NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Oct 16 21:30:52 2012 +0200 (2012-10-16)
changeset 49869 bd370af308f0
parent 49841 18cb42182d3e
child 49918 cf441f4a358b
permissions -rw-r--r--
support for more informative errors in lazy enumerations;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10     . parallel terminal proofs ('by');
    11     . improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc.;
    12     . improved tooltips with nested tooltips, hyperlinks etc.;
    13     . more efficient painting, improved reactivity;
    14     . more robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial
    15       comments, malformed symbols);
    16     . smarter handling of tracing messages (via tracing_limit);
    17     . more plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala;
    18     . uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows;
    19 
    20 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    21 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    22 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    23 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    24 
    25 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    26 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    27 
    28 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    29 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    30 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    31 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    32 dependencies properly.
    33 
    34 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    35 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    36 
    37 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    38 in old "ref" manual.
    39 
    40 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    41 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    42 and "class ... context ...".
    43 
    44 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    45 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Pure ***
    49 
    50 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    51 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    52 
    53 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    54 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    55 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    56 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    57 
    58 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    59 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    60 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    61 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    62 with some care where this is really required.
    63 
    64 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    65 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    66 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    67 
    68   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    69 
    70 
    71 *** HOL ***
    72 
    73 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
    74 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
    75 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
    76 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
    77 accordingly.
    78 
    79 
    80 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
    81 
    82   - Renamed constants
    83       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
    84 
    85   - Renamed facts
    86       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
    87 
    88 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    89 
    90 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91 
    92 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
    93 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
    94 
    95 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    96 to lattice type classes.
    97 
    98 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
    99 
   100 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   101 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   102 
   103   - Renamed constants:
   104 
   105       prefix ~> prefixeq
   106       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   107 
   108     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   111     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   112     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   113     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   116     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   117 
   118   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   119     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   120     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   121     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   124     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   125 
   126       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   127       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   128       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   129       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   130       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   131       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   132       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   133       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   134       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   135       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   136       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   137       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   138       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   139       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   140       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   141       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   142 
   143     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   146 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   147 non-free datatypes.
   148 
   149 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   150 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   151 
   152 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   153 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   154 
   155 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   156 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   157 
   158 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   159 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   160 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   161 
   162 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   163 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   164 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   167 expressions.
   168 
   169 * Quickcheck:
   170 
   171   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   172     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   173     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   174 
   175 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   176 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   177 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   178 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   179 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Sledgehammer:
   182 
   183   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   184     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   185   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   186   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   187   - Renamed options:
   188       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   189       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   190 
   191 
   192 *** Document preparation ***
   193 
   194 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   195 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   196 
   197 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   198 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   199 document/root.tex.
   200 
   201 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   202 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 
   205 *** ML ***
   206 
   207 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   208 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   209 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   210 
   211 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   212 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   213 necessarily printing visible text.
   214 
   215 
   216 *** System ***
   217 
   218 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   219 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   220 for home-made configurations.
   221 
   222 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   223 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   224 
   225 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   226 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   227 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   228 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   229 
   230 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   231 
   232 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   233 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   234 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   235 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   236 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   237 
   238 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   239 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   240 
   241   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   242 
   243 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   244 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   245 
   246 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   247 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   248 "isabelle usedir".
   249 
   250 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   251 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   252 version of Isabelle.
   253 
   254 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   255 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   256 configuration.
   257 
   258 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   259 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   260 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   261 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   262 bundled as Isabelle component.
   263 
   264 
   265 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   266 ------------------------------
   267 
   268 *** General ***
   269 
   270 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   271 
   272   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   273     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   274   - markup for bound variables
   275   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   276   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   277   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   278     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   279 
   280 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   281 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   282 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   283 
   284 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   285 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   286 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   287 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   288 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   289 
   290   context
   291     fixes x y z :: 'a
   292     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   293   begin
   294 
   295   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   296 
   297   end
   298 
   299   thm my_trans
   300 
   301 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   302 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   303 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   304 
   305 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   306 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   307 
   308 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   309 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   310 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   311 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   312 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   313 
   314 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   315 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   316 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   317 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   318 indices of schematic variables.
   319 
   320 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   321 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   322 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   323 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   324 etc. was exploited.
   325 
   326 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   327 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   328 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   329 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   330 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   331 of the material of that old tutorial.
   332 
   333 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   334 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   335 manual.
   336 
   337 
   338 *** Pure ***
   339 
   340 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   341 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   342 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   343 
   344 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   345 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   346 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   347 undocumented feature.)
   348 
   349 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   350 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   351 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   352 
   353   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   354 
   355   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   356     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   357 
   358 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   359 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   360 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   361 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   362 
   363 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   364 
   365     num ~> num_token
   366     xnum ~> xnum_token
   367     xstr ~> str_token
   368 
   369 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   370 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   371 position information via constraints).
   372 
   373 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   374 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   375 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376 
   377 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   378 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   379 
   380 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   381 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   382 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   385 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   388 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   389 
   390   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   391 
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   395 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   396 
   397 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   398 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   399 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   400 
   401 
   402 *** HOL ***
   403 
   404 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   405 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   406 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   407 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   408 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   409 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   410 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   411 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   412 possible.
   413 
   414 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   415 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   416 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   417 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   418 
   419 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   420 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   421 
   422 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   423 
   424 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   425 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   426 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   427 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   428 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   429 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   430 
   431   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   432     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   433 
   434   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   435     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   436     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   437 
   438   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   439     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   440 
   441   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   442     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   443     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   444 
   445   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   446     Redefine using other integer operations.
   447 
   448 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   449 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   450 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   451 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   452 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   453 
   454   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   455     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   456     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   457     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   458     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   459 
   460     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   461     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   462 
   463   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   464     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   465     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   466     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   467     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   468     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   469     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   470     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   471 
   472   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   473     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   474     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   475     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   476 
   477   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   478     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   479     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   480     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   481 
   482   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   483     from type nat to type int.
   484 
   485 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   486 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   487 
   488   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   489     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   490     type.  Example syntax:
   491 
   492     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   493       is List.insert
   494 
   495     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   496     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   497     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   498     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   499     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   500     by the package.
   501 
   502   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   503     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   504     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   505     code generation for each constant.
   506 
   507   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   508     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   509     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   510     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   511     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   512 
   513   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   514     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   515     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   516 
   517 * Quotient package:
   518 
   519   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   520     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   521 
   522   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   523     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   524 
   525   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   526     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   527     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528 
   529   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   530     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   531 
   532 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   533 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   534 
   535 * Quickcheck:
   536 
   537   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   538     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   539     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   540     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   541     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   542 
   543     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   544     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   545     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   546 
   547     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   548     continues searching for genuine ones.
   549 
   550     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   551     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   552     show genuine counterexamples.
   553 
   554   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   555     value generators for a given type and operations.
   556 
   557     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   558     constructors of that type.
   559 
   560   - Support for multisets.
   561 
   562   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   563 
   564   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   565     conjectures in a locale context.
   566 
   567 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   568 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   569 
   570 * Sledgehammer:
   571   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   572     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   573   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   574   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   575     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   576   - Sped up the minimizer.
   577   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   578   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   579   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   580 
   581 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   582 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   583 
   584 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   585 
   586 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   587 
   588 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   589 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   590 
   591   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   592 
   593 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   594 a list and a nat.
   595 
   596 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   597 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   598 
   599 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   600 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   601 default.
   602 
   603 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   604 
   605   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   606 
   607 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   608 
   609 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   610 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   612 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   613 one_case.
   614 
   615 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   616 the result of the fact expression.
   617 
   618 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   619 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   620 of some relation theorems:
   621 
   622   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   623   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   624   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   625   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   626   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   627   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   628 
   629 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   630 
   631 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   632 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   633 
   634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   637 to match the constant's name:
   638 
   639   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   640   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   641   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   642   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   643   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   644   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   645   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   646   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   647   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   648   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   649   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   650   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   651   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   652   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   653   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   654   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   655   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   656   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   657   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   658   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   659   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   660   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   661   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   662   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   663 
   664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   667 and corresponding theorem names:
   668 
   669   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   670 
   671   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   672 
   673   - Renamed theorems:
   674 
   675     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   676     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   677     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   678     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   679     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   680     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   681     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   682     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   683     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   684     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   685     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   686     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   687     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   688     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   689     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   690     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   691     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   692     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   693     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   694     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   695     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   696     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   697     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   698 
   699     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   700 
   701     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   702 
   703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   706 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   707 
   708   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   709   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   710   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   711   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   712   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   713   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   714   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   715   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   716   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   717   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   718   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   719   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   720   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   721   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   722   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   723   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   724   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   725   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   726   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   727   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   728   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   729 
   730 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   731 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   732 
   733 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   734 
   735 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   736 
   737   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   738   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   739   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   740   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   741   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   742   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   743   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   744   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   745   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   746   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   747   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   748   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   749   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   750   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   751   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   752   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   753   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   754   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   755 
   756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   757 
   758 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   759 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   760 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   761 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   762 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   763 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   764 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   765 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   766 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   767 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   768 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   769 
   770 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   771 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   772 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   773 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   774 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   775 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   776 
   777 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   778 through option types.
   779 
   780 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   781 relations.
   782 
   783 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   786 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   787 
   788   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   789   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   790   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   791   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   792   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   793   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   794   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   795   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   796   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   797   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   798   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   799   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   800   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   801   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   802   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   803   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   804   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   805   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   806   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   807   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   808   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   809   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   810   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   811   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   812   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   813   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   814   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   815   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   816   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   817   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   818   zless_le ~> less_le
   819   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   820   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   821   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   822 
   823 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   824 
   825   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   826 
   827 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   828 
   829 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   830 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   831 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   832 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   834 
   835 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   836 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   837 
   838 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   839 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   840 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   841 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   842 follows:
   843 
   844   Operations:
   845   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   846   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   847   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   848   del -> rbt_del
   849   delete -> rbt_delete
   850   ins -> rbt_ins
   851   insert -> rbt_insert
   852   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   853   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   854   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   855   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   856   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   857   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   858   tree_less -> rbt_less
   859   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   860   union -> rbt_union
   861   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   862   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   863 
   864   Lemmas:
   865   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   866   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   867   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   868   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   869   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   870   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   871   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   872   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   873   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   874   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   875   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   876   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   877   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   878   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   879   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   880   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   881   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   882   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   883   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   884   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   885   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   886   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   887   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   888   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   889   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   890   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   891   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   892   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   893   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   894   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   895   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   896   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   897   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   898   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   899   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   900   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   901   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   902   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   903   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   904   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   905   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   906   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   907   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   908   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   909   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   910   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   911   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   912   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   913   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   914   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   915   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   916   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   917   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   918   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   919   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   920   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   921   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   922   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   923   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   924   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   925   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   926   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   927   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   928   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   929   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   930   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   931   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   932   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   933   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   934   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   935   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   936   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   937   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   938   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   939   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   940   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   941   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   942   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   943   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   944   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   945   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   946   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   947   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   948 
   949 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   950 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   951 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952 
   953   Changed Operations:
   954   float_abs -> abs
   955   float_nprt -> nprt
   956   float_pprt -> pprt
   957   pow2 -> use powr
   958   round_down -> float_round_down
   959   round_up -> float_round_up
   960   scale -> exponent
   961 
   962   Removed Operations:
   963   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   964 
   965   Renamed Lemmas:
   966   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   967   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   968   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   969   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   970   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   971   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   972   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   973   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   974   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   975   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   976   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   977   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   978   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   979   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   980   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   981   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   982   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   983   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   984   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   985   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   986   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   987   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   988   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   989   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   990   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   991   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   992   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   993   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   994   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   995   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   996   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   997   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   998   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   999   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1000   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1001   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1002 
  1003   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1004   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1005   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1006   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1007   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1008   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1009   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1010   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1011   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1012   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1013 
  1014 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1015 association lists with distinct keys.
  1016 
  1017 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1018 annotated commands.
  1019 
  1020 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1021 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1022 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1023 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1024 
  1025 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1026 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1027 instead.
  1028 
  1029   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1030   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1031   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1032   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1033   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1034   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1035   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1036   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1037   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1038   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1039   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1040   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1041   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1042   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1043   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1044   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1045   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1046   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1047   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1048   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1049   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1050   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1051   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1052   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1053   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1054   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1055   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1056   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1057   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1058   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1059   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1060   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1061   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1062   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1063   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1064   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1065   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1066   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1067   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1068   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1069   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1070 
  1071 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1072 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1073 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1074 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1075 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1076 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1077 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1078 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1079 
  1080 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1081 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1082 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1083 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1084 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1085 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1086 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1087 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1088 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1089 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1090 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1091 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093   Renamed constants:
  1094   measure -> emeasure
  1095   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1096   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1097   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1098   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1099 
  1100   Removed locales:
  1101   completeable_measure_space
  1102   finite_measure_space
  1103   finite_prob_space
  1104   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1105   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1106   finite_sigma_algebra
  1107   measure_space
  1108   pair_finite_prob_space
  1109   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1110   pair_finite_space
  1111   pair_sigma_algebra
  1112   product_sigma_algebra
  1113 
  1114   Removed constants:
  1115   conditional_space
  1116   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1117   image_space
  1118   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1119   pair_measure_generator
  1120   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1121   subvimage
  1122 
  1123   Replacement theorems:
  1124   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1125   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1126   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1127   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1128   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1129   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1130   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1131   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1132   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1133   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1134   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1135   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1136   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1137   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1138   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1139   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1140   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1141   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1142   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1143   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1144   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1145   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1146   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1147   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1148   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1149   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1150   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1151   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1152   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1153   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1154   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1155   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1156   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1157   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1158   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1159   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1160   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1161   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1162   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1163   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1164   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1165   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1166   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1167   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1168   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1169   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1170   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1171   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1172   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1173   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1174   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1175   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1176   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1177   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1178   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1179   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1180   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1181   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1182   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1183   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1184   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1185   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1186   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1187   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1188   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1189   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1190   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1191   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1192   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1193   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1194   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1195   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1196   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1197   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1198   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1199   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1200   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1201   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1202   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1203   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1204   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1205   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1206   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1207   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1208   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1209   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1210   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1211   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1212   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1213   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1214   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1215   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1216   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1217   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1218   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1219   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1220   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1221   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1222   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1223   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1224   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1225   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1226   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1227   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1228   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1229   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1230   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1231   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1232   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1233   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1234   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1235   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1236   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1237   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1238   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1239   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1240   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1241   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1242   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1243   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1244   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1245   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1246   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1247   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1248   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1249   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1250   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1251   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1252 
  1253 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1254 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1255 
  1256 
  1257 *** FOL ***
  1258 
  1259 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1260 
  1261 
  1262 *** ZF ***
  1263 
  1264 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1265 analysis.
  1266 
  1267 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1268 
  1269 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1270 
  1271 
  1272 *** ML ***
  1273 
  1274 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1275 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1276 
  1277 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1278 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1279 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1280 
  1281 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1282 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1283 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1284 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1285 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1286 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1287 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1288 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1289 
  1290 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1291 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1292 
  1293 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1294 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1295 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1296 
  1297 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1298 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1301 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1302 context as well.
  1303 
  1304 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1305 
  1306   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1307   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1308   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1309   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1310   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1311   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1312   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1313   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1314   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1315   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1316   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1317   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1318 
  1319 
  1320 *** System ***
  1321 
  1322 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1323 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1324 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1325 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1326 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1327 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1328 the generic user home was intended.
  1329 
  1330 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1331 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1332 
  1333 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1334 (not just JRE).
  1335 
  1336 
  1337 
  1338 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1339 ------------------------------------
  1340 
  1341 *** General ***
  1342 
  1343 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1344 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1345 
  1346   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1347     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1348     files for checking).
  1349 
  1350   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1351     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1352     positions.
  1353 
  1354   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1355     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1356     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1357 
  1358   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1359     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1360     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1361 
  1362   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1363     cores.
  1364 
  1365   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1366     versions (garbage collection).
  1367 
  1368 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1369 including some remaining limitations.
  1370 
  1371 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1372 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1373 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1374 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1375 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1377 
  1378 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1379 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1380 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1381 
  1382 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1383 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1384 usedir option -Q.
  1385 
  1386 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1387 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1388 
  1389   long_names   ~> names_long
  1390   short_names  ~> names_short
  1391   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1392 
  1393 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1394 
  1395   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1396 
  1397 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1398 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1399 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1400 
  1401 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1402 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1403 
  1404 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1405   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1406   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1407   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1408     "Classical Reasoner".
  1409 
  1410 
  1411 *** HOL ***
  1412 
  1413 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1414 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1415 
  1416 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1417 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1418 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1419 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1420 class complete_linorder.
  1421 
  1422 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1423 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1424 
  1425 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1426 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1427 
  1428   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1429   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1430   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1431   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1432   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1433   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1434   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1435   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1436   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1437   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1438   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1439 
  1440 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1441 
  1442   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1443   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1444   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1445   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1446   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1447   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1448   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1449   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1450   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1451   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1452   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1453   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1454   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1455   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1456   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1457   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1458 
  1459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1465 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1466 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1467 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1470 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1471 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1475 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1476 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1477 
  1478 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1479 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1480 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1483 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1484 
  1485 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1486 
  1487     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1488     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1489 
  1490 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1491 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 
  1493 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1494 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1495 
  1496 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1497 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1498 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1499 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1502   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1503   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1504   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1505   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1506   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1507   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1508 
  1509 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1510 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1513   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1514   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1515   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1516   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1517   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1518   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1519   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1520   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1521   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1522   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1523   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1524   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1525   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1526   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1527   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1528   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1529   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1530   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1531   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1532   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1533   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1534   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1535   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1536   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1537   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1538   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1539   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1540   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1541   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1542   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1543   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1544   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1545   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1546   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1547   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1548   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1549   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1550   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1551   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1552   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1553   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1554   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1555   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1556   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1557   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1558   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1559   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1560   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1561   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1562   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1563   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1564   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1565   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1566   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1567   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1568   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1569   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1570   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1571   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1572   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1573   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1574   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1575   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1576   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1577   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1578   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1579   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1580   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1581   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1582   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1583   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1584   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1585   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1586   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1587   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1588   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1589   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1590   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1591   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1592   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1593   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1594 
  1595 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1596 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1597 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1598 
  1599 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1600 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1601 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1602 
  1603 * Code generation:
  1604 
  1605   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1606     characters in the target language.
  1607 
  1608   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1609     instead.
  1610 
  1611   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1612 
  1613   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1614     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1615 
  1616       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1617 
  1618 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1621 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1622 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1623 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1624 syntax.
  1625 
  1626 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1627 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1628 
  1629 * Nitpick:
  1630   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1631   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1632   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1633     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 * Sledgehammer:
  1636   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1637   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1638     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1639   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1640     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1641   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1642     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1644     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1645   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1646     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1647 
  1648 * Metis:
  1649   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1651     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Command 'try':
  1654   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1655     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1657     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1658 
  1659 * Quickcheck:
  1660   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1661     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1662   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1663     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1664   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1665     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1666     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1667     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1668   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1669     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1670 
  1671 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1672 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1673 
  1674 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1675 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1676 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1677 
  1678 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1679 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1683 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1686 arithmetic.
  1687 
  1688 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1689 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1690 and lattice type classes.
  1691 
  1692 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1693 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1694 
  1695 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1696 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1697 
  1698 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1699 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1700 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1701 
  1702   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1703   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1704   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1705   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1706 
  1707 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1708 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1709 constants:
  1710 
  1711   type inat   ~> type enat
  1712   Fin         ~> enat
  1713   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1714   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1715   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1716 
  1717 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1718 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1721 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1722 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1723 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1724 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1725 
  1726 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1727 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1728 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1729 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1730 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1731 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1732 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1733 
  1734   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1735   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1736   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1737   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1738 
  1739 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1740 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1741 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742 
  1743   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1744   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1745   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1746   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1747   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1748   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1749   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1750   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1751   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1752   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1753   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1754   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1755   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1756   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1757   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1758   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1759   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1760   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1761   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1762   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1763   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1764   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1765   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1766   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1767   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1768   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1769   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1770   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1771   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1772   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1773   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1774   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1775   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1776   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1777   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1778   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1779   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1780   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1781   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1782   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1783   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1784   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1785   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1786   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1787   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1788   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1789   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1790   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1791   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1792   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1793   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1794 
  1795 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1796   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1797   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1798   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1799   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1800     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1801 
  1802 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1803 
  1804   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1805   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1806   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1807   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1808   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1809   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1810   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1811   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1812   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1813   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1814   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1815   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1816   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1817   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1818   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1819   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1820   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1821   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1822   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1823   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1824   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1825   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1826   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1827   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1828   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1829 
  1830 
  1831 *** Document preparation ***
  1832 
  1833 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1834 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1835 same.
  1836 
  1837 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1838 result.
  1839 
  1840 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1841 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1842 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1843 
  1844 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1845 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1846 
  1847 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1848 like this:
  1849 
  1850   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1851   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1852 
  1853 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1854 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1855 layouts.
  1856 
  1857 
  1858 *** ML ***
  1859 
  1860 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1861 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1862 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1863 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1864 under external program control.
  1865 
  1866 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1867 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1868 
  1869 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1870 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1871 (better known as Proof General).
  1872 
  1873 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1874 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1875 
  1876 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1877 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1878 
  1879 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1880 (including quotes etc.).
  1881 
  1882 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1883 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1884 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1885 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1886 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1887 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1888 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1889 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1890 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1891 
  1892 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1893 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1894 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1895 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1896 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1897 
  1898 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1899 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1900 
  1901 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1902 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1903 
  1904 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1905 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1906 
  1907 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1908 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1909 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1910 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1911 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1912 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1913 proper Proof.context.
  1914 
  1915 
  1916 *** System ***
  1917 
  1918 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1919 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1920 
  1921 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1922 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1923 
  1924 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1925 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1926 
  1927   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1928   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1929   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1930   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1931   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1932 
  1933 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1934 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1935 
  1936 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1937 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1938 example:
  1939 
  1940   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1941 
  1942 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1943 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1944 
  1945 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1946 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1947 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1948 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1949 
  1950 
  1951 
  1952 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1953 ----------------------------------
  1954 
  1955 *** General ***
  1956 
  1957 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1958 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1959 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1960 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1961 like this:
  1962 
  1963   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1964 
  1965 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1966 
  1967 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1968 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1969 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1970 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1971 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1972 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1973 
  1974 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1975 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1976 the following package declarations:
  1977 
  1978   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1979   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1980 
  1981 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1982 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1983 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1984 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1985 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1986 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1987 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1988 
  1989 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1990 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1991 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1992 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1993 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1994 
  1995 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1996 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1997 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1998 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1999 
  2000 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2001 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2002 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2003 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2004 
  2005   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2006 
  2007   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2008   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2009   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2010   show_types                    show_types
  2011   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2012   show_consts                   show_consts
  2013   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2014 
  2015   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2016   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2017   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2018 
  2019   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2020   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2021 
  2022   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2023 
  2024   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2025   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2026   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2027   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2028   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2029 
  2030 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2031 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2032 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2033 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2034 
  2035 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2037 
  2038   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2039   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2040 
  2041 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2042 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2043 float_token.
  2044 
  2045 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2046 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2048 
  2049 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2050 DejaVu Sans.
  2051 
  2052 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2053 
  2054 
  2055 *** Pure ***
  2056 
  2057 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2058 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2059 time.
  2060 
  2061 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2062 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2063 
  2064 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2065 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2066 
  2067 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2068 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2069 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2070 command already provided this functionality.
  2071 
  2072 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2073 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2074 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2075 without interpretations.
  2076 
  2077 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2078 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2079 
  2080 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2081 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2082 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2083 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2084 
  2085 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2086 'definition' instead.
  2087 
  2088 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2089 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2090 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2091 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2092 
  2093 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2094 constructors.
  2095 
  2096 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2097 the local file system.
  2098 
  2099 
  2100 *** HOL ***
  2101 
  2102 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2103 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2104 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2105 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2106 
  2107   declare [[coercion f]]
  2108 
  2109 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2110 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2111 
  2112   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2113 
  2114 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2115 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2116 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2117 other theories like this:
  2118 
  2119   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2120 
  2121 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2122 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2123 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2124 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2125 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2126 for examples.
  2127 
  2128 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2129 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130 
  2131 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2132 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2133 
  2134 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2135 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2136 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2137 
  2138 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2139 functorial structure of types.
  2140 
  2141 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2142 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2143 
  2144 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2145 languages.
  2146 
  2147 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2148 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2150 
  2151 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2152 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2153 
  2154 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2155 combinators any longer.
  2156 
  2157 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2158 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2159 
  2160 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2161 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2162 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2163 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2164 
  2165   record 'a foo = ...
  2166   ...
  2167   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2168 
  2169 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2170 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2174 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2175 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2176 
  2177 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2178 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2179 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2180 
  2181 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2182 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2185 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2186 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2187 independently.
  2188 
  2189 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2190 counter example search.
  2191 
  2192 * Sledgehammer:
  2193   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2194     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2195     sledgehammer").
  2196   - Renamed commands:
  2197     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2198     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2199     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2200     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2201   - Renamed options:
  2202     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2203     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2204     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2205     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2206     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * Nitpick:
  2209   - Renamed options:
  2210     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2211     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2212     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2213   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2214   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2215   - Added "whack" option.
  2216   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2217   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2218   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2219   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2220     higher cardinalities.
  2221   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2222 
  2223 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2224 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2225 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2226 
  2227     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2228 
  2229 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2230 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2231 
  2232 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2233 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2234 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2235 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2236 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2237 "smt_solver".
  2238 
  2239 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2240 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2241 
  2242 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2243 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2244 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2245 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2246 
  2247 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2248   - Renamed:
  2249     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2250     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2251     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2252   - Added:
  2253     smt_verbose
  2254     smt_random_seed
  2255     smt_datatypes
  2256     smt_infer_triggers
  2257     smt_monomorph_limit
  2258     cvc3_options
  2259     remote_cvc3_options
  2260     remote_z3_options
  2261     yices_options
  2262 
  2263 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2264 header.
  2265 
  2266 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2267 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2268 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2269 
  2270   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2271 
  2272 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2275 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2280 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2283 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2284 
  2285 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2286 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2287 
  2288 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2289 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2290 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293 
  2294 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2298 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2299 
  2300 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2301 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2302 for congruent(2)).
  2303 
  2304 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2305 
  2306   types
  2307     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2308     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2309 
  2310   constants
  2311     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2312     True ~> HOL.True
  2313     False ~> HOL.False
  2314     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2315     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2316     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2317     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2318     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2319     The ~> HOL.The
  2320     All ~> HOL.All
  2321     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2322     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2323     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2324     If ~> HOL.If
  2325     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2326     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2327     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2328     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2329     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2330     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2331     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2332     op : ~> Set.member
  2333     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2334 
  2335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2336 
  2337 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2338 
  2339     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2340     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2341     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2342     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2343     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2344     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2345     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2346     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2347 
  2348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * More stylized fact names:
  2351 
  2352   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2353   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2354   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2355   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2356 
  2357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2360 
  2361   constants
  2362     null ~> List.null
  2363 
  2364   facts
  2365     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2366     null_empty ~> null_def
  2367 
  2368 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2369 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2370 generation.
  2371 
  2372 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2373 Haskell code.
  2374 
  2375 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2376 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2377 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2380 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2383 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2384 
  2385 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2386 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2387 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2388 
  2389 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2390 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2396 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2397 referred to by its qualified name.
  2398 
  2399   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2400   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2401   product ~>  Enum.product
  2402 
  2403 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2404 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2408 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2409 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2411 
  2412 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2413 sort_key.
  2414 
  2415 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2417 
  2418 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2419 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2420 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2421 
  2422   types
  2423     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2424               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2425               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2426         (depends on your needs)
  2427 
  2428   constants
  2429      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2430      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2431      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2432 
  2433 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2434 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2435 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2436 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2439 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2440 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2441 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2442 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2446 
  2447 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2448 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2449 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2450 
  2451 
  2452 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2453 
  2454 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2455 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2456 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2457 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2458 compatibility.
  2459 
  2460 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2461 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2462 
  2463 
  2464 *** HOLCF ***
  2465 
  2466 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2467 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2468 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2472 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2473 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2474 
  2475   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2476   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2477   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2478 
  2479 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2480 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2481 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2482 
  2483 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2484 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2485 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2486 domain definition now works:
  2487 
  2488   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2489 
  2490 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2491 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2492 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2493 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2494 
  2495   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2496     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2497 
  2498   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2499 
  2500 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2501 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2502 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2505 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2508 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2509 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2510 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2511 
  2512 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2513 
  2514 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2522 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2523 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2524 
  2525 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2526 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2527 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2530 still supported as an input translation.
  2531 
  2532 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2533 
  2534   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2535   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2536   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2537   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2538   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2539   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2540   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2541 
  2542 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2543 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2544 
  2545   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2546   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2547   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2548   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2549   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2550   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2551 
  2552 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2553 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2554 
  2555 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2556 
  2557   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2558   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2559   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2560   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2561 
  2562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2565 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2568 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2569 
  2570   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2571   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2572   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2573   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2574   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2575   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2576   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2577   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2578   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2579   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2580   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2581   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2582   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2583   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2584   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2585   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2586   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2587   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2588   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2589   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2590 
  2591 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2592 
  2593   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2594   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2595   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2596   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2597   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2598   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2599   box_less             ~> box_below
  2600   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2601   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2602   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2603   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2604   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2605   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2606   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2607   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2608   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2609   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2610   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2611   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2612   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2613   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2614   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2615   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2616   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2617   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2618   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2619   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2620   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2621   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2622   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2623   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2624   up_less              ~> up_below
  2625   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2626   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2627   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2628   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2629   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2630   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2631   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2632   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2633   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2634   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2635   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2636   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2637   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2638 
  2639 
  2640 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2641 
  2642 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2643 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 
  2646 *** ML ***
  2647 
  2648 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2649 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2650 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2651 
  2652 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2653 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2654 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2655 
  2656 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2657 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2658 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2659 
  2660 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2661 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2662 
  2663 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2664 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2665 
  2666 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2667 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2668 
  2669 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2670 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2671 
  2672 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2673 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2674 almost all situations.
  2675 
  2676 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2677 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2678 Isabelle/ML.
  2679 
  2680 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2681 meaning.
  2682 
  2683 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2684 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2685 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2686 
  2687 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2688 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2689 
  2690 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2691 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2692 
  2693 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2694 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2695 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2696 
  2697 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2698 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2699 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2700 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2701 configuration options.
  2702 
  2703 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2704 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2705 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2706 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2707 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2708 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2709 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2710 
  2711 
  2712 
  2713 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2714 ---------------------------------
  2715 
  2716 *** General ***
  2717 
  2718 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2719 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2720 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2721 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2722 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2723 their full internal name.
  2724 
  2725 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2726 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2727 Some hints on upgrading:
  2728 
  2729   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2730     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2731     which are independent of this issue.
  2732 
  2733   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2734     provides the following special forms:
  2735 
  2736       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2737       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2738       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2739 
  2740     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2741     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2742     extra variables".
  2743 
  2744     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2745     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2746     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2747     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2748     "logic".
  2749 
  2750   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2751     antiquotations:
  2752 
  2753       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2754       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2755       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2756       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2757 
  2758   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2759     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2760     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2761     antiquotations.
  2762 
  2763 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2764 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2765 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2766 diagnose syntax problems.
  2767 
  2768 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2769 
  2770 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2771 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2772 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2773 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2774 
  2775 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2776 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2777 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2778 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779 
  2780 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2781 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2782 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2783 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2784 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2787 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2788 
  2789 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2790 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2791 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2792 
  2793   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2794 
  2795 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2796 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2797 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2798 
  2799 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2800 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2802 
  2803 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2804 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2805 
  2806 
  2807 *** Pure ***
  2808 
  2809 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2810 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2811 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2812 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2813 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2814 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2815 inspect proof terms.
  2816 
  2817 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2818 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2819 are added internally.  For example:
  2820 
  2821   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2822 
  2823 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2824 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2829 'class' instead.
  2830 
  2831 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2832 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2836 invariants.
  2837 
  2838 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2839 user space functionality any longer.
  2840 
  2841 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2842 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2846 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2847 
  2848 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2849 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2850 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2851 
  2852 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2853 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2854 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2855 
  2856 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2857 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2858 
  2859 
  2860 *** HOL ***
  2861 
  2862 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2863 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2864 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2865 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2866 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2867 
  2868 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2869 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2870 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2871 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2872 
  2873   fun
  2874     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2875   where
  2876     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2877 
  2878   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2879     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2880 
  2881   quotient_definition
  2882     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2883 
  2884 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2885 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2886 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2887 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2888 
  2889 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2890 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2891 
  2892 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2893 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2894 
  2895 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897 
  2898 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2899 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2900 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2901 
  2902 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2903 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2904 
  2905 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2907 
  2908 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2910 
  2911 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2912 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2913 
  2914 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2915 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2916 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2917 
  2918   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2919   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2920   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2921   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2922   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2923   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2924   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2925   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2926   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2927   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2928   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2929   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2930   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2931   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2932   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2933   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2934   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2935   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2936   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2937   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2938   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2939   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2940   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2941   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2942   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2943   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2944   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2945   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2946   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2947   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2948 
  2949 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2950 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2951 
  2952 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2953 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2954 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2955 
  2956 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2957 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2958 
  2959 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2960 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2963 
  2964 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2965 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2968 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2973 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2974 
  2975 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2976 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2977 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2978 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2981   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2982   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2983   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2987 lattices):
  2988 
  2989     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2990     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2991 
  2992     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2993 
  2994     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2995     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2996     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2997     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2998     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2999     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3000     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3001     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3002     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3003     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3004     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3005     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3006     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3007 
  3008     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3009     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3010     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3011     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3012     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3013     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3014     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3015     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3016     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3017     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3018     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3019     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3020     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3021     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3022     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3023     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3024     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3025     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3026 
  3027   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3028   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3029 
  3030     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3031     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3032     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3033     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3034     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3035 
  3036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3037 
  3038 * Refined field classes:
  3039   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3040     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3041     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3042   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3044 
  3045 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3046   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3047   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3048   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3049     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3050   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3051     equal_neg_zero.
  3052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3055 sets to lattices:
  3056 
  3057   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3058   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3059   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3060   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3061   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3062   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3063   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3064   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3065   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3066   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3067 
  3068 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3069 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3070 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3071 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3072 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3073 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3076 multiset order:
  3077 
  3078   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3079     <= and <;
  3080   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3081     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3082     multiset_order;
  3083   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3084     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3085     generation;
  3086   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3087     if needed.
  3088 
  3089 Renamed:
  3090 
  3091   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3092   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3093   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3094 
  3095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3098 
  3099 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3100 
  3101 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3102 
  3103 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3104 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3105 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106 
  3107   Constants:
  3108   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3109   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3110   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3111   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3112   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3113   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3114   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3115   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3116   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3117   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3118   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3119   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3120   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3121 
  3122   Lemmas:
  3123   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3124   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3125   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3126   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3127   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3128   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3129   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3130   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3131   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3132   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3133   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3134   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3135   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3136 
  3137 * Sledgehammer:
  3138   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3139     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3140     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3141     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3142     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3143     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3144     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3146   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3147     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3148   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3149     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3150     is still experimental.)
  3151   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3152     full-typed mode.
  3153   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3154 
  3155 * Nitpick:
  3156   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3157   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3158   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3159     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3160   - Added support for quotient types.
  3161   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3162     constructs.
  3163   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3164     "termination" proofs).
  3165   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3166   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3167   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3168   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3169     record getters.
  3170   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3171   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3172   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3173   - Added "atoms" option.
  3174   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3175     problems.
  3176   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3177     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3178     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3179   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3180     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3184   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3185   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3186   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3187   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3188   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3189   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3190   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3191   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3192   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 
  3195 *** HOLCF ***
  3196 
  3197 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3198 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3199 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3200 
  3201 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3202 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3203 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3204 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3207 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3208 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3209 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3210 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3213 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3214 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3215 
  3216 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3217 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3220   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3221 
  3222 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3223 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3226   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3227   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3228   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3229   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3230 
  3231 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3232 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3235   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3236   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3237 
  3238 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3239 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3243 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3248 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 
  3251 *** ML ***
  3252 
  3253 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3254 
  3255     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3256     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3257 
  3258     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3259     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3260     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3261     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3262 
  3263     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3264     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3265     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3266 
  3267 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3268 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3269 
  3270 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3271 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3272 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3273 
  3274 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3275 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3276 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3277 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3278 
  3279 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3280 the context or even global references.
  3281 
  3282 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3283 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3284 
  3285 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3286 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3287 
  3288   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3289   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3290   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3291   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3292   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3293   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3294   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3295   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3296   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3297   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3298 
  3299 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3300 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3301 
  3302 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3303 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3304 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3305 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3306 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3307 
  3308 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3309 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3310 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3311 Theory_Data version.
  3312 
  3313 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3314 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3315 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3316 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3317 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3318 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3319 explicitly in rare situations.
  3320 
  3321 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3322 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3326 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3329 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3330 quite rare).
  3331 
  3332 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3333 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3334 
  3335 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3336 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3337 terms.
  3338 
  3339 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3340 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3341 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3342 
  3343 
  3344 *** System ***
  3345 
  3346 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3347 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3348 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3349 
  3350 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3351 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3352 respectively.
  3353 
  3354 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3355 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3356 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3357 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3358 
  3359   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3360 
  3361 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3362 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3363 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3364 component.
  3365 
  3366 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3367 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3368 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3369 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3370 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3371 the user for manual installation.
  3372 
  3373 
  3374 
  3375 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3376 -------------------------------------
  3377 
  3378 *** General ***
  3379 
  3380 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3381 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3382 
  3383 
  3384 *** Pure ***
  3385 
  3386 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3387 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3388 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3389 
  3390 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3391 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3392 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3393 
  3394 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3395 interpretation.
  3396 
  3397 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3398 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 
  3401 *** Document preparation ***
  3402 
  3403 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3404 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3405 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3406 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3407 
  3408 
  3409 *** HOL ***
  3410 
  3411 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3412 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3413 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3414 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3415 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3416 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3417 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3418 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3419 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3420 
  3421 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3422 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3423 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3424 
  3425 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3426 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3427 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3428 
  3429 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3430 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3431 
  3432 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3433 
  3434 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3435 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3436 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3437 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3438 
  3439 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3440 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3441 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3442 "mirabelle" utility.
  3443 
  3444 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3445 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3446 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3447 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3448 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3449 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3450 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3451 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3452 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3453 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3454 
  3455 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3456 procedure only.
  3457 
  3458 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3459 
  3460 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3461 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3462 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3463 that fail later.
  3464 
  3465 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3466 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3467 
  3468 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3469 the same method as the approximation method.
  3470 
  3471 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3472 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3473 series expansion.
  3474 
  3475 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3476 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3477 
  3478 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3479 reals.
  3480 
  3481 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3482 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3483 
  3484 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3485 fixpoint theorem.
  3486 
  3487 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3488   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3489     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3490   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3491     accordingly
  3492   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3493     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3494   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3495     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3496 
  3497 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3498 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3499 lattice.
  3500 
  3501 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3502 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3503 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3504 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3505 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3506 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3510   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3511     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3512   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3513     le_inf_iff
  3514   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3515     sup_aci)
  3516   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3517   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3518   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3519     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3520     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3521     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3522     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3523     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3524     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3525     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3526     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3527     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3528     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3529   - authentic syntax for
  3530     Set.Pow
  3531     Set.image
  3532   - mere abbreviations:
  3533     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3534     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3535     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3536     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3537     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3538     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3539     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3540     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3541   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3542 
  3543 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3544 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3545 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3546 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3547 
  3548 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3549 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3550 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3553 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3556 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3557 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3558 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3561 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3562 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3563 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3564 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3565 
  3566 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3567 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3571 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3574 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3575 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3576 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3577 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3578 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3579 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3581 
  3582 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3583     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3584     code_post       replaces    code post
  3585     etc.
  3586   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 * Renamed methods:
  3589     sizechange -> size_change
  3590     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3591   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3592 
  3593 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3594 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3595 
  3596 * Renamed theorems:
  3597     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3598     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3599     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3600     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3601     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3602   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3606 
  3607 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3609 
  3610 
  3611 *** HOLCF ***
  3612 
  3613 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3614 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3615 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3616 
  3617 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3618 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3619 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3620 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3621 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3622 
  3623 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3624 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3625 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3626 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3627 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3628 
  3629 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3630 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3631 constructor are pre-configured.
  3632 
  3633 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3634 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3635 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3636 
  3637 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3638 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3639 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3640 as well.)
  3641 
  3642 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3643 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3644 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3645 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3646 examples.
  3647 
  3648 
  3649 *** ML ***
  3650 
  3651 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3652 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3653 
  3654 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3655 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3656 position, logical grouping etc.
  3657 
  3658 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3659 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3660 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3661 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3662 
  3663 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3664 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3665 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3666 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3667 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3668 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3669 
  3670 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3671 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3672 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3673 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3674 experiments with references.
  3675 
  3676 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3677 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3678 
  3679 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3680 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3681 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3682 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3683 
  3684 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3685 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3686 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3687 
  3688 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3689 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3690 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3698 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3699 
  3700 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3701 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3702 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3703 
  3704 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3705 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3706 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3707 
  3708 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3709 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3710 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3714 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3715 instead of global theory.
  3716 
  3717 
  3718 *** System ***
  3719 
  3720 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3721 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3722 usedir option -q.
  3723 
  3724 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3725 also the system manual.
  3726 
  3727 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3728 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3729 
  3730 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3731 this is always enabled.
  3732 
  3733 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3734 
  3735 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3736 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3737 currently supported on Linux only.
  3738 
  3739 
  3740 
  3741 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3742 --------------------------------
  3743 
  3744 *** General ***
  3745 
  3746 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3747 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3748 
  3749   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3750     "isatool."
  3751 
  3752   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3753     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3754 
  3755   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3756     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3757 
  3758 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3759 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3760 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3761 
  3762 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3763 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3764 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3765 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3766 via "isabelle emacs".
  3767 
  3768 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3769 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3770 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3771 
  3772 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3773 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3774 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3775 
  3776 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3777 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3778 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3779 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3780 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3781 
  3782 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3783 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3784 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3785 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3786 
  3787 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3788 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3789 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3790 
  3791 
  3792 *** Pure ***
  3793 
  3794 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3795 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3796 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3797 
  3798 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3799 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3800 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3801 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3802 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3803 
  3804 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3805 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3806 useful in locale declarations.
  3807 
  3808 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3809 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3810 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3811 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3812 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3813 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3814 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3815 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3816 no longer generated.
  3817 
  3818 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3819 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3820 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3821 
  3822 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3823 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3824 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3825 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3826 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3827 
  3828 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3830 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3831 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3832 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3833 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3834 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3835 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3836 
  3837 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3838 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3839 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3840 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3841 
  3842 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3845 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3846 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3847 
  3848 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3849 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3850 
  3851 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3852 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3853 in HOL, write
  3854 
  3855     class foo = ...
  3856 
  3857 instead of
  3858 
  3859     class foo = type + ...
  3860 
  3861 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3862 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3865 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3866 
  3867 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3868 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3869 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3870 
  3871 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3872 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3873 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3874 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3875 directly in regular applications.
  3876 
  3877 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3878 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3879 
  3880 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3881 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3882 
  3883 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3884 theory context.
  3885 
  3886 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3887 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3890 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3891 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3892 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3893 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3894 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3895 
  3896   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3897 
  3898 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3899 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3900 normalization.
  3901 
  3902 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3903 addressing etc.
  3904 
  3905 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3906 
  3907   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3908   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3909 
  3910 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3911 
  3912   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3913      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3914      parts of the code generator framework).
  3915 
  3916   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3917      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3918      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3919 
  3920 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3923 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3926 patterns, e.g.
  3927 
  3928     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3929 
  3930 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3931 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3932 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3933 hyphen:
  3934 
  3935     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3936 
  3937 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3938 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3939 
  3940 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3941 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3942 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3943 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3944 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3945 higher-order unification.
  3946 
  3947 
  3948 *** Document preparation ***
  3949 
  3950 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3951 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3952 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3953 
  3954 
  3955 *** HOL ***
  3956 
  3957 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3958 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3959 
  3960 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3961 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3962 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3963 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3964 Main, as before.
  3965 
  3966 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3967 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3968 
  3969 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3970 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3971 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3972 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3973 
  3974 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3975 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3976 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3977 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3978 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3979 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3980 
  3981 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3982 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3983 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3984 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3985 
  3986 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3987 menu.
  3988 
  3989 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3990 (contains the empty clause).
  3991 
  3992 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3993 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3994 
  3995 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3996 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3997 
  3998 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3999 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4000 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4003 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4004 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4005 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4006 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4007 
  4008 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4009 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4010 
  4011 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4012 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4013 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4014 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4015 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4016 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4017 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4018 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4019 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4020 
  4021 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4022 
  4023 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4024 
  4025 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4026 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4029 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4030 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4031 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4032 
  4033 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4034 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4035 
  4036     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4037     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4038     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4039     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4040     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4041     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4042     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4043     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4044 
  4045 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4046 theory Set.
  4047 
  4048 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4049 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4050 
  4051 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4052 
  4053 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4054 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4055 
  4056 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4057 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4058 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4059 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4060 allowed. For examples see
  4061 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4062 
  4063 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4064 
  4065 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4067 
  4068 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4069 structure:
  4070 
  4071     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4072     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4073     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4074     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4075     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4076     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4077     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4078     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4079     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4080     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4081     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4082     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4083     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4084     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4085     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4086     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4087     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4088     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4089     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4090     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4091     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4092     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4093     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4094     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4095     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4096     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4097     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4098     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4099     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4100     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4101     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4102     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4103     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4104 
  4105     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4106     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4107     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4108     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4109     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4110     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4111     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4112     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4113     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4114     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4115 
  4116     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4117     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4118     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4119     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4120     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4121     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4122 
  4123 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4124 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4125 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4126 
  4127 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4128 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4129 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4130 
  4131 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4132 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4135 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4136 
  4137 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4138 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4139 proofs, e.g.
  4140 
  4141   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4142 
  4143 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4144 
  4145 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4146 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4147 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4148 
  4149 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4150 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4152 
  4153 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4154 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4155 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4157 
  4158 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4159 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4160 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4161 preorder_class.*.
  4162 
  4163 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4164 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4165 
  4166 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4167 
  4168   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4169 
  4170 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4171 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4172 fold_image.
  4173 
  4174 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4175 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4176 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4177 the former will disappear at some point.
  4178 
  4179 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4180 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4181 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4182 
  4183 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4184 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4185 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4186 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4187 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4188 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4189 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4190 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4191 
  4192 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4193 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4194 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4195 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4196 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4197 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4198 
  4199     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4200     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4201     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4202     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4203     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4204     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4205     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4206 
  4207 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4208 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4209 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4210 
  4211 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4212 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4213 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4214 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4215 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4216 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4217 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4218 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4219 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4220 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4221 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4222 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4223 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4224 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4225 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4226 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4227 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4228 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4229 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4230 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4231 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4232 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4233 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4234 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4235 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4236 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4237 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4238 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4239 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4240 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4241 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4242 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4243 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4244 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4245 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4246 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4247 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4248 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4249 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4250 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4251 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4252 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4253 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4254 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4255 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4256 
  4257 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4260 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4261 
  4262 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4263 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4264 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4265 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4266 
  4267 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4268 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4269 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4270 theory RealVector.
  4271 
  4272 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4273 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4274 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4275 and inner products are included.
  4276 
  4277 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4278 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4279 supported.
  4280 
  4281 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4282 first diagonalization argument.
  4283 
  4284 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4285 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4286 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4287 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4288 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4289 
  4290     hide (open) const gcd
  4291     abbreviation gcd where
  4292       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4293     notation (output)
  4294       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4295 
  4296 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4297 
  4298 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4299 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4300 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4303 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4304 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4305 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4306 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4307 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4308 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4309 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4310 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4311 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4312 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4313 cases.
  4314 
  4315 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4316 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4317 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4318 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4319 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4320 
  4321     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4322     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4323     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4324     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4325     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4326 
  4327 
  4328 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4329 
  4330 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4331 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4332 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4333 
  4334 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4335 
  4336 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4337 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4338 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4339 
  4340 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4341 
  4342 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4343 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4344 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4345 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4346 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4347 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4348 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4349 
  4350 
  4351 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4352 
  4353 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4354 
  4355 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4356 theory targets.
  4357 
  4358 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4359 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4360 'inductive' etc.
  4361 
  4362 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4363 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4364 
  4365 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4366 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4367 
  4368 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4369 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4370 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4371 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4372 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4373 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4374 the algorithm W:
  4375 
  4376  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4377  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4378          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4379 
  4380 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4381 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4382 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4383 
  4384 
  4385 *** HOLCF ***
  4386 
  4387 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4388 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4389 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4390 
  4391 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4392 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4393 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4394 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4395 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4398 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4399 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400 
  4401 
  4402 *** ZF ***
  4403 
  4404 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4405 
  4406 
  4407 *** ML ***
  4408 
  4409 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4410 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4411 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4412 5.2.1!
  4413 
  4414 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4415 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4416 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4417 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4418 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4419 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4420 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4421 
  4422 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4423 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4424 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4425 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4426 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4427 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4428 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4429 
  4430 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4431 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4432 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4433 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4434 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4435 
  4436 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4437 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4438 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4439 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4440 Method.add_method.
  4441 
  4442 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4443 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4444 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4445 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4446 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4447 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4448 
  4449 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4450 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4451 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4452 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4453 examples.
  4454 
  4455 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4456 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4457 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4458 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4459 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4460 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4461 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4462 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4463 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4464 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4465 
  4466 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4467 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4468 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4469 
  4470 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4471 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4472 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4473 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4474 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4475 resort for legacy applications.
  4476 
  4477 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4478 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4479 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4480 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4481 explicit runtime argument.
  4482 
  4483 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4484 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4485 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4486 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4487 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4488 
  4489 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4490 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4491 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4492 theory state.
  4493 
  4494 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4495 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4496 
  4497   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4498   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4499   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4500   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4501   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4502   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4503   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4504   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4505   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4506   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4507 
  4508 
  4509 *** System ***
  4510 
  4511 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4512 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4513 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4514 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4515 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4516 
  4517 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4518 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4519 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4520 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4521 
  4522 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4523 
  4524 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4525 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4526 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4527 prover operations.
  4528 
  4529 
  4530 
  4531 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4532 -------------------------------
  4533 
  4534 *** General ***
  4535 
  4536 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4537 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4538 
  4539 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4540 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4541 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4542 provides a proper context already.
  4543 
  4544 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4545 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4546 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4547 
  4548 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4549 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4550 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4551 swap theory imports.
  4552 
  4553 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4554 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4555 
  4556 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4557 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4558 white space without escapes.
  4559 
  4560 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4561 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4562 "foo_bar".
  4563 
  4564 
  4565 *** Pure ***
  4566 
  4567 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4568 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4569 
  4570 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4571 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4572 
  4573 (1) unused_thms
  4574      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4575 
  4576 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4577      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4578      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4579 
  4580 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4581      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4582      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4583      their ancestors.
  4584 
  4585 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4586 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4587 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4588 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4589 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4590 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4591 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4592 
  4593 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4594 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4595 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4596 
  4597 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4598 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4599 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4600 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4601 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4602 
  4603 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4604 
  4605 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4606 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4607 update of theories within ML code.
  4608 
  4609 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4610 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4611 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4612 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4613 
  4614 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4615 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4616 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4620 
  4621 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4622 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4623 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4624 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4625 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4626 
  4627 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4628 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4629 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4630 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4631 situations.
  4632 
  4633 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4634 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4635 proof text.
  4636 
  4637 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4638 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4639 
  4640 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4641 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4642 predicates.
  4643 
  4644 
  4645 *** Document preparation ***
  4646 
  4647 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4648 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4649 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4650 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4651 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4652 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4653 
  4654 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4655 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4656 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4657 
  4658 
  4659 *** HOL ***
  4660 
  4661 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4662 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4663 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4664 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4665 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4666 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4667 
  4668 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4669 with multithreading.
  4670 
  4671 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4672 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4673 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4674 
  4675 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4676 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4677 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4678 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4681 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4682 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4683 and makes them available separately.  See
  4684 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4685 
  4686 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4687 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4688 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4689 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4690 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4691 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4692 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4693 the declared rules.
  4694 
  4695 This setup also deals with rules like
  4696 
  4697   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4698 
  4699 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4700 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4701 
  4702 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4703 
  4704   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4705 
  4706   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4707     definitions on => and bool.
  4708 
  4709   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4710     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4711     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4712 
  4713       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4714       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4715       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4716       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4717       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4718       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4719       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4720       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4721 
  4722   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4723     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4724     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4725 
  4726   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4727     The proof pattern
  4728 
  4729       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4730       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4731 
  4732     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4733     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4734 
  4735       have "EX S. P S"
  4736       proof
  4737         show "P S" <...>
  4738       qed
  4739 
  4740   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4741     The proof pattern
  4742 
  4743       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4744       also have "S = T" <...>
  4745       finally have "P T" .
  4746 
  4747     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4748     must be replaced by something like
  4749 
  4750       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4751       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4752       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4753 
  4754   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4755     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4756 
  4757       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4758 
  4759     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4760     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4761     type of the form
  4762 
  4763       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4764 
  4765     rather than
  4766 
  4767       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4768 
  4769 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4770 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4771 
  4772 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4773 
  4774 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4775 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4777 
  4778 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4779 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4782 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4785 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4786 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4789 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4790 
  4791   less_trans
  4792   less_linear
  4793   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4794   le_less_trans
  4795   less_le_trans
  4796   less_not_sym
  4797   less_asym
  4798 
  4799 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4800 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4801 and different variable names.
  4802 
  4803 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4804 
  4805 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4806 finite maps.
  4807 
  4808 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4809 
  4810 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4811 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4812 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4813 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4814 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4815 accordingly.
  4816 
  4817 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4818 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4819 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4820 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4821 
  4822 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4823 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4824 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4825 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4826 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4828 
  4829 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4830 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4833 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4834 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4835 
  4836 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4840 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4841 
  4842 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4843 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4844 
  4845 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4846 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4849 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4853 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4856 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4857 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4858 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4859 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4860 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4861 
  4862 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4863 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4864 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4865 
  4866 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4867 
  4868 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4869 
  4870 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4871 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4872 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4873 
  4874 
  4875 *** ZF ***
  4876 
  4877 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4878 same session:
  4879 
  4880   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4881   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4882   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4883   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4884   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4885   List      -> List_ZF
  4886   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4887 
  4888 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4889 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4890 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4891 
  4892 
  4893 *** ML ***
  4894 
  4895 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4896 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4897 
  4898 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4899 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4900 
  4901 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4902 
  4903 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4904 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4905 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4906 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4907 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4908 
  4909 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4910 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4911 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4912 
  4913 
  4914 *** System ***
  4915 
  4916 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4917 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4918 
  4919 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4920 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4921 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4922 
  4923 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4924 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4925 
  4926 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4927 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4928 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4929 
  4930 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4931 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4932 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4933 
  4934 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4935 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4936 
  4937 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4938 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4939 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4940 script.
  4941 
  4942 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4943 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4944 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4945 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4946 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4947 
  4948 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4949 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4950 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4951 
  4952 
  4953 
  4954 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4955 -----------------------------------
  4956 
  4957 *** General ***
  4958 
  4959 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4960 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4961 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4962 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4963 
  4964 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4965 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4966 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4967 
  4968 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4969 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4970 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4971 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4972 
  4973 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4974 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4975 quotes.
  4976 
  4977 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4978 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4979 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4980 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4981 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4982 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4983 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4984 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4985 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4986 
  4987 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4988 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4989 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4990 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4991 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4992 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4993 
  4994 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4995 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4996 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4997 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4998 
  4999 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5000 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5001 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5002 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5003 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5004 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5005 
  5006 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5007 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5008 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5009 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5010 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5011 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5012 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5013 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5014 
  5015 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5016 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5017 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5018 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5019 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5020 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5021 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5022 
  5023 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5024 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5025 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5026 
  5027 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5028 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5029 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5030 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5031 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5032 limit is imposed.
  5033 
  5034 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5035 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5036 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5037 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5038 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5039 and scalability.
  5040 
  5041 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5042 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5043 
  5044 
  5045 *** Document preparation ***
  5046 
  5047 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5048 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5049 current context.
  5050 
  5051 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5052 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5053 
  5054 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5055 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5056 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5057 
  5058 
  5059 *** Pure ***
  5060 
  5061 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5062 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5063 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5064 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5065 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5066 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5067 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5068 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5069 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5070 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5071 
  5072 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5073 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5074 sketch:
  5075 
  5076     internal compilation:
  5077         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5078     writing SML code to a file:
  5079         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5080     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5081         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5082     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5083         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5084 
  5085     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5086         method ``eval''
  5087 
  5088 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5089 
  5090 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5091 
  5092     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5093     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5094     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5095     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5096 
  5097 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5098 
  5099     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5100       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5101 
  5102     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5103       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5104 
  5105     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5106       {(target)}+
  5107         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5108 
  5109     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5110       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5111         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5112 
  5113 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5114 
  5115 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5116 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5117 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5118 codegen".
  5119 
  5120 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5121 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5122 annotations).
  5123 
  5124 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5125 syntax.
  5126 
  5127 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5128 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5129 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5130 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5131 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5132 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5133 
  5134 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5135 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5136 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5137 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5138 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5139 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5140 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5141 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5142 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5143 equations, see section "definitions".
  5144 
  5145 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5146 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5147 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5148 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5149 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5150 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5151 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5152 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5153 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5154 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5155 
  5156 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5157 configuration options:
  5158 
  5159   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5160   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5161   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5162   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5163   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5164   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5165   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5166   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5167   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5168 
  5169 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5170 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5171 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5172 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5173 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5174 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5175 order.
  5176 
  5177 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5178 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5179 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5180 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5181 context encountered later on.
  5182 
  5183 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5184 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5185 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5186 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5187 
  5188 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5189 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5190 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5191 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5192 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5193 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5194 
  5195 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5196 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5197 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5198 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5199 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5200 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5201 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5202 more permissive.
  5203 
  5204 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5205 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5206 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5207 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5208 maintainability of proof texts.
  5209 
  5210 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5211 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5212 
  5213   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5214   then guess x and y by clarify
  5215 
  5216 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5217 proof tools being involved here.
  5218 
  5219 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5220 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5221 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5222 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5223 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5224 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5225 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5226 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5227 
  5228 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5229 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5230 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5231 
  5232   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5233   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5234   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5235   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5236 
  5237 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5238 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5239 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5240 
  5241 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5242 both named and unnamed ones.
  5243 
  5244 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5245 
  5246   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5247 
  5248 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5249 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5250 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5251 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5252 
  5253 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5254 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5255 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5256 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5257 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5258 
  5259 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5260 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5261 
  5262 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5263 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5264 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5265 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5266 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5267 originally first one.
  5268 
  5269 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5270 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5271 expected.
  5272 
  5273 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5274 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5275 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5276 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5277 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5278 
  5279   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5280     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5281     obtains x where "P x"
  5282 
  5283   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5284     assumes "A & B"
  5285     obtains A and B
  5286 
  5287   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5288     assumes "A | B"
  5289     obtains
  5290       A
  5291     | B
  5292 
  5293 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5294 explicitly:
  5295 
  5296   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5297     obtains "~ thesis"
  5298 
  5299   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5300     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5301 
  5302 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5303 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5304 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5305 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5306 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5307 case_names).
  5308 
  5309 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5310 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5311 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5312 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5313 
  5314 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5315 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5316 top-level lemma.
  5317 
  5318 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5319 introduction rule (default "that").
  5320 
  5321 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5322 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5323 to occur.
  5324 
  5325 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5326 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5327 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5328 representations independently of name spaces.
  5329 
  5330 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5331 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5332 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5333 
  5334 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5335 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5336 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5337 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5338 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5339 current context.
  5340 
  5341 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5342 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5343 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5344 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5345 
  5346   axiomatization
  5347     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5348     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5349 
  5350   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5351   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5352 
  5353   abbreviation
  5354     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5355     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5356 
  5357 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5358 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5359 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5360 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5361 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5362 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5363 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5364 
  5365 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5366 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5367 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5368 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5369 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5370 
  5371 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5372 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5373 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5374 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5375 
  5376 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5377 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5378 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5379 
  5380   definition "K x _ = x"
  5381 
  5382   inductive conj for A B
  5383   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5384 
  5385 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5386 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5387 abbreviations on output.
  5388 
  5389 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5390 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5391 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5392 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5393 
  5394 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5395 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5396 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5397 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5398 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5399 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5400 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5401 
  5402 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5403 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5404 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5405 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5406 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5407 
  5408 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5409 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5410 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5411 
  5412 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5413 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5414 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5415 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5416 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5417 
  5418   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5419     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5420 
  5421 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5422 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5423 partial_order.
  5424 
  5425 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5426 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5427 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5428 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5429 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5430 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5431 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5432 examples.
  5433 
  5434 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5435 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5436 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5437 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5438 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5439 
  5440 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5441 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5442 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5443 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5444 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5445 
  5446   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5447   (induct set: foo bar)
  5448   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5449   (induct type: foo bar)
  5450 
  5451 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5452 new format.
  5453 
  5454 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5455 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5456 
  5457 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5458 considered a legacy feature.
  5459 
  5460 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5461 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5462 
  5463 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5464 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5465 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5466 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5467 
  5468 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5469 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5470 manipulating the claset.
  5471 
  5472 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5473 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5474 least one premise.
  5475 
  5476 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5477 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5478 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5479 rule steps.
  5480 
  5481 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5482 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5483 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5484 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5485 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5486 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5487 
  5488 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5489 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5490 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5491 
  5492 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5493 the graph browser tool.
  5494 
  5495 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5496 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5497 
  5498 
  5499 *** HOL ***
  5500 
  5501 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5502 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5503 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5504 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5505 multi-threading.
  5506 
  5507 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5508 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5509 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5510 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5511 work with multi-threading.
  5512 
  5513 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5514 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5515 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5516 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5517 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5518 
  5519 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5520 
  5521 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5522 equality.
  5523 
  5524 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5525 the new 'class' package:
  5526 
  5527     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5528     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5529     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5530     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5531     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5532     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5533     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5534     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5535     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5536     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5537     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5538     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5539     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5540     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5541     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5542     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5543     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5544     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5545     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5546     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5547 
  5548 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5549 
  5550 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5551 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5552 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5553 names.
  5554 
  5555 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5556 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5557 
  5558 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5559 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5560 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5561 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5562 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5563 
  5564 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5565 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5566 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5567 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5568 
  5569 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5570 
  5571 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5572 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5573 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5574 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5576 
  5577 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5578 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5579 
  5580 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5581 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5582 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5585 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5586 
  5587 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5588 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5589 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5590 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5591 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5592 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5593 in the current context.
  5594 
  5595 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5596 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5598 
  5599 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5600 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5601 
  5602 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5603 
  5604     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5605     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5606 
  5607     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5608       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5609     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5610     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5611 
  5612     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5613     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5614 
  5615   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5616 
  5617     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5618     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5619     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5620     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5621     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5622     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5623     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5624     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5625     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5626     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5627     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5628     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5629     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5630     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5631     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5632     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5633     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5634     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5635     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5636     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5637     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5638     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5639     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5640     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5641     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5642     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5643     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5644     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5645     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5646     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5647     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5648     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5649     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5650     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5651     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5652 
  5653     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5654     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5655     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5656     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5657     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5658     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5659     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5660     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5661     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5662     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5663     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5664     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5665     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5666     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5667     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5668     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5669     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5670 
  5671     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5672     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5673     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5674     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5675     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5676     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5677     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5678     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5679     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5680     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5681     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5682     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5683     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5684     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5685     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5686     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5687     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5688     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5689     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5690     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5691     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5692     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5693     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5694     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5695     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5696     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5697     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5698     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5699 
  5700     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5701     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5702     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5703     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5704     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5705     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5706 
  5707     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5708     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5709     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5710     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5711 
  5712     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5713     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5714 
  5715     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5716     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5717 
  5718 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5719 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5720 
  5721 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5722 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5723 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5724 "*.size".
  5725 
  5726 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5728 
  5729 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5730 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5731 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5732 
  5733 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5734 
  5735 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5736 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5737 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5738 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5739 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5740 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5741 numerals on all operations.
  5742 
  5743 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5744 
  5745 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5746 
  5747 * Code generator library theories:
  5748   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5749     languages.
  5750   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5751     languages.
  5752   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5753     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5754   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5755   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5756     denominator).
  5757   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5758     representable by rational numbers.
  5759   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5760     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5761     includes Code_Integer.
  5762   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5763     target-language built-in integers.
  5764   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5765     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5766 
  5767 * New package for inductive predicates
  5768 
  5769   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5770 
  5771     inductive
  5772       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5773       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5774     where
  5775       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5776     | ...
  5777 
  5778   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5779 
  5780     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5781 
  5782     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5783     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5784 
  5785     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5786     intros
  5787       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5788       ...
  5789 
  5790   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5791   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5792 
  5793     inductive_set
  5794       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5795       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5796     where
  5797       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5798     | ...
  5799 
  5800   or
  5801 
  5802     inductive_set
  5803       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5804       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5805       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5806     where
  5807       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5808     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5809     | ...
  5810 
  5811   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5812 
  5813   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5814   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5815 
  5816   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5817 
  5818   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5819     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5820     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5821     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5822     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5823 
  5824   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5825     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5826     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5827     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5828     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5829     statements of the form
  5830 
  5831       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5832 
  5833     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5834     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5835 
  5836       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5837 
  5838   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5839 
  5840       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5841         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5842         ==> ... ==> P
  5843 
  5844     for predicates and
  5845 
  5846       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5847         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5848         ==> ... ==> P
  5849 
  5850     for sets rather than
  5851 
  5852       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5853         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5854         ==> ... ==> P
  5855 
  5856     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5857     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5858     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5859 
  5860   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5861     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5862     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5863 
  5864 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5865 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5866 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5867 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5868 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5869 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5870 
  5871 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5872 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5873 
  5874 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5875 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5876 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5877 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5878 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5879 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5880 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5881 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5882 variable.
  5883 
  5884 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5885 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5886 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5887 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5888   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5889   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5890 
  5891 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5892 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5893 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5894 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5895 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5896 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5897 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5898 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5899 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5900 
  5901 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5902 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5903 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5904 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5905 rat, etc.
  5906 
  5907 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5908 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5909 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5910 
  5911 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5912 
  5913 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5914 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5915 
  5916 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5917 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5918 
  5919 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5920 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5921 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5922 
  5923 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5924 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5928 
  5929 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5930 
  5931 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5932 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5933 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5934 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5935 
  5936 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5937 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5938 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5939 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5942 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5943 algebraic operations.
  5944 
  5945 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5950 
  5951 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5952 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5953 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5954 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5955 adapted.
  5956 
  5957 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5958 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5959 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5960 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5961 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5962 
  5963 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5964 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5965 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5966 
  5967 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5968 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5969 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5970 
  5971 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5972 
  5973 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5974 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5975 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5976   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5977       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5978   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5979   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5980   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5981 
  5982 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5983 
  5984 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5985 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5986 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5987 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5988 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5989 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5990 
  5991 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5992 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5993 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5994 
  5995 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5996 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5997 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5999 
  6000 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6001 
  6002 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6003 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6004 
  6005 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6006 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6007 
  6008 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6009 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6010 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6011 
  6012 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6013 True/False.
  6014 
  6015 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6016 
  6017 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6018 
  6019 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6020 ``rule'' method.
  6021 
  6022 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6023 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6024 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6025 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6026 
  6027 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6028 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6029 
  6030 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6031 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6032 
  6033 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6034 Library.
  6035 
  6036 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6037 
  6038 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6039 as greatest fixed-point.
  6040 
  6041 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6042 association lists.
  6043 
  6044 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6045 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6046 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6047 
  6048 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6049 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6050 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6051 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6052 behavior.
  6053 
  6054 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6055 
  6056 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6057 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6058 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6059 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6060 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6061 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6062 
  6063 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6064 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6065 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6066 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6067 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6068 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6069 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6070 
  6071 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6072 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6073 
  6074 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6075 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6076 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6077 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6078 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6079 
  6080 
  6081 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6082 
  6083 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6084 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6085 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6086 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6088 
  6089 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6090 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6091 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6092 
  6093 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6094 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6095 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6096 
  6097 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6098 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6099 
  6100 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6101 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6102 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6104 
  6105   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6106   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6107   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6108   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6109   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6110   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6111   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6112   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6113   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6114   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6115   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6116   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6117   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6118   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6119   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6120 
  6121 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6122 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6123 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6124 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6125 
  6126   approx        <-- capprox
  6127   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6128   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6129   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6130   monad         <-- cmonad
  6131   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6132   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6133   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6134   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6135 
  6136 
  6137 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6138 
  6139 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6140 
  6141 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6143 
  6144 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6145 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6146 
  6147 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6148 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6149 of algebraic structures.
  6150 
  6151 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6152 
  6153 
  6154 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6155 
  6156 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6157 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6158 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6159 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6160 
  6161 
  6162 *** ML ***
  6163 
  6164 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6165 (even on SML/NJ).
  6166 
  6167 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6168 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6169 compile-time.  For example:
  6170 
  6171 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6172 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6173 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6174 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6175 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6176 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6177 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6178 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6179 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6180 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6181 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6182 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6183 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6184 ML {* @{context} *}
  6185 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6186 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6187 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6188 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6189 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6190 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6191 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6192 
  6193 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6194 
  6195 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6196 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6197 
  6198 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6199 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6200 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6201 
  6202 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6203 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6204 
  6205 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6206 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6207 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6208 
  6209 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6210 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6211 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6212 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6213 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6214 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6215 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6216 declarations and definitions.
  6217 
  6218 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6219 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6220 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6221 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6222 
  6223 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6224 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6225 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6226 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6227 
  6228 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6229 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6230 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6231 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6232 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6233 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6234 
  6235 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6236 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6237 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6238 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6239 attributes, methods, etc.
  6240 
  6241 * Pure: several fun