author wenzelm
Sun Sep 18 20:33:48 2016 +0200 (2016-09-18)
changeset 63915 bab633745c7f
parent 63810 67b091896158
child 63979 95c3ae4baba8
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned proofs;
     1 (*  Title:      HOL/Complete_Partial_Order.thy
     2     Author:     Brian Huffman, Portland State University
     3     Author:     Alexander Krauss, TU Muenchen
     4 *)
     6 section \<open>Chain-complete partial orders and their fixpoints\<close>
     8 theory Complete_Partial_Order
     9   imports Product_Type
    10 begin
    12 subsection \<open>Monotone functions\<close>
    14 text \<open>Dictionary-passing version of @{const Orderings.mono}.\<close>
    16 definition monotone :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> ('b \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) \<Rightarrow> bool"
    17   where "monotone orda ordb f \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x y. orda x y \<longrightarrow> ordb (f x) (f y))"
    19 lemma monotoneI[intro?]: "(\<And>x y. orda x y \<Longrightarrow> ordb (f x) (f y)) \<Longrightarrow> monotone orda ordb f"
    20   unfolding monotone_def by iprover
    22 lemma monotoneD[dest?]: "monotone orda ordb f \<Longrightarrow> orda x y \<Longrightarrow> ordb (f x) (f y)"
    23   unfolding monotone_def by iprover
    26 subsection \<open>Chains\<close>
    28 text \<open>
    29   A chain is a totally-ordered set. Chains are parameterized over
    30   the order for maximal flexibility, since type classes are not enough.
    31 \<close>
    33 definition chain :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> bool"
    34   where "chain ord S \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>S. \<forall>y\<in>S. ord x y \<or> ord y x)"
    36 lemma chainI:
    37   assumes "\<And>x y. x \<in> S \<Longrightarrow> y \<in> S \<Longrightarrow> ord x y \<or> ord y x"
    38   shows "chain ord S"
    39   using assms unfolding chain_def by fast
    41 lemma chainD:
    42   assumes "chain ord S" and "x \<in> S" and "y \<in> S"
    43   shows "ord x y \<or> ord y x"
    44   using assms unfolding chain_def by fast
    46 lemma chainE:
    47   assumes "chain ord S" and "x \<in> S" and "y \<in> S"
    48   obtains "ord x y" | "ord y x"
    49   using assms unfolding chain_def by fast
    51 lemma chain_empty: "chain ord {}"
    52   by (simp add: chain_def)
    54 lemma chain_equality: "chain op = A \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>A. \<forall>y\<in>A. x = y)"
    55   by (auto simp add: chain_def)
    57 lemma chain_subset: "chain ord A \<Longrightarrow> B \<subseteq> A \<Longrightarrow> chain ord B"
    58   by (rule chainI) (blast dest: chainD)
    60 lemma chain_imageI:
    61   assumes chain: "chain le_a Y"
    62     and mono: "\<And>x y. x \<in> Y \<Longrightarrow> y \<in> Y \<Longrightarrow> le_a x y \<Longrightarrow> le_b (f x) (f y)"
    63   shows "chain le_b (f ` Y)"
    64   by (blast intro: chainI dest: chainD[OF chain] mono)
    67 subsection \<open>Chain-complete partial orders\<close>
    69 text \<open>
    70   A \<open>ccpo\<close> has a least upper bound for any chain.  In particular, the
    71   empty set is a chain, so every \<open>ccpo\<close> must have a bottom element.
    72 \<close>
    74 class ccpo = order + Sup +
    75   assumes ccpo_Sup_upper: "chain (op \<le>) A \<Longrightarrow> x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> x \<le> Sup A"
    76   assumes ccpo_Sup_least: "chain (op \<le>) A \<Longrightarrow> (\<And>x. x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> x \<le> z) \<Longrightarrow> Sup A \<le> z"
    77 begin
    79 lemma chain_singleton: "Complete_Partial_Order.chain op \<le> {x}"
    80   by (rule chainI) simp
    82 lemma ccpo_Sup_singleton [simp]: "\<Squnion>{x} = x"
    83   by (rule antisym) (auto intro: ccpo_Sup_least ccpo_Sup_upper simp add: chain_singleton)
    86 subsection \<open>Transfinite iteration of a function\<close>
    88 context notes [[inductive_internals]]
    89 begin
    91 inductive_set iterates :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'a) \<Rightarrow> 'a set"
    92   for f :: "'a \<Rightarrow> 'a"
    93   where
    94     step: "x \<in> iterates f \<Longrightarrow> f x \<in> iterates f"
    95   | Sup: "chain (op \<le>) M \<Longrightarrow> \<forall>x\<in>M. x \<in> iterates f \<Longrightarrow> Sup M \<in> iterates f"
    97 end
    99 lemma iterates_le_f: "x \<in> iterates f \<Longrightarrow> monotone (op \<le>) (op \<le>) f \<Longrightarrow> x \<le> f x"
   100   by (induct x rule: iterates.induct)
   101     (force dest: monotoneD intro!: ccpo_Sup_upper ccpo_Sup_least)+
   103 lemma chain_iterates:
   104   assumes f: "monotone (op \<le>) (op \<le>) f"
   105   shows "chain (op \<le>) (iterates f)" (is "chain _ ?C")
   106 proof (rule chainI)
   107   fix x y
   108   assume "x \<in> ?C" "y \<in> ?C"
   109   then show "x \<le> y \<or> y \<le> x"
   110   proof (induct x arbitrary: y rule: iterates.induct)
   111     fix x y
   112     assume y: "y \<in> ?C"
   113       and IH: "\<And>z. z \<in> ?C \<Longrightarrow> x \<le> z \<or> z \<le> x"
   114     from y show "f x \<le> y \<or> y \<le> f x"
   115     proof (induct y rule: iterates.induct)
   116       case (step y)
   117       with IH f show ?case by (auto dest: monotoneD)
   118     next
   119       case (Sup M)
   120       then have chM: "chain (op \<le>) M"
   121         and IH': "\<And>z. z \<in> M \<Longrightarrow> f x \<le> z \<or> z \<le> f x" by auto
   122       show "f x \<le> Sup M \<or> Sup M \<le> f x"
   123       proof (cases "\<exists>z\<in>M. f x \<le> z")
   124         case True
   125         then have "f x \<le> Sup M"
   126           apply rule
   127           apply (erule order_trans)
   128           apply (rule ccpo_Sup_upper[OF chM])
   129           apply assumption
   130           done
   131         then show ?thesis ..
   132       next
   133         case False
   134         with IH' show ?thesis
   135           by (auto intro: ccpo_Sup_least[OF chM])
   136       qed
   137     qed
   138   next
   139     case (Sup M y)
   140     show ?case
   141     proof (cases "\<exists>x\<in>M. y \<le> x")
   142       case True
   143       then have "y \<le> Sup M"
   144         apply rule
   145         apply (erule order_trans)
   146         apply (rule ccpo_Sup_upper[OF Sup(1)])
   147         apply assumption
   148         done
   149       then show ?thesis ..
   150     next
   151       case False with Sup
   152       show ?thesis by (auto intro: ccpo_Sup_least)
   153     qed
   154   qed
   155 qed
   157 lemma bot_in_iterates: "Sup {} \<in> iterates f"
   158   by (auto intro: iterates.Sup simp add: chain_empty)
   161 subsection \<open>Fixpoint combinator\<close>
   163 definition fixp :: "('a \<Rightarrow> 'a) \<Rightarrow> 'a"
   164   where "fixp f = Sup (iterates f)"
   166 lemma iterates_fixp:
   167   assumes f: "monotone (op \<le>) (op \<le>) f"
   168   shows "fixp f \<in> iterates f"
   169   unfolding fixp_def
   170   by (simp add: iterates.Sup chain_iterates f)
   172 lemma fixp_unfold:
   173   assumes f: "monotone (op \<le>) (op \<le>) f"
   174   shows "fixp f = f (fixp f)"
   175 proof (rule antisym)
   176   show "fixp f \<le> f (fixp f)"
   177     by (intro iterates_le_f iterates_fixp f)
   178   have "f (fixp f) \<le> Sup (iterates f)"
   179     by (intro ccpo_Sup_upper chain_iterates f iterates.step iterates_fixp)
   180   then show "f (fixp f) \<le> fixp f"
   181     by (simp only: fixp_def)
   182 qed
   184 lemma fixp_lowerbound:
   185   assumes f: "monotone (op \<le>) (op \<le>) f"
   186     and z: "f z \<le> z"
   187   shows "fixp f \<le> z"
   188   unfolding fixp_def
   189 proof (rule ccpo_Sup_least[OF chain_iterates[OF f]])
   190   fix x
   191   assume "x \<in> iterates f"
   192   then show "x \<le> z"
   193   proof (induct x rule: iterates.induct)
   194     case (step x)
   195     from f \<open>x \<le> z\<close> have "f x \<le> f z" by (rule monotoneD)
   196     also note z
   197     finally show "f x \<le> z" .
   198   next
   199     case (Sup M)
   200     then show ?case
   201       by (auto intro: ccpo_Sup_least)
   202   qed
   203 qed
   205 end
   208 subsection \<open>Fixpoint induction\<close>
   210 setup \<open>Sign.map_naming (Name_Space.mandatory_path "ccpo")\<close>
   212 definition admissible :: "('a set \<Rightarrow> 'a) \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> bool"
   213   where "admissible lub ord P \<longleftrightarrow> (\<forall>A. chain ord A \<longrightarrow> A \<noteq> {} \<longrightarrow> (\<forall>x\<in>A. P x) \<longrightarrow> P (lub A))"
   215 lemma admissibleI:
   216   assumes "\<And>A. chain ord A \<Longrightarrow> A \<noteq> {} \<Longrightarrow> \<forall>x\<in>A. P x \<Longrightarrow> P (lub A)"
   217   shows "ccpo.admissible lub ord P"
   218   using assms unfolding ccpo.admissible_def by fast
   220 lemma admissibleD:
   221   assumes "ccpo.admissible lub ord P"
   222   assumes "chain ord A"
   223   assumes "A \<noteq> {}"
   224   assumes "\<And>x. x \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> P x"
   225   shows "P (lub A)"
   226   using assms by (auto simp: ccpo.admissible_def)
   228 setup \<open>Sign.map_naming Name_Space.parent_path\<close>
   230 lemma (in ccpo) fixp_induct:
   231   assumes adm: "ccpo.admissible Sup (op \<le>) P"
   232   assumes mono: "monotone (op \<le>) (op \<le>) f"
   233   assumes bot: "P (Sup {})"
   234   assumes step: "\<And>x. P x \<Longrightarrow> P (f x)"
   235   shows "P (fixp f)"
   236   unfolding fixp_def
   237   using adm chain_iterates[OF mono]
   238 proof (rule ccpo.admissibleD)
   239   show "iterates f \<noteq> {}"
   240     using bot_in_iterates by auto
   241 next
   242   fix x
   243   assume "x \<in> iterates f"
   244   then show "P x"
   245   proof (induct rule: iterates.induct)
   246     case prems: (step x)
   247     from this(2) show ?case by (rule step)
   248   next
   249     case (Sup M)
   250     then show ?case by (cases "M = {}") (auto intro: step bot ccpo.admissibleD adm)
   251   qed
   252 qed
   254 lemma admissible_True: "ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. True)"
   255   unfolding ccpo.admissible_def by simp
   257 (*lemma admissible_False: "\<not> ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. False)"
   258 unfolding ccpo.admissible_def chain_def by simp
   259 *)
   260 lemma admissible_const: "ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. t)"
   261   by (auto intro: ccpo.admissibleI)
   263 lemma admissible_conj:
   264   assumes "ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. P x)"
   265   assumes "ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. Q x)"
   266   shows "ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. P x \<and> Q x)"
   267   using assms unfolding ccpo.admissible_def by simp
   269 lemma admissible_all:
   270   assumes "\<And>y. ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. P x y)"
   271   shows "ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. \<forall>y. P x y)"
   272   using assms unfolding ccpo.admissible_def by fast
   274 lemma admissible_ball:
   275   assumes "\<And>y. y \<in> A \<Longrightarrow> ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. P x y)"
   276   shows "ccpo.admissible lub ord (\<lambda>x. \<forall>y\<in>A. P x y)"
   277   using assms unfolding ccpo.admissible_def by fast
   279 lemma chain_compr: "chain ord A \<Longrightarrow> chain ord {x \<in> A. P x}"
   280   unfolding chain_def by fast
   282 context ccpo
   283 begin
   285 lemma admissible_disj:
   286   fixes P Q :: "'a \<Rightarrow> bool"
   287   assumes P: "ccpo.admissible Sup (op \<le>) (\<lambda>x. P x)"
   288   assumes Q: "ccpo.admissible Sup (op \<le>) (\<lambda>x. Q x)"
   289   shows "ccpo.admissible Sup (op \<le>) (\<lambda>x. P x \<or> Q x)"
   290 proof (rule ccpo.admissibleI)
   291   fix A :: "'a set"
   292   assume chain: "chain (op \<le>) A"
   293   assume A: "A \<noteq> {}" and P_Q: "\<forall>x\<in>A. P x \<or> Q x"
   294   have "(\<exists>x\<in>A. P x) \<and> (\<forall>x\<in>A. \<exists>y\<in>A. x \<le> y \<and> P y) \<or> (\<exists>x\<in>A. Q x) \<and> (\<forall>x\<in>A. \<exists>y\<in>A. x \<le> y \<and> Q y)"
   295     (is "?P \<or> ?Q" is "?P1 \<and> ?P2 \<or> _")
   296   proof (rule disjCI)
   297     assume "\<not> ?Q"
   298     then consider "\<forall>x\<in>A. \<not> Q x" | a where "a \<in> A" "\<forall>y\<in>A. a \<le> y \<longrightarrow> \<not> Q y"
   299       by blast
   300     then show ?P
   301     proof cases
   302       case 1
   303       with P_Q have "\<forall>x\<in>A. P x" by blast
   304       with A show ?P by blast
   305     next
   306       case 2
   307       note a = \<open>a \<in> A\<close>
   308       show ?P
   309       proof
   310         from P_Q 2 have *: "\<forall>y\<in>A. a \<le> y \<longrightarrow> P y" by blast
   311         with a have "P a" by blast
   312         with a show ?P1 by blast
   313         show ?P2
   314         proof
   315           fix x
   316           assume x: "x \<in> A"
   317           with chain a show "\<exists>y\<in>A. x \<le> y \<and> P y"
   318           proof (rule chainE)
   319             assume le: "a \<le> x"
   320             with * a x have "P x" by blast
   321             with x le show ?thesis by blast
   322           next
   323             assume "a \<ge> x"
   324             with a \<open>P a\<close> show ?thesis by blast
   325           qed
   326         qed
   327       qed
   328     qed
   329   qed
   330   moreover
   331   have "Sup A = Sup {x \<in> A. P x}" if "\<forall>x\<in>A. \<exists>y\<in>A. x \<le> y \<and> P y" for P
   332   proof (rule antisym)
   333     have chain_P: "chain (op \<le>) {x \<in> A. P x}"
   334       by (rule chain_compr [OF chain])
   335     show "Sup A \<le> Sup {x \<in> A. P x}"
   336       apply (rule ccpo_Sup_least [OF chain])
   337       apply (drule that [rule_format])
   338       apply clarify
   339       apply (erule order_trans)
   340       apply (simp add: ccpo_Sup_upper [OF chain_P])
   341       done
   342     show "Sup {x \<in> A. P x} \<le> Sup A"
   343       apply (rule ccpo_Sup_least [OF chain_P])
   344       apply clarify
   345       apply (simp add: ccpo_Sup_upper [OF chain])
   346       done
   347   qed
   348   ultimately
   349   consider "\<exists>x. x \<in> A \<and> P x" "Sup A = Sup {x \<in> A. P x}"
   350     | "\<exists>x. x \<in> A \<and> Q x" "Sup A = Sup {x \<in> A. Q x}"
   351     by blast
   352   then show "P (Sup A) \<or> Q (Sup A)"
   353     apply cases
   354      apply simp_all
   355      apply (rule disjI1)
   356      apply (rule ccpo.admissibleD [OF P chain_compr [OF chain]]; simp)
   357     apply (rule disjI2)
   358     apply (rule ccpo.admissibleD [OF Q chain_compr [OF chain]]; simp)
   359     done
   360 qed
   362 end
   364 instance complete_lattice \<subseteq> ccpo
   365   by standard (fast intro: Sup_upper Sup_least)+
   367 lemma lfp_eq_fixp:
   368   assumes f: "mono f"
   369   shows "lfp f = fixp f"
   370 proof (rule antisym)
   371   from f have f': "monotone (op \<le>) (op \<le>) f"
   372     unfolding mono_def monotone_def .
   373   show "lfp f \<le> fixp f"
   374     by (rule lfp_lowerbound, subst fixp_unfold [OF f'], rule order_refl)
   375   show "fixp f \<le> lfp f"
   376     by (rule fixp_lowerbound [OF f'], subst lfp_unfold [OF f], rule order_refl)
   377 qed
   379 hide_const (open) iterates fixp
   381 end