1643 *** Document preparation ***
  1644 
  1645 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1646 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1647 same.
  1648 
  1649 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1650 result.
  1651 
  1652 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1653 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1654 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1655 
  1656 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1657 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1658 
  1659 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1660 like this:
  1661 
  1662   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1663   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1664 
  1665 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1666 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1667 layouts.
  1668 
  1669 
  1670 *** ML ***
  1671 
  1672 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1673 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1674 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1675 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1676 under external program control.
  1677 
  1678 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1679 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1680 
  1681 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1682 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1683 (better known as Proof General).
  1684 
  1685 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1686 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1687 
  1688 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1689 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1690 
  1691 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1692 (including quotes etc.).
  1693 
  1694 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1695 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1696 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1697 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1698 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1699 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1700 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1701 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1702 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1703 
  1704 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1705 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1706 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1707 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1708 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1709 
  1710 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1711 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1712 
  1713 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1714 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1715 
  1716 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1717 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1718 
  1719 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1720 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1721 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1722 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1723 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1724 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1725 proper Proof.context.
  1726 
  1727 
  1728 *** System ***
  1729 
  1730 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1731 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1732 
  1733 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1734 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1735 
  1736 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1737 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1738 
  1739   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1740   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1741   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1742   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1743   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1744 
  1745 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1746 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1749 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1750 example:
  1751 
  1752   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1753 
  1754 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1755 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1756 
  1757 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1758 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1759 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1760 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1761 
  1762 
  1763 
  1764 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1765 ----------------------------------
  1766 
  1767 *** General ***
  1768 
  1769 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1770 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1771 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1772 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1773 like this:
  1774 
  1775   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1776 
  1777 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1778 
  1779 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1780 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1781 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1782 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1783 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1784 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1785 
  1786 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1787 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1788 the following package declarations:
  1789 
  1790   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1791   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1792 
  1793 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1794 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1795 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1796 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1797 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1798 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1799 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1800 
  1801 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1802 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1803 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1804 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1805 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1806 
  1807 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1808 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1809 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1810 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1811 
  1812 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1813 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1814 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1815 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1816 
  1817   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1818 
  1819   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1820   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1821   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1822   show_types                    show_types
  1823   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1824   show_consts                   show_consts
  1825   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1826 
  1827   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1828   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1829   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1830 
  1831   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1832   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1833 
  1834   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1835 
  1836   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1837   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1838   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1839   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1840   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1841 
  1842 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1843 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1844 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1845 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1846 
  1847 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1851   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1852 
  1853 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1854 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1855 float_token.
  1856 
  1857 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1858 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1860 
  1861 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1862 DejaVu Sans.
  1863 
  1864 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1865 
  1866 
  1867 *** Pure ***
  1868 
  1869 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1870 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1871 time.
  1872 
  1873 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1874 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1875 
  1876 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1877 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1880 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1881 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1882 command already provided this functionality.
  1883 
  1884 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1885 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1886 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1887 without interpretations.
  1888 
  1889 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1890 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1891 
  1892 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1893 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1894 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1895 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1896 
  1897 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1898 'definition' instead.
  1899 
  1900 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1901 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1902 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1903 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1904 
  1905 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1906 constructors.
  1907 
  1908 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1909 the local file system.
  1910 
  1911 
  1912 *** HOL ***
  1913 
  1914 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1915 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1916 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1917 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1918 
  1919   declare [[coercion f]]
  1920 
  1921 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1922 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1923 
  1924   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1925 
  1926 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1927 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1928 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1929 other theories like this:
  1930 
  1931   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1932 
  1933 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1934 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1935 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1936 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1937 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1938 for examples.
  1939 
  1940 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1941 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1942 
  1943 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1944 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1945 
  1946 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1947 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1948 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1949 
  1950 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1951 functorial structure of types.
  1952 
  1953 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1954 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1955 
  1956 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1957 languages.
  1958 
  1959 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1960 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1962 
  1963 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1964 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1965 
  1966 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1967 combinators any longer.
  1968 
  1969 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1970 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1971 
  1972 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1973 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1974 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1975 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1976 
  1977   record 'a foo = ...
  1978   ...
  1979   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1980 
  1981 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1982 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1983 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1986 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1987 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1988 
  1989 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1990 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1991 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1992 
  1993 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1994 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1997 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1998 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1999 independently.
  2000 
  2001 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2002 counter example search.
  2003 
  2004 * Sledgehammer:
  2005   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2006     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2007     sledgehammer").
  2008   - Renamed commands:
  2009     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2010     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2011     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2012     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013   - Renamed options:
  2014     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2015     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2016     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2017     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2018     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2019 
  2020 * Nitpick:
  2021   - Renamed options:
  2022     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2023     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2024     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2025   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2026   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2027   - Added "whack" option.
  2028   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2029   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2030   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2031   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2032     higher cardinalities.
  2033   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2034 
  2035 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2036 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2037 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2038 
  2039     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2040 
  2041 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2042 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2043 
  2044 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2045 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2046 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2047 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2048 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2049 "smt_solver".
  2050 
  2051 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2052 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2053 
  2054 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2055 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2056 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2057 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2058 
  2059 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2060   - Renamed:
  2061     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2062     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2063     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064   - Added:
  2065     smt_verbose
  2066     smt_random_seed
  2067     smt_datatypes
  2068     smt_infer_triggers
  2069     smt_monomorph_limit
  2070     cvc3_options
  2071     remote_cvc3_options
  2072     remote_z3_options
  2073     yices_options
  2074 
  2075 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2076 header.
  2077 
  2078 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2079 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2080 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2081 
  2082   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2083 
  2084 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2085 
  2086 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2087 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2088 
  2089 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2092 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2093 
  2094 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2095 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2096 
  2097 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2098 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2099 
  2100 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2101 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2102 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2105 
  2106 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108 
  2109 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2110 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2113 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2114 for congruent(2)).
  2115 
  2116 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2117 
  2118   types
  2119     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2120     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2121 
  2122   constants
  2123     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2124     True ~> HOL.True
  2125     False ~> HOL.False
  2126     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2127     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2128     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2129     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2130     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2131     The ~> HOL.The
  2132     All ~> HOL.All
  2133     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2134     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2135     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2136     If ~> HOL.If
  2137     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2138     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2139     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2140     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2141     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2142     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2143     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2144     op : ~> Set.member
  2145     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2146 
  2147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2150 
  2151     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2152     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2153     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2154     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2155     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2156     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2157     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2158     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2159 
  2160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2161 
  2162 * More stylized fact names:
  2163 
  2164   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2165   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2166   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2167   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2168 
  2169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2170 
  2171 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2172 
  2173   constants
  2174     null ~> List.null
  2175 
  2176   facts
  2177     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2178     null_empty ~> null_def
  2179 
  2180 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2181 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2182 generation.
  2183 
  2184 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2185 Haskell code.
  2186 
  2187 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2188 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2189 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2190 
  2191 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2192 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2193 
  2194 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2195 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2196 
  2197 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2198 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2199 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2202 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2203 
  2204 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2208 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2209 referred to by its qualified name.
  2210 
  2211   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2212   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2213   product ~>  Enum.product
  2214 
  2215 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2216 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2220 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2221 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2223 
  2224 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2225 sort_key.
  2226 
  2227 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2231 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2232 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2233 
  2234   types
  2235     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2236               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2237               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2238         (depends on your needs)
  2239 
  2240   constants
  2241      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2242      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2243      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2244 
  2245 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2246 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2247 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2248 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2249 
  2250 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2251 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2252 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2253 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2254 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255 
  2256 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2260 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2261 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2262 
  2263 
  2264 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2265 
  2266 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2267 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2268 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2269 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2270 compatibility.
  2271 
  2272 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2273 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2274 
  2275 
  2276 *** HOLCF ***
  2277 
  2278 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2279 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2280 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2282 
  2283 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2284 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2285 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2288   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2289   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2290 
  2291 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2292 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2293 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2296 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2297 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2298 domain definition now works:
  2299 
  2300   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2301 
  2302 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2303 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2304 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2305 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2306 
  2307   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2308     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2309 
  2310   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2311 
  2312 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2313 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2314 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2315 
  2316 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2317 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2318 
  2319 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2320 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2321 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2322 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2323 
  2324 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2325 
  2326 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2334 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2335 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2336 
  2337 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2338 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2339 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2340 
  2341 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2342 still supported as an input translation.
  2343 
  2344 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2345 
  2346   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2347   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2348   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2349   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2350   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2351   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2352   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2353 
  2354 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2355 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2358   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2359   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2360   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2361   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2362   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2363 
  2364 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2365 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2368 
  2369   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2370   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2371   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2372   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2373 
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2377 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2380 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2383   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2384   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2385   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2386   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2387   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2388   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2389   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2390   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2391   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2392   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2393   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2394   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2395   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2396   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2397   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2398   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2399   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2400   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2401   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2402 
  2403 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2406   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2407   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2408   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2409   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2410   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2411   box_less             ~> box_below
  2412   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2413   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2414   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2415   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2416   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2417   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2418   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2419   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2420   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2421   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2422   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2423   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2424   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2425   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2426   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2427   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2428   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2429   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2430   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2431   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2432   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2433   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2434   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2435   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2436   up_less              ~> up_below
  2437   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2438   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2439   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2440   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2441   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2442   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2443   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2444   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2445   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2446   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2447   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2448   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2449   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2450 
  2451 
  2452 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2453 
  2454 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2455 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 
  2458 *** ML ***
  2459 
  2460 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2461 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2462 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2463 
  2464 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2465 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2466 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2467 
  2468 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2469 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2470 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2471 
  2472 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2473 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2474 
  2475 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2476 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2477 
  2478 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2479 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2480 
  2481 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2482 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2483 
  2484 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2485 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2486 almost all situations.
  2487 
  2488 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2489 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2490 Isabelle/ML.
  2491 
  2492 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2493 meaning.
  2494 
  2495 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2496 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2497 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2498 
  2499 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2500 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2501 
  2502 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2503 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2504 
  2505 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2506 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2507 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2508 
  2509 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2510 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2511 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2512 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2513 configuration options.
  2514 
  2515 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2516 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2517 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2518 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2519 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2520 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2521 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2522 
  2523 
  2524 
  2525 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2526 ---------------------------------
  2527 
  2528 *** General ***
  2529 
  2530 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2531 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2532 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2533 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2534 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2535 their full internal name.
  2536 
  2537 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2538 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2539 Some hints on upgrading:
  2540 
  2541   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2542     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2543     which are independent of this issue.
  2544 
  2545   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2546     provides the following special forms:
  2547 
  2548       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2549       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2550       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2551 
  2552     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2553     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2554     extra variables".
  2555 
  2556     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2557     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2558     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2559     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2560     "logic".
  2561 
  2562   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2563     antiquotations:
  2564 
  2565       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2566       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2567       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2568       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2569 
  2570   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2571     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2572     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2573     antiquotations.
  2574 
  2575 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2576 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2577 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2578 diagnose syntax problems.
  2579 
  2580 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2581 
  2582 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2583 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2584 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2585 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2586 
  2587 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2588 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2589 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2590 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2591 
  2592 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2593 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2594 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2595 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2596 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2599 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2600 
  2601 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2602 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2603 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2604 
  2605   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2606 
  2607 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2608 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2609 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2610 
  2611 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2612 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614 
  2615 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2616 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2617 
  2618 
  2619 *** Pure ***
  2620 
  2621 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2622 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2623 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2624 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2625 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2626 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2627 inspect proof terms.
  2628 
  2629 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2630 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2631 are added internally.  For example:
  2632 
  2633   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2634 
  2635 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2636 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2639 
  2640 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2641 'class' instead.
  2642 
  2643 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2644 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2646 
  2647 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2648 invariants.
  2649 
  2650 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2651 user space functionality any longer.
  2652 
  2653 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2654 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2658 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2659 
  2660 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2661 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2662 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2663 
  2664 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2665 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2666 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2667 
  2668 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2669 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2670 
  2671 
  2672 *** HOL ***
  2673 
  2674 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2675 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2676 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2677 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2678 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2679 
  2680 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2681 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2682 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2683 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2684 
  2685   fun
  2686     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2687   where
  2688     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2689 
  2690   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2691     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2692 
  2693   quotient_definition
  2694     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2695 
  2696 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2697 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2698 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2699 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2700 
  2701 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2702 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2703 
  2704 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2705 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2706 
  2707 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2709 
  2710 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2711 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2712 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2713 
  2714 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2715 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2719 
  2720 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2724 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2725 
  2726 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2727 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2728 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2731   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2732   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2733   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2734   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2735   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2736   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2737   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2738   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2739   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2740   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2741   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2742   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2743   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2744   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2745   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2746   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2747   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2748   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2749   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2750   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2751   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2752   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2753   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2754   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2755   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2756   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2757   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2758   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2759   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2760 
  2761 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2762 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2763 
  2764 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2765 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2766 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2767 
  2768 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2769 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2770 
  2771 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2772 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2775 
  2776 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2777 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2778 
  2779 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2780 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781 
  2782 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2785 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2786 
  2787 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2788 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2789 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2790 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2793   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2794   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2795   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2799 lattices):
  2800 
  2801     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2802     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2803 
  2804     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2805 
  2806     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2807     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2808     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2809     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2810     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2811     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2812     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2813     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2814     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2815     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2816     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2817     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2818     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2819 
  2820     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2821     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2822     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2823     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2824     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2825     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2826     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2827     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2828     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2829     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2830     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2831     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2832     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2833     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2834     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2835     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2836     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2837     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2838 
  2839   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2840   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2841 
  2842     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2843     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2844     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2845     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2846     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2847 
  2848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Refined field classes:
  2851   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2852     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2853     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2854   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2856 
  2857 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2858   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2859   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2860   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2861     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2862   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2863     equal_neg_zero.
  2864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2865 
  2866 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2867 sets to lattices:
  2868 
  2869   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2870   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2871   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2872   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2873   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2874   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2875   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2876   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2877   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2878   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2879 
  2880 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2881 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2882 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2883 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2884 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2885 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886 
  2887 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2888 multiset order:
  2889 
  2890   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2891     <= and <;
  2892   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2893     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2894     multiset_order;
  2895   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2896     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2897     generation;
  2898   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2899     if needed.
  2900 
  2901 Renamed:
  2902 
  2903   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2904   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2905   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2906 
  2907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2910 
  2911 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2912 
  2913 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2914 
  2915 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2916 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2917 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919   Constants:
  2920   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2921   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2922   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2923   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2924   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2925   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2926   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2927   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2928   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2929   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2930   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2931   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2932   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2933 
  2934   Lemmas:
  2935   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2936   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2937   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2938   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2939   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2940   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2941   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2942   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2943   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2944   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2945   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2946   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2947   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2948 
  2949 * Sledgehammer:
  2950   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2951     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2952     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2953     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2954     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2955     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2956     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2957   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2958   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2959     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2960   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2961     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2962     is still experimental.)
  2963   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2964     full-typed mode.
  2965   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2966 
  2967 * Nitpick:
  2968   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2969   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2970   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2971     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2972   - Added support for quotient types.
  2973   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2974     constructs.
  2975   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2976     "termination" proofs).
  2977   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2978   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2979   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2980   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2981     record getters.
  2982   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2983   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2984   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2985   - Added "atoms" option.
  2986   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2987     problems.
  2988   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2989     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2990     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2992     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2993   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2996   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2997   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2998   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2999   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3000   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3001   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3002   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3003   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3004   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 
  3007 *** HOLCF ***
  3008 
  3009 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3010 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3011 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3014 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3015 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3016 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3019 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3020 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3021 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3022 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3025 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3026 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3027 
  3028 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3029 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3030 
  3031   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3032   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3033 
  3034 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3035 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3038   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3039   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3040   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3041   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3042 
  3043 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3044 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3047   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3048   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3049 
  3050 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3051 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3055 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3060 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 
  3063 *** ML ***
  3064 
  3065 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3066 
  3067     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3068     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3069 
  3070     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3071     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3072     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3073     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3074 
  3075     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3076     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3077     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3078 
  3079 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3080 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3081 
  3082 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3083 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3084 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3085 
  3086 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3087 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3088 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3089 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3090 
  3091 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3092 the context or even global references.
  3093 
  3094 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3095 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3096 
  3097 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3098 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3099 
  3100   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3101   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3102   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3103   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3104   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3105   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3106   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3107   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3108   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3109   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3110 
  3111 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3112 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3113 
  3114 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3115 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3116 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3117 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3118 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3119 
  3120 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3121 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3122 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3123 Theory_Data version.
  3124 
  3125 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3126 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3127 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3128 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3129 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3130 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3131 explicitly in rare situations.
  3132 
  3133 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3134 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3138 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3141 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3142 quite rare).
  3143 
  3144 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3145 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3148 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3149 terms.
  3150 
  3151 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3152 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3153 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3154 
  3155 
  3156 *** System ***
  3157 
  3158 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3159 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3160 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3161 
  3162 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3163 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3164 respectively.
  3165 
  3166 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3167 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3168 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3169 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3170 
  3171   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3172 
  3173 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3174 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3175 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3176 component.
  3177 
  3178 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3179 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3180 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3181 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3182 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3183 the user for manual installation.
  3184 
  3185 
  3186 
  3187 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3188 -------------------------------------
  3189 
  3190 *** General ***
  3191 
  3192 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3193 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3194 
  3195 
  3196 *** Pure ***
  3197 
  3198 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3199 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3200 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3201 
  3202 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3203 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3204 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3205 
  3206 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3207 interpretation.
  3208 
  3209 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3210 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 
  3213 *** Document preparation ***
  3214 
  3215 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3216 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3217 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3218 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3219 
  3220 
  3221 *** HOL ***
  3222 
  3223 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3224 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3225 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3226 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3227 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3228 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3229 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3230 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3231 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3232 
  3233 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3234 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3235 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3236 
  3237 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3238 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3239 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3240 
  3241 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3242 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3243 
  3244 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3245 
  3246 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3247 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3248 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3249 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3250 
  3251 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3252 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3253 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3254 "mirabelle" utility.
  3255 
  3256 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3257 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3258 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3259 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3260 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3261 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3262 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3263 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3264 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3265 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3266 
  3267 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3268 procedure only.
  3269 
  3270 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3271 
  3272 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3273 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3274 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3275 that fail later.
  3276 
  3277 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3278 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3279 
  3280 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3281 the same method as the approximation method.
  3282 
  3283 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3284 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3285 series expansion.
  3286 
  3287 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3288 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3289 
  3290 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3291 reals.
  3292 
  3293 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3294 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3295 
  3296 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3297 fixpoint theorem.
  3298 
  3299 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3300   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3301     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3302   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3303     accordingly
  3304   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3305     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3306   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3307     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3308 
  3309 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3310 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3311 lattice.
  3312 
  3313 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3314 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3315 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3316 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3317 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3318 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3322   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3323     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3324   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3325     le_inf_iff
  3326   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3327     sup_aci)
  3328   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3329   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3330   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3331     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3332     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3333     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3334     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3335     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3336     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3337     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3338     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3339     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3340     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3341   - authentic syntax for
  3342     Set.Pow
  3343     Set.image
  3344   - mere abbreviations:
  3345     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3346     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3347     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3348     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3349     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3350     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3351     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3352     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3353   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3354 
  3355 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3356 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3357 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3358 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3359 
  3360 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3361 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3362 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3365 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3368 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3369 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3370 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3373 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3374 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3375 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3376 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3377 
  3378 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3379 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3383 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3386 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3387 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3388 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3389 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3390 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3391 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3395     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3396     code_post       replaces    code post
  3397     etc.
  3398   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * Renamed methods:
  3401     sizechange -> size_change
  3402     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3403   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3406 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3407 
  3408 * Renamed theorems:
  3409     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3410     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3411     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3412     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3413     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3414   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3415 
  3416 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 
  3423 *** HOLCF ***
  3424 
  3425 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3426 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3427 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3428 
  3429 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3430 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3431 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3432 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3433 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3434 
  3435 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3436 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3437 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3438 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3439 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3440 
  3441 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3442 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3443 constructor are pre-configured.
  3444 
  3445 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3446 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3447 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3448 
  3449 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3450 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3451 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3452 as well.)
  3453 
  3454 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3455 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3456 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3457 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3458 examples.
  3459 
  3460 
  3461 *** ML ***
  3462 
  3463 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3464 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3465 
  3466 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3467 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3468 position, logical grouping etc.
  3469 
  3470 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3471 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3472 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3473 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3474 
  3475 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3476 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3477 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3478 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3479 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3480 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3481 
  3482 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3483 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3484 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3485 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3486 experiments with references.
  3487 
  3488 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3489 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3490 
  3491 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3492 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3493 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3494 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3495 
  3496 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3497 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3498 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3499 
  3500 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3501 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3502 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3510 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3511 
  3512 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3513 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3514 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3515 
  3516 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3517 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3518 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3521 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3522 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3526 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3527 instead of global theory.
  3528 
  3529 
  3530 *** System ***
  3531 
  3532 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3533 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3534 usedir option -q.
  3535 
  3536 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3537 also the system manual.
  3538 
  3539 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3540 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3541 
  3542 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3543 this is always enabled.
  3544 
  3545 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3546 
  3547 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3548 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3549 currently supported on Linux only.
  3550 
  3551 
  3552 
  3553 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3554 --------------------------------
  3555 
  3556 *** General ***
  3557 
  3558 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3559 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3560 
  3561   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3562     "isatool."
  3563 
  3564   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3565     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3566 
  3567   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3568     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3569 
  3570 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3571 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3572 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3573 
  3574 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3575 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3576 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3577 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3578 via "isabelle emacs".
  3579 
  3580 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3581 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3582 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3583 
  3584 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3585 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3586 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3587 
  3588 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3589 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3590 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3591 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3592 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3593 
  3594 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3595 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3596 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3597 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3598 
  3599 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3600 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3601 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3602 
  3603 
  3604 *** Pure ***
  3605 
  3606 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3607 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3608 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3609 
  3610 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3611 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3612 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3613 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3614 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3615 
  3616 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3617 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3618 useful in locale declarations.
  3619 
  3620 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3621 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3622 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3623 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3624 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3625 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3626 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3627 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3628 no longer generated.
  3629 
  3630 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3631 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3632 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3633 
  3634 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3635 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3636 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3637 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3638 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3639 
  3640 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3642 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3643 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3644 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3645 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3646 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3647 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3648 
  3649 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3650 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3651 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3652 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3653 
  3654 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3657 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3658 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3659 
  3660 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3661 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3664 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3665 in HOL, write
  3666 
  3667     class foo = ...
  3668 
  3669 instead of
  3670 
  3671     class foo = type + ...
  3672 
  3673 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3674 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3677 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3678 
  3679 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3680 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3681 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3682 
  3683 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3684 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3685 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3687 directly in regular applications.
  3688 
  3689 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3690 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3691 
  3692 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3693 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3694 
  3695 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3696 theory context.
  3697 
  3698 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3699 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3702 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3703 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3704 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3705 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3706 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3707 
  3708   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3709 
  3710 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3711 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3712 normalization.
  3713 
  3714 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3715 addressing etc.
  3716 
  3717 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3718 
  3719   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3720   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3721 
  3722 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3723 
  3724   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3725      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3726      parts of the code generator framework).
  3727 
  3728   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3729      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3730      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3731 
  3732 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3735 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3738 patterns, e.g.
  3739 
  3740     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3741 
  3742 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3743 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3744 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3745 hyphen:
  3746 
  3747     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3748 
  3749 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3750 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3751 
  3752 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3753 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3754 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3755 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3756 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3757 higher-order unification.
  3758 
  3759 
  3760 *** Document preparation ***
  3761 
  3762 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3763 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3764 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3765 
  3766 
  3767 *** HOL ***
  3768 
  3769 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3770 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3771 
  3772 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3773 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3774 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3775 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3776 Main, as before.
  3777 
  3778 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3779 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3780 
  3781 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3782 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3783 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3784 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3785 
  3786 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3787 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3788 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3789 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3790 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3791 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3792 
  3793 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3794 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3795 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3796 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3797 
  3798 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3799 menu.
  3800 
  3801 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3802 (contains the empty clause).
  3803 
  3804 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3805 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3806 
  3807 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3808 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3809 
  3810 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3811 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3812 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3815 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3816 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3817 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3818 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3819 
  3820 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3821 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3822 
  3823 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3824 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3825 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3826 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3827 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3828 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3829 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3830 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3831 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3832 
  3833 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3834 
  3835 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3836 
  3837 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3838 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3841 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3842 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3843 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3844 
  3845 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3846 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3847 
  3848     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3849     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3850     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3851     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3852     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3853     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3854     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3855     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3856 
  3857 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3858 theory Set.
  3859 
  3860 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3861 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3862 
  3863 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3864 
  3865 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3866 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3867 
  3868 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3869 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3870 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3871 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3872 allowed. For examples see
  3873 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3874 
  3875 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3876 
  3877 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879 
  3880 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3881 structure:
  3882 
  3883     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3884     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3885     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3886     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3887     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3888     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3889     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3890     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3891     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3892     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3893     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3894     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3895     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3896     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3897     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3898     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3899     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3900     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3901     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3902     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3903     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3904     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3905     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3906     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3907     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3908     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3909     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3910     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3911     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3912     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3913     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3914     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3915     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3916 
  3917     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3918     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3919     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3920     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3921     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3922     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3923     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3924     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3925     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3926     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3927 
  3928     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3929     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3930     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3931     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3932     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3933     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3934 
  3935 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3936 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3937 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3938 
  3939 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3940 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3941 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3942 
  3943 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3944 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3947 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3948 
  3949 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3950 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3951 proofs, e.g.
  3952 
  3953   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3954 
  3955 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3956 
  3957 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3958 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3959 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3962 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3966 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3967 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3971 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3972 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3973 preorder_class.*.
  3974 
  3975 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3976 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3977 
  3978 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3979 
  3980   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3981 
  3982 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3983 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3984 fold_image.
  3985 
  3986 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3987 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3988 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3989 the former will disappear at some point.
  3990 
  3991 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3992 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3993 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3994 
  3995 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3996 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3997 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3998 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3999 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4000 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4001 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4002 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4003 
  4004 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4005 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4006 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4007 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4008 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4009 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4010 
  4011     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4012     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4013     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4014     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4015     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4016     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4017     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4018 
  4019 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4020 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4021 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4022 
  4023 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4024 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4025 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4026 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4027 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4028 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4029 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4030 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4031 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4032 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4033 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4034 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4035 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4036 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4037 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4038 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4039 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4040 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4041 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4042 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4043 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4044 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4045 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4046 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4047 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4048 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4049 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4050 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4051 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4052 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4053 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4054 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4055 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4056 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4057 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4058 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4059 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4060 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4061 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4062 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4063 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4064 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4065 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4066 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4067 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4068 
  4069 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4072 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4073 
  4074 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4075 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4076 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4077 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4078 
  4079 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4080 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4081 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4082 theory RealVector.
  4083 
  4084 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4085 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4086 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4087 and inner products are included.
  4088 
  4089 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4090 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4091 supported.
  4092 
  4093 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4094 first diagonalization argument.
  4095 
  4096 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4097 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4098 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4099 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4100 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4101 
  4102     hide (open) const gcd
  4103     abbreviation gcd where
  4104       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4105     notation (output)
  4106       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4107 
  4108 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4109 
  4110 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4111 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4112 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4115 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4116 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4117 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4118 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4119 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4120 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4121 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4122 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4123 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4124 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4125 cases.
  4126 
  4127 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4128 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4129 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4130 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4131 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4132 
  4133     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4134     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4135     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4136     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4137     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4138 
  4139 
  4140 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4141 
  4142 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4143 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4144 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4145 
  4146 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4147 
  4148 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4149 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4150 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4151 
  4152 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4153 
  4154 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4155 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4156 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4157 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4158 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4159 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4160 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4161 
  4162 
  4163 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4164 
  4165 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4166 
  4167 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4168 theory targets.
  4169 
  4170 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4171 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4172 'inductive' etc.
  4173 
  4174 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4175 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4176 
  4177 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4178 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4179 
  4180 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4181 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4182 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4183 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4184 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4185 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4186 the algorithm W:
  4187 
  4188  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4189  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4190          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4191 
  4192 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4193 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4194 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4195 
  4196 
  4197 *** HOLCF ***
  4198 
  4199 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4200 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4201 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4202 
  4203 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4204 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4205 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4206 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4207 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4208 
  4209 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4210 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4211 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213 
  4214 *** ZF ***
  4215 
  4216 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4217 
  4218 
  4219 *** ML ***
  4220 
  4221 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4222 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4223 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4224 5.2.1!
  4225 
  4226 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4227 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4228 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4229 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4230 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4231 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4232 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4233 
  4234 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4235 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4236 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4237 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4238 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4239 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4240 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4241 
  4242 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4243 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4244 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4245 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4246 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4247 
  4248 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4249 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4250 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4251 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4252 Method.add_method.
  4253 
  4254 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4255 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4256 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4257 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4258 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4259 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4260 
  4261 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4262 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4263 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4264 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4265 examples.
  4266 
  4267 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4268 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4269 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4270 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4271 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4272 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4273 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4274 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4275 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4276 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4277 
  4278 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4279 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4280 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4281 
  4282 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4283 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4284 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4285 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4286 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4287 resort for legacy applications.
  4288 
  4289 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4290 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4291 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4292 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4293 explicit runtime argument.
  4294 
  4295 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4296 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4297 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4298 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4299 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4300 
  4301 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4302 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4303 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4304 theory state.
  4305 
  4306 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4307 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4308 
  4309   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4310   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4311   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4312   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4313   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4314   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4315   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4316   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4317   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4318   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4319 
  4320 
  4321 *** System ***
  4322 
  4323 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4324 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4325 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4326 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4327 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4328 
  4329 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4330 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4331 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4332 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4333 
  4334 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4335 
  4336 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4337 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4338 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4339 prover operations.
  4340 
  4341 
  4342 
  4343 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4344 -------------------------------
  4345 
  4346 *** General ***
  4347 
  4348 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4349 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4350 
  4351 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4352 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4353 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4354 provides a proper context already.
  4355 
  4356 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4357 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4358 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4359 
  4360 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4361 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4362 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4363 swap theory imports.
  4364 
  4365 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4366 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4367 
  4368 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4369 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4370 white space without escapes.
  4371 
  4372 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4373 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4374 "foo_bar".
  4375 
  4376 
  4377 *** Pure ***
  4378 
  4379 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4380 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4381 
  4382 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4383 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4384 
  4385 (1) unused_thms
  4386      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4387 
  4388 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4389      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4390      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4391 
  4392 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4393      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4394      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4395      their ancestors.
  4396 
  4397 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4398 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4399 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4400 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4401 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4402 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4403 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4404 
  4405 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4406 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4407 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4408 
  4409 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4410 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4411 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4412 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4413 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4414 
  4415 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4416 
  4417 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4418 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4419 update of theories within ML code.
  4420 
  4421 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4422 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4423 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4424 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4425 
  4426 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4427 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4428 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4432 
  4433 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4434 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4435 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4436 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4437 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4438 
  4439 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4440 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4441 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4442 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4443 situations.
  4444 
  4445 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4446 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4447 proof text.
  4448 
  4449 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4450 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4451 
  4452 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4453 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4454 predicates.
  4455 
  4456 
  4457 *** Document preparation ***
  4458 
  4459 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4460 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4461 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4462 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4463 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4464 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4465 
  4466 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4467 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4468 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4469 
  4470 
  4471 *** HOL ***
  4472 
  4473 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4474 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4475 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4476 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4477 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4478 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4479 
  4480 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4481 with multithreading.
  4482 
  4483 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4484 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4485 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4486 
  4487 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4488 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4489 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4490 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4491 
  4492 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4493 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4494 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4495 and makes them available separately.  See
  4496 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4497 
  4498 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4499 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4500 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4501 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4502 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4503 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4504 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4505 the declared rules.
  4506 
  4507 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4508 
  4509   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4510 
  4511 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4512 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4513 
  4514 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4515 
  4516   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4517 
  4518   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4519     definitions on => and bool.
  4520 
  4521   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4522     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4523     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4524 
  4525       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4526       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4527       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4528       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4529       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4530       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4531       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4532       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4533 
  4534   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4535     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4536     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4537 
  4538   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4539     The proof pattern
  4540 
  4541       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4542       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4543 
  4544     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4545     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4546 
  4547       have "EX S. P S"
  4548       proof
  4549         show "P S" <...>
  4550       qed
  4551 
  4552   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4553     The proof pattern
  4554 
  4555       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4556       also have "S = T" <...>
  4557       finally have "P T" .
  4558 
  4559     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4560     must be replaced by something like
  4561 
  4562       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4563       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4564       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4565 
  4566   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4567     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4568 
  4569       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4570 
  4571     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4572     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4573     type of the form
  4574 
  4575       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4576 
  4577     rather than
  4578 
  4579       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4580 
  4581 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4582 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4583 
  4584 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4587 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4591 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4594 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4597 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4598 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4599 
  4600 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4601 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4602 
  4603   less_trans
  4604   less_linear
  4605   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4606   le_less_trans
  4607   less_le_trans
  4608   less_not_sym
  4609   less_asym
  4610 
  4611 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4612 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4613 and different variable names.
  4614 
  4615 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4616 
  4617 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4618 finite maps.
  4619 
  4620 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4621 
  4622 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4623 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4624 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4625 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4626 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4627 accordingly.
  4628 
  4629 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4630 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4631 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4632 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4633 
  4634 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4635 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4636 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4637 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4638 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4642 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 
  4644 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4645 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4646 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4647 
  4648 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4650 
  4651 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4652 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4653 
  4654 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4655 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4656 
  4657 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4658 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4659 
  4660 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4661 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4663 
  4664 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4665 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4668 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4669 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4670 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4671 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4672 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4673 
  4674 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4675 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4676 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4677 
  4678 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4679 
  4680 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4681 
  4682 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4683 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4684 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4685 
  4686 
  4687 *** ZF ***
  4688 
  4689 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4690 same session:
  4691 
  4692   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4693   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4694   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4695   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4696   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4697   List      -> List_ZF
  4698   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4699 
  4700 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4701 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4702 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4703 
  4704 
  4705 *** ML ***
  4706 
  4707 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4708 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4709 
  4710 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4711 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4712 
  4713 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4714 
  4715 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4716 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4717 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4718 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4719 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4720 
  4721 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4722 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4723 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4724 
  4725 
  4726 *** System ***
  4727 
  4728 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4729 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4730 
  4731 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4732 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4733 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4734 
  4735 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4736 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4737 
  4738 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4739 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4740 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4741 
  4742 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4743 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4744 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4745 
  4746 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4747 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4748 
  4749 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4750 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4751 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4752 script.
  4753 
  4754 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4755 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4756 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4757 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4758 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4759 
  4760 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4761 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4762 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4763 
  4764 
  4765 
  4766 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4767 -----------------------------------
  4768 
  4769 *** General ***
  4770 
  4771 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4772 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4773 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4774 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4775 
  4776 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4777 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4778 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4779 
  4780 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4781 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4782 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4783 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4786 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4787 quotes.
  4788 
  4789 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4790 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4791 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4792 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4793 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4794 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4795 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4796 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4797 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4798 
  4799 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4800 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4801 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4802 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4803 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4804 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4805 
  4806 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4807 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4808 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4809 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4810 
  4811 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4812 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4813 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4814 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4815 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4816 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4817 
  4818 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4819 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4820 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4821 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4822 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4823 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4824 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4825 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4826 
  4827 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4828 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4829 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4830 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4831 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4832 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4833 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4834 
  4835 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4836 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4837 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4838 
  4839 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4840 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4841 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4842 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4843 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4844 limit is imposed.
  4845 
  4846 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4847 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4848 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4849 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4850 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4851 and scalability.
  4852 
  4853 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4854 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4855 
  4856 
  4857 *** Document preparation ***
  4858 
  4859 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4860 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4861 current context.
  4862 
  4863 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4864 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4865 
  4866 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4867 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4868 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4869 
  4870 
  4871 *** Pure ***
  4872 
  4873 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4874 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4875 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4876 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4877 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4878 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4879 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4880 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4881 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4882 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4883 
  4884 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4885 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4886 sketch:
  4887 
  4888     internal compilation:
  4889         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4890     writing SML code to a file:
  4891         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4892     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4893         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4894     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4895         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4896 
  4897     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4898         method ``eval''
  4899 
  4900 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4901 
  4902 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4903 
  4904     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4905     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4906     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4907     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4908 
  4909 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4910 
  4911     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4912       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4913 
  4914     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4915       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4916 
  4917     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4918       {(target)}+
  4919         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4920 
  4921     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4922       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4923         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4924 
  4925 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4926 
  4927 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4928 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4929 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4930 codegen".
  4931 
  4932 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4933 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4934 annotations).
  4935 
  4936 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4937 syntax.
  4938 
  4939 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4940 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4941 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4942 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4943 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4944 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4945 
  4946 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4947 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4948 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4949 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4950 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4951 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4952 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4953 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4954 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4955 equations, see section "definitions".
  4956 
  4957 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4958 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4959 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4960 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4961 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4962 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4963 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4964 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4965 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4966 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4967 
  4968 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4969 configuration options:
  4970 
  4971   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4972   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4973   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4974   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4975   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4976   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4977   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4978   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4979   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4980 
  4981 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4982 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4983 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4984 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4985 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4986 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4987 order.
  4988 
  4989 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4990 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4991 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4992 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4993 context encountered later on.
  4994 
  4995 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4996 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4997 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4998 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4999 
  5000 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5001 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5002 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5003 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5004 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5005 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5006 
  5007 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5008 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5009 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5010 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5011 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5012 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5013 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5014 more permissive.
  5015 
  5016 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5017 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5018 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5019 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5020 maintainability of proof texts.
  5021 
  5022 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5023 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5024 
  5025   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5026   then guess x and y by clarify
  5027 
  5028 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5029 proof tools being involved here.
  5030 
  5031 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5032 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5033 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5034 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5035 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5036 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5037 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5038 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5039 
  5040 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5041 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5042 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5043 
  5044   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5045   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5046   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5047   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5048 
  5049 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5050 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5051 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5052 
  5053 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5054 both named and unnamed ones.
  5055 
  5056 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5057 
  5058   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5059 
  5060 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5061 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5062 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5063 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5064 
  5065 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5066 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5067 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5068 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5069 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5070 
  5071 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5072 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5073 
  5074 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5075 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5076 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5077 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5078 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5079 originally first one.
  5080 
  5081 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5082 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5083 expected.
  5084 
  5085 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5086 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5087 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5088 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5089 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5090 
  5091   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5092     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5093     obtains x where "P x"
  5094 
  5095   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5096     assumes "A & B"
  5097     obtains A and B
  5098 
  5099   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5100     assumes "A | B"
  5101     obtains
  5102       A
  5103     | B
  5104 
  5105 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5106 explicitly:
  5107 
  5108   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5109     obtains "~ thesis"
  5110 
  5111   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5112     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5113 
  5114 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5115 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5116 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5117 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5118 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5119 case_names).
  5120 
  5121 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5122 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5123 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5124 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5125 
  5126 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5127 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5128 top-level lemma.
  5129 
  5130 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5131 introduction rule (default "that").
  5132 
  5133 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5134 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5135 to occur.
  5136 
  5137 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5138 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5139 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5140 representations independently of name spaces.
  5141 
  5142 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5143 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5144 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5145 
  5146 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5147 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5148 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5149 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5150 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5151 current context.
  5152 
  5153 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5154 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5155 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5156 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5157 
  5158   axiomatization
  5159     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5160     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5161 
  5162   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5163   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5164 
  5165   abbreviation
  5166     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5167     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5168 
  5169 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5170 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5171 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5172 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5173 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5174 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5175 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5176 
  5177 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5178 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5179 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5180 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5181 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5182 
  5183 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5184 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5185 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5186 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5187 
  5188 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5189 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5190 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5191 
  5192   definition "K x _ = x"
  5193 
  5194   inductive conj for A B
  5195   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5196 
  5197 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5198 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5199 abbreviations on output.
  5200 
  5201 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5202 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5203 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5204 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5205 
  5206 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5207 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5208 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5209 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5210 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5211 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5212 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5213 
  5214 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5215 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5216 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5217 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5218 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5219 
  5220 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5221 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5222 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5223 
  5224 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5225 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5226 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5227 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5228 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5229 
  5230   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5231     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5232 
  5233 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5234 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5235 partial_order.
  5236 
  5237 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5238 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5239 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5240 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5241 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5242 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5243 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5244 examples.
  5245 
  5246 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5247 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5248 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5249 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5250 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5251 
  5252 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5253 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5254 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5255 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5256 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5257 
  5258   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5259   (induct set: foo bar)
  5260   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5261   (induct type: foo bar)
  5262 
  5263 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5264 new format.
  5265 
  5266 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5267 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5268 
  5269 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5270 considered a legacy feature.
  5271 
  5272 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5273 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5274 
  5275 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5276 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5277 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5278 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5279   
  5280 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5281 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5282 manipulating the claset.
  5283 
  5284 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5285 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5286 least one premise.
  5287 
  5288 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5289 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5290 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5291 rule steps.
  5292 
  5293 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5294 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5295 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5296 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5297 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5298 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5299 
  5300 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5301 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5302 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5303 
  5304 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5305 the graph browser tool.
  5306 
  5307 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5308 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5309 
  5310 
  5311 *** HOL ***
  5312 
  5313 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5314 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5315 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5316 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5317 multi-threading.
  5318   
  5319 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5320 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5321 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5322 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5323 work with multi-threading.
  5324 
  5325 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5326 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5327 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5328 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5329 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5330 
  5331 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5332 
  5333 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5334 equality.
  5335 
  5336 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5337 the new 'class' package:
  5338 
  5339     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5340     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5341     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5342     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5343     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5344     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5345     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5346     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5347     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5348     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5349     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5350     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5351     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5352     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5353     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5354     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5355     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5356     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5357     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5358     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5359 
  5360 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5361 
  5362 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5363 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5364 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5365 names.
  5366 
  5367 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5368 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5369 
  5370 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5371 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5372 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5373 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5374 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5375 
  5376 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5377 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5378 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5379 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5380 
  5381 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5382 
  5383 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5384 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5385 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5386 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5388 
  5389 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5390 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5391 
  5392 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5393 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5394 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5395 
  5396 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5397 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5398 
  5399 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5400 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5401 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5402 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5403 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5404 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5405 in the current context.
  5406 
  5407 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5408 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5410 
  5411 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5412 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5413 
  5414 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5415 
  5416     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5417     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5418 
  5419     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5420       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5421     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5422     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5423 
  5424     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5425     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5426 
  5427   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5428 
  5429     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5430     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5431     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5432     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5433     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5434     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5435     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5436     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5437     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5438     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5439     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5440     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5441     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5442     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5443     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5444     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5445     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5446     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5447     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5448     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5449     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5450     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5451     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5452     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5453     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5454     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5455     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5456     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5457     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5458     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5459     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5460     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5461     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5462     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5463     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5464 
  5465     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5466     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5467     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5468     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5469     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5470     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5471     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5472     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5473     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5474     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5475     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5476     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5477     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5478     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5479     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5480     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5481     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5482 
  5483     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5484     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5485     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5486     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5487     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5488     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5489     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5490     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5491     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5492     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5493     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5494     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5495     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5496     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5497     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5498     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5499     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5500     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5501     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5502     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5503     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5504     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5505     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5506     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5507     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5508     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5509     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5510     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5511 
  5512     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5513     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5514     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5515     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5516     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5517     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5518 
  5519     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5520     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5521     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5522     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5523 
  5524     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5525     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5526 
  5527     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5528     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5529 
  5530 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5531 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5532 
  5533 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5534 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5535 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5536 "*.size".
  5537 
  5538 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5542 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5543 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5544 
  5545 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5546 
  5547 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5548 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5549 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5550 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5551 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5552 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5553 numerals on all operations.
  5554 
  5555 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5556 
  5557 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5558 
  5559 * Code generator library theories:
  5560   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5561     languages.
  5562   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5563     languages.
  5564   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5565     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5566   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5567   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5568     denominator).
  5569   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5570     representable by rational numbers.
  5571   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5572     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5573     includes Code_Integer.
  5574   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5575     target-language built-in integers.
  5576   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5577     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5578 
  5579 * New package for inductive predicates
  5580 
  5581   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5582 
  5583     inductive
  5584       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5585       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5586     where
  5587       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5588     | ...
  5589 
  5590   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5591 
  5592     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5593 
  5594     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5595     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5596 
  5597     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5598     intros
  5599       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5600       ...
  5601 
  5602   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5603   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5604 
  5605     inductive_set
  5606       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5607       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5608     where
  5609       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5610     | ...
  5611 
  5612   or
  5613 
  5614     inductive_set
  5615       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5616       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5617       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5618     where
  5619       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5620     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5621     | ...
  5622 
  5623   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5624 
  5625   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5626   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5627 
  5628   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5629 
  5630   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5631     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5632     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5633     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5634     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5635 
  5636   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5637     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5638     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5639     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5640     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5641     statements of the form
  5642 
  5643       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5644 
  5645     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5646     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5647 
  5648       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5649 
  5650   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5651 
  5652       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5653         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5654         ==> ... ==> P
  5655 
  5656     for predicates and
  5657 
  5658       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5659         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5660         ==> ... ==> P
  5661 
  5662     for sets rather than
  5663 
  5664       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5665         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5666         ==> ... ==> P
  5667 
  5668     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5669     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5670     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5671 
  5672   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5673     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5674     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5675 
  5676 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5677 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5678 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5679 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5680 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5681 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5682 
  5683 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5684 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5685 
  5686 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5687 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5688 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5689 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5690 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5691 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5692 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5693 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5694 variable.
  5695 
  5696 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5697 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5698 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5699 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5700   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5701   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5702 
  5703 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5704 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5705 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5706 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5707 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5708 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5709 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5710 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5711 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5712 
  5713 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5714 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5715 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5716 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5717 rat, etc.
  5718 
  5719 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5720 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5721 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5722 
  5723 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5724 
  5725 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5726 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5727 
  5728 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5729 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5730 
  5731 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5732 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5733 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5734 
  5735 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5736 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5738 
  5739 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5740 
  5741 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5742 
  5743 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5744 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5745 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5746 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5747 
  5748 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5749 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5750 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5751 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5752 
  5753 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5754 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5755 algebraic operations.
  5756 
  5757 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5759 
  5760 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5762 
  5763 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5764 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5765 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5766 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5767 adapted.
  5768  
  5769 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5770 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5771 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5772 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5773 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5774 
  5775 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5776 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5777 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5778 
  5779 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5780 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5781 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5782 
  5783 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5784 
  5785 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5786 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5787 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5788   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5789       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5790   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5791   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5792   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5793 
  5794 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5795 
  5796 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5797 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5798 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5799 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5800 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5801 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5802 
  5803 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5804 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5805 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5806 
  5807 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5808 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5809 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5811 
  5812 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5813 
  5814 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5815 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5816 
  5817 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5818 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5819 
  5820 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5821 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5822 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5823 
  5824 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5825 True/False.
  5826 
  5827 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5828 
  5829 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5830 
  5831 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5832 ``rule'' method.
  5833 
  5834 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5835 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5836 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5837 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5838 
  5839 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5840 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5841 
  5842 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5843 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5844 
  5845 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5846 Library.
  5847 
  5848 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5849 
  5850 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5851 as greatest fixed-point.
  5852 
  5853 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5854 association lists.
  5855 
  5856 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5857 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5858 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5859 
  5860 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5861 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5862 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5863 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5864 behavior.
  5865 
  5866 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5867 
  5868 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5869 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5870 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5871 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5872 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5873 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5874 
  5875 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5876 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5877 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5878 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5879 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5880 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5881 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5882 
  5883 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5884 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5885 
  5886 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5887 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5888 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5889 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5890 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5891 
  5892 
  5893 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5894 
  5895 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5896 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5897 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5898 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5902 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5903 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5904 
  5905 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5906 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5907 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5908 
  5909 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5910 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5911 
  5912 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5913 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5914 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5916 
  5917   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5918   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5919   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5920   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5921   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5922   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5923   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5924   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5925   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5926   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5927   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5928   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5929   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5930   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5931   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5932 
  5933 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5934 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5935 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5936 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5937 
  5938   approx        <-- capprox
  5939   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5940   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5941   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5942   monad         <-- cmonad
  5943   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5944   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5945   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5946   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5947 
  5948 
  5949 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5950 
  5951 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5952 
  5953 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5957 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5958 
  5959 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5960 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5961 of algebraic structures.
  5962 
  5963 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5964 
  5965 
  5966 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5967 
  5968 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5969 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5970 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5971 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5972 
  5973 
  5974 *** ML ***
  5975 
  5976 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5977 (even on SML/NJ).
  5978 
  5979 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5980 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5981 compile-time.  For example:
  5982 
  5983 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5984 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5985 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5986 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5987 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5988 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5989 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5990 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5991 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5992 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5993 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5994 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5995 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5996 ML {* @{context} *}
  5997 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5998 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5999 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6000 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6001 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6002 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6003 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6004 
  6005 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6006 
  6007 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6008 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6009 
  6010 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6011 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6012 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6013 
  6014 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6015 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6016 
  6017 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6018 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6019 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6020 
  6021 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6022 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6023 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6024 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6025 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6026 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6027 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6028 declarations and definitions.
  6029 
  6030 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6031 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6032 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6033 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6034 
  6035 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6036 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6037 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6038 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6039 
  6040 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6041 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6042 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6043 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6044 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6045 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6046 
  6047 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6048 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6049 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6050 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6051 attributes, methods, etc.
  6052 
  6053 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6054 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6055 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6056 fold_map combinators.
  6057 
  6058 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6059 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6060 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6061 derivation.
  6062 
  6063 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6064 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6065 achieve the old behaviour.
  6066 
  6067 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6068 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6069 statements.
  6070 
  6071 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6072 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6073 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6074 
  6075 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6076 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6077 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6078 
  6079   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6080   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6081   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6082 
  6083 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6084 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6085 
  6086 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6087 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6088 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6089 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6090 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6091 
  6092 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6093 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6094 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6095 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6096 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6097 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6098 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6099 in a locale context).
  6100 
  6101 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6102 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6103 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6104 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6105 
  6106 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6107 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6108 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6109 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6110 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6111 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6112 
  6113 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6114 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6115 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6116 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6117 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6118 
  6119   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6120 
  6121 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6122 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6123 this:
  6124 
  6125   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6126 
  6127 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6128 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6129 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6130 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6131 
  6132 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6133 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6134 
  6135 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6136 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6137 
  6138 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6139 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6140 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6141 batch mode.
  6142 
  6143 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6144 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6145 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6146 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6147 
  6148 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6149 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6150 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6151 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6152 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6153 
  6154 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6155 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6156 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6157 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6158 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6159 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6160 
  6161 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6162 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6163 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6165 
  6166 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6167 "Trueprop" etc.
  6168 
  6169 
  6170 *** System ***
  6171 
  6172 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6173 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6174 Isabelle installations.
  6175 
  6176 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6177 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6178 code.
  6179 
  6180 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6181 
  6182 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6183 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6184 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6185 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6186 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6187 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6188 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6189 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6190 Implementation manual.
  6191 
  6192 
  6193 
  6194 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6195 ----------------------------------
  6196 
  6197 *** General ***
  6198 
  6199 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6200 
  6201   theory <name>
  6202   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6203   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6204   begin
  6205 
  6206 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6207 
  6208   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6209 
  6210 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6211 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6212 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6213 
  6214 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6215 relative and absolute paths.
  6216 
  6217 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6218 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6219 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6220 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6221 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  6222 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  6223 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  6224 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  6225 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  6226 
  6227   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  6228 
  6229 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  6230 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  6231 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  6232 
  6233 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  6234 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 
  6236 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  6237 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  6238 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  6239 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  6240