NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Dec 14 12:40:07 2012 +0100 (2012-12-14)
changeset 50524 bd145273e7c6
parent 50516 ed6b40d15d1c
parent 50505 33c92722cc3d
child 50525 46be26e02456
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    65 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    66 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    67 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    68 
    69 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    70 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    71 
    72 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    73 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    74 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    75 potentially infinite message streams.
    76 
    77 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    78 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    79 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    80 schemes.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    83 symbols.
    84 
    85 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    86 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    87 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    88 
    89 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    90 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    91 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    92 
    93 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
    94 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
    95 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
    96 Isabelle distribution.
    97 
    98 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    99 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   100 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   101 
   102 
   103 *** Pure ***
   104 
   105 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   106 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   107 
   108 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
   109 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
   110 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
   111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   114 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   115 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   116 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   117 with some care where this is really required.
   118 
   119 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   120 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   121 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   122 
   123   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   124 
   125 
   126 *** HOL ***
   127 
   128 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   129 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   130 
   131 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   132 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   135 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   136 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   137 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   138 accordingly.
   139 
   140 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   141 
   142   - Renamed constants
   143       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   144 
   145   - Renamed facts
   146       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   147 
   148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   153 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   154 
   155 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   156 to lattice type classes.
   157 
   158 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   159 
   160 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   161 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   162 
   163   - Renamed constants:
   164 
   165       prefix ~> prefixeq
   166       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   167 
   168     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   171     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   172     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   173     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174 
   175   - New constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   176     abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case "list_hembeq (op =)".
   177 
   178   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   179     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   180     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   181     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   184     "Sublist.sublisteq". Replaced lemmas:
   185 
   186       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   187       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   188       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   189       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   190       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   191       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   192       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   193       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   194       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   195       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   196       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   197       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   198       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   199       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   200       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   201       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   202 
   203     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   206 
   207 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   208 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   209 
   210 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   213 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   214 non-free datatypes.
   215 
   216 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   217 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   218 
   219 * HOL/Probability:
   220   - Add simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability
   221 
   222   - Add induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint)
   223     and for Borel-measurable functions (borel_measurable_induct).
   224 
   225   - The Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a projective family)
   226 
   227 * Library/Countable_Set.thy: Theory of countable sets.
   228 
   229 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   230 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   231 
   232 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   233 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   234 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   235 
   236       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   237       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   238       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   239       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   240       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   241       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   242       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   243       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   244       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   245       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   246 
   247   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   250 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   251 
   252 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   253 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   254 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   255 
   256 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   257 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   258 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   263 expressions.
   264 
   265 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   266 pointfree expressions.
   267 
   268 * Quickcheck:
   269 
   270   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   271     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   272     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   273 
   274 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   275 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   276 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   277 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   278 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * Sledgehammer:
   281 
   282   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   283     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   284   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   285   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   286   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   287   - Renamed options:
   288       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   289       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   290       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   291       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   292 
   293 
   294 *** Document preparation ***
   295 
   296 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   297 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   298 
   299 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   300 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   301 document/root.tex.
   302 
   303 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   304 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 
   307 *** ML ***
   308 
   309 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   310 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   311 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   312 
   313 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   314 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   315 necessarily printing visible text.
   316 
   317 
   318 *** System ***
   319 
   320 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   321 instead of 4.
   322 
   323 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   324 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   325 for home-made configurations.
   326 
   327 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   328 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   329 
   330 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   331 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   332 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   333 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   334 
   335 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   336 
   337 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   338 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   339 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   340 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   341 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   342 
   343 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   344 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   345 
   346   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   347 
   348 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   349 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   350 
   351 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   352 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   353 "isabelle usedir".
   354 
   355 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   356 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   357 version of Isabelle.
   358 
   359 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   361 
   362 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   363 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   364 configuration.
   365 
   366 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   367 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   368 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   369 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   370 bundled as Isabelle component.
   371 
   372 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   373 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   374 
   375 
   376 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   377 ------------------------------
   378 
   379 *** General ***
   380 
   381 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   382 
   383   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   384     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   385   - markup for bound variables
   386   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   387   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   388   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   389     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   390 
   391 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   392 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   393 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   394 
   395 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   396 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   397 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   398 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   399 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   400 
   401   context
   402     fixes x y z :: 'a
   403     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   404   begin
   405 
   406   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   407 
   408   end
   409 
   410   thm my_trans
   411 
   412 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   413 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   414 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   415 
   416 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   417 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   418 
   419 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   420 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   421 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   422 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   423 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   424 
   425 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   426 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   427 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   428 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   429 indices of schematic variables.
   430 
   431 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   432 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   433 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   434 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   435 etc. was exploited.
   436 
   437 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   438 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   439 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   440 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   441 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   442 of the material of that old tutorial.
   443 
   444 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   445 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   446 manual.
   447 
   448 
   449 *** Pure ***
   450 
   451 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   452 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   453 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   454 
   455 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   456 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   457 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   458 undocumented feature.)
   459 
   460 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   461 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   462 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   463 
   464   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   465 
   466   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   467     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   468 
   469 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   470 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   471 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   472 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   473 
   474 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   475 
   476     num ~> num_token
   477     xnum ~> xnum_token
   478     xstr ~> str_token
   479 
   480 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   481 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   482 position information via constraints).
   483 
   484 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   485 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   486 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   489 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   490 
   491 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   492 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   493 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   494 
   495 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   496 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   499 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   500 
   501   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   502 
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   506 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   507 
   508 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   509 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   510 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   511 
   512 
   513 *** HOL ***
   514 
   515 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   516 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   517 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   518 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   519 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   520 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   521 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   522 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   523 possible.
   524 
   525 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   526 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   527 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   528 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   529 
   530 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   531 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   534 
   535 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   536 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   537 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   538 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   539 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   540 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   541 
   542   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   543     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   544 
   545   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   546     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   547     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   548 
   549   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   550     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   551 
   552   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   553     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   554     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   555 
   556   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   557     Redefine using other integer operations.
   558 
   559 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   560 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   561 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   562 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   563 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   564 
   565   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   566     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   567     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   568     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   569     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   570 
   571     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   572     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   573 
   574   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   575     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   576     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   577     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   578     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   579     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   580     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   581     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   582 
   583   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   584     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   585     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   586     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   587 
   588   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   589     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   590     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   591     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   592 
   593   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   594     from type nat to type int.
   595 
   596 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   597 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   598 
   599   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   600     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   601     type.  Example syntax:
   602 
   603     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   604       is List.insert
   605 
   606     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   607     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   608     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   609     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   610     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   611     by the package.
   612 
   613   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   614     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   615     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   616     code generation for each constant.
   617 
   618   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   619     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   620     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   621     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   622     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   623 
   624   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   625     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   626     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   627 
   628 * Quotient package:
   629 
   630   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   631     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   632 
   633   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   634     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   635 
   636   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   637     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   638     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   639 
   640   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   641     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   644 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   645 
   646 * Quickcheck:
   647 
   648   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   649     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   650     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   651     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   652     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   653 
   654     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   655     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   656     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   657 
   658     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   659     continues searching for genuine ones.
   660 
   661     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   662     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   663     show genuine counterexamples.
   664 
   665   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   666     value generators for a given type and operations.
   667 
   668     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   669     constructors of that type.
   670 
   671   - Support for multisets.
   672 
   673   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   674 
   675   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   676     conjectures in a locale context.
   677 
   678 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   679 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   680 
   681 * Sledgehammer:
   682   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   683     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   684   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   685   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   686     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   687   - Sped up the minimizer.
   688   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   689   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   690   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   691 
   692 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   693 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   694 
   695 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   696 
   697 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   700 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   701 
   702   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   703 
   704 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   705 a list and a nat.
   706 
   707 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   708 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   709 
   710 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   711 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   712 default.
   713 
   714 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   715 
   716   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   717 
   718 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   719 
   720 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   721 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   722 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   723 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   724 one_case.
   725 
   726 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   727 the result of the fact expression.
   728 
   729 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   730 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   731 of some relation theorems:
   732 
   733   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   734   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   735   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   736   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   737   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   738   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   739 
   740 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   741 
   742 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   743 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   744 
   745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   748 to match the constant's name:
   749 
   750   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   751   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   752   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   753   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   754   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   755   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   756   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   757   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   758   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   759   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   760   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   761   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   762   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   763   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   764   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   765   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   766   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   767   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   768   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   769   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   770   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   771   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   772   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   773   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   774 
   775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   778 and corresponding theorem names:
   779 
   780   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   781 
   782   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   783 
   784   - Renamed theorems:
   785 
   786     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   787     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   788     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   789     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   790     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   791     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   792     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   793     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   794     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   795     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   796     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   797     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   798     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   799     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   800     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   801     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   802     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   803     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   804     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   805     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   806     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   807     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   808     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   809 
   810     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   811 
   812     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   813 
   814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   815 
   816 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   817 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   818 
   819   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   820   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   821   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   822   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   823   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   824   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   825   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   826   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   827   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   828   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   829   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   830   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   831   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   832   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   833   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   834   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   835   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   836   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   837   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   838   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   839   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   840 
   841 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   842 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843 
   844 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   847 
   848   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   849   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   850   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   851   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   852   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   853   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   854   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   855   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   856   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   857   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   858   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   859   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   860   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   861   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   862   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   863   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   864   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   865   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   866 
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   870 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   871 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   872 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   873 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   874 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   875 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   876 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   877 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   878 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   879 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   880 
   881 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   882 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   883 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   884 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   885 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   886 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   887 
   888 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   889 through option types.
   890 
   891 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   892 relations.
   893 
   894 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   897 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   898 
   899   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   900   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   901   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   902   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   903   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   904   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   905   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   906   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   907   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   908   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   909   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   910   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   911   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   912   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   913   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   914   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   915   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   916   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   917   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   918   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   919   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   920   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   921   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   922   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   923   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   924   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   925   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   926   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   927   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   928   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   929   zless_le ~> less_le
   930   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   931   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   932   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   933 
   934 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   935 
   936   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   937 
   938 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   939 
   940 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   941 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   942 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   943 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   947 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   948 
   949 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   950 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   951 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   952 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   953 follows:
   954 
   955   Operations:
   956   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   957   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   958   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   959   del -> rbt_del
   960   delete -> rbt_delete
   961   ins -> rbt_ins
   962   insert -> rbt_insert
   963   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   964   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   965   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   966   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   967   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   968   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   969   tree_less -> rbt_less
   970   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   971   union -> rbt_union
   972   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   973   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   974 
   975   Lemmas:
   976   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   977   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   978   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   979   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   980   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   981   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   982   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   983   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   984   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   985   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   986   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   987   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   988   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   989   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   990   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   991   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   992   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   993   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   994   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   995   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   996   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   997   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   998   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   999   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1000   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1001   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1002   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1003   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1004   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1005   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1006   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1007   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1008   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1009   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1010   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1011   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1012   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1013   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1014   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1015   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1016   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1017   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1018   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1019   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1020   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1021   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1022   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1023   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1024   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1025   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1026   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1027   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1028   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1029   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1030   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1031   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1032   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1033   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1034   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1035   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1036   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1037   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1038   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1039   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1040   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1041   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1042   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1043   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1044   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1045   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1046   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1047   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1048   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1049   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1050   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1051   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1052   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1053   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1054   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1055   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1056   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1057   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1058   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1059 
  1060 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1061 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1062 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064   Changed Operations:
  1065   float_abs -> abs
  1066   float_nprt -> nprt
  1067   float_pprt -> pprt
  1068   pow2 -> use powr
  1069   round_down -> float_round_down
  1070   round_up -> float_round_up
  1071   scale -> exponent
  1072 
  1073   Removed Operations:
  1074   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1075 
  1076   Renamed Lemmas:
  1077   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1078   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1079   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1080   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1081   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1082   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1083   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1084   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1085   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1086   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1087   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1088   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1089   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1090   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1091   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1092   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1093   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1094   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1095   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1096   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1097   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1098   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1099   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1100   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1101   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1102   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1103   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1104   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1105   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1106   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1107   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1108   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1109   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1110   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1111   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1112   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1113 
  1114   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1115   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1116   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1117   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1118   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1119   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1120   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1121   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1122   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1123   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1124 
  1125 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1126 association lists with distinct keys.
  1127 
  1128 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1129 annotated commands.
  1130 
  1131 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1132 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1133 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1134 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1137 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1138 instead.
  1139 
  1140   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1141   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1142   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1143   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1144   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1145   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1146   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1147   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1148   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1149   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1150   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1151   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1152   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1153   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1154   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1155   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1156   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1157   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1158   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1159   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1160   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1161   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1162   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1163   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1164   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1165   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1166   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1167   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1168   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1169   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1170   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1171   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1172   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1173   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1174   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1175   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1176   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1177   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1178   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1179   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1180   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1181 
  1182 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1183 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1184 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1185 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1186 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1187 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1188 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1189 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1190 
  1191 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1192 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1193 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1194 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1195 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1196 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1197 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1198 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1199 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1200 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1201 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1202 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204   Renamed constants:
  1205   measure -> emeasure
  1206   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1207   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1208   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1209   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1210 
  1211   Removed locales:
  1212   completeable_measure_space
  1213   finite_measure_space
  1214   finite_prob_space
  1215   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1216   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1217   finite_sigma_algebra
  1218   measure_space
  1219   pair_finite_prob_space
  1220   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1221   pair_finite_space
  1222   pair_sigma_algebra
  1223   product_sigma_algebra
  1224 
  1225   Removed constants:
  1226   conditional_space
  1227   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1228   image_space
  1229   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1230   pair_measure_generator
  1231   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1232   subvimage
  1233 
  1234   Replacement theorems:
  1235   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1236   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1237   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1238   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1239   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1240   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1241   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1242   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1243   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1244   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1245   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1246   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1247   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1248   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1249   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1250   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1251   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1252   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1253   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1254   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1255   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1256   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1257   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1258   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1259   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1260   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1261   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1262   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1263   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1264   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1265   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1266   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1267   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1268   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1269   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1270   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1271   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1272   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1273   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1274   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1275   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1276   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1277   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1278   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1279   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1280   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1281   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1282   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1283   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1284   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1285   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1286   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1287   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1288   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1289   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1290   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1291   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1292   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1293   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1294   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1295   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1296   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1297   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1298   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1299   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1300   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1301   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1302   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1303   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1304   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1305   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1306   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1307   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1308   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1309   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1310   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1311   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1312   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1313   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1314   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1315   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1316   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1317   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1318   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1319   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1320   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1321   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1322   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1323   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1324   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1325   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1326   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1327   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1328   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1329   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1330   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1331   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1332   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1333   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1334   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1335   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1336   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1337   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1338   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1339   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1340   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1341   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1342   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1343   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1344   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1345   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1346   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1347   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1348   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1349   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1350   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1351   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1352   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1353   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1354   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1355   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1356   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1357   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1358   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1359   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1360   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1361   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1362   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1363 
  1364 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1365 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1366 
  1367 
  1368 *** FOL ***
  1369 
  1370 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1371 
  1372 
  1373 *** ZF ***
  1374 
  1375 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1376 analysis.
  1377 
  1378 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1379 
  1380 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 
  1383 *** ML ***
  1384 
  1385 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1386 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1387 
  1388 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1389 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1390 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1391 
  1392 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1393 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1394 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1395 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1396 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1397 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1398 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1399 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1400 
  1401 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1402 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1403 
  1404 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1405 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1406 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1407 
  1408 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1409 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1410 
  1411 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1412 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1413 context as well.
  1414 
  1415 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1416 
  1417   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1418   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1419   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1420   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1421   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1422   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1423   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1424   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1425   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1426   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1427   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1428   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1429 
  1430 
  1431 *** System ***
  1432 
  1433 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1434 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1435 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1436 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1437 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1438 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1439 the generic user home was intended.
  1440 
  1441 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1442 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1443 
  1444 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1445 (not just JRE).
  1446 
  1447 
  1448 
  1449 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1450 ------------------------------------
  1451 
  1452 *** General ***
  1453 
  1454 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1455 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1456 
  1457   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1458     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1459     files for checking).
  1460 
  1461   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1462     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1463     positions.
  1464 
  1465   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1466     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1467     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1468 
  1469   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1470     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1471     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1472 
  1473   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1474     cores.
  1475 
  1476   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1477     versions (garbage collection).
  1478 
  1479 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1480 including some remaining limitations.
  1481 
  1482 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1483 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1484 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1485 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1486 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1490 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1491 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1492 
  1493 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1494 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1495 usedir option -Q.
  1496 
  1497 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1498 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1499 
  1500   long_names   ~> names_long
  1501   short_names  ~> names_short
  1502   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1503 
  1504 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1505 
  1506   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1507 
  1508 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1509 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1510 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1511 
  1512 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1513 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1514 
  1515 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1516   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1517   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1518   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1519     "Classical Reasoner".
  1520 
  1521 
  1522 *** HOL ***
  1523 
  1524 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1525 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1526 
  1527 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1528 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1529 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1530 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1531 class complete_linorder.
  1532 
  1533 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1534 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1535 
  1536 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1537 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1538 
  1539   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1540   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1541   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1542   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1543   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1544   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1545   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1546   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1547   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1548   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1549   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1550 
  1551 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1552 
  1553   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1554   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1555   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1556   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1557   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1558   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1559   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1560   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1561   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1562   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1563   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1564   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1565   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1566   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1567   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1568   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1569 
  1570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1576 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1577 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1578 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1581 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1582 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1586 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1587 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1588 
  1589 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1590 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1591 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1592 
  1593 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1594 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1595 
  1596 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1597 
  1598     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1599     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1600 
  1601 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1602 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1605 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606 
  1607 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1608 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1609 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1610 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1611 
  1612   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1613   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1614   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1615   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1616   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1617   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1618   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1619 
  1620 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1621 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1624   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1625   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1626   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1627   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1628   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1629   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1630   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1631   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1632   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1633   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1634   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1635   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1636   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1637   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1638   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1639   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1640   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1641   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1642   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1643   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1644   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1645   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1646   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1647   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1648   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1649   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1650   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1651   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1652   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1653   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1654   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1655   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1656   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1657   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1658   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1659   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1660   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1661   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1662   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1663   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1664   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1665   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1666   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1667   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1668   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1669   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1670   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1671   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1672   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1673   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1674   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1675   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1676   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1677   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1678   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1679   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1680   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1681   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1682   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1683   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1684   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1685   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1686   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1687   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1688   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1689   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1690   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1691   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1692   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1693   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1694   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1695   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1696   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1697   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1698   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1699   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1700   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1701   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1702   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1703   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1704   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1705 
  1706 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1707 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1708 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1709 
  1710 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1711 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1712 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1713 
  1714 * Code generation:
  1715 
  1716   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1717     characters in the target language.
  1718 
  1719   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1720     instead.
  1721 
  1722   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1723 
  1724   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1725     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1726 
  1727       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1728 
  1729 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1732 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1733 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1734 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1735 syntax.
  1736 
  1737 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1738 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1739 
  1740 * Nitpick:
  1741   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1742   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1743   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1744     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745 
  1746 * Sledgehammer:
  1747   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1748   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1749     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1750   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1751     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1752   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1753     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1754   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1755     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1756   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1757     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759 * Metis:
  1760   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1762     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * Command 'try':
  1765   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1766     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1767   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1768     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1769 
  1770 * Quickcheck:
  1771   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1772     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1773   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1774     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1775   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1776     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1777     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1778     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1779   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1780     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1781 
  1782 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1783 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1784 
  1785 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1786 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1787 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1788 
  1789 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1790 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1794 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1795 
  1796 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1797 arithmetic.
  1798 
  1799 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1800 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1801 and lattice type classes.
  1802 
  1803 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1804 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1805 
  1806 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1807 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1808 
  1809 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1810 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1811 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812 
  1813   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1814   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1815   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1816   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1817 
  1818 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1819 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1820 constants:
  1821 
  1822   type inat   ~> type enat
  1823   Fin         ~> enat
  1824   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1825   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1826   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1827 
  1828 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1829 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1830 
  1831 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1832 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1833 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1834 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1835 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1836 
  1837 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1838 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1839 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1840 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1841 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1842 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1843 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1844 
  1845   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1846   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1847   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1848   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1849 
  1850 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1851 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1852 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1853 
  1854   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1855   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1856   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1857   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1858   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1859   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1860   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1861   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1862   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1863   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1864   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1865   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1866   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1867   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1868   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1869   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1870   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1871   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1872   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1873   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1874   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1875   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1876   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1877   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1878   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1879   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1880   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1881   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1882   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1883   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1884   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1885   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1886   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1887   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1888   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1889   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1890   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1891   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1892   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1893   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1894   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1895   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1896   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1897   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1898   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1899   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1900   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1901   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1902   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1903   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1904   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1905 
  1906 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1907   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1908   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1909   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1910   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1911     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1914 
  1915   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1916   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1917   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1918   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1919   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1920   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1921   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1922   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1923   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1924   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1925   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1926   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1927   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1928   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1929   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1930   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1931   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1932   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1933   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1934   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1935   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1936   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1937   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1938   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1939   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1940 
  1941 
  1942 *** Document preparation ***
  1943 
  1944 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1945 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1946 same.
  1947 
  1948 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1949 result.
  1950 
  1951 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1952 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1953 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1954 
  1955 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1956 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1957 
  1958 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1959 like this:
  1960 
  1961   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1962   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1963 
  1964 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1965 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1966 layouts.
  1967 
  1968 
  1969 *** ML ***
  1970 
  1971 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1972 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1973 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1974 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1975 under external program control.
  1976 
  1977 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1978 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1979 
  1980 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1981 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1982 (better known as Proof General).
  1983 
  1984 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1985 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1986 
  1987 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1988 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1989 
  1990 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1991 (including quotes etc.).
  1992 
  1993 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1994 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1995 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1996 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1997 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1998 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1999 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2000 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2001 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2002 
  2003 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2004 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2005 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2006 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2007 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2008 
  2009 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2010 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2011 
  2012 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2013 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2014 
  2015 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2016 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2017 
  2018 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2019 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2020 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2021 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2022 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2023 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2024 proper Proof.context.
  2025 
  2026 
  2027 *** System ***
  2028 
  2029 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2030 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2031 
  2032 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2033 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2034 
  2035 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2036 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2037 
  2038   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2039   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2040   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2041   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2042   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2043 
  2044 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2045 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2048 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2049 example:
  2050 
  2051   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2052 
  2053 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2054 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2055 
  2056 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2057 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2058 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2059 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2060 
  2061 
  2062 
  2063 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2064 ----------------------------------
  2065 
  2066 *** General ***
  2067 
  2068 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2069 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2070 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2071 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2072 like this:
  2073 
  2074   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2075 
  2076 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2077 
  2078 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2079 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2080 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2081 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2082 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2083 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2084 
  2085 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2086 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2087 the following package declarations:
  2088 
  2089   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2090   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2091 
  2092 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2093 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2094 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2095 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2096 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2097 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2098 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2099 
  2100 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2101 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2102 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2103 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2104 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2105 
  2106 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2107 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2108 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2109 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2110 
  2111 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2112 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2113 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2114 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2115 
  2116   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2117 
  2118   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2119   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2120   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2121   show_types                    show_types
  2122   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2123   show_consts                   show_consts
  2124   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2125 
  2126   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2127   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2128   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2129 
  2130   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2131   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2132 
  2133   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2134 
  2135   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2136   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2137   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2138   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2139   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2140 
  2141 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2142 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2143 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2144 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2145 
  2146 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2150   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2151 
  2152 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2153 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2154 float_token.
  2155 
  2156 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2157 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2161 DejaVu Sans.
  2162 
  2163 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2164 
  2165 
  2166 *** Pure ***
  2167 
  2168 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2169 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2170 time.
  2171 
  2172 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2173 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2176 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2179 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2180 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2181 command already provided this functionality.
  2182 
  2183 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2184 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2185 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2186 without interpretations.
  2187 
  2188 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2189 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2190 
  2191 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2192 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2193 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2194 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2195 
  2196 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2197 'definition' instead.
  2198 
  2199 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2200 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2201 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2202 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2203 
  2204 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2205 constructors.
  2206 
  2207 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2208 the local file system.
  2209 
  2210 
  2211 *** HOL ***
  2212 
  2213 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2214 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2215 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2216 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2217 
  2218   declare [[coercion f]]
  2219 
  2220 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2221 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2222 
  2223   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2224 
  2225 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2226 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2227 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2228 other theories like this:
  2229 
  2230   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2231 
  2232 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2233 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2234 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2235 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2236 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2237 for examples.
  2238 
  2239 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2240 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2243 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2244 
  2245 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2246 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2247 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2248 
  2249 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2250 functorial structure of types.
  2251 
  2252 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2253 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2254 
  2255 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2256 languages.
  2257 
  2258 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2259 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2261 
  2262 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2263 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2266 combinators any longer.
  2267 
  2268 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2269 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2270 
  2271 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2272 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2273 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2274 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2275 
  2276   record 'a foo = ...
  2277   ...
  2278   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2279 
  2280 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2281 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2285 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2286 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2287 
  2288 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2289 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2290 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2291 
  2292 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2293 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2296 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2297 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2298 independently.
  2299 
  2300 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2301 counter example search.
  2302 
  2303 * Sledgehammer:
  2304   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2305     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2306     sledgehammer").
  2307   - Renamed commands:
  2308     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2309     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2310     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2311     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312   - Renamed options:
  2313     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2314     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2315     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2316     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2317     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2318 
  2319 * Nitpick:
  2320   - Renamed options:
  2321     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2322     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2323     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2324   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2325   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2326   - Added "whack" option.
  2327   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2328   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2329   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2330   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2331     higher cardinalities.
  2332   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2333 
  2334 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2335 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2336 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2337 
  2338     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2339 
  2340 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2341 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2342 
  2343 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2344 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2345 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2346 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2347 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2348 "smt_solver".
  2349 
  2350 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2351 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2352 
  2353 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2354 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2355 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2356 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2357 
  2358 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2359   - Renamed:
  2360     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2361     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2362     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2363   - Added:
  2364     smt_verbose
  2365     smt_random_seed
  2366     smt_datatypes
  2367     smt_infer_triggers
  2368     smt_monomorph_limit
  2369     cvc3_options
  2370     remote_cvc3_options
  2371     remote_z3_options
  2372     yices_options
  2373 
  2374 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2375 header.
  2376 
  2377 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2378 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2379 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2380 
  2381   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2382 
  2383 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2384 
  2385 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2386 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2387 
  2388 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2391 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2394 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2395 
  2396 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2397 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2400 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2401 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2407 
  2408 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2409 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2410 
  2411 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2412 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2413 for congruent(2)).
  2414 
  2415 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2416 
  2417   types
  2418     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2419     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2420 
  2421   constants
  2422     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2423     True ~> HOL.True
  2424     False ~> HOL.False
  2425     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2426     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2427     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2428     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2429     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2430     The ~> HOL.The
  2431     All ~> HOL.All
  2432     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2433     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2434     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2435     If ~> HOL.If
  2436     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2437     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2438     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2439     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2440     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2441     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2442     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2443     op : ~> Set.member
  2444     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2445 
  2446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2449 
  2450     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2451     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2452     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2453     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2454     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2455     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2456     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2457     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2458 
  2459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * More stylized fact names:
  2462 
  2463   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2464   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2465   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2466   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2467 
  2468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2469 
  2470 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2471 
  2472   constants
  2473     null ~> List.null
  2474 
  2475   facts
  2476     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2477     null_empty ~> null_def
  2478 
  2479 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2480 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2481 generation.
  2482 
  2483 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2484 Haskell code.
  2485 
  2486 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2487 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2488 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2489 
  2490 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2491 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2492 
  2493 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2494 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2495 
  2496 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2497 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2498 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2499 
  2500 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2501 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2502 
  2503 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2507 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2508 referred to by its qualified name.
  2509 
  2510   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2511   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2512   product ~>  Enum.product
  2513 
  2514 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2515 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2519 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2520 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2524 sort_key.
  2525 
  2526 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2530 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2531 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2532 
  2533   types
  2534     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2535               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2536               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2537         (depends on your needs)
  2538 
  2539   constants
  2540      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2541      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2542      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2543 
  2544 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2545 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2546 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2547 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2548 
  2549 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2550 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2551 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2552 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2553 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2554 
  2555 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2559 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2560 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2561 
  2562 
  2563 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2564 
  2565 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2566 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2567 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2568 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2569 compatibility.
  2570 
  2571 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2572 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2573 
  2574 
  2575 *** HOLCF ***
  2576 
  2577 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2578 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2579 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2581 
  2582 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2583 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2584 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2587   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2588   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2589 
  2590 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2591 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2592 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2593 
  2594 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2595 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2596 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2597 domain definition now works:
  2598 
  2599   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2600 
  2601 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2602 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2603 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2604 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2605 
  2606   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2607     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2608 
  2609   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2610 
  2611 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2612 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2613 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614 
  2615 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2616 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2617 
  2618 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2619 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2620 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2621 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2622 
  2623 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2624 
  2625 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2628 
  2629 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2633 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2634 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2635 
  2636 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2637 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2638 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2639 
  2640 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2641 still supported as an input translation.
  2642 
  2643 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2644 
  2645   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2646   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2647   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2648   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2649   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2650   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2651   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2652 
  2653 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2654 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2657   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2658   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2659   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2660   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2661   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2662 
  2663 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2664 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2667 
  2668   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2669   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2670   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2671   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2672 
  2673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2674 
  2675 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2676 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2677 
  2678 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2679 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2682   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2683   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2684   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2685   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2686   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2687   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2688   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2689   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2690   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2691   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2692   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2693   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2694   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2695   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2696   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2697   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2698   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2699   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2700   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2701 
  2702 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2705   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2706   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2707   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2708   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2709   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2710   box_less             ~> box_below
  2711   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2712   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2713   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2714   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2715   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2716   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2717   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2718   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2719   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2720   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2721   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2722   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2723   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2724   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2725   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2726   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2727   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2728   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2729   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2730   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2731   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2732   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2733   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2734   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2735   up_less              ~> up_below
  2736   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2737   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2738   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2739   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2740   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2741   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2742   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2743   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2744   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2745   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2746   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2747   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2748   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2749 
  2750 
  2751 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2752 
  2753 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2754 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2755 
  2756 
  2757 *** ML ***
  2758 
  2759 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2760 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2761 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2762 
  2763 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2764 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2765 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2766 
  2767 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2768 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2769 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2770 
  2771 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2772 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2773 
  2774 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2775 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2776 
  2777 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2778 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2779 
  2780 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2781 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2782 
  2783 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2784 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2785 almost all situations.
  2786 
  2787 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2788 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2789 Isabelle/ML.
  2790 
  2791 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2792 meaning.
  2793 
  2794 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2795 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2796 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2797 
  2798 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2799 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2800 
  2801 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2802 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2803 
  2804 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2805 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2806 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2807 
  2808 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2809 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2810 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2811 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2812 configuration options.
  2813 
  2814 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2815 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2816 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2817 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2818 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2819 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2820 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2821 
  2822 
  2823 
  2824 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2825 ---------------------------------
  2826 
  2827 *** General ***
  2828 
  2829 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2830 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2831 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2832 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2833 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2834 their full internal name.
  2835 
  2836 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2837 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2838 Some hints on upgrading:
  2839 
  2840   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2841     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2842     which are independent of this issue.
  2843 
  2844   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2845     provides the following special forms:
  2846 
  2847       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2848       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2849       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2850 
  2851     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2852     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2853     extra variables".
  2854 
  2855     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2856     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2857     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2858     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2859     "logic".
  2860 
  2861   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2862     antiquotations:
  2863 
  2864       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2865       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2866       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2867       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2868 
  2869   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2870     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2871     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2872     antiquotations.
  2873 
  2874 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2875 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2876 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2877 diagnose syntax problems.
  2878 
  2879 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2880 
  2881 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2882 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2883 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2884 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2885 
  2886 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2887 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2888 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2889 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890 
  2891 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2892 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2893 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2894 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2895 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2898 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2899 
  2900 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2901 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2902 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2903 
  2904   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2905 
  2906 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2907 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2908 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2909 
  2910 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2911 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2913 
  2914 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2915 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2916 
  2917 
  2918 *** Pure ***
  2919 
  2920 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2921 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2922 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2923 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2924 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2925 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2926 inspect proof terms.
  2927 
  2928 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2929 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2930 are added internally.  For example:
  2931 
  2932   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2933 
  2934 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2935 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2938 
  2939 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2940 'class' instead.
  2941 
  2942 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2943 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2945 
  2946 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2947 invariants.
  2948 
  2949 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2950 user space functionality any longer.
  2951 
  2952 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2953 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2957 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2958 
  2959 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2960 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2961 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2962 
  2963 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2964 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2965 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2966 
  2967 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2968 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 
  2971 *** HOL ***
  2972 
  2973 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2974 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2975 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2976 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2977 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2978 
  2979 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2980 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2981 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2982 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2983 
  2984   fun
  2985     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2986   where
  2987     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2988 
  2989   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2990     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2991 
  2992   quotient_definition
  2993     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2994 
  2995 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2996 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2997 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2998 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2999 
  3000 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3001 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3002 
  3003 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3004 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3005 
  3006 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3010 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3011 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3012 
  3013 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3014 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3023 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3026 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3027 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3030   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3031   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3032   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3033   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3034   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3035   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3036   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3037   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3038   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3039   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3040   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3041   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3042   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3043   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3044   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3045   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3046   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3047   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3048   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3049   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3050   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3051   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3052   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3053   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3054   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3055   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3056   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3057   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3058   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3059 
  3060 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3061 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3062 
  3063 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3064 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3065 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3066 
  3067 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3068 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3069 
  3070 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3071 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3074 
  3075 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3076 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3079 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3080 
  3081 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3084 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3085 
  3086 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3087 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3088 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3089 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3092   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3093   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3094   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3098 lattices):
  3099 
  3100     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3101     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3102 
  3103     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3104 
  3105     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3106     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3107     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3108     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3109     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3110     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3111     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3112     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3113     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3114     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3115     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3116     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3117     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3118 
  3119     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3120     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3121     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3122     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3123     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3124     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3125     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3126     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3127     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3128     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3129     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3130     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3131     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3132     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3133     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3134     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3135     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3136     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3137 
  3138   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3139   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3140 
  3141     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3142     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3143     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3144     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3145     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3146 
  3147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * Refined field classes:
  3150   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3151     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3152     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3153   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3155 
  3156 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3157   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3158   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3159   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3160     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3161   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3162     equal_neg_zero.
  3163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3164 
  3165 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3166 sets to lattices:
  3167 
  3168   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3169   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3170   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3171   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3172   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3173   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3174   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3175   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3176   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3177   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3178 
  3179 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3180 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3181 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3182 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3183 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3184 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3187 multiset order:
  3188 
  3189   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3190     <= and <;
  3191   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3192     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3193     multiset_order;
  3194   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3195     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3196     generation;
  3197   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3198     if needed.
  3199 
  3200 Renamed:
  3201 
  3202   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3203   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3204   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3205 
  3206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3209 
  3210 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3211 
  3212 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3213 
  3214 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3215 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3216 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3217 
  3218   Constants:
  3219   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3220   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3221   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3222   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3223   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3224   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3225   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3226   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3227   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3228   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3229   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3230   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3231   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3232 
  3233   Lemmas:
  3234   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3235   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3236   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3237   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3238   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3239   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3240   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3241   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3242   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3243   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3244   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3245   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3246   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3247 
  3248 * Sledgehammer:
  3249   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3250     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3251     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3252     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3253     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3254     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3257   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3258     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3259   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3260     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3261     is still experimental.)
  3262   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3263     full-typed mode.
  3264   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3265 
  3266 * Nitpick:
  3267   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3268   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3269   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3270     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3271   - Added support for quotient types.
  3272   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3273     constructs.
  3274   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3275     "termination" proofs).
  3276   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3277   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3278   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3279   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3280     record getters.
  3281   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3282   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3283   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3284   - Added "atoms" option.
  3285   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3286     problems.
  3287   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3288     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3289     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3291     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293 
  3294 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3295   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3296   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3297   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3298   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3299   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3300   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3301   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3302   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3303   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3304 
  3305 
  3306 *** HOLCF ***
  3307 
  3308 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3309 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3310 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3313 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3314 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3315 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3318 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3319 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3320 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3321 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3324 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3325 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3328 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3331   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3332 
  3333 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3334 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335 
  3336   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3337   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3338   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3339   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3340   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3341 
  3342 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3343 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344 
  3345   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3346   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3347   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3348 
  3349 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3350 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3352 
  3353 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3354 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3359 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 
  3362 *** ML ***
  3363 
  3364 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3365 
  3366     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3367     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3368 
  3369     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3370     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3371     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3372     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3373 
  3374     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3375     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3376     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3377 
  3378 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3379 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3380 
  3381 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3382 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3383 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3384 
  3385 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3386 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3387 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3388 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3389 
  3390 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3391 the context or even global references.
  3392 
  3393 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3394 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3395 
  3396 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3397 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3398 
  3399   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3400   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3401   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3402   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3403   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3404   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3405   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3406   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3407   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3408   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3409 
  3410 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3411 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3412 
  3413 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3414 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3415 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3416 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3417 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3418 
  3419 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3420 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3421 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3422 Theory_Data version.
  3423 
  3424 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3425 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3426 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3427 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3428 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3429 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3430 explicitly in rare situations.
  3431 
  3432 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3433 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3437 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3440 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3441 quite rare).
  3442 
  3443 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3444 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3447 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3448 terms.
  3449 
  3450 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3451 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3452 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3453 
  3454 
  3455 *** System ***
  3456 
  3457 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3458 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3459 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3460 
  3461 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3462 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3463 respectively.
  3464 
  3465 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3466 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3467 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3468 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3469 
  3470   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3471 
  3472 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3473 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3474 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3475 component.
  3476 
  3477 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3478 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3479 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3480 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3481 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3482 the user for manual installation.
  3483 
  3484 
  3485 
  3486 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3487 -------------------------------------
  3488 
  3489 *** General ***
  3490 
  3491 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3492 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3493 
  3494 
  3495 *** Pure ***
  3496 
  3497 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3498 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3499 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3500 
  3501 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3502 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3503 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3504 
  3505 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3506 interpretation.
  3507 
  3508 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3509 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510 
  3511 
  3512 *** Document preparation ***
  3513 
  3514 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3515 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3516 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3517 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3518 
  3519 
  3520 *** HOL ***
  3521 
  3522 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3523 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3524 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3525 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3526 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3527 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3528 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3529 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3530 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3531 
  3532 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3533 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3534 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3535 
  3536 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3537 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3538 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3539 
  3540 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3541 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3542 
  3543 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3544 
  3545 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3546 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3547 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3548 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3549 
  3550 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3551 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3552 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3553 "mirabelle" utility.
  3554 
  3555 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3556 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3557 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3558 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3559 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3560 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3561 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3562 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3563 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3564 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3565 
  3566 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3567 procedure only.
  3568 
  3569 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3570 
  3571 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3572 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3573 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3574 that fail later.
  3575 
  3576 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3577 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3578 
  3579 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3580 the same method as the approximation method.
  3581 
  3582 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3583 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3584 series expansion.
  3585 
  3586 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3587 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3588 
  3589 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3590 reals.
  3591 
  3592 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3593 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3594 
  3595 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3596 fixpoint theorem.
  3597 
  3598 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3599   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3600     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3601   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3602     accordingly
  3603   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3604     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3605   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3606     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3607 
  3608 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3609 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3610 lattice.
  3611 
  3612 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3613 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3614 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3615 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3616 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3617 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3621   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3622     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3623   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3624     le_inf_iff
  3625   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3626     sup_aci)
  3627   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3628   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3629   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3630     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3631     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3632     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3633     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3634     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3635     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3636     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3637     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3638     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3639     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3640   - authentic syntax for
  3641     Set.Pow
  3642     Set.image
  3643   - mere abbreviations:
  3644     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3645     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3646     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3647     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3648     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3649     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3650     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3651     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3652   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3653 
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3655 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3656 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3657 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3658 
  3659 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3660 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3661 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3664 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3667 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3668 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3669 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3670 
  3671 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3672 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3673 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3674 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3675 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3676 
  3677 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3678 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3680 
  3681 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3682 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683 
  3684 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3685 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3686 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3687 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3688 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3689 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3690 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3694     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3695     code_post       replaces    code post
  3696     etc.
  3697   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Renamed methods:
  3700     sizechange -> size_change
  3701     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3702   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3705 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3706 
  3707 * Renamed theorems:
  3708     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3709     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3710     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3711     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3712     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3713   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721 
  3722 *** HOLCF ***
  3723 
  3724 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3725 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3726 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3727 
  3728 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3729 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3730 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3731 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3732 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3733 
  3734 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3735 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3736 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3737 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3738 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3739 
  3740 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3741 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3742 constructor are pre-configured.
  3743 
  3744 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3745 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3746 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3747 
  3748 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3749 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3750 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3751 as well.)
  3752 
  3753 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3754 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3755 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3756 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3757 examples.
  3758 
  3759 
  3760 *** ML ***
  3761 
  3762 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3763 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3764 
  3765 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3766 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3767 position, logical grouping etc.
  3768 
  3769 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3770 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3771 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3772 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3773 
  3774 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3775 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3776 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3777 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3778 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3779 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3780 
  3781 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3782 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3783 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3784 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3785 experiments with references.
  3786 
  3787 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3788 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3789 
  3790 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3791 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3792 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3793 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3794 
  3795 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3796 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3797 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3798 
  3799 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3800 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3801 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3807 
  3808 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3809 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3810 
  3811 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3812 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3813 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3814 
  3815 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3816 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3817 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3820 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3821 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3825 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3826 instead of global theory.
  3827 
  3828 
  3829 *** System ***
  3830 
  3831 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3832 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3833 usedir option -q.
  3834 
  3835 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3836 also the system manual.
  3837 
  3838 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3839 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3840 
  3841 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3842 this is always enabled.
  3843 
  3844 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3845 
  3846 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3847 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3848 currently supported on Linux only.
  3849 
  3850 
  3851 
  3852 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3853 --------------------------------
  3854 
  3855 *** General ***
  3856 
  3857 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3858 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3859 
  3860   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3861     "isatool."
  3862 
  3863   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3864     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3865 
  3866   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3867     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3868 
  3869 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3870 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3871 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3872 
  3873 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3874 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3875 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3876 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3877 via "isabelle emacs".
  3878 
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3880 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3881 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3882 
  3883 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3884 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3885 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3886 
  3887 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3888 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3889 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3890 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3891 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3892 
  3893 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3894 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3895 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3896 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3897 
  3898 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3899 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3900 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3901 
  3902 
  3903 *** Pure ***
  3904 
  3905 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3906 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3907 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3908 
  3909 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3910 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3911 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3912 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3913 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3914 
  3915 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3916 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3917 useful in locale declarations.
  3918 
  3919 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3920 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3921 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3922 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3923 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3924 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3925 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3926 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3927 no longer generated.
  3928 
  3929 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3930 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3931 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3932 
  3933 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3934 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3935 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3936 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3937 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3938 
  3939 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3941 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3942 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3943 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3944 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3945 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3946 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3947 
  3948 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3949 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3950 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3951 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3952 
  3953 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3956 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3957 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3958 
  3959 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3960 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3963 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3964 in HOL, write
  3965 
  3966     class foo = ...
  3967 
  3968 instead of
  3969 
  3970     class foo = type + ...
  3971 
  3972 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3973 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3976 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3977 
  3978 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3979 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3980 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3981 
  3982 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3983 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3984 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3985 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3986 directly in regular applications.
  3987 
  3988 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3989 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3990 
  3991 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3992 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3993 
  3994 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3995 theory context.
  3996 
  3997 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3998 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4001 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4002 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4003 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4004 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4005 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4006 
  4007   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4008 
  4009 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4010 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4011 normalization.
  4012 
  4013 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4014 addressing etc.
  4015 
  4016 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4017 
  4018   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4019   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4020 
  4021 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4022 
  4023   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4024      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4025      parts of the code generator framework).
  4026 
  4027   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4028      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4029      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4030 
  4031 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4034 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4037 patterns, e.g.
  4038 
  4039     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4040 
  4041 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4042 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4043 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4044 hyphen:
  4045 
  4046     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4047 
  4048 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4049 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4050 
  4051 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4052 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4053 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4054 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4055 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4056 higher-order unification.
  4057 
  4058 
  4059 *** Document preparation ***
  4060 
  4061 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4062 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4063 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4064 
  4065 
  4066 *** HOL ***
  4067 
  4068 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4069 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4070 
  4071 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4072 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4073 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4074 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4075 Main, as before.
  4076 
  4077 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4078 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4079 
  4080 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4081 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4082 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4083 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4084 
  4085 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4086 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4087 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4088 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4089 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4090 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4091 
  4092 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4093 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4094 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4095 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4096 
  4097 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4098 menu.
  4099 
  4100 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4101 (contains the empty clause).
  4102 
  4103 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4104 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4105 
  4106 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4107 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4108 
  4109 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4110 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4111 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4112 
  4113 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4114 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4115 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4116 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4117 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4118 
  4119 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4120 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4121 
  4122 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4123 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4124 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4125 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4126 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4127 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4128 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4129 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4130 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4131 
  4132 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4133 
  4134 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4135 
  4136 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4137 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4140 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4141 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4142 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4143 
  4144 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4145 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4146 
  4147     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4148     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4149     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4150     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4151     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4152     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4153     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4154     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4155 
  4156 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4157 theory Set.
  4158 
  4159 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4160 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4161 
  4162 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4163 
  4164 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4165 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4166 
  4167 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4168 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4169 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4170 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4171 allowed. For examples see
  4172 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4173 
  4174 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4175 
  4176 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4180 structure:
  4181 
  4182     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4183     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4184     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4185     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4186     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4187     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4188     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4189     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4190     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4191     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4192     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4193     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4194     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4195     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4196     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4197     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4198     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4199     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4200     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4201     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4202     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4203     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4204     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4205     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4206     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4207     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4208     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4209     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4210     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4211     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4212     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4213     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4214     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4215 
  4216     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4217     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4218     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4219     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4220     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4221     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4222     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4223     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4224     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4225     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4226 
  4227     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4228     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4229     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4230     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4231     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4232     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4233 
  4234 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4235 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4236 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4237 
  4238 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4239 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4240 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4241 
  4242 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4243 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4246 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4247 
  4248 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4249 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4250 proofs, e.g.
  4251 
  4252   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4253 
  4254 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4255 
  4256 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4257 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4258 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4259 
  4260 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4261 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4263 
  4264 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4265 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4266 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4270 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4271 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4272 preorder_class.*.
  4273 
  4274 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4275 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4276 
  4277 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4278 
  4279   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4280 
  4281 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4282 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4283 fold_image.
  4284 
  4285 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4286 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4287 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4288 the former will disappear at some point.
  4289 
  4290 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4291 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4292 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4293 
  4294 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4295 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4296 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4297 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4298 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4299 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4300 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4301 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4302 
  4303 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4304 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4305 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4306 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4307 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4308 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4309 
  4310     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4311     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4312     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4313     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4314     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4315     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4316     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4317 
  4318 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4319 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4320 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4321 
  4322 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4323 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4324 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4325 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4326 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4327 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4328 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4329 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4330 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4331 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4332 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4333 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4334 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4335 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4336 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4337 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4338 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4339 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4340 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4341 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4342 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4343 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4344 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4345 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4346 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4347 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4348 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4349 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4350 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4351 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4352 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4353 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4354 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4355 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4356 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4357 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4358 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4359 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4360 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4361 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4362 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4363 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4364 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4365 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4366 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4367 
  4368 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4371 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4372 
  4373 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4374 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4375 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4376 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4377 
  4378 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4379 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4380 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4381 theory RealVector.
  4382 
  4383 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4384 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4385 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4386 and inner products are included.
  4387 
  4388 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4389 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4390 supported.
  4391 
  4392 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4393 first diagonalization argument.
  4394 
  4395 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4396 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4397 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4398 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4399 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4400 
  4401     hide (open) const gcd
  4402     abbreviation gcd where
  4403       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4404     notation (output)
  4405       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4406 
  4407 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4408 
  4409 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4410 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4411 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4414 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4415 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4416 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4417 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4418 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4419 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4420 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4421 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4422 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4423 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4424 cases.
  4425 
  4426 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4427 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4428 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4429 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4430 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4431 
  4432     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4433     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4434     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4435     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4436     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4437 
  4438 
  4439 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4440 
  4441 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4442 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4443 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4444 
  4445 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4446 
  4447 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4448 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4449 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4450 
  4451 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4452 
  4453 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4454 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4455 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4456 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4457 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4458 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4459 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4460 
  4461 
  4462 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4463 
  4464 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4465 
  4466 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4467 theory targets.
  4468 
  4469 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4470 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4471 'inductive' etc.
  4472 
  4473 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4474 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4475 
  4476 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4477 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4478 
  4479 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4480 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4481 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4482 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4483 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4484 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4485 the algorithm W:
  4486 
  4487  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4488  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4489          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4490 
  4491 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4492 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4493 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4494 
  4495 
  4496 *** HOLCF ***
  4497 
  4498 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4499 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4500 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4501 
  4502 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4503 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4504 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4505 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4506 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4507 
  4508 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4509 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4510 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511 
  4512 
  4513 *** ZF ***
  4514 
  4515 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4516 
  4517 
  4518 *** ML ***
  4519 
  4520 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4521 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4522 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4523 5.2.1!
  4524 
  4525 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4526 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4527 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4528 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4529 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4530 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4531 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4532 
  4533 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4534 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4535 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4536 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4537 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4538 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4539 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4540 
  4541 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4542 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4543 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4544 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4545 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4546 
  4547 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4548 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4549 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4550 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4551 Method.add_method.
  4552 
  4553 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4554 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4555 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4556 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4557 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4558 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4559 
  4560 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4561 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4562 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4563 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4564 examples.
  4565 
  4566 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4567 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4568 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4569 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4570 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4571 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4572 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4573 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4574 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4575 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4576 
  4577 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4578 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4579 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4580 
  4581 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4582 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4583 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4584 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4585 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4586 resort for legacy applications.
  4587 
  4588 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4589 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4590 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4591 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4592 explicit runtime argument.
  4593 
  4594 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4595 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4596 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4597 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4598 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4599 
  4600 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4601 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4602 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4603 theory state.
  4604 
  4605 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4606 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4607 
  4608   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4609   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4610   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4611   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4612   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4613   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4614   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4615   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4616   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4617   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4618 
  4619 
  4620 *** System ***
  4621 
  4622 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4623 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4624 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4625 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4626 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4627 
  4628 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4629 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4630 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4631 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4632 
  4633 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4634 
  4635 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4636 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4637 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4638 prover operations.
  4639 
  4640 
  4641 
  4642 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4643 -------------------------------
  4644 
  4645 *** General ***
  4646 
  4647 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4648 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4649 
  4650 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4651 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4652 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4653 provides a proper context already.
  4654 
  4655 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4656 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4657 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4658 
  4659 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4660 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4661 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4662 swap theory imports.
  4663 
  4664 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4665 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4666 
  4667 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4668 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4669 white space without escapes.
  4670 
  4671 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4672 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4673 "foo_bar".
  4674 
  4675 
  4676 *** Pure ***
  4677 
  4678 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4679 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4680 
  4681 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4682 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4683 
  4684 (1) unused_thms
  4685      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4686 
  4687 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4688      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4689      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4690 
  4691 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4692      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4693      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4694      their ancestors.
  4695 
  4696 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4697 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4698 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4699 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4700 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4701 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4702 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4703 
  4704 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4705 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4706 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4707 
  4708 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4709 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4710 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4711 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4712 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4713 
  4714 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4715 
  4716 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4717 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4718 update of theories within ML code.
  4719 
  4720 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4721 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4722 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4723 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4724 
  4725 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4726 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4727 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4731 
  4732 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4733 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4734 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4735 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4736 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4737 
  4738 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4739 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4740 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4741 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4742 situations.
  4743 
  4744 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4745 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4746 proof text.
  4747 
  4748 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4749 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4750 
  4751 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4752 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4753 predicates.
  4754 
  4755 
  4756 *** Document preparation ***
  4757 
  4758 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4759 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4760 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4761 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4762 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4763 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4764 
  4765 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4766 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4767 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4768 
  4769 
  4770 *** HOL ***
  4771 
  4772 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4773 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4774 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4775 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4776 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4777 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4778 
  4779 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4780 with multithreading.
  4781 
  4782 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4783 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4784 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4785 
  4786 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4787 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4788 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4789 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4792 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4793 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4794 and makes them available separately.  See
  4795 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4796 
  4797 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4798 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4799 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4800 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4801 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4802 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4803 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4804 the declared rules.
  4805 
  4806 This setup also deals with rules like
  4807 
  4808   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4809 
  4810 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4811 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4812 
  4813 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4814 
  4815   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4816 
  4817   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4818     definitions on => and bool.
  4819 
  4820   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4821     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4822     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4823 
  4824       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4825       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4826       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4827       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4828       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4829       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4830       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4831       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4832 
  4833   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4834     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4835     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4836 
  4837   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4838     The proof pattern
  4839 
  4840       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4841       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4842 
  4843     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4844     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4845 
  4846       have "EX S. P S"
  4847       proof
  4848         show "P S" <...>
  4849       qed
  4850 
  4851   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4852     The proof pattern
  4853 
  4854       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4855       also have "S = T" <...>
  4856       finally have "P T" .
  4857 
  4858     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4859     must be replaced by something like
  4860 
  4861       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4862       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4863       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4864 
  4865   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4866     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4867 
  4868       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4869 
  4870     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4871     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4872     type of the form
  4873 
  4874       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4875 
  4876     rather than
  4877 
  4878       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4879 
  4880 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4881 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4882 
  4883 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4884 
  4885 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4886 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4890 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4891 
  4892 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4893 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4894 
  4895 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4896 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4897 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4898 
  4899 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4900 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4901 
  4902   less_trans
  4903   less_linear
  4904   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4905   le_less_trans
  4906   less_le_trans
  4907   less_not_sym
  4908   less_asym
  4909 
  4910 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4911 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4912 and different variable names.
  4913 
  4914 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4915 
  4916 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4917 finite maps.
  4918 
  4919 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4920 
  4921 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4922 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4923 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4924 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4925 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4926 accordingly.
  4927 
  4928 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4929 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4930 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4931 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4932 
  4933 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4934 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4935 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4936 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4937 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4939 
  4940 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4941 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4942 
  4943 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4944 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4945 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4946 
  4947 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4949 
  4950 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4951 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4952 
  4953 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4954 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4955 
  4956 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4957 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4958 
  4959 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4960 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4962 
  4963 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4964 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4965 
  4966 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4967 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4968 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4969 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4970 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4971 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4972 
  4973 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4974 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4975 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4976 
  4977 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4978 
  4979 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4980 
  4981 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4982 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4983 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4984 
  4985 
  4986 *** ZF ***
  4987 
  4988 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4989 same session:
  4990 
  4991   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4992   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4993   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4994   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4995   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4996   List      -> List_ZF
  4997   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4998 
  4999 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5000 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5001 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5002 
  5003 
  5004 *** ML ***
  5005 
  5006 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5007 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5008 
  5009 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5010 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5011 
  5012 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5013 
  5014 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5015 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5016 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5017 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5018 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5019 
  5020 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5021 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5022 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5023 
  5024 
  5025 *** System ***
  5026 
  5027 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5028 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5029 
  5030 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5031 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5032 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5033 
  5034 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5035 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5036 
  5037 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5038 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5039 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5040 
  5041 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5042 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5043 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5044 
  5045 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5046 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5047 
  5048 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5049 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5050 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5051 script.
  5052 
  5053 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5054 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5055 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5056 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5057 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5058 
  5059 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5060 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5061 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5062 
  5063 
  5064 
  5065 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5066 -----------------------------------
  5067 
  5068 *** General ***
  5069 
  5070 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5071 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5072 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5073 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5074 
  5075 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5076 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5077 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5078 
  5079 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5080 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5081 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5082 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5083 
  5084 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5085 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5086 quotes.
  5087 
  5088 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5089 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5090 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5091 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5092 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5093 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5094 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5095 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5096 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5097 
  5098 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5099 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5100 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5101 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5102 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5103 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5104 
  5105 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5106 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5107 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5108 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5109 
  5110 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5111 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5112 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5113 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5114 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5115 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5116 
  5117 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5118 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5119 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5120 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5121 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5122 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5123 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5124 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5125 
  5126 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5127 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5128 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5129 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5130 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5131 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5132 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5133 
  5134 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5135 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5136 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5137 
  5138 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5139 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5140 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5141 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5142 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5143 limit is imposed.
  5144 
  5145 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5146 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5147 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5148 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5149 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5150 and scalability.
  5151 
  5152 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5153 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5154 
  5155 
  5156 *** Document preparation ***
  5157 
  5158 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5159 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5160 current context.
  5161 
  5162 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5163 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5164 
  5165 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5166 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5167 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5168 
  5169 
  5170 *** Pure ***
  5171 
  5172 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5173 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5174 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5175 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5176 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5177 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5178 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5179 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5180 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5181 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5182 
  5183 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5184 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5185 sketch:
  5186 
  5187     internal compilation:
  5188         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5189     writing SML code to a file:
  5190         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5191     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5192         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5193     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5194         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5195 
  5196     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5197         method ``eval''
  5198 
  5199 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5200 
  5201 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5202 
  5203     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5204     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5205     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5206     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5207 
  5208 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5209 
  5210     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5211       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5212 
  5213     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5214       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5215 
  5216     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5217       {(target)}+
  5218         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5219 
  5220     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5221       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5222         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5223 
  5224 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5225 
  5226 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5227 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5228 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5229 codegen".
  5230 
  5231 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5232 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5233 annotations).
  5234 
  5235 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5236 syntax.
  5237 
  5238 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5239 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5240 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5241 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5242 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5243 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5244 
  5245 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5246 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5247 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5248 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5249 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5250 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5251 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5252 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5253 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5254 equations, see section "definitions".
  5255 
  5256 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5257 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5258 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5259 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5260 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5261 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5262 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5263 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5264 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5265 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5266 
  5267 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5268 configuration options:
  5269 
  5270   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5271   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5272   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5273   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5274   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5275   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5276   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5277   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5278   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5279 
  5280 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5281 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5282 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5283 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5284 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5285 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5286 order.
  5287 
  5288 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5289 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5290 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5291 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5292 context encountered later on.
  5293 
  5294 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5295 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5296 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5297 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5298 
  5299 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5300 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5301 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5302 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5303 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5304 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5305 
  5306 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5307 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5308 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5309 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5310 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5311 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5312 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5313 more permissive.
  5314 
  5315 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5316 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5317 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5318 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5319 maintainability of proof texts.
  5320 
  5321 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5322 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5323 
  5324   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5325   then guess x and y by clarify
  5326 
  5327 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5328 proof tools being involved here.
  5329 
  5330 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5331 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5332 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5333 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5334 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5335 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5336 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5337 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5338 
  5339 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5340 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5341 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5342 
  5343   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5344   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5345   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5346   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5347 
  5348 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5349 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5350 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5351 
  5352 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5353 both named and unnamed ones.
  5354 
  5355 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5356 
  5357   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5358 
  5359 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5360 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5361 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5362 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5363 
  5364 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5365 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5366 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5367 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5368 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5369 
  5370 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5371 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5372 
  5373 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5374 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5375 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5376 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5377 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5378 originally first one.
  5379 
  5380 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5381 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5382 expected.
  5383 
  5384 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5385 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5386 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5387 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5388 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5389 
  5390   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5391     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5392     obtains x where "P x"
  5393 
  5394   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5395     assumes "A & B"
  5396     obtains A and B
  5397 
  5398   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5399     assumes "A | B"
  5400     obtains
  5401       A
  5402     | B
  5403 
  5404 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5405 explicitly:
  5406 
  5407   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5408     obtains "~ thesis"
  5409 
  5410   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5411     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5412 
  5413 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5414 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5415 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5416 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5417 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5418 case_names).
  5419 
  5420 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5421 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5422 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5423 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5424 
  5425 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5426 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5427 top-level lemma.
  5428 
  5429 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5430 introduction rule (default "that").
  5431 
  5432 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5433 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5434 to occur.
  5435 
  5436 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5437 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5438 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5439 representations independently of name spaces.
  5440 
  5441 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5442 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5443 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5444 
  5445 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5446 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5447 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5448 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5449 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5450 current context.
  5451 
  5452 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5453 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5454 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5455 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5456 
  5457   axiomatization
  5458     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5459     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5460 
  5461   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5462   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5463 
  5464   abbreviation
  5465     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5466     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5467 
  5468 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5469 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5470 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5471 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5472 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5473 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5474 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5475 
  5476 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5477 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5478 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5479 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5480 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5481 
  5482 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5483 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5484 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5485 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5486 
  5487 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5488 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5489 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5490 
  5491   definition "K x _ = x"
  5492 
  5493   inductive conj for A B
  5494   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5495 
  5496 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5497 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5498 abbreviations on output.
  5499 
  5500 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5501 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5502 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5503 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5504 
  5505 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5506 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5507 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5508 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5509 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5510 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5511 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5512 
  5513 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5514 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5515 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5516 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5517 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5518 
  5519 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5520 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5521 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5522 
  5523 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5524 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5525 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5526 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5527 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5528 
  5529   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5530     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5531 
  5532 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5533 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5534 partial_order.
  5535 
  5536 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5537 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5538 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5539 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5540 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5541 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5542 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5543 examples.
  5544 
  5545 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5546 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5547 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5548 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5549 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5550 
  5551 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5552 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5553 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5554 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5555 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5556 
  5557   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5558   (induct set: foo bar)
  5559   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5560   (induct type: foo bar)
  5561 
  5562 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5563 new format.
  5564 
  5565 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5566 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5567 
  5568 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5569 considered a legacy feature.
  5570 
  5571 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5572 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5573 
  5574 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5575 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5576 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5577 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5578 
  5579 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5580 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5581 manipulating the claset.
  5582 
  5583 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5584 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5585 least one premise.
  5586 
  5587 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5588 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5589 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5590 rule steps.
  5591 
  5592 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5593 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5594 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5595 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5596 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5597 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5598 
  5599 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5600 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5601 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5602 
  5603 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5604 the graph browser tool.
  5605 
  5606 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5607 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5608 
  5609 
  5610 *** HOL ***
  5611 
  5612 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5613 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5614 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5615 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5616 multi-threading.
  5617 
  5618 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5619 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5620 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5621 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5622 work with multi-threading.
  5623 
  5624 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5625 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5626 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5627 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5628 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5629 
  5630 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5631 
  5632 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5633 equality.
  5634 
  5635 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5636 the new 'class' package:
  5637 
  5638     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5639     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5640     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5641     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5642     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5643     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5644     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5645     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5646     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5647     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5648     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5649     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5650     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5651     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5652     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5653     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5654     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5655     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5656     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5657     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5658 
  5659 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5660 
  5661 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5662 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5663 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5664 names.
  5665 
  5666 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5667 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5668 
  5669 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5670 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5671 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5672 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5673 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5674 
  5675 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5676 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5677 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5678 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5679 
  5680 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5681 
  5682 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5683 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5684 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5685 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5687 
  5688 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5689 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5690 
  5691 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5692 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5693 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5694 
  5695 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5696 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5697 
  5698 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5699 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5700 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5701 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5702 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5703 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5704 in the current context.
  5705 
  5706 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5707 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5711 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5712 
  5713 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5714 
  5715     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5716     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5717 
  5718     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5719       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5720     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5721     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5722 
  5723     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5724     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5725 
  5726   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5727 
  5728     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5729     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5730     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5731     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5732     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5733     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5734     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5735     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5736     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5737     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5738     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5739     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5740     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5741     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5742     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5743     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5744     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5745     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5746     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5747     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5748     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5749     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5750     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5751     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5752     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5753     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5754     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5755     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5756     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5757     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5758     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5759     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5760     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5761     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5762     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5763 
  5764     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5765     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5766     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5767     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5768     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5769     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5770     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5771     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5772     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5773     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5774     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5775     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5776     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5777     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5778     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5779     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5780     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5781 
  5782     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5783     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5784     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5785     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5786     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5787     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5788     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5789     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5790     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5791     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5792     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5793     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5794     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5795     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5796     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5797     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5798     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5799     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5800     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5801     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5802     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5803     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5804     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5805     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5806     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5807     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5808     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5809     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5810 
  5811     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5812     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5813     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5814     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5815     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5816     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5817 
  5818     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5819     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5820     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5821     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5822 
  5823     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5824     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5825 
  5826     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5827     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5828 
  5829 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5830 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5831 
  5832 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5833 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5834 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5835 "*.size".
  5836 
  5837 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5839 
  5840 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5841 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5842 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5843 
  5844 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5845 
  5846 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5847 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5848 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5849 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5850 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5851 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5852 numerals on all operations.
  5853 
  5854 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5855 
  5856 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5857 
  5858 * Code generator library theories:
  5859   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5860     languages.
  5861   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5862     languages.
  5863   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5864     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5865   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5866   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5867     denominator).
  5868   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5869     representable by rational numbers.
  5870   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5871     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5872     includes Code_Integer.
  5873   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5874     target-language built-in integers.
  5875   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5876     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5877 
  5878 * New package for inductive predicates
  5879 
  5880   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5881 
  5882     inductive
  5883       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5884       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5885     where
  5886       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5887     | ...
  5888 
  5889   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5890 
  5891     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5892 
  5893     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5894     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5895 
  5896     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5897     intros
  5898       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5899       ...
  5900 
  5901   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5902   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5903 
  5904     inductive_set
  5905       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5906       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5907     where
  5908       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5909     | ...
  5910 
  5911   or
  5912 
  5913     inductive_set
  5914       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5915       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5916       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5917     where
  5918       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5919     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5920     | ...
  5921 
  5922   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5923 
  5924   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5925   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5926 
  5927   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5928 
  5929   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5930     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5931     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5932     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5933     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5934 
  5935   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5936     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5937     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5938     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5939     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5940     statements of the form
  5941 
  5942       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5943 
  5944     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5945     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5946 
  5947       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5948 
  5949   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5950 
  5951       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5952         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5953         ==> ... ==> P
  5954 
  5955     for predicates and
  5956 
  5957       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5958         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5959         ==> ... ==> P
  5960 
  5961     for sets rather than
  5962 
  5963       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5964         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5965         ==> ... ==> P
  5966 
  5967     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5968     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5969     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5970 
  5971   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5972     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5973     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5974 
  5975 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5976 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5977 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5978 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5979 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5980 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5981 
  5982 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5983 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5984 
  5985 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5986 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5987 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5988 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5989 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5990 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5991 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5992 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5993 variable.
  5994 
  5995 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5996 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5997 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5998 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5999   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6000   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6001 
  6002 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6003 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6004 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6005 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6006 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6007 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6008 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6009 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6010 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6011 
  6012 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6013 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6014 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6015 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6016 rat, etc.
  6017 
  6018 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6019 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6020 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6021 
  6022 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6023 
  6024 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6025 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6026 
  6027 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6028 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6029 
  6030 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6031 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6032 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6033 
  6034 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6035 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6037 
  6038 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6039 
  6040 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6041 
  6042 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6043 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6044 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6045 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6046 
  6047 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6048 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6049 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6050 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6051 
  6052 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6053 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6054 algebraic operations.
  6055 
  6056 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6058 
  6059 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6061 
  6062 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6063 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6064 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6065 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6066 adapted.
  6067 
  6068 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6069 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6070 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6071 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6072 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6073 
  6074 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6075 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6076 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6077 
  6078 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6079 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6080 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6081 
  6082 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6083 
  6084 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6085 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6086 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6087   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6088       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6089   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6090   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6091   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6092 
  6093 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6094 
  6095 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6096 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6097 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6098 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6099 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6100 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6101 
  6102 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6103 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6104 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6105 
  6106 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6107 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6108 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6110 
  6111 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6112 
  6113 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6114 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6115 
  6116 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6117 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6118 
  6119 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6120 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6121 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6122 
  6123 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6124 True/False.
  6125 
  6126 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6127 
  6128 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6129 
  6130 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6131 ``rule'' method.
  6132 
  6133 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6134 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6135 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6136 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6137 
  6138 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6139 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6140 
  6141 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6142 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6143 
  6144 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6145 Library.
  6146 
  6147 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6148 
  6149 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6150 as greatest fixed-point.
  6151 
  6152 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6153 association lists.
  6154 
  6155 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6156 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6157 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6158 
  6159 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6160 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6161 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6162 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6163 behavior.
  6164 
  6165 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6166 
  6167 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6168 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6169 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6170 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6171 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6172 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6173 
  6174 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6175 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6176 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6177 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6178 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6179 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6180 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6181 
  6182 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6183 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6184 
  6185 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6186 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6187 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6188 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6189 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6190 
  6191 
  6192 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6193 
  6194 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6195 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6196 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6197 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6201 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6202 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6203 
  6204 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6205 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6206 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6207 
  6208 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6209 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6210 
  6211 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6212 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6213 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6215 
  6216   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6217   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6218   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6219   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6220   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6221   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6222   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6223   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6224   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6225   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6226   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6227   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6228   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6229   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6230   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6231 
  6232 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6233 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6234 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the