NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Jul 31 16:23:20 2012 +0200 (2012-07-31)
changeset 48616 be8002ee43d8
parent 48586 500c6eb6c6dc
child 48657 63ef2f0cf8bb
permissions -rw-r--r--
document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    19 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    20 
    21 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    22 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    23 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    27 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    28 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    29 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    30 with some care where this is really required.
    31 
    32 
    33 *** HOL ***
    34 
    35 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    36 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    37 
    38 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    39 expressions.
    40 
    41 * Quickcheck:
    42 
    43   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    44     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    45     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    46 
    47 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    48 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    49 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    50 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    51 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Sledgehammer:
    54 
    55   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    56     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    57   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    58   - Renamed options:
    59       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    60       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Document preparation ***
    64 
    65 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    66 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    67 
    68 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
    69 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
    70 document/root.tex.
    71 
    72 
    73 *** System ***
    74 
    75 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
    76 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
    77 build" tool and its examples.  Eventual INCOMPATIBILITY, as isabelle
    78 usedir / make / makeall are rendered obsolete.
    79 
    80 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
    81 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
    82 
    83   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
    84 
    85 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
    86 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
    87 configuration.
    88 
    89 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
    90 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
    91 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
    92 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
    93 bundled as Isabelle component.
    94 
    95 
    96 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
    97 ------------------------------
    98 
    99 *** General ***
   100 
   101 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   102 
   103   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   104     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   105   - markup for bound variables
   106   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   107   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   108   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   109     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   110 
   111 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   112 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   113 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   114 
   115 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   116 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   117 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   118 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   119 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   120 
   121   context
   122     fixes x y z :: 'a
   123     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   124   begin
   125 
   126   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   127 
   128   end
   129 
   130   thm my_trans
   131 
   132 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   133 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   134 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   135 
   136 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   137 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   138 
   139 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   140 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   141 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   142 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   143 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   144 
   145 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   146 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   147 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   148 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   149 indices of schematic variables.
   150 
   151 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   152 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   153 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   154 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   155 etc. was exploited.
   156 
   157 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   158 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   159 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   160 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   161 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   162 of the material of that old tutorial.
   163 
   164 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   165 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   166 manual.
   167 
   168 
   169 *** Pure ***
   170 
   171 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   172 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   173 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   174 
   175 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   176 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   177 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   178 undocumented feature.)
   179 
   180 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   181 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   182 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   183 
   184   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   185 
   186   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   187     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   188 
   189 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   190 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   191 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   192 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   193 
   194 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   195 
   196     num ~> num_token
   197     xnum ~> xnum_token
   198     xstr ~> str_token
   199 
   200 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   201 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   202 position information via constraints).
   203 
   204 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   205 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   206 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   209 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   210 
   211 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   212 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   213 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   216 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   219 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   220 
   221   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   222 
   223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   226 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   227 
   228 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   229 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   230 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   231 
   232 
   233 *** HOL ***
   234 
   235 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   236 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   237 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   238 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   239 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   240 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   241 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   242 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   243 possible.
   244 
   245 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   246 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   247 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   248 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   249 
   250 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   251 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   254 
   255 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   256 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   257 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   258 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   259 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   260 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   261 
   262   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   263     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   264 
   265   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   266     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   267     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   268 
   269   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   270     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   271 
   272   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   273     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   274     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   275 
   276   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   277     Redefine using other integer operations.
   278 
   279 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   280 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   281 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   282 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   283 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   284 
   285   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   286     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   287     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   288     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   289     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   290 
   291     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   292     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   293 
   294   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   295     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   296     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   297     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   298     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   299     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   300     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   301     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   302 
   303   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   304     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   305     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   306     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   307 
   308   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   309     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   310     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   311     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   312 
   313   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   314     from type nat to type int.
   315 
   316 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   317 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   318 
   319   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   320     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   321     type.  Example syntax:
   322 
   323     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   324       is List.insert
   325 
   326     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   327     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   328     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   329     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   330     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   331     by the package.
   332 
   333   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   334     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   335     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   336     code generation for each constant.
   337 
   338   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   339     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   340     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   341     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   342     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   343 
   344   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   345     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   346     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   347 
   348 * Quotient package:
   349 
   350   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   351     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   352 
   353   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   354     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   355 
   356   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   357     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   358     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   359 
   360   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   361     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   364 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   365 
   366 * Quickcheck:
   367 
   368   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   369     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   370     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   371     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   372     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   373 
   374     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   375     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   376     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   377 
   378     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   379     continues searching for genuine ones.
   380 
   381     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   382     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   383     show genuine counterexamples.
   384 
   385   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   386     value generators for a given type and operations.
   387 
   388     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   389     constructors of that type.
   390 
   391   - Support for multisets.
   392 
   393   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   394 
   395   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   396     conjectures in a locale context.
   397 
   398 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   399 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   400 
   401 * Sledgehammer:
   402   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   403     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   404   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   405   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   406     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   407   - Sped up the minimizer.
   408   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   409   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   410   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   411 
   412 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   413 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   414 
   415 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   416 
   417 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   420 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   421 
   422   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   423 
   424 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   425 a list and a nat.
   426 
   427 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   428 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   429 
   430 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   431 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   432 default.
   433 
   434 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   435 
   436   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   437 
   438 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   439 
   440 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   441 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   442 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   443 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   444 one_case.
   445 
   446 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   447 the result of the fact expression.
   448 
   449 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   450 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   451 of some relation theorems:
   452 
   453   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   454   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   455   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   456   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   457   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   458   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   459 
   460 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   461 
   462 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   463 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   464 
   465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   466 
   467 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   468 to match the constant's name:
   469 
   470   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   471   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   472   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   473   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   474   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   475   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   476   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   477   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   478   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   479   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   480   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   481   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   482   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   483   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   484   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   485   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   486   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   487   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   488   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   489   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   490   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   491   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   492   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   493   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   494 
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   498 and corresponding theorem names:
   499 
   500   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   501 
   502   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   503 
   504   - Renamed theorems:
   505 
   506     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   507     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   508     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   509     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   510     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   511     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   512     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   513     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   514     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   515     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   516     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   517     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   518     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   519     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   520     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   521     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   522     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   523     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   524     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   525     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   526     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   527     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   528     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   529 
   530     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   531 
   532     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   533 
   534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   535 
   536 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   537 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   538 
   539   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   540   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   541   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   542   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   543   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   544   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   545   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   546   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   547   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   548   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   549   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   550   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   551   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   552   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   553   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   554   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   555   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   556   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   557   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   558   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   559   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   560 
   561 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   562 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   563 
   564 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   565 
   566 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   567 
   568   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   569   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   570   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   571   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   572   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   573   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   574   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   575   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   576   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   577   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   578   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   579   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   580   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   581   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   582   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   583   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   584   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   585   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   586 
   587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   590 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   591 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   592 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   593 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   594 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   595 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   596 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   597 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   598 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   599 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   600 
   601 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   602 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   603 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   604 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   605 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   606 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   607 
   608 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   609 through option types.
   610 
   611 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   612 relations.
   613 
   614 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   617 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   618 
   619   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   620   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   621   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   622   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   623   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   624   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   625   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   626   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   627   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   628   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   629   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   630   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   631   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   632   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   633   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   634   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   635   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   636   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   637   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   638   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   639   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   640   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   641   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   642   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   643   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   644   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   645   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   646   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   647   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   648   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   649   zless_le ~> less_le
   650   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   651   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   652   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   653 
   654 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   655 
   656   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   657 
   658 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   659 
   660 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   661 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   662 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   663 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   667 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   668 
   669 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   670 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   671 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   672 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   673 follows:
   674 
   675   Operations:
   676   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   677   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   678   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   679   del -> rbt_del
   680   delete -> rbt_delete
   681   ins -> rbt_ins
   682   insert -> rbt_insert
   683   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   684   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   685   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   686   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   687   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   688   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   689   tree_less -> rbt_less
   690   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   691   union -> rbt_union
   692   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   693   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   694 
   695   Lemmas:
   696   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   697   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   698   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   699   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   700   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   701   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   702   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   703   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   704   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   705   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   706   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   707   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   708   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   709   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   710   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   711   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   712   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   713   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   714   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   715   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   716   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   717   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   718   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   719   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   720   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   721   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   722   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   723   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   724   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   725   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   726   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   727   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   728   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   729   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   730   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   731   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   732   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   733   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   734   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   735   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   736   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   737   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   738   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   739   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   740   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   741   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   742   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   743   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   744   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   745   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   746   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   747   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   748   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   749   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   750   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   751   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   752   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   753   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   754   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   755   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   756   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   757   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   758   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   759   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   760   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   761   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   762   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   763   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   764   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   765   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   766   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   767   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   768   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   769   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   770   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   771   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   772   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   773   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   774   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   775   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   776   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   777   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   778   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   779 
   780 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   781 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   782 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784   Changed Operations:
   785   float_abs -> abs
   786   float_nprt -> nprt
   787   float_pprt -> pprt
   788   pow2 -> use powr
   789   round_down -> float_round_down
   790   round_up -> float_round_up
   791   scale -> exponent
   792 
   793   Removed Operations:
   794   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   795 
   796   Renamed Lemmas:
   797   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   798   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   799   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   800   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   801   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   802   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   803   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   804   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   805   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   806   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   807   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   808   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   809   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   810   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   811   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   812   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   813   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   814   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   815   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   816   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   817   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   818   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   819   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   820   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   821   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   822   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   823   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   824   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   825   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   826   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   827   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   828   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   829   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   830   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   831   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   832   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   833 
   834   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   835   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   836   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   837   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   838   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   839   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   840   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   841   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   842   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   843   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   844 
   845 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   846 association lists with distinct keys.
   847 
   848 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   849 annotated commands.
   850 
   851 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   852 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   853 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   854 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   857 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   858 instead.
   859 
   860   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   861   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   862   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   863   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   864   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   865   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   866   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   867   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   868   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   869   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   870   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   871   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   872   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   873   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   874   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   875   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   876   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   877   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   878   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   879   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   880   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   881   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   882   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   883   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   884   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   885   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   886   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   887   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   888   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   889   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   890   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   891   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   892   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   893   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   894   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   895   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   896   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   897   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   898   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   899   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   900   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   901 
   902 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   903 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   904 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   905 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   906 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   907 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   908 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   909 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   910 
   911 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   912 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   913 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   914 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   915 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   916 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   917 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   918 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   919 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   920 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   921 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   922 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923 
   924   Renamed constants:
   925   measure -> emeasure
   926   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   927   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   928   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   929   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   930 
   931   Removed locales:
   932   completeable_measure_space
   933   finite_measure_space
   934   finite_prob_space
   935   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   936   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   937   finite_sigma_algebra
   938   measure_space
   939   pair_finite_prob_space
   940   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   941   pair_finite_space
   942   pair_sigma_algebra
   943   product_sigma_algebra
   944 
   945   Removed constants:
   946   conditional_space
   947   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   948   image_space
   949   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   950   pair_measure_generator
   951   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   952   subvimage
   953 
   954   Replacement theorems:
   955   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   956   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   957   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   958   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   959   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   960   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   961   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   962   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   963   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   964   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   965   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   966   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   967   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   968   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   969   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   970   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   971   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   972   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   973   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   974   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   975   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   976   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   977   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   978   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   979   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   980   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   981   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   982   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   983   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   984   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   985   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   986   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   987   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   988   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   989   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   990   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   991   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   992   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   993   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   994   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   995   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   996   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   997   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   998   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   999   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1000   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1001   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1002   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1003   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1004   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1005   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1006   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1007   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1008   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1009   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1010   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1011   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1012   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1013   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1014   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1015   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1016   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1017   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1018   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1019   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1020   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1021   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1022   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1023   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1024   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1025   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1026   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1027   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1028   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1029   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1030   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1031   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1032   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1033   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1034   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1035   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1036   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1037   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1038   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1039   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1040   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1041   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1042   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1043   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1044   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1045   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1046   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1047   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1048   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1049   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1050   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1051   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1052   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1053   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1054   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1055   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1056   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1057   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1058   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1059   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1060   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1061   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1062   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1063   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1064   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1065   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1066   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1067   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1068   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1069   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1070   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1071   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1072   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1073   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1074   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1075   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1076   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1077   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1078   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1079   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1080   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1081   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1082   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1083 
  1084 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1085 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1086 
  1087 
  1088 *** FOL ***
  1089 
  1090 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1091 
  1092 
  1093 *** ZF ***
  1094 
  1095 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1096 analysis.
  1097 
  1098 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1099 
  1100 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1101 
  1102 
  1103 *** ML ***
  1104 
  1105 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1106 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1107 
  1108 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1109 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1110 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1111 
  1112 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1113 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1114 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1115 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1116 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1117 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1118 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1119 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1120 
  1121 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1122 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1123 
  1124 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1125 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1126 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1127 
  1128 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1129 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130 
  1131 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1132 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1133 context as well.
  1134 
  1135 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1136 
  1137   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1138   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1139   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1140   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1141   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1142   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1143   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1144   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1145   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1146   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1147   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1148   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1149 
  1150 
  1151 *** System ***
  1152 
  1153 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1154 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1155 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1156 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1157 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1158 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1159 the generic user home was intended.
  1160 
  1161 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1162 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1163 
  1164 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1165 (not just JRE).
  1166 
  1167 
  1168 
  1169 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1170 ------------------------------------
  1171 
  1172 *** General ***
  1173 
  1174 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1175 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1176 
  1177   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1178     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1179     files for checking).
  1180 
  1181   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1182     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1183     positions.
  1184 
  1185   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1186     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1187     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1188 
  1189   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1190     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1191     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1192 
  1193   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1194     cores.
  1195 
  1196   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1197     versions (garbage collection).
  1198 
  1199 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1200 including some remaining limitations.
  1201 
  1202 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1203 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1204 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1205 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1206 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1208 
  1209 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1210 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1211 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1212 
  1213 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1214 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1215 usedir option -Q.
  1216 
  1217 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1218 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1219 
  1220   long_names   ~> names_long
  1221   short_names  ~> names_short
  1222   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1223 
  1224 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1225 
  1226   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1227 
  1228 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1229 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1230 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1231 
  1232 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1233 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1234 
  1235 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1236   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1237   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1238   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1239     "Classical Reasoner".
  1240 
  1241 
  1242 *** HOL ***
  1243 
  1244 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1245 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1246 
  1247 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1248 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1249 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1250 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1251 class complete_linorder.
  1252 
  1253 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1254 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1255 
  1256 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1257 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1258 
  1259   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1260   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1261   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1262   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1263   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1264   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1265   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1266   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1267   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1268   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1269   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1270 
  1271 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1272 
  1273   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1274   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1275   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1276   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1277   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1278   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1279   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1280   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1281   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1282   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1283   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1284   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1285   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1286   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1287   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1288   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1289 
  1290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1291 
  1292 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1296 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1297 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1298 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1299 
  1300 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1301 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1302 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1306 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1307 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1308 
  1309 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1310 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1311 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1312 
  1313 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1314 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1315 
  1316 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1317 
  1318     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1319     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1320 
  1321 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1322 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1323 
  1324 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1325 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1326 
  1327 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1328 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1329 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1330 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1333   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1334   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1335   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1336   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1337   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1338   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1339 
  1340 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1341 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1344   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1345   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1346   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1347   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1348   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1349   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1350   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1351   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1352   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1353   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1354   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1355   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1356   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1357   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1358   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1359   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1360   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1361   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1362   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1363   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1364   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1365   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1366   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1367   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1368   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1369   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1370   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1371   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1372   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1373   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1374   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1375   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1376   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1377   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1378   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1379   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1380   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1381   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1382   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1383   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1384   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1385   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1386   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1387   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1388   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1389   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1390   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1391   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1392   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1393   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1394   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1395   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1396   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1397   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1398   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1399   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1400   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1401   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1402   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1403   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1404   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1405   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1406   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1407   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1408   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1409   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1410   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1411   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1412   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1413   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1414   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1415   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1416   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1417   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1418   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1419   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1420   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1421   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1422   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1423   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1424   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1425 
  1426 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1427 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1428 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1429 
  1430 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1431 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1432 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1433 
  1434 * Code generation:
  1435 
  1436   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1437     characters in the target language.
  1438 
  1439   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1440     instead.
  1441 
  1442   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1443 
  1444   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1445     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1446 
  1447       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1448 
  1449 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1452 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1453 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1454 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1455 syntax.
  1456 
  1457 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1458 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1459 
  1460 * Nitpick:
  1461   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1462   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1463   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1464     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1465 
  1466 * Sledgehammer:
  1467   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1468   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1469     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1470   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1471     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1472   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1473     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1474   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1475     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1476   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1477     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Metis:
  1480   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1482     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Command 'try':
  1485   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1486     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1487   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1488     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1489 
  1490 * Quickcheck:
  1491   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1492     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1493   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1494     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1495   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1496     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1497     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1498     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1499   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1500     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1501 
  1502 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1503 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1504 
  1505 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1506 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1507 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1508 
  1509 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1510 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1514 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1515 
  1516 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1517 arithmetic.
  1518 
  1519 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1520 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1521 and lattice type classes.
  1522 
  1523 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1524 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1525 
  1526 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1527 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1528 
  1529 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1530 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1531 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1532 
  1533   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1534   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1535   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1536   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1537 
  1538 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1539 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1540 constants:
  1541 
  1542   type inat   ~> type enat
  1543   Fin         ~> enat
  1544   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1545   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1546   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1547 
  1548 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1549 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1550 
  1551 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1552 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1553 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1554 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1555 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1556 
  1557 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1558 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1559 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1560 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1561 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1562 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1563 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1564 
  1565   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1566   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1567   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1568   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1569 
  1570 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1571 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1572 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1575   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1576   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1577   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1578   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1579   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1580   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1581   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1582   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1583   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1584   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1585   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1586   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1587   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1588   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1589   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1590   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1591   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1592   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1593   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1594   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1595   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1596   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1597   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1598   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1599   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1600   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1601   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1602   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1603   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1604   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1605   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1606   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1607   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1608   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1609   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1610   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1611   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1612   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1613   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1614   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1615   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1616   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1617   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1618   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1619   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1620   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1621   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1622   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1623   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1624   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1625 
  1626 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1627   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1628   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1629   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1630   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1631     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1636   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1637   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1638   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1639   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1640   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1641   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1642   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1643   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1644   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1645   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1646   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1647   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1648   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1649   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1650   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1651   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1652   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1653   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1654   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1655   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1656   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1657   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1658   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1659   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1660 
  1661 
  1662 *** Document preparation ***
  1663 
  1664 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1665 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1666 same.
  1667 
  1668 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1669 result.
  1670 
  1671 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1672 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1673 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1674 
  1675 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1676 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1677 
  1678 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1679 like this:
  1680 
  1681   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1682   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1683 
  1684 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1685 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1686 layouts.
  1687 
  1688 
  1689 *** ML ***
  1690 
  1691 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1692 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1693 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1694 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1695 under external program control.
  1696 
  1697 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1698 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1699 
  1700 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1701 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1702 (better known as Proof General).
  1703 
  1704 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1705 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1706 
  1707 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1708 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1709 
  1710 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1711 (including quotes etc.).
  1712 
  1713 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1714 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1715 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1716 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1717 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1718 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1719 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1720 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1721 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1722 
  1723 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1724 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1725 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1726 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1727 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1728 
  1729 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1730 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1731 
  1732 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1733 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1734 
  1735 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1736 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1737 
  1738 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1739 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1740 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1741 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1742 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1743 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1744 proper Proof.context.
  1745 
  1746 
  1747 *** System ***
  1748 
  1749 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1750 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1751 
  1752 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1753 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1754 
  1755 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1756 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1757 
  1758   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1759   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1760   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1761   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1762   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1763 
  1764 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1765 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1766 
  1767 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1768 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1769 example:
  1770 
  1771   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1772 
  1773 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1774 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1775 
  1776 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1777 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1778 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1779 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1780 
  1781 
  1782 
  1783 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1784 ----------------------------------
  1785 
  1786 *** General ***
  1787 
  1788 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1789 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1790 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1791 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1792 like this:
  1793 
  1794   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1795 
  1796 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1797 
  1798 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1799 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1800 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1801 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1802 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1803 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1804 
  1805 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1806 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1807 the following package declarations:
  1808 
  1809   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1810   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1811 
  1812 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1813 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1814 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1815 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1816 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1817 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1818 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1819 
  1820 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1821 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1822 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1823 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1824 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1825 
  1826 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1827 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1828 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1829 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1830 
  1831 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1832 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1833 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1834 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1835 
  1836   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1837 
  1838   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1839   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1840   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1841   show_types                    show_types
  1842   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1843   show_consts                   show_consts
  1844   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1845 
  1846   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1847   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1848   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1849 
  1850   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1851   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1852 
  1853   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1854 
  1855   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1856   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1857   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1858   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1859   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1860 
  1861 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1862 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1863 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1864 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1865 
  1866 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1868 
  1869   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1870   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1871 
  1872 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1873 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1874 float_token.
  1875 
  1876 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1877 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1879 
  1880 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1881 DejaVu Sans.
  1882 
  1883 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1884 
  1885 
  1886 *** Pure ***
  1887 
  1888 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1889 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1890 time.
  1891 
  1892 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1893 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1896 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1897 
  1898 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1899 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1900 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1901 command already provided this functionality.
  1902 
  1903 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1904 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1905 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1906 without interpretations.
  1907 
  1908 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1909 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1910 
  1911 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1912 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1913 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1914 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1915 
  1916 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1917 'definition' instead.
  1918 
  1919 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1920 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1921 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1922 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1923 
  1924 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1925 constructors.
  1926 
  1927 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1928 the local file system.
  1929 
  1930 
  1931 *** HOL ***
  1932 
  1933 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1934 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1935 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1936 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1937 
  1938   declare [[coercion f]]
  1939 
  1940 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1941 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1942 
  1943   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1944 
  1945 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1946 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1947 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1948 other theories like this:
  1949 
  1950   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1951 
  1952 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1953 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1954 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1955 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1956 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1957 for examples.
  1958 
  1959 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1960 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1963 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1964 
  1965 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1966 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1967 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1968 
  1969 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1970 functorial structure of types.
  1971 
  1972 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1973 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1974 
  1975 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1976 languages.
  1977 
  1978 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1979 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1981 
  1982 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1983 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1986 combinators any longer.
  1987 
  1988 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1989 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1990 
  1991 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1992 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1993 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1994 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1995 
  1996   record 'a foo = ...
  1997   ...
  1998   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1999 
  2000 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2001 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003 
  2004 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2005 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2006 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2007 
  2008 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2009 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2010 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2011 
  2012 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2013 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2014 
  2015 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2016 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2017 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2018 independently.
  2019 
  2020 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2021 counter example search.
  2022 
  2023 * Sledgehammer:
  2024   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2025     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2026     sledgehammer").
  2027   - Renamed commands:
  2028     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2029     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2030     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2031     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032   - Renamed options:
  2033     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2034     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2035     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2036     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2037     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2038 
  2039 * Nitpick:
  2040   - Renamed options:
  2041     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2042     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2043     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2044   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2045   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2046   - Added "whack" option.
  2047   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2048   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2049   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2050   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2051     higher cardinalities.
  2052   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2053 
  2054 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2055 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2056 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2057 
  2058     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2059 
  2060 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2061 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2062 
  2063 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2064 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2065 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2066 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2067 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2068 "smt_solver".
  2069 
  2070 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2071 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2072 
  2073 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2074 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2075 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2076 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2079   - Renamed:
  2080     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2081     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2082     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083   - Added:
  2084     smt_verbose
  2085     smt_random_seed
  2086     smt_datatypes
  2087     smt_infer_triggers
  2088     smt_monomorph_limit
  2089     cvc3_options
  2090     remote_cvc3_options
  2091     remote_z3_options
  2092     yices_options
  2093 
  2094 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2095 header.
  2096 
  2097 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2098 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2099 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2100 
  2101   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2102 
  2103 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2104 
  2105 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2106 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2107 
  2108 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109 
  2110 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2111 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2112 
  2113 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2114 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2115 
  2116 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2117 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2118 
  2119 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2120 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2121 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2124 
  2125 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2129 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130 
  2131 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2132 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2133 for congruent(2)).
  2134 
  2135 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2136 
  2137   types
  2138     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2139     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2140 
  2141   constants
  2142     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2143     True ~> HOL.True
  2144     False ~> HOL.False
  2145     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2146     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2147     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2148     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2149     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2150     The ~> HOL.The
  2151     All ~> HOL.All
  2152     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2153     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2154     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2155     If ~> HOL.If
  2156     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2157     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2158     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2159     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2160     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2161     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2162     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2163     op : ~> Set.member
  2164     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2165 
  2166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2167 
  2168 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2169 
  2170     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2171     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2172     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2173     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2174     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2175     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2176     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2177     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2178 
  2179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * More stylized fact names:
  2182 
  2183   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2184   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2185   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2186   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2187 
  2188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2191 
  2192   constants
  2193     null ~> List.null
  2194 
  2195   facts
  2196     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2197     null_empty ~> null_def
  2198 
  2199 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2200 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2201 generation.
  2202 
  2203 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2204 Haskell code.
  2205 
  2206 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2207 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2208 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2209 
  2210 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2211 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2214 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2215 
  2216 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2217 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2218 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2221 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2227 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2228 referred to by its qualified name.
  2229 
  2230   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2231   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2232   product ~>  Enum.product
  2233 
  2234 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2235 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2239 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2240 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2244 sort_key.
  2245 
  2246 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2250 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2251 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2252 
  2253   types
  2254     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2255               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2256               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2257         (depends on your needs)
  2258 
  2259   constants
  2260      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2261      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2262      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2263 
  2264 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2265 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2266 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2267 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2270 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2271 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2272 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2273 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2279 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2280 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2281 
  2282 
  2283 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2284 
  2285 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2286 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2287 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2288 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2289 compatibility.
  2290 
  2291 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2292 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2293 
  2294 
  2295 *** HOLCF ***
  2296 
  2297 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2298 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2299 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2303 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2304 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2307   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2308   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2309 
  2310 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2311 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2312 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2315 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2316 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2317 domain definition now works:
  2318 
  2319   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2320 
  2321 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2322 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2323 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2324 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2325 
  2326   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2327     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2328 
  2329   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2330 
  2331 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2332 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2333 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2336 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2339 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2340 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2341 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2342 
  2343 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2344 
  2345 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2346 
  2347 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2351 
  2352 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2353 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2354 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2355 
  2356 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2357 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2358 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2361 still supported as an input translation.
  2362 
  2363 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2364 
  2365   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2366   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2367   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2368   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2369   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2370   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2371   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2372 
  2373 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2374 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2377   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2378   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2379   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2380   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2381   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2382 
  2383 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2384 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2387 
  2388   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2389   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2390   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2391   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2392 
  2393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2396 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2399 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2400 
  2401   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2402   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2403   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2404   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2405   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2406   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2407   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2408   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2409   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2410   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2411   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2412   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2413   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2414   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2415   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2416   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2417   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2418   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2419   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2420   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2421 
  2422 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2425   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2426   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2427   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2428   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2429   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2430   box_less             ~> box_below
  2431   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2432   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2433   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2434   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2435   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2436   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2437   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2438   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2439   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2440   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2441   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2442   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2443   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2444   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2445   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2446   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2447   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2448   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2449   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2450   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2451   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2452   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2453   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2454   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2455   up_less              ~> up_below
  2456   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2457   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2458   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2459   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2460   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2461   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2462   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2463   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2464   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2465   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2466   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2467   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2468   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2469 
  2470 
  2471 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2472 
  2473 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2474 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 
  2477 *** ML ***
  2478 
  2479 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2480 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2481 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2482 
  2483 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2484 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2485 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2486 
  2487 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2488 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2489 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2490 
  2491 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2492 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2493 
  2494 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2495 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2496 
  2497 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2498 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2499 
  2500 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2501 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2502 
  2503 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2504 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2505 almost all situations.
  2506 
  2507 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2508 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2509 Isabelle/ML.
  2510 
  2511 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2512 meaning.
  2513 
  2514 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2515 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2516 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2517 
  2518 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2519 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2520 
  2521 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2522 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2523 
  2524 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2525 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2526 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2527 
  2528 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2529 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2530 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2531 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2532 configuration options.
  2533 
  2534 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2535 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2536 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2537 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2538 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2539 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2540 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2541 
  2542 
  2543 
  2544 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2545 ---------------------------------
  2546 
  2547 *** General ***
  2548 
  2549 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2550 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2551 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2552 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2553 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2554 their full internal name.
  2555 
  2556 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2557 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2558 Some hints on upgrading:
  2559 
  2560   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2561     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2562     which are independent of this issue.
  2563 
  2564   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2565     provides the following special forms:
  2566 
  2567       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2568       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2569       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2570 
  2571     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2572     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2573     extra variables".
  2574 
  2575     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2576     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2577     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2578     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2579     "logic".
  2580 
  2581   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2582     antiquotations:
  2583 
  2584       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2585       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2586       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2587       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2588 
  2589   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2590     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2591     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2592     antiquotations.
  2593 
  2594 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2595 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2596 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2597 diagnose syntax problems.
  2598 
  2599 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2600 
  2601 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2602 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2603 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2604 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2605 
  2606 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2607 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2608 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2609 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2612 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2613 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2614 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2615 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2616 
  2617 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2618 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2619 
  2620 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2621 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2622 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2623 
  2624   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2625 
  2626 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2627 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2628 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2629 
  2630 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2631 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2633 
  2634 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2635 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2636 
  2637 
  2638 *** Pure ***
  2639 
  2640 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2641 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2642 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2643 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2644 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2645 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2646 inspect proof terms.
  2647 
  2648 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2649 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2650 are added internally.  For example:
  2651 
  2652   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2653 
  2654 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2655 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2660 'class' instead.
  2661 
  2662 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2663 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2667 invariants.
  2668 
  2669 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2670 user space functionality any longer.
  2671 
  2672 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2673 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2675 
  2676 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2677 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2678 
  2679 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2680 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2681 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2682 
  2683 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2684 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2685 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2686 
  2687 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2688 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689 
  2690 
  2691 *** HOL ***
  2692 
  2693 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2694 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2695 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2696 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2697 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2698 
  2699 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2700 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2701 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2702 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2703 
  2704   fun
  2705     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2706   where
  2707     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2708 
  2709   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2710     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2711 
  2712   quotient_definition
  2713     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2714 
  2715 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2716 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2717 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2718 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2719 
  2720 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2721 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2722 
  2723 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2724 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2725 
  2726 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2730 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2731 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2732 
  2733 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2734 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2743 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2746 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2747 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2750   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2751   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2752   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2753   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2754   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2755   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2756   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2757   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2758   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2759   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2760   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2761   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2762   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2763   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2764   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2765   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2766   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2767   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2768   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2769   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2770   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2771   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2772   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2773   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2774   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2775   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2776   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2777   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2778   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2779 
  2780 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2781 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2782 
  2783 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2784 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2785 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2786 
  2787 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2788 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2789 
  2790 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2791 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2792 
  2793 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2794 
  2795 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2796 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2799 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2802 
  2803 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2804 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2805 
  2806 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2807 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2808 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2809 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2812   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2813   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2814   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2816 
  2817 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2818 lattices):
  2819 
  2820     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2821     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2822 
  2823     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2824 
  2825     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2826     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2827     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2828     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2829     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2830     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2831     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2832     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2833     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2834     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2835     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2836     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2837     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2838 
  2839     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2840     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2841     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2842     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2843     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2844     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2845     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2846     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2847     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2848     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2849     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2850     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2851     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2852     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2853     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2854     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2855     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2856     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2857 
  2858   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2859   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2860 
  2861     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2862     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2863     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2864     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2865     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2866 
  2867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868 
  2869 * Refined field classes:
  2870   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2871     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2872     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2873   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2877   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2878   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2879   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2880     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2881   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2882     equal_neg_zero.
  2883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2886 sets to lattices:
  2887 
  2888   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2889   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2890   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2891   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2892   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2893   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2894   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2895   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2896   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2897   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2898 
  2899 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2900 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2901 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2902 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2903 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2904 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905 
  2906 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2907 multiset order:
  2908 
  2909   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2910     <= and <;
  2911   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2912     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2913     multiset_order;
  2914   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2915     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2916     generation;
  2917   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2918     if needed.
  2919 
  2920 Renamed:
  2921 
  2922   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2923   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2924   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2925 
  2926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2929 
  2930 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2931 
  2932 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2933 
  2934 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2935 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2936 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938   Constants:
  2939   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2940   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2941   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2942   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2943   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2944   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2945   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2946   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2947   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2948   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2949   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2950   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2951   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2952 
  2953   Lemmas:
  2954   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2955   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2956   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2957   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2958   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2959   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2960   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2961   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2962   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2963   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2964   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2965   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2966   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2967 
  2968 * Sledgehammer:
  2969   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2970     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2971     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2972     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2973     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2974     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2975     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2977   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2978     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2979   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2980     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2981     is still experimental.)
  2982   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2983     full-typed mode.
  2984   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2985 
  2986 * Nitpick:
  2987   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2988   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2989   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2990     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2991   - Added support for quotient types.
  2992   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2993     constructs.
  2994   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2995     "termination" proofs).
  2996   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2997   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2998   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2999   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3000     record getters.
  3001   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3002   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3003   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3004   - Added "atoms" option.
  3005   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3006     problems.
  3007   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3008     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3009     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3011     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3015   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3016   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3017   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3018   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3019   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3020   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3021   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3022   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3023   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025 
  3026 *** HOLCF ***
  3027 
  3028 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3029 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3030 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3033 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3034 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3035 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3038 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3039 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3040 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3041 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3044 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3045 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3048 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3051   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3052 
  3053 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3054 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3057   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3058   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3059   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3060   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3061 
  3062 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3063 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3066   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3067   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3068 
  3069 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3070 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3074 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3079 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3080 
  3081 
  3082 *** ML ***
  3083 
  3084 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3085 
  3086     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3087     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3088 
  3089     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3090     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3091     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3092     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3093 
  3094     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3095     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3096     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3097 
  3098 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3099 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3100 
  3101 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3102 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3103 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3104 
  3105 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3106 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3107 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3108 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3109 
  3110 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3111 the context or even global references.
  3112 
  3113 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3114 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3115 
  3116 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3117 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3118 
  3119   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3120   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3121   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3122   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3123   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3124   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3125   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3126   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3127   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3128   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3129 
  3130 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3131 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3132 
  3133 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3134 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3135 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3136 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3137 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3138 
  3139 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3140 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3141 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3142 Theory_Data version.
  3143 
  3144 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3145 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3146 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3147 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3148 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3149 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3150 explicitly in rare situations.
  3151 
  3152 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3153 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3155 
  3156 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3157 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3158 
  3159 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3160 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3161 quite rare).
  3162 
  3163 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3164 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3167 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3168 terms.
  3169 
  3170 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3171 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3172 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3173 
  3174 
  3175 *** System ***
  3176 
  3177 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3178 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3179 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3180 
  3181 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3182 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3183 respectively.
  3184 
  3185 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3186 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3187 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3188 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3189 
  3190   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3191 
  3192 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3193 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3194 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3195 component.
  3196 
  3197 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3198 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3199 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3200 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3201 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3202 the user for manual installation.
  3203 
  3204 
  3205 
  3206 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3207 -------------------------------------
  3208 
  3209 *** General ***
  3210 
  3211 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3212 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3213 
  3214 
  3215 *** Pure ***
  3216 
  3217 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3218 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3219 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3220 
  3221 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3222 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3223 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3224 
  3225 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3226 interpretation.
  3227 
  3228 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3229 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 
  3232 *** Document preparation ***
  3233 
  3234 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3235 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3236 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3237 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3238 
  3239 
  3240 *** HOL ***
  3241 
  3242 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3243 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3244 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3245 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3246 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3247 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3248 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3249 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3250 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3251 
  3252 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3253 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3254 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3255 
  3256 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3257 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3258 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3259 
  3260 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3261 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3262 
  3263 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3264 
  3265 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3266 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3267 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3268 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3269 
  3270 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3271 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3272 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3273 "mirabelle" utility.
  3274 
  3275 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3276 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3277 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3278 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3279 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3280 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3281 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3282 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3283 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3284 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3285 
  3286 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3287 procedure only.
  3288 
  3289 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3290 
  3291 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3292 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3293 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3294 that fail later.
  3295 
  3296 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3297 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3298 
  3299 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3300 the same method as the approximation method.
  3301 
  3302 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3303 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3304 series expansion.
  3305 
  3306 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3307 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3308 
  3309 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3310 reals.
  3311 
  3312 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3313 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3314 
  3315 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3316 fixpoint theorem.
  3317 
  3318 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3319   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3320     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3321   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3322     accordingly
  3323   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3324     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3325   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3326     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3327 
  3328 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3329 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3330 lattice.
  3331 
  3332 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3333 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3334 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3335 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3336 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3337 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3341   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3342     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3343   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3344     le_inf_iff
  3345   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3346     sup_aci)
  3347   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3348   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3349   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3350     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3351     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3352     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3353     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3354     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3355     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3356     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3357     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3358     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3359     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3360   - authentic syntax for
  3361     Set.Pow
  3362     Set.image
  3363   - mere abbreviations:
  3364     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3365     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3366     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3367     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3368     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3369     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3370     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3371     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3372   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3373 
  3374 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3375 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3376 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3377 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3378 
  3379 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3380 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3381 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3384 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3387 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3388 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3389 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3390 
  3391 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3392 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3393 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3394 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3395 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3396 
  3397 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3398 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3402 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3405 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3406 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3407 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3408 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3409 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3410 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3414     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3415     code_post       replaces    code post
  3416     etc.
  3417   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * Renamed methods:
  3420     sizechange -> size_change
  3421     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3422   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3425 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3426 
  3427 * Renamed theorems:
  3428     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3429     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3430     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3431     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3432     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3433   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 
  3442 *** HOLCF ***
  3443 
  3444 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3445 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3446 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3447 
  3448 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3449 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3450 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3451 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3452 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3453 
  3454 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3455 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3456 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3457 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3458 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3459 
  3460 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3461 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3462 constructor are pre-configured.
  3463 
  3464 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3465 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3466 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3467 
  3468 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3469 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3470 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3471 as well.)
  3472 
  3473 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3474 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3475 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3476 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3477 examples.
  3478 
  3479 
  3480 *** ML ***
  3481 
  3482 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3483 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3484 
  3485 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3486 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3487 position, logical grouping etc.
  3488 
  3489 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3490 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3491 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3492 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3493 
  3494 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3495 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3496 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3497 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3498 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3499 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3500 
  3501 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3502 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3503 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3504 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3505 experiments with references.
  3506 
  3507 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3508 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3509 
  3510 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3511 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3512 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3513 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3514 
  3515 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3516 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3517 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3518 
  3519 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3520 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3521 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3524 
  3525 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3529 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3530 
  3531 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3532 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3533 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3534 
  3535 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3536 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3537 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3540 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3541 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3545 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3546 instead of global theory.
  3547 
  3548 
  3549 *** System ***
  3550 
  3551 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3552 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3553 usedir option -q.
  3554 
  3555 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3556 also the system manual.
  3557 
  3558 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3559 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3560 
  3561 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3562 this is always enabled.
  3563 
  3564 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3565 
  3566 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3567 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3568 currently supported on Linux only.
  3569 
  3570 
  3571 
  3572 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3573 --------------------------------
  3574 
  3575 *** General ***
  3576 
  3577 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3578 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3579 
  3580   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3581     "isatool."
  3582 
  3583   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3584     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3585 
  3586   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3587     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3588 
  3589 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3590 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3591 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3592 
  3593 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3594 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3595 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3596 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3597 via "isabelle emacs".
  3598 
  3599 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3600 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3601 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3602 
  3603 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3604 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3605 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3606 
  3607 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3608 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3609 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3610 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3611 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3612 
  3613 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3614 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3615 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3616 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3617 
  3618 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3619 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3620 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3621 
  3622 
  3623 *** Pure ***
  3624 
  3625 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3626 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3627 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3628 
  3629 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3630 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3631 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3632 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3633 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3634 
  3635 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3636 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3637 useful in locale declarations.
  3638 
  3639 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3640 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3641 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3642 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3643 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3644 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3645 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3646 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3647 no longer generated.
  3648 
  3649 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3650 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3651 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3652 
  3653 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3654 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3655 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3656 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3657 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3658 
  3659 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3661 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3662 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3663 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3664 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3665 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3666 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3667 
  3668 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3669 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3670 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3671 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3672 
  3673 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3674 
  3675 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3676 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3677 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3678 
  3679 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3680 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3683 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3684 in HOL, write
  3685 
  3686     class foo = ...
  3687 
  3688 instead of
  3689 
  3690     class foo = type + ...
  3691 
  3692 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3693 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3696 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3697 
  3698 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3699 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3700 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3701 
  3702 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3703 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3704 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3705 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3706 directly in regular applications.
  3707 
  3708 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3709 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3710 
  3711 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3712 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3713 
  3714 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3715 theory context.
  3716 
  3717 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3718 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3721 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3722 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3723 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3724 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3725 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3726 
  3727   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3728 
  3729 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3730 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3731 normalization.
  3732 
  3733 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3734 addressing etc.
  3735 
  3736 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3737 
  3738   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3739   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3740 
  3741 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3742 
  3743   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3744      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3745      parts of the code generator framework).
  3746 
  3747   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3748      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3749      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3750 
  3751 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3754 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3757 patterns, e.g.
  3758 
  3759     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3760 
  3761 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3762 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3763 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3764 hyphen:
  3765 
  3766     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3767 
  3768 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3769 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3770 
  3771 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3772 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3773 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3774 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3775 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3776 higher-order unification.
  3777 
  3778 
  3779 *** Document preparation ***
  3780 
  3781 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3782 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3783 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3784 
  3785 
  3786 *** HOL ***
  3787 
  3788 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3789 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3790 
  3791 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3792 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3793 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3794 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3795 Main, as before.
  3796 
  3797 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3798 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3799 
  3800 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3801 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3802 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3803 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3804 
  3805 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3806 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3807 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3808 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3809 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3810 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3811 
  3812 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3813 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3814 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3815 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3816 
  3817 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3818 menu.
  3819 
  3820 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3821 (contains the empty clause).
  3822 
  3823 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3824 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3825 
  3826 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3827 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3828 
  3829 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3830 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3831 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3834 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3835 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3836 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3837 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3838 
  3839 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3840 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3841 
  3842 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3843 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3844 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3845 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3846 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3847 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3848 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3849 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3850 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3851 
  3852 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3853 
  3854 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3855 
  3856 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3857 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3860 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3861 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3862 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3863 
  3864 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3865 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3866 
  3867     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3868     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3869     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3870     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3871     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3872     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3873     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3874     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3875 
  3876 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3877 theory Set.
  3878 
  3879 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3880 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3881 
  3882 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3883 
  3884 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3885 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3886 
  3887 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3888 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3889 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3890 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3891 allowed. For examples see
  3892 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3893 
  3894 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3895 
  3896 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3900 structure:
  3901 
  3902     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3903     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3904     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3905     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3906     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3907     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3908     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3909     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3910     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3911     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3912     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3913     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3914     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3915     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3916     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3917     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3918     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3919     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3920     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3921     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3922     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3923     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3924     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3925     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3926     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3927     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3928     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3929     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3930     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3931     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3932     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3933     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3934     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3935 
  3936     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3937     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3938     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3939     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3940     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3941     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3942     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3943     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3944     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3945     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3946 
  3947     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3948     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3949     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3950     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3951     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3952     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3953 
  3954 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3955 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3956 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3957 
  3958 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3959 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3960 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3961 
  3962 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3963 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3966 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3967 
  3968 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3969 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3970 proofs, e.g.
  3971 
  3972   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3973 
  3974 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3975 
  3976 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3977 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3978 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3979 
  3980 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3981 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3985 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3986 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3988 
  3989 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3990 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3991 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3992 preorder_class.*.
  3993 
  3994 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3995 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3996 
  3997 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3998 
  3999   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4000 
  4001 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4002 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4003 fold_image.
  4004 
  4005 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4006 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4007 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4008 the former will disappear at some point.
  4009 
  4010 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4011 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4012 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4013 
  4014 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4015 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4016 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4017 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4018 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4019 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4020 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4021 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4022 
  4023 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4024 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4025 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4026 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4027 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4028 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4029 
  4030     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4031     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4032     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4033     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4034     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4035     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4036     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4037 
  4038 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4039 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4040 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4041 
  4042 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4043 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4044 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4045 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4046 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4047 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4048 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4049 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4050 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4051 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4052 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4053 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4054 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4055 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4056 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4057 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4058 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4059 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4060 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4061 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4062 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4063 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4064 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4065 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4066 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4067 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4068 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4069 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4070 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4071 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4072 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4073 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4074 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4075 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4076 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4077 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4078 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4079 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4080 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4081 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4082 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4083 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4084 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4085 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4086 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4087 
  4088 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4091 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4092 
  4093 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4094 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4095 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4096 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4097 
  4098 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4099 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4100 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4101 theory RealVector.
  4102 
  4103 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4104 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4105 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4106 and inner products are included.
  4107 
  4108 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4109 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4110 supported.
  4111 
  4112 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4113 first diagonalization argument.
  4114 
  4115 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4116 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4117 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4118 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4119 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4120 
  4121     hide (open) const gcd
  4122     abbreviation gcd where
  4123       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4124     notation (output)
  4125       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4126 
  4127 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4128 
  4129 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4130 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4131 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4132 
  4133 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4134 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4135 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4136 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4137 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4138 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4139 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4140 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4141 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4142 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4143 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4144 cases.
  4145 
  4146 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4147 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4148 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4149 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4150 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4151 
  4152     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4153     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4154     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4155     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4156     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4157 
  4158 
  4159 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4160 
  4161 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4162 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4163 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4164 
  4165 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4166 
  4167 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4168 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4169 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4170 
  4171 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4172 
  4173 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4174 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4175 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4176 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4177 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4178 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4179 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4180 
  4181 
  4182 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4183 
  4184 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4185 
  4186 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4187 theory targets.
  4188 
  4189 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4190 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4191 'inductive' etc.
  4192 
  4193 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4194 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4195 
  4196 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4197 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4198 
  4199 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4200 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4201 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4202 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4203 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4204 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4205 the algorithm W:
  4206 
  4207  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4208  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4209          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4210 
  4211 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4212 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4213 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4214 
  4215 
  4216 *** HOLCF ***
  4217 
  4218 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4219 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4220 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4221 
  4222 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4223 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4224 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4225 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4226 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227 
  4228 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4229 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4230 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 
  4233 *** ZF ***
  4234 
  4235 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4236 
  4237 
  4238 *** ML ***
  4239 
  4240 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4241 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4242 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4243 5.2.1!
  4244 
  4245 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4246 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4247 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4248 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4249 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4250 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4251 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4252 
  4253 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4254 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4255 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4256 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4257 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4258 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4259 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4260 
  4261 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4262 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4263 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4264 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4265 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4266 
  4267 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4268 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4269 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4270 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4271 Method.add_method.
  4272 
  4273 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4274 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4275 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4276 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4277 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4278 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4279 
  4280 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4281 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4282 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4283 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4284 examples.
  4285 
  4286 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4287 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4288 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4289 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4290 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4291 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4292 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4293 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4294 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4295 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4296 
  4297 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4298 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4299 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4300 
  4301 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4302 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4303 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4304 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4305 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4306 resort for legacy applications.
  4307 
  4308 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4309 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4310 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4311 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4312 explicit runtime argument.
  4313 
  4314 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4315 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4316 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4317 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4318 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4321 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4322 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4323 theory state.
  4324 
  4325 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4326 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4327 
  4328   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4329   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4330   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4331   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4332   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4333   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4334   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4335   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4336   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4337   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4338 
  4339 
  4340 *** System ***
  4341 
  4342 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4343 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4344 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4345 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4346 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4347 
  4348 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4349 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4350 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4351 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4352 
  4353 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4354 
  4355 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4356 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4357 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4358 prover operations.
  4359 
  4360 
  4361 
  4362 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4363 -------------------------------
  4364 
  4365 *** General ***
  4366 
  4367 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4368 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4369 
  4370 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4371 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4372 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4373 provides a proper context already.
  4374 
  4375 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4376 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4377 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4378 
  4379 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4380 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4381 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4382 swap theory imports.
  4383 
  4384 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4385 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4386 
  4387 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4388 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4389 white space without escapes.
  4390 
  4391 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4392 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4393 "foo_bar".
  4394 
  4395 
  4396 *** Pure ***
  4397 
  4398 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4399 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4400 
  4401 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4402 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4403 
  4404 (1) unused_thms
  4405      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4406 
  4407 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4408      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4409      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4410 
  4411 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4412      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4413      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4414      their ancestors.
  4415 
  4416 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4417 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4418 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4419 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4420 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4421 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4422 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4423 
  4424 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4425 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4426 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4427 
  4428 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4429 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4430 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4431 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4432 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4433 
  4434 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4435 
  4436 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4437 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4438 update of theories within ML code.
  4439 
  4440 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4441 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4442 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4443 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4444 
  4445 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4446 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4447 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4451 
  4452 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4453 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4454 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4455 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4456 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4457 
  4458 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4459 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4460 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4461 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4462 situations.
  4463 
  4464 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4465 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4466 proof text.
  4467 
  4468 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4469 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4470 
  4471 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4472 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4473 predicates.
  4474 
  4475 
  4476 *** Document preparation ***
  4477 
  4478 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4479 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4480 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4481 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4482 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4483 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4484 
  4485 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4486 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4487 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4488 
  4489 
  4490 *** HOL ***
  4491 
  4492 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4493 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4494 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4495 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4496 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4497 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4498 
  4499 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4500 with multithreading.
  4501 
  4502 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4503 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4504 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4505 
  4506 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4507 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4508 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4509 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4510 
  4511 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4512 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4513 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4514 and makes them available separately.  See
  4515 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4516 
  4517 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4518 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4519 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4520 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4521 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4522 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4523 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4524 the declared rules.
  4525 
  4526 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4527 
  4528   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4529 
  4530 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4531 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4532 
  4533 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4534 
  4535   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4536 
  4537   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4538     definitions on => and bool.
  4539 
  4540   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4541     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4542     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4543 
  4544       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4545       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4546       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4547       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4548       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4549       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4550       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4551       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4552 
  4553   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4554     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4555     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4556 
  4557   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4558     The proof pattern
  4559 
  4560       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4561       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4562 
  4563     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4564     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4565 
  4566       have "EX S. P S"
  4567       proof
  4568         show "P S" <...>
  4569       qed
  4570 
  4571   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4572     The proof pattern
  4573 
  4574       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4575       also have "S = T" <...>
  4576       finally have "P T" .
  4577 
  4578     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4579     must be replaced by something like
  4580 
  4581       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4582       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4583       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4584 
  4585   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4586     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4587 
  4588       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4589 
  4590     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4591     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4592     type of the form
  4593 
  4594       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4595 
  4596     rather than
  4597 
  4598       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4599 
  4600 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4601 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4602 
  4603 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4604 
  4605 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4606 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608 
  4609 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4610 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4611 
  4612 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4613 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4616 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4617 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4620 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4621 
  4622   less_trans
  4623   less_linear
  4624   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4625   le_less_trans
  4626   less_le_trans
  4627   less_not_sym
  4628   less_asym
  4629 
  4630 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4631 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4632 and different variable names.
  4633 
  4634 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4635 
  4636 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4637 finite maps.
  4638 
  4639 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4640 
  4641 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4642 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4643 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4644 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4645 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4646 accordingly.
  4647 
  4648 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4649 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4650 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4651 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4652 
  4653 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4654 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4655 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4656 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4657 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4659 
  4660 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4661 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4662 
  4663 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4664 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4665 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4666 
  4667 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4671 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4672 
  4673 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4674 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4677 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4680 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4682 
  4683 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4684 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4687 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4688 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4689 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4690 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4691 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4694 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4695 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4696 
  4697 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4698 
  4699 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4700 
  4701 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4702 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4703 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4704 
  4705 
  4706 *** ZF ***
  4707 
  4708 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4709 same session:
  4710 
  4711   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4712   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4713   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4714   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4715   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4716   List      -> List_ZF
  4717   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4718 
  4719 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4720 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4721 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4722 
  4723 
  4724 *** ML ***
  4725 
  4726 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4727 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4728 
  4729 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4730 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4731 
  4732 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4733 
  4734 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4735 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4736 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4737 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4738 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4739 
  4740 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4741 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4742 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4743 
  4744 
  4745 *** System ***
  4746 
  4747 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4748 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4749 
  4750 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4751 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4752 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4753 
  4754 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4755 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4756 
  4757 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4758 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4759 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4760 
  4761 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4762 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4763 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4764 
  4765 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4766 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4767 
  4768 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4769 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4770 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4771 script.
  4772 
  4773 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4774 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4775 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4776 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4777 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4778 
  4779 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4780 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4781 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4782 
  4783 
  4784 
  4785 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4786 -----------------------------------
  4787 
  4788 *** General ***
  4789 
  4790 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4791 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4792 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4793 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4794 
  4795 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4796 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4797 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4800 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4801 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4802 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4803 
  4804 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4805 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4806 quotes.
  4807 
  4808 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4809 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4810 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4811 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4812 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4813 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4814 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4815 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4816 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4817 
  4818 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4819 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4820 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4821 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4822 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4823 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4824 
  4825 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4826 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4827 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4828 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4829 
  4830 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4831 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4832 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4833 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4834 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4835 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4836 
  4837 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4838 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4839 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4840 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4841 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4842 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4843 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4844 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4845 
  4846 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4847 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4848 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4849 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4850 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4851 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4852 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4853 
  4854 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4855 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4856 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4857 
  4858 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4859 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4860 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4861 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4862 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4863 limit is imposed.
  4864 
  4865 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4866 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4867 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4868 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4869 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4870 and scalability.
  4871 
  4872 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4873 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4874 
  4875 
  4876 *** Document preparation ***
  4877 
  4878 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4879 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4880 current context.
  4881 
  4882 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4883 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4884 
  4885 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4886 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4887 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4888 
  4889 
  4890 *** Pure ***
  4891 
  4892 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4893 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4894 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4895 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4896 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4897 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4898 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4899 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4900 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4901 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4902 
  4903 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4904 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4905 sketch:
  4906 
  4907     internal compilation:
  4908         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4909     writing SML code to a file:
  4910         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4911     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4912         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4913     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4914         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4915 
  4916     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4917         method ``eval''
  4918 
  4919 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4920 
  4921 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4922 
  4923     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4924     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4925     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4926     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4927 
  4928 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4929 
  4930     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4931       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4932 
  4933     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4934       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4935 
  4936     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4937       {(target)}+
  4938         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4939 
  4940     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4941       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4942         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4943 
  4944 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4945 
  4946 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4947 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4948 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4949 codegen".
  4950 
  4951 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4952 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4953 annotations).
  4954 
  4955 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4956 syntax.
  4957 
  4958 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4959 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4960 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4961 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4962 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4963 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4964 
  4965 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4966 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4967 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4968 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4969 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4970 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4971 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4972 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4973 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4974 equations, see section "definitions".
  4975 
  4976 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4977 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4978 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4979 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4980 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4981 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4982 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4983 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4984 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4985 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4986 
  4987 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4988 configuration options:
  4989 
  4990   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4991   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4992   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4993   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4994   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4995   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4996   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4997   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4998   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4999 
  5000 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5001 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5002 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5003 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5004 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5005 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5006 order.
  5007 
  5008 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5009 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5010 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5011 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5012 context encountered later on.
  5013 
  5014 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5015 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5016 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5017 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5018 
  5019 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5020 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5021 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5022 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5023 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5024 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5025 
  5026 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5027 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5028 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5029 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5030 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5031 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5032 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5033 more permissive.
  5034 
  5035 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5036 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5037 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5038 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5039 maintainability of proof texts.
  5040 
  5041 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5042 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5043 
  5044   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5045   then guess x and y by clarify
  5046 
  5047 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5048 proof tools being involved here.
  5049 
  5050 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5051 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5052 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5053 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5054 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5055 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5056 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5057 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5058 
  5059 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5060 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5061 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5062 
  5063   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5064   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5065   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5066   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5067 
  5068 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5069 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5070 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5071 
  5072 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5073 both named and unnamed ones.
  5074 
  5075 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5076 
  5077   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5078 
  5079 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5080 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5081 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5082 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5083 
  5084 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5085 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5086 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5087 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5088 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5089 
  5090 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5091 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5092 
  5093 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5094 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5095 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5096 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5097 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5098 originally first one.
  5099 
  5100 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5101 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5102 expected.
  5103 
  5104 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5105 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5106 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5107 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5108 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5109 
  5110   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5111     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5112     obtains x where "P x"
  5113 
  5114   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5115     assumes "A & B"
  5116     obtains A and B
  5117 
  5118   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5119     assumes "A | B"
  5120     obtains
  5121       A
  5122     | B
  5123 
  5124 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5125 explicitly:
  5126 
  5127   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5128     obtains "~ thesis"
  5129 
  5130   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5131     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5132 
  5133 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5134 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5135 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5136 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5137 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5138 case_names).
  5139 
  5140 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5141 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5142 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5143 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5144 
  5145 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5146 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5147 top-level lemma.
  5148 
  5149 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5150 introduction rule (default "that").
  5151 
  5152 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5153 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5154 to occur.
  5155 
  5156 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5157 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5158 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5159 representations independently of name spaces.
  5160 
  5161 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5162 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5163 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5166 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5167 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5168 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5169 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5170 current context.
  5171 
  5172 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5173 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5174 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5175 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5176 
  5177   axiomatization
  5178     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5179     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5180 
  5181   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5182   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5183 
  5184   abbreviation
  5185     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5186     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5187 
  5188 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5189 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5190 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5191 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5192 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5193 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5194 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5195 
  5196 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5197 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5198 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5199 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5200 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5201 
  5202 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5203 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5204 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5205 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5206 
  5207 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5208 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5209 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5210 
  5211   definition "K x _ = x"
  5212 
  5213   inductive conj for A B
  5214   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5215 
  5216 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5217 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5218 abbreviations on output.
  5219 
  5220 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5221 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5222 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5223 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5224 
  5225 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5226 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5227 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5228 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5229 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5230 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5231 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5232 
  5233 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5234 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5235 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5236 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5237 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5238 
  5239 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5240 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5241 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5242 
  5243 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5244 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5245 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5246 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5247 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5248 
  5249   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5250     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5251 
  5252 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5253 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5254 partial_order.
  5255 
  5256 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5257 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5258 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5259 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5260 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5261 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5262 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5263 examples.
  5264 
  5265 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5266 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5267 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5268 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5269 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5270 
  5271 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5272 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5273 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5274 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5275 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5276 
  5277   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5278   (induct set: foo bar)
  5279   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5280   (induct type: foo bar)
  5281 
  5282 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5283 new format.
  5284 
  5285 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5286 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5287 
  5288 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5289 considered a legacy feature.
  5290 
  5291 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5292 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5293 
  5294 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5295 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5296 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5297 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5298   
  5299 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5300 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5301 manipulating the claset.
  5302 
  5303 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5304 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5305 least one premise.
  5306 
  5307 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5308 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5309 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5310 rule steps.
  5311 
  5312 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5313 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5314 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5315 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5317 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5318 
  5319 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5320 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5321 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5322 
  5323 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5324 the graph browser tool.
  5325 
  5326 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5327 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5328 
  5329 
  5330 *** HOL ***
  5331 
  5332 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5333 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5334 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5335 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5336 multi-threading.
  5337   
  5338 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5339 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5340 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5341 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5342 work with multi-threading.
  5343 
  5344 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5345 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5346 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5347 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5348 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5349 
  5350 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5351 
  5352 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5353 equality.
  5354 
  5355 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5356 the new 'class' package:
  5357 
  5358     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5359     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5360     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5361     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5362     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5363     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5364     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5365     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5366     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5367     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5368     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5369     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5370     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5371     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5372     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5373     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5374     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5375     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5376     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5377     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5378 
  5379 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5380 
  5381 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5382 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5383 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5384 names.
  5385 
  5386 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5387 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5388 
  5389 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5390 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5391 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5392 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5393 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5394 
  5395 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5396 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5397 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5398 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5399 
  5400 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5401 
  5402 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5403 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5404 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5405 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5407 
  5408 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5409 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5410 
  5411 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5412 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5413 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5414 
  5415 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5416 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5417 
  5418 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5419 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5420 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5421 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5422 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5423 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5424 in the current context.
  5425 
  5426 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5427 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5429 
  5430 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5431 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5432 
  5433 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5434 
  5435     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5436     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5437 
  5438     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5439       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5440     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5441     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5442 
  5443     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5444     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5445 
  5446   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5447 
  5448     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5449     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5450     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5451     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5452     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5453     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5454     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5455     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5456     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5457     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5458     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5459     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5460     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5461     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5462     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5463     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5464     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5465     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5466     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5467     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5468     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5469     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5470     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5471     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5472     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5473     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5474     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5475     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5476     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5477     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5478     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5479     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5480     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5481     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5482     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5483 
  5484     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5485     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5486     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5487     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5488     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5489     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5490     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5491     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5492     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5493     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5494     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5495     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5496     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5497     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5498     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5499     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5500     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5501 
  5502     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5503     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5504     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5505     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5506     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5507     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5508     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5509     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5510     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5511     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5512     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5513     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5514     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5515     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5516     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5517     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5518     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5519     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5520     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5521     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5522     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5523     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5524     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5525     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5526     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5527     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5528     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5529     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5530 
  5531     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5532     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5533     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5534     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5535     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5536     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5537 
  5538     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5539     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5540     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5541     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5542 
  5543     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5544     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5545 
  5546     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5547     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5548 
  5549 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5550 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5551 
  5552 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5553 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5554 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5555 "*.size".
  5556 
  5557 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5559 
  5560 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5561 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5562 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5565 
  5566 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5567 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5568 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5569 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5570 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5571 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5572 numerals on all operations.
  5573 
  5574 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5575 
  5576 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5577 
  5578 * Code generator library theories:
  5579   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5580     languages.
  5581   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5582     languages.
  5583   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5584     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5585   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5586   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5587     denominator).
  5588   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5589     representable by rational numbers.
  5590   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5591     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5592     includes Code_Integer.
  5593   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5594     target-language built-in integers.
  5595   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5596     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5597 
  5598 * New package for inductive predicates
  5599 
  5600   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5601 
  5602     inductive
  5603       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5604       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5605     where
  5606       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5607     | ...
  5608 
  5609   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5610 
  5611     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5612 
  5613     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5614     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5615 
  5616     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5617     intros
  5618       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5619       ...
  5620 
  5621   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5622   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5623 
  5624     inductive_set
  5625       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5626       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5627     where
  5628       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5629     | ...
  5630 
  5631   or
  5632 
  5633     inductive_set
  5634       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5635       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5636       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5637     where
  5638       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5639     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5640     | ...
  5641 
  5642   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5643 
  5644   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5645   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5646 
  5647   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5648 
  5649   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5650     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5651     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5652     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5653     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5654 
  5655   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5656     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5657     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5658     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5659     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5660     statements of the form
  5661 
  5662       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5663 
  5664     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5665     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5666 
  5667       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5668 
  5669   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5670 
  5671       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5672         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5673         ==> ... ==> P
  5674 
  5675     for predicates and
  5676 
  5677       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5678         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5679         ==> ... ==> P
  5680 
  5681     for sets rather than
  5682 
  5683       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5684         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5685         ==> ... ==> P
  5686 
  5687     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5688     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5689     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5690 
  5691   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5692     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5693     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5694 
  5695 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5696 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5697 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5698 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5699 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5700 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5701 
  5702 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5703 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5704 
  5705 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5706 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5707 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5708 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5709 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5710 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5711 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5712 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5713 variable.
  5714 
  5715 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5716 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5717 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5718 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5719   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5720   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5721 
  5722 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5723 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5724 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5725 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5726 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5727 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5728 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5729 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5730 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5731 
  5732 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5733 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5734 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5735 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5736 rat, etc.
  5737 
  5738 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5739 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5740 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5741 
  5742 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5743 
  5744 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5745 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5746 
  5747 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5748 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5749 
  5750 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5751 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5752 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5753 
  5754 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5755 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5757 
  5758 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5759 
  5760 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5761 
  5762 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5763 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5764 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5765 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5766 
  5767 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5768 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5769 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5770 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5771 
  5772 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5773 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5774 algebraic operations.
  5775 
  5776 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5778 
  5779 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5781 
  5782 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5783 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5784 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5785 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5786 adapted.
  5787  
  5788 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5789 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5790 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5791 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5792 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5793 
  5794 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5795 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5796 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5797 
  5798 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5799 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5800 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5801 
  5802 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5803 
  5804 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5805 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5806 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5807   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5808       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5809   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5810   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5811   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5812 
  5813 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5814 
  5815 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5816 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5817 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5818 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5819 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5820 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5821 
  5822 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5823 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5824 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5825 
  5826 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5827 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5828 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5830 
  5831 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5832 
  5833 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5834 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5835 
  5836 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5837 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5838 
  5839 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5840 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5841 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5842 
  5843 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5844 True/False.
  5845 
  5846 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5847 
  5848 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5849 
  5850 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5851 ``rule'' method.
  5852 
  5853 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5854 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5855 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5856 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5857 
  5858 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5859 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5860 
  5861 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5862 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5863 
  5864 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5865 Library.
  5866 
  5867 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5868 
  5869 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5870 as greatest fixed-point.
  5871 
  5872 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5873 association lists.
  5874 
  5875 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5876 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5877 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5878 
  5879 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5880 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5881 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5883 behavior.
  5884 
  5885 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5886 
  5887 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5888 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5889 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5890 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5891 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5892 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5893 
  5894 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5895 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5896 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5897 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5898 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5899 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5900 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5901 
  5902 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5903 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5904 
  5905 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5906 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5907 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5908 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5909 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5910 
  5911 
  5912 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5913 
  5914 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5915 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5916 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5917 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5919 
  5920 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5921 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5922 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5923 
  5924 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5925 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5926 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5927 
  5928 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5929 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5930 
  5931 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5932 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5933 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5935 
  5936   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5937   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5938   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5939   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5940   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5941   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5942   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5943   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5944   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5945   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5946   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5947   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5948   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5949   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5950   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5951 
  5952 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5953 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5954 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5955 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5956 
  5957   approx        <-- capprox
  5958   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5959   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5960   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5961   monad         <-- cmonad
  5962   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5963   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5964   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5965   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5966 
  5967 
  5968 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5969 
  5970 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5971 
  5972 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5974 
  5975 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5976 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5977 
  5978 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5979 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5980 of algebraic structures.
  5981 
  5982 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5983 
  5984 
  5985 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5986 
  5987 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5988 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5989 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5990 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5991 
  5992 
  5993 *** ML ***
  5994 
  5995 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5996 (even on SML/NJ).
  5997 
  5998 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5999 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6000 compile-time.  For example:
  6001 
  6002 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6003 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6004 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6005 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6006 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6007 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6008 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6009 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6010 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6011 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6012 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6013 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6014 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6015 ML {* @{context} *}
  6016 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6017 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6018 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6019 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6020 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6021 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6022 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6023 
  6024 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6025 
  6026 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6027 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6028 
  6029 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6030 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6031 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6032 
  6033 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6034 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6035 
  6036 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6037 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6038 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6039 
  6040 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6041 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6042 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6043 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6044 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6045 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6046 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6047 declarations and definitions.
  6048 
  6049 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6050 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6051 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6052 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6053 
  6054 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6055 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6056 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6057 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6058 
  6059 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6060 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6061 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6062 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6063 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6064 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6065 
  6066 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6067 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6068 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6069 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6070 attributes, methods, etc.
  6071 
  6072 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6073 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6074 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6075 fold_map combinators.
  6076 
  6077 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6078 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6079 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6080 derivation.
  6081 
  6082 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6083 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6084 achieve the old behaviour.
  6085 
  6086 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6087 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6088 statements.
  6089 
  6090 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6091 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6092 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6093 
  6094 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6095 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6096 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6097 
  6098   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6099   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6100   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6101 
  6102 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6103 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6104 
  6105 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6106 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6107 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6108 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6109 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6110 
  6111 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6112 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6113 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6114 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6115 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6116 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6117 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6118 in a locale context).
  6119 
  6120 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6121 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6122 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6123 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6124 
  6125 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6126 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6127 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6128 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6129 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6130 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6131 
  6132 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6133 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6134 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6135 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6136 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6137 
  6138   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6139 
  6140 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6141 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6142 this:
  6143 
  6144   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6145 
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6147 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6148 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6149 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6150 
  6151 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6152 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6153 
  6154 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6155 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6156 
  6157 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6158 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6159 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6160 batch mode.
  6161 
  6162 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6163 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6164 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6165 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6166 
  6167 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6168 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6169 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6170 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6171 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6172 
  6173 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6174 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6175 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6176 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6177 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6178 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6179 
  6180 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6181 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6182 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6184 
  6185 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6186 "Trueprop" etc.
  6187 
  6188 
  6189 *** System ***
  6190 
  6191 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6192 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6193 Isabelle installations.
  6194 
  6195 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6196 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6197 code.
  6198 
  6199 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6200 
  6201 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6202 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6203 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6204 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6205 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6206 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6207 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6208 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6209 Implementation manual.
  6210 
  6211 
  6212 
  6213 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6214 ----------------------------------
  6215 
  6216 *** General ***
  6217 
  6218 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6219 
  6220   theory <name>
  6221   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6222   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6223   begin
  6224 
  6225 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6226 
  6227   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6228 
  6229 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6230 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6231 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6232 
  6233 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6234 relative and absolute paths.
  6235 
  6236 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6237 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6238 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6239 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6240 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified