NEWS
author Gerwin Klein <gerwin.klein@nicta.com.au>
Mon Apr 30 22:18:39 2012 +1000 (2012-04-30)
changeset 47842 bfc08ce7b7b9
parent 47829 0e36cc70cb3e
child 47851 dad2140c2a15
permissions -rw-r--r--
provide [[record_codegen]] option for skipping codegen setup for records
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    12     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    13   - markup for bound variables
    14   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
    15   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    16   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    17     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    18 
    19 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    20 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    21 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    22 
    23 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    24 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    25 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    26 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    27 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    28 
    29   context
    30     fixes x y z :: 'a
    31     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    32   begin
    33 
    34   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    35 
    36   end
    37 
    38   thm my_trans
    39 
    40 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    41 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    42 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    43 
    44 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    45 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    46 
    47 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    48 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    49 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    50 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    51 
    52 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    53 manual.
    54 
    55 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    56 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    57 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    58 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    59 indices of schematic variables.
    60 
    61 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    62 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    63 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    64 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    65 etc. was exploited.
    66 
    67 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
    68 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
    69 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
    70 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
    71 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
    72 of the material of that old tutorial.
    73 
    74 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
    75 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
    76 manual.
    77 
    78 
    79 *** Pure ***
    80 
    81 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
    82 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
    83 legacy since Isabelle2011).
    84 
    85 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    86 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    87 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    88 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    89 
    90 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    91 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    92 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    93 
    94 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    95 
    96     num ~> num_token
    97     xnum ~> xnum_token
    98     xstr ~> str_token
    99 
   100 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   101 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   102 position information via constraints).
   103 
   104 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   105 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   106 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   109 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   110 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   111 undocumented feature.)
   112 
   113 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   114 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   117 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   118 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   121 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   124 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   125 
   126   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   127 
   128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   131 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   132 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   133 
   134   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   135 
   136   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   137     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   138 
   139 
   140 *** HOL ***
   141 
   142 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   143 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   144 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   145 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   146 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   147 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   148 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   149 as far as possible.
   150 
   151 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   152 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   153 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   154 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   155 
   156 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   157 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   158 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   159 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   160 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   161 may require adaptations as follows:
   162 
   163   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   164     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   165 
   166   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   167     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   168     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   169 
   170   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   171     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   172 
   173   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   174     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   175     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   176 
   177   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   178     Redefine using other integer operations.
   179 
   180 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   181 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * Records: code generation can be switched off manually with 
   184 declare [[record_coden = false]]. Default remains true.
   185 
   186 * HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster, simpler, and
   187 more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an
   188 external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for
   189 HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   192 
   193 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   194 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   195 
   196   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   197 
   198 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   199 a list and a nat.
   200 
   201 * New Transfer package:
   202 
   203   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   204     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   205     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   206     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   207     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   208 
   209     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   210     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   211 
   212   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   213     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   214     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   215     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   216     necessary for variables whose types changes, but can be overridden
   217     for specific variables with e.g. 'transfer fixing: x y z'.  The
   218     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   219     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   220 
   221   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   222     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   223     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   224     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   225 
   226   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   227     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   228     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   229     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   230 
   231   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   232     from type nat to type int.
   233 
   234 * New Lifting package:
   235 
   236   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   237     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   238     type.  Example syntax:
   239 
   240     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   241       is List.insert
   242 
   243     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   244     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   245     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   246     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   247     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   248     by the package.
   249 
   250   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   251     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   252     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   253     code generation for each constant.
   254 
   255   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   256     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   257     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   258     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   259     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   260 
   261   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   262     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Word/Word.thy and
   263     Library/Float.thy.
   264 
   265 * Quotient package:
   266 
   267   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   268     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   269 
   270   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   271     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   272 
   273   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   274     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   275     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   278     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   281 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   282 
   283 * Quickcheck:
   284 
   285   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   286     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   287     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   288     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   289     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   290 
   291     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   292     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   293     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   294 
   295     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   296     continues searching for genuine ones.
   297 
   298     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   299     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   300     show genuine counterexamples.
   301 
   302   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   303     value generators for a given type and operations.
   304 
   305     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   306     constructors of that type.
   307 
   308   - Support for multisets.
   309 
   310   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   311 
   312   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   313     conjectures in a locale context.
   314 
   315 * Nitpick:
   316   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   317     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   318 
   319 * Sledgehammer:
   320   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   321     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   322   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   323   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   324     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   325   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   326   - Sped up the minimizer.
   327   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   328   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   329   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   330 
   331 * Metis:
   332   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   333     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   334 
   335 * SMT:
   336   - Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   337 
   338 * Command 'try0':
   339   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   340 
   341 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   342 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   343 
   344 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   345 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   346 default.
   347 
   348 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   349 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   350 of some relation theorems:
   351 
   352   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   353   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   354   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   355   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   356   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   357   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   358 
   359 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   360 
   361 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   362 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   363 
   364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365 
   366 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   367 to match the constant's name:
   368 
   369   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   370   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   371   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   372   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   373   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   374   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   375   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   376   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   377   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   378   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   379   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   380   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   381   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   382   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   383   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   384   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   385   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   386   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   387   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   388   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   389   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   390   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   391   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   392   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   393 
   394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   395 
   396 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   397 and corresponding theorem names:
   398 
   399   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   400 
   401   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   402 
   403   - Renamed theorems:
   404 
   405     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   406     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   407     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   408     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   409     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   410     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   411     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   412     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   413     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   414     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   415     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   416     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   417     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   418     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   419     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   420     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   421     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   422     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   423     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   424     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   425     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   426     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   427     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   428 
   429     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   430 
   431     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   432 
   433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   436 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   437 
   438   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   439   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   440   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   441   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   442   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   443   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   444   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   445   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   446   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   447   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   448   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   449   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   450   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   451   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   452   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   453   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   454   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   455   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   456   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   457   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   458   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   459 
   460 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   461 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   466 
   467   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   468   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   469   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   470   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   471   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   472   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   473   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   474   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   475   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   476   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   477   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   478   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   479   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   480   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   481   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   482   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   483   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   484   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   485 
   486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   489 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   490 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   491 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   492 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   493 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   494 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   496 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   497 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   498 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   499 
   500 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   501 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   502 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   503 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   504 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   505 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   506 
   507 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   508 through option types.
   509 
   510 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   511 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   512 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   513 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   514 one_case.
   515 
   516 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   517 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   518 
   519 * HOL/Library/Set_Algebras.thy: Addition and multiplication on sets
   520 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   521 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   522 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   526 association lists with distinct keys.
   527 
   528 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   529 
   530 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   531 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   532 
   533 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   534 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   535 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   536 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   537 follows:
   538 
   539   Operations:
   540   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   541   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   542   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   543   del -> rbt_del
   544   delete -> rbt_delete
   545   ins -> rbt_ins
   546   insert -> rbt_insert
   547   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   548   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   549   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   550   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   551   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   552   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   553   tree_less -> rbt_less
   554   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   555   union -> rbt_union
   556   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   557   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   558 
   559   Lemmas:
   560   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   561   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   562   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   563   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   564   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   565   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   566   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   567   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   568   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   569   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   570   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   571   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   572   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   573   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   574   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   575   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   576   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   577   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   578   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   579   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   580   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   581   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   582   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   583   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   584   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   585   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   586   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   587   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   588   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   589   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   590   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   591   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   592   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   593   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   594   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   595   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   596   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   597   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   598   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   599   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   600   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   601   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   602   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   603   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   604   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   605   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   606   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   607   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   608   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   609   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   610   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   611   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   612   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   613   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   614   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   615   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   616   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   617   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   618   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   619   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   620   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   621   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   622   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   623   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   624   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   625   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   626   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   627   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   628   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   629   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   630   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   631   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   632   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   633   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   634   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   635   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   636   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   637   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   638   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   639   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   640   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   641   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   642   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   643 
   644 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   645 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   646 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648   Changed Operations:
   649   float_abs -> abs
   650   float_nprt -> nprt
   651   float_pprt -> pprt
   652   pow2 -> use powr
   653   round_down -> float_round_down
   654   round_up -> float_round_up
   655   scale -> exponent
   656 
   657   Removed Operations:
   658   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   659 
   660   Renamed Lemmas:
   661   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   662   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   663   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   664   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   665   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   666   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   667   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   668   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   669   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   670   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   671   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   672   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   673   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   674   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   675   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   676   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   677   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   678   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   679   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   680   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   681   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   682   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   683   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   684   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   685   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   686   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   687   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   688   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   689   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   690   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   691   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   692   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   693   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   694   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   695   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   696   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   697 
   698   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   699   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   700   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   701   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   702   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   703   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   704   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   705   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   706   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   707   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   708 
   709 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   710 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   711 instead.
   712 
   713   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   714   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   715   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   716   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   717   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   718   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   719   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   720   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   721   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   722   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   723   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   724   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   725   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   726   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   727   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   728   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   729   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   730   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   731   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   732   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   733   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   734   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   735   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   736   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   737   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   738   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   739   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   740   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   741   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   742   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   743   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   744   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   745   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   746   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   747   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   748   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   749   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   750   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   751   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   752   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   753   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   754 
   755 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   756 the result of the fact expression.
   757 
   758 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   759 relations.
   760 
   761 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   764 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   765 
   766   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   767   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   768   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   769   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   770   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   771   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   772   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   773   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   774   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   775   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   776   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   777   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   778   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   779   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   780   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   781   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   782   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   783   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   784   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   785   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   786   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   787   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   788   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   789   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   790   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   791   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   792   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   793   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   794   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   795   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   796   zless_le ~> less_le
   797   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   798   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   799   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   800 
   801 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   802 
   803   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   804 
   805 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   806 
   807 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   808 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   809 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   810 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   811 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   812 many standard word identies outright and converts more into first
   813 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   814 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   815 
   816 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   817 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   818 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   819 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurables sets
   820 M.  The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as
   821 the finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   822 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   823 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   824 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   825 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   826 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   827 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   828 
   829   Renamed constants:
   830   measure -> emeasure
   831   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   832   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   833   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   834   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   835 
   836   Removed locales:
   837   completeable_measure_space
   838   finite_measure_space
   839   finite_prob_space
   840   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   841   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   842   finite_sigma_algebra
   843   measure_space
   844   pair_finite_prob_space
   845   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   846   pair_finite_space
   847   pair_sigma_algebra
   848   product_sigma_algebra
   849 
   850   Removed constants:
   851   conditional_space
   852   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   853   image_space
   854   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   855   pair_measure_generator
   856   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   857   subvimage
   858 
   859   Replacement theorems:
   860   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   861   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   862   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   863   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   864   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   865   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   866   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   867   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   868   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   869   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   870   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   871   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   872   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   873   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   874   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   875   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   876   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   877   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   878   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   879   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   880   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   881   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   882   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   883   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   884   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   885   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   886   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   887   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   888   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   889   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   890   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   891   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   892   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   893   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   894   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   895   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   896   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   897   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   898   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   899   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   900   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   901   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   902   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   903   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   904   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
   905   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
   906   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
   907   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
   908   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
   909   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
   910   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
   911   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
   912   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   913   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
   914   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
   915   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
   916   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
   917   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
   918   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   919   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
   920   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
   921   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
   922   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   923   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
   924   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
   925   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
   926   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
   927   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
   928   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
   929   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
   930   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
   931   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
   932   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
   933   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
   934   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   935   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
   936   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
   937   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
   938   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
   939   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   940   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   941   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   942   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   943   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
   944   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
   945   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
   946   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
   947   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
   948   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
   949   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
   950   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
   951   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
   952   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
   953   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
   954   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
   955   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
   956   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
   957   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
   958   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
   959   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
   960   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
   961   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
   962   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
   963   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
   964   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
   965   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
   966   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   967   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
   968   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
   969   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
   970   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
   971   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
   972   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
   973   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
   974   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
   975   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
   976   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
   977   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
   978   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   979   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
   980   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   981   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
   982   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
   983   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
   984   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
   985   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
   986   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
   987   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
   988 
   989 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   990 into Isabelle/HOL.
   991 
   992 
   993 *** FOL ***
   994 
   995 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   996 
   997 
   998 *** ZF ***
   999 
  1000 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1001 analysis.
  1002 
  1003 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1004 
  1005 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1006 
  1007 
  1008 *** ML ***
  1009 
  1010 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1011 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1012 
  1013 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1014 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1015 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1016 
  1017 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1018 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1019 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1020 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1021 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1022 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1023 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1024 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1025 
  1026 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1027 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1028 
  1029 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1030 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1031 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1032 
  1033 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1034 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1035 
  1036 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1037 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1038 context as well.
  1039 
  1040 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1041 
  1042   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1043   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1044   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1045   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1046   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1047   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1048   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1049   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1050   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1051   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1052   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1053   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1054 
  1055 
  1056 *** System ***
  1057 
  1058 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1059 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1060 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1061 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1062 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1063 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1064 the generic user home was intended.
  1065 
  1066 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1067 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1068 
  1069 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1070 (not just JRE).
  1071 
  1072 
  1073 
  1074 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1075 ------------------------------------
  1076 
  1077 *** General ***
  1078 
  1079 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1080 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1081 
  1082   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1083     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1084     files for checking).
  1085 
  1086   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1087     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1088     positions.
  1089 
  1090   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1091     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1092     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1093 
  1094   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1095     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1096     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1097 
  1098   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1099     cores.
  1100 
  1101   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1102     versions (garbage collection).
  1103 
  1104 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1105 including some remaining limitations.
  1106 
  1107 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1108 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1109 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1110 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1111 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113 
  1114 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1115 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1116 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1117 
  1118 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1119 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1120 usedir option -Q.
  1121 
  1122 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1123 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1124 
  1125   long_names   ~> names_long
  1126   short_names  ~> names_short
  1127   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1128 
  1129 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1130 
  1131   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1132 
  1133 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1134 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1135 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1136 
  1137 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1138 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1139 
  1140 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1141   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1142   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1143   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1144     "Classical Reasoner".
  1145 
  1146 
  1147 *** HOL ***
  1148 
  1149 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1150 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1151 
  1152 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1153 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1154 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1155 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1156 class complete_linorder.
  1157 
  1158 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1159 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1160 
  1161 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1162 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1163 
  1164   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1165   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1166   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1167   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1168   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1169   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1170   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1171   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1172   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1173   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1174   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1175 
  1176 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1177 
  1178   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1179   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1180   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1181   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1182   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1183   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1184   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1185   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1186   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1187   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1188   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1189   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1190   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1191   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1192   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1193   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1194 
  1195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1196 
  1197 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1199 
  1200 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1201 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1202 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1203 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1206 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1207 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1211 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1212 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1213 
  1214 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1215 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1216 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1217 
  1218 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1219 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1220 
  1221 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1222 
  1223     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1224     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1225 
  1226 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1227 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1228 
  1229 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1230 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1233 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1234 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1235 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1236 
  1237   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1238   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1239   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1240   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1241   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1242   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1243   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1244 
  1245 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1246 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1247 
  1248   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1249   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1250   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1251   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1252   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1253   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1254   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1255   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1256   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1257   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1258   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1259   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1260   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1261   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1262   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1263   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1264   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1265   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1266   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1267   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1268   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1269   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1270   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1271   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1272   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1273   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1274   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1275   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1276   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1277   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1278   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1279   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1280   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1281   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1282   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1283   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1284   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1285   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1286   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1287   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1288   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1289   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1290   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1291   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1292   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1293   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1294   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1295   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1296   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1297   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1298   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1299   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1300   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1301   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1302   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1303   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1304   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1305   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1306   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1307   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1308   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1309   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1310   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1311   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1312   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1313   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1314   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1315   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1316   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1317   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1318   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1319   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1320   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1321   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1322   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1323   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1324   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1325   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1326   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1327   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1328   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1329   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1330 
  1331 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1332 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1333 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1334 
  1335 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1336 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1337 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1338 
  1339 * Code generation:
  1340 
  1341   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1342     characters in the target language.
  1343 
  1344   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1345     instead.
  1346 
  1347   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1348 
  1349   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1350     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1351 
  1352       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1353 
  1354 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1355 
  1356 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1357 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1358 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1359 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1360 syntax.
  1361 
  1362 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1363 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1364 
  1365 * Nitpick:
  1366   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1367   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1368   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1369     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1370 
  1371 * Sledgehammer:
  1372   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1373   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1374     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1375   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1376     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1377   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1378     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1379   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1380     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1381   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1382     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1383 
  1384 * Metis:
  1385   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1386   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1387     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1388 
  1389 * Command 'try':
  1390   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1391     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1392   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1393     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1394 
  1395 * Quickcheck:
  1396   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1397     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1398   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1399     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1400   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1401     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1402     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1403     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1404   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1405     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1406 
  1407 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1408 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1409 
  1410 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1411 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1412 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1413 
  1414 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1415 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1417 
  1418 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1419 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1422 arithmetic.
  1423 
  1424 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1425 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1426 and lattice type classes.
  1427 
  1428 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1429 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1430 
  1431 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1432 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1433 
  1434 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1435 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1436 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1437 
  1438   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1439   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1440   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1441   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1442 
  1443 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1444 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1445 constants:
  1446 
  1447   type inat   ~> type enat
  1448   Fin         ~> enat
  1449   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1450   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1451   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1452 
  1453 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1454 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1457 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1458 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1459 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1460 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1461 
  1462 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1463 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1464 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1465 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1466 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1467 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1468 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1469 
  1470   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1471   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1472   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1473   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1474 
  1475 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1476 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1477 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1480   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1481   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1482   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1483   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1484   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1485   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1486   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1487   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1488   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1489   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1490   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1491   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1492   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1493   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1494   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1495   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1496   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1497   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1498   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1499   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1500   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1501   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1502   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1503   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1504   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1505   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1506   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1507   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1508   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1509   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1510   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1511   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1512   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1513   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1514   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1515   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1516   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1517   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1518   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1519   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1520   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1521   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1522   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1523   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1524   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1525   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1526   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1527   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1528   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1529   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1530 
  1531 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1532   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1533   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1534   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1535   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1536     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1537 
  1538 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1541   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1542   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1543   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1544   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1545   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1546   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1547   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1548   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1549   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1550   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1551   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1552   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1553   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1554   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1555   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1556   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1557   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1558   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1559   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1560   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1561   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1562   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1563   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1564   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1565 
  1566 
  1567 *** Document preparation ***
  1568 
  1569 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1570 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1571 same.
  1572 
  1573 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1574 result.
  1575 
  1576 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1577 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1578 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1579 
  1580 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1581 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1582 
  1583 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1584 like this:
  1585 
  1586   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1587   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1588 
  1589 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1590 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1591 layouts.
  1592 
  1593 
  1594 *** ML ***
  1595 
  1596 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1597 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1598 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1599 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1600 under external program control.
  1601 
  1602 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1603 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1604 
  1605 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1606 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1607 (better known as Proof General).
  1608 
  1609 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1610 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1611 
  1612 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1613 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1614 
  1615 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1616 (including quotes etc.).
  1617 
  1618 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1619 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1620 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1621 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1622 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1623 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1624 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1625 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1626 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1627 
  1628 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1629 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1630 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1631 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1632 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1633 
  1634 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1635 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1636 
  1637 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1638 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1639 
  1640 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1641 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1642 
  1643 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1644 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1645 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1646 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1647 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1648 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1649 proper Proof.context.
  1650 
  1651 
  1652 *** System ***
  1653 
  1654 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1655 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1656 
  1657 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1658 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1659 
  1660 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1661 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1662 
  1663   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1664   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1665   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1666   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1667   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1668 
  1669 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1670 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 
  1672 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1673 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1674 example:
  1675 
  1676   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1677 
  1678 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1679 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1680 
  1681 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1682 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1683 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1684 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1685 
  1686 
  1687 
  1688 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1689 ----------------------------------
  1690 
  1691 *** General ***
  1692 
  1693 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1694 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1695 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1696 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1697 like this:
  1698 
  1699   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1700 
  1701 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1702 
  1703 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1704 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1705 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1706 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1707 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1708 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1709 
  1710 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1711 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1712 the following package declarations:
  1713 
  1714   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1715   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1716 
  1717 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1718 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1719 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1720 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1721 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1722 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1723 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1724 
  1725 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1726 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1727 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1728 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1729 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1730 
  1731 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1732 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1733 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1734 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1735 
  1736 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1737 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1738 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1739 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1740 
  1741   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1742 
  1743   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1744   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1745   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1746   show_types                    show_types
  1747   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1748   show_consts                   show_consts
  1749   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1750 
  1751   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1752   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1753   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1754 
  1755   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1756   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1757 
  1758   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1759 
  1760   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1761   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1762   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1763   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1764   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1765 
  1766 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1767 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1768 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1769 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1770 
  1771 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1775   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1776 
  1777 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1778 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1779 float_token.
  1780 
  1781 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1782 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1786 DejaVu Sans.
  1787 
  1788 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1789 
  1790 
  1791 *** Pure ***
  1792 
  1793 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1794 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1795 time.
  1796 
  1797 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1798 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1801 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1802 
  1803 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1804 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1805 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1806 command already provided this functionality.
  1807 
  1808 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1809 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1810 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1811 without interpretations.
  1812 
  1813 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1814 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1815 
  1816 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1817 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1818 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1819 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1820 
  1821 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1822 'definition' instead.
  1823 
  1824 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1825 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1826 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1827 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1828 
  1829 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1830 constructors.
  1831 
  1832 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1833 the local file system.
  1834 
  1835 
  1836 *** HOL ***
  1837 
  1838 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1839 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1840 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1841 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1842 
  1843   declare [[coercion f]]
  1844 
  1845 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1846 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1847 
  1848   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1849 
  1850 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1851 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1852 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1853 other theories like this:
  1854 
  1855   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1856 
  1857 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1858 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1859 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1860 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1861 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1862 for examples.
  1863 
  1864 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1865 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1866 
  1867 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1868 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1869 
  1870 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1871 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1872 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1873 
  1874 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1875 functorial structure of types.
  1876 
  1877 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1878 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1879 
  1880 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1881 languages.
  1882 
  1883 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1884 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1888 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889 
  1890 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1891 combinators any longer.
  1892 
  1893 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1894 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1895 
  1896 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1897 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1898 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1899 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1900 
  1901   record 'a foo = ...
  1902   ...
  1903   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1904 
  1905 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1906 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1908 
  1909 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1910 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1911 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1912 
  1913 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1914 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1915 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1916 
  1917 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1918 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1919 
  1920 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1921 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1922 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1923 independently.
  1924 
  1925 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1926 counter example search.
  1927 
  1928 * Sledgehammer:
  1929   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1930     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1931     sledgehammer").
  1932   - Renamed commands:
  1933     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1934     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1935     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1936     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1937   - Renamed options:
  1938     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1939     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1940     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1941     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1942     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1943 
  1944 * Nitpick:
  1945   - Renamed options:
  1946     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1947     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1948     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1949   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1950   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1951   - Added "whack" option.
  1952   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1953   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1954   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1955   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1956     higher cardinalities.
  1957   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1958 
  1959 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1960 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1961 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1962 
  1963     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1964 
  1965 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1966 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1967 
  1968 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1969 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1970 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1971 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1972 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1973 "smt_solver".
  1974 
  1975 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1976 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1977 
  1978 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1979 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1980 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1981 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1982 
  1983 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1984   - Renamed:
  1985     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1986     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1987     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1988   - Added:
  1989     smt_verbose
  1990     smt_random_seed
  1991     smt_datatypes
  1992     smt_infer_triggers
  1993     smt_monomorph_limit
  1994     cvc3_options
  1995     remote_cvc3_options
  1996     remote_z3_options
  1997     yices_options
  1998 
  1999 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2000 header.
  2001 
  2002 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2003 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2004 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2005 
  2006   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2007 
  2008 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2009 
  2010 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2011 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2014 
  2015 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2016 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2017 
  2018 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2019 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2020 
  2021 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2022 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2023 
  2024 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2025 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2026 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2034 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2035 
  2036 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2037 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2038 for congruent(2)).
  2039 
  2040 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2041 
  2042   types
  2043     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2044     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2045 
  2046   constants
  2047     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2048     True ~> HOL.True
  2049     False ~> HOL.False
  2050     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2051     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2052     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2053     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2054     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2055     The ~> HOL.The
  2056     All ~> HOL.All
  2057     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2058     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2059     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2060     If ~> HOL.If
  2061     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2062     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2063     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2064     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2065     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2066     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2067     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2068     op : ~> Set.member
  2069     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2070 
  2071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2072 
  2073 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2074 
  2075     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2076     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2077     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2078     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2079     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2080     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2081     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2082     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2083 
  2084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2085 
  2086 * More stylized fact names:
  2087 
  2088   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2089   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2090   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2091   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2092 
  2093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2096 
  2097   constants
  2098     null ~> List.null
  2099 
  2100   facts
  2101     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2102     null_empty ~> null_def
  2103 
  2104 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2105 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2106 generation.
  2107 
  2108 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2109 Haskell code.
  2110 
  2111 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2112 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2113 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2116 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2119 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2120 
  2121 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2122 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2123 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2124 
  2125 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2126 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130 
  2131 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2132 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2133 referred to by its qualified name.
  2134 
  2135   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2136   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2137   product ~>  Enum.product
  2138 
  2139 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2140 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2144 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2145 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2147 
  2148 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2149 sort_key.
  2150 
  2151 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2153 
  2154 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2155 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2156 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2157 
  2158   types
  2159     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2160               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2161               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2162         (depends on your needs)
  2163 
  2164   constants
  2165      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2166      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2167      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2168 
  2169 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2170 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2171 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2172 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173 
  2174 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2175 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2176 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2177 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2178 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2184 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2185 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2186 
  2187 
  2188 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2189 
  2190 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2191 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2192 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2193 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2194 compatibility.
  2195 
  2196 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2197 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2198 
  2199 
  2200 *** HOLCF ***
  2201 
  2202 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2203 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2204 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2208 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2209 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2210 
  2211   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2212   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2213   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2214 
  2215 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2216 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2217 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2220 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2221 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2222 domain definition now works:
  2223 
  2224   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2225 
  2226 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2227 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2228 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2229 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2230 
  2231   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2232     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2233 
  2234   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2235 
  2236 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2237 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2238 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2239 
  2240 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2241 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2244 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2245 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2246 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2247 
  2248 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2249 
  2250 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2258 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2259 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2260 
  2261 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2262 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2263 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2266 still supported as an input translation.
  2267 
  2268 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2269 
  2270   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2271   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2272   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2273   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2274   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2275   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2276   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2277 
  2278 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2279 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2282   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2283   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2284   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2285   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2286   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2287 
  2288 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2289 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2292 
  2293   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2294   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2295   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2296   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2297 
  2298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2299 
  2300 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2301 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2304 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2307   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2308   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2309   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2310   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2311   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2312   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2313   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2314   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2315   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2316   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2317   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2318   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2319   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2320   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2321   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2322   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2323   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2324   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2325   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2326 
  2327 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2328 
  2329   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2330   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2331   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2332   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2333   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2334   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2335   box_less             ~> box_below
  2336   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2337   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2338   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2339   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2340   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2341   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2342   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2343   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2344   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2345   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2346   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2347   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2348   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2349   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2350   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2351   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2352   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2353   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2354   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2355   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2356   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2357   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2358   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2359   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2360   up_less              ~> up_below
  2361   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2362   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2363   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2364   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2365   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2366   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2367   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2368   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2369   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2370   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2371   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2372   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2373   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2374 
  2375 
  2376 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2377 
  2378 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2379 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381 
  2382 *** ML ***
  2383 
  2384 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2385 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2386 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2387 
  2388 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2389 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2390 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2391 
  2392 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2393 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2394 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2395 
  2396 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2397 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2398 
  2399 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2400 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2401 
  2402 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2403 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2404 
  2405 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2406 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2407 
  2408 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2409 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2410 almost all situations.
  2411 
  2412 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2413 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2414 Isabelle/ML.
  2415 
  2416 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2417 meaning.
  2418 
  2419 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2420 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2421 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2422 
  2423 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2424 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2425 
  2426 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2427 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2428 
  2429 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2430 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2431 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2432 
  2433 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2434 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2435 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2436 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2437 configuration options.
  2438 
  2439 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2440 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2441 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2442 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2443 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2444 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2445 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2446 
  2447 
  2448 
  2449 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2450 ---------------------------------
  2451 
  2452 *** General ***
  2453 
  2454 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2455 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2456 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2457 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2458 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2459 their full internal name.
  2460 
  2461 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2462 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2463 Some hints on upgrading:
  2464 
  2465   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2466     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2467     which are independent of this issue.
  2468 
  2469   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2470     provides the following special forms:
  2471 
  2472       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2473       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2474       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2475 
  2476     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2477     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2478     extra variables".
  2479 
  2480     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2481     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2482     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2483     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2484     "logic".
  2485 
  2486   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2487     antiquotations:
  2488 
  2489       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2490       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2491       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2492       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2493 
  2494   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2495     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2496     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2497     antiquotations.
  2498 
  2499 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2500 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2501 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2502 diagnose syntax problems.
  2503 
  2504 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2505 
  2506 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2507 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2508 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2509 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2510 
  2511 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2512 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2513 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2514 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2517 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2518 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2519 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2520 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2523 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2524 
  2525 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2526 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2527 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2528 
  2529   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2530 
  2531 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2532 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2533 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2534 
  2535 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2536 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2540 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2541 
  2542 
  2543 *** Pure ***
  2544 
  2545 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2546 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2547 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2548 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2549 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2550 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2551 inspect proof terms.
  2552 
  2553 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2554 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2555 are added internally.  For example:
  2556 
  2557   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2558 
  2559 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2560 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2561 
  2562 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2565 'class' instead.
  2566 
  2567 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2568 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2572 invariants.
  2573 
  2574 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2575 user space functionality any longer.
  2576 
  2577 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2578 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2580 
  2581 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2582 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2583 
  2584 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2585 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2586 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2587 
  2588 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2589 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2590 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2591 
  2592 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2593 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 
  2596 *** HOL ***
  2597 
  2598 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2599 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2600 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2601 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2602 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2603 
  2604 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2605 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2606 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2607 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2608 
  2609   fun
  2610     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2611   where
  2612     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2613 
  2614   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2615     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2616 
  2617   quotient_definition
  2618     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2619 
  2620 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2621 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2622 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2623 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2624 
  2625 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2626 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2627 
  2628 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2629 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2630 
  2631 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2633 
  2634 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2635 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2636 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2637 
  2638 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2639 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2646 
  2647 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2648 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2651 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2652 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2653 
  2654   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2655   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2656   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2657   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2658   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2659   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2660   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2661   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2662   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2663   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2664   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2665   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2666   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2667   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2668   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2669   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2670   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2671   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2672   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2673   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2674   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2675   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2676   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2677   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2678   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2679   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2680   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2681   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2682   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2683   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2684 
  2685 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2686 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2687 
  2688 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2689 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2690 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2691 
  2692 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2693 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2694 
  2695 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2696 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2699 
  2700 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2701 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2704 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2709 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2710 
  2711 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2712 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2713 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2714 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2717   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2718   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2719   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2723 lattices):
  2724 
  2725     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2726     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2727 
  2728     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2729 
  2730     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2731     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2732     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2733     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2734     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2735     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2736     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2737     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2738     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2739     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2740     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2741     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2742     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2743 
  2744     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2745     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2746     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2747     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2748     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2749     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2750     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2751     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2752     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2753     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2754     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2755     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2756     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2757     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2758     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2759     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2760     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2761     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2762 
  2763   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2764   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2765 
  2766     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2767     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2768     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2769     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2770     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2771 
  2772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774 * Refined field classes:
  2775   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2776     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2777     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2778   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2782   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2783   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2784   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2785     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2786   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2787     equal_neg_zero.
  2788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2789 
  2790 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2791 sets to lattices:
  2792 
  2793   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2794   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2795   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2796   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2797   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2798   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2799   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2800   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2801   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2802   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2803 
  2804 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2805 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2806 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2807 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2808 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2809 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2812 multiset order:
  2813 
  2814   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2815     <= and <;
  2816   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2817     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2818     multiset_order;
  2819   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2820     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2821     generation;
  2822   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2823     if needed.
  2824 
  2825 Renamed:
  2826 
  2827   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2828   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2829   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2830 
  2831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2834 
  2835 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2836 
  2837 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2838 
  2839 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2840 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2841 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843   Constants:
  2844   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2845   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2846   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2847   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2848   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2849   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2850   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2851   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2852   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2853   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2854   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2855   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2856   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2857 
  2858   Lemmas:
  2859   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2860   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2861   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2862   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2863   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2864   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2865   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2866   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2867   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2868   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2869   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2870   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2871   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2872 
  2873 * Sledgehammer:
  2874   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2875     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2876     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2877     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2878     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2879     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2880     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2882   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2883     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2884   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2885     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2886     is still experimental.)
  2887   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2888     full-typed mode.
  2889   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2890 
  2891 * Nitpick:
  2892   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2893   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2894   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2895     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2896   - Added support for quotient types.
  2897   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2898     constructs.
  2899   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2900     "termination" proofs).
  2901   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2902   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2903   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2904   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2905     record getters.
  2906   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2907   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2908   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2909   - Added "atoms" option.
  2910   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2911     problems.
  2912   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2913     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2914     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2916     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2917   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2920   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2921   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2922   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2923   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2924   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2925   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2926   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2927   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2928   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 
  2931 *** HOLCF ***
  2932 
  2933 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2934 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2935 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2938 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2939 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2940 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2943 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2944 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2945 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2946 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2949 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2950 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2951 
  2952 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2953 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2954 
  2955   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2956   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2957 
  2958 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2959 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2962   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2963   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2964   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2965   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2966 
  2967 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2968 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2971   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2972   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2973 
  2974 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2975 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2979 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2980 
  2981 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2982 
  2983 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2984 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 
  2987 *** ML ***
  2988 
  2989 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2990 
  2991     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2992     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2993 
  2994     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2995     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2996     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2997     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2998 
  2999     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3000     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3001     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3002 
  3003 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3004 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3005 
  3006 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3007 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3008 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3009 
  3010 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3011 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3012 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3013 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3014 
  3015 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3016 the context or even global references.
  3017 
  3018 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3019 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3020 
  3021 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3022 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3023 
  3024   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3025   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3026   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3027   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3028   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3029   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3030   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3031   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3032   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3033   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3034 
  3035 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3036 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3037 
  3038 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3039 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3040 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3041 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3042 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3043 
  3044 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3045 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3046 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3047 Theory_Data version.
  3048 
  3049 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3050 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3051 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3052 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3053 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3054 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3055 explicitly in rare situations.
  3056 
  3057 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3058 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3062 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3065 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3066 quite rare).
  3067 
  3068 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3069 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3072 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3073 terms.
  3074 
  3075 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3076 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3077 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3078 
  3079 
  3080 *** System ***
  3081 
  3082 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3083 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3084 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3085 
  3086 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3087 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3088 respectively.
  3089 
  3090 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3091 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3092 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3093 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3094 
  3095   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3096 
  3097 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3098 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3099 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3100 component.
  3101 
  3102 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3103 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3104 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3105 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3106 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3107 the user for manual installation.
  3108 
  3109 
  3110 
  3111 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3112 -------------------------------------
  3113 
  3114 *** General ***
  3115 
  3116 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3117 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3118 
  3119 
  3120 *** Pure ***
  3121 
  3122 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3123 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3124 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3125 
  3126 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3127 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3128 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3129 
  3130 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3131 interpretation.
  3132 
  3133 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3134 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3135 
  3136 
  3137 *** Document preparation ***
  3138 
  3139 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3140 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3141 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3142 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3143 
  3144 
  3145 *** HOL ***
  3146 
  3147 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3148 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3149 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3150 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3151 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3152 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3153 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3154 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3155 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3156 
  3157 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3158 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3159 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3160 
  3161 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3162 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3163 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3164 
  3165 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3166 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3167 
  3168 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3169 
  3170 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3171 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3172 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3173 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3174 
  3175 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3176 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3177 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3178 "mirabelle" utility.
  3179 
  3180 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3181 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3182 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3183 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3184 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3185 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3186 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3187 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3188 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3189 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3190 
  3191 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3192 procedure only.
  3193 
  3194 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3195 
  3196 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3197 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3198 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3199 that fail later.
  3200 
  3201 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3202 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3203 
  3204 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3205 the same method as the approximation method.
  3206 
  3207 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3208 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3209 series expansion.
  3210 
  3211 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3212 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3213 
  3214 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3215 reals.
  3216 
  3217 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3218 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3219 
  3220 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3221 fixpoint theorem.
  3222 
  3223 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3224   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3225     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3226   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3227     accordingly
  3228   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3229     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3230   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3231     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3232 
  3233 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3234 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3235 lattice.
  3236 
  3237 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3238 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3239 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3240 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3241 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3242 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3246   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3247     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3248   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3249     le_inf_iff
  3250   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3251     sup_aci)
  3252   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3253   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3254   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3255     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3256     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3257     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3258     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3259     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3260     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3261     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3262     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3263     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3264     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3265   - authentic syntax for
  3266     Set.Pow
  3267     Set.image
  3268   - mere abbreviations:
  3269     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3270     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3271     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3272     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3273     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3274     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3275     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3276     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3277   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3278 
  3279 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3280 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3281 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3282 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3283 
  3284 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3285 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3286 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3289 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3292 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3293 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3294 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3297 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3298 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3299 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3300 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3301 
  3302 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3303 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305 
  3306 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3307 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3310 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3311 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3312 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3313 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3314 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3315 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3319     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3320     code_post       replaces    code post
  3321     etc.
  3322   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3323 
  3324 * Renamed methods:
  3325     sizechange -> size_change
  3326     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3327   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3330 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3331 
  3332 * Renamed theorems:
  3333     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3334     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3335     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3336     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3337     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3338   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 
  3347 *** HOLCF ***
  3348 
  3349 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3350 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3351 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3352 
  3353 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3354 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3355 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3356 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3357 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3358 
  3359 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3360 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3361 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3362 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3363 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3364 
  3365 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3366 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3367 constructor are pre-configured.
  3368 
  3369 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3370 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3371 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3372 
  3373 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3374 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3375 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3376 as well.)
  3377 
  3378 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3379 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3380 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3381 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3382 examples.
  3383 
  3384 
  3385 *** ML ***
  3386 
  3387 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3388 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3389 
  3390 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3391 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3392 position, logical grouping etc.
  3393 
  3394 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3395 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3396 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3397 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3398 
  3399 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3400 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3401 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3402 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3403 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3404 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3405 
  3406 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3407 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3408 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3409 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3410 experiments with references.
  3411 
  3412 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3413 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3414 
  3415 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3416 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3417 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3418 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3419 
  3420 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3421 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3422 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3423 
  3424 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3425 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3426 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3434 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3435 
  3436 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3437 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3438 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3439 
  3440 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3441 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3442 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3445 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3446 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3450 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3451 instead of global theory.
  3452 
  3453 
  3454 *** System ***
  3455 
  3456 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3457 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3458 usedir option -q.
  3459 
  3460 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3461 also the system manual.
  3462 
  3463 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3464 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3465 
  3466 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3467 this is always enabled.
  3468 
  3469 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3470 
  3471 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3472 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3473 currently supported on Linux only.
  3474 
  3475 
  3476 
  3477 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3478 --------------------------------
  3479 
  3480 *** General ***
  3481 
  3482 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3483 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3484 
  3485   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3486     "isatool."
  3487 
  3488   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3489     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3490 
  3491   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3492     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3493 
  3494 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3495 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3496 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3497 
  3498 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3499 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3500 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3501 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3502 via "isabelle emacs".
  3503 
  3504 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3505 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3506 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3507 
  3508 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3509 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3510 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3511 
  3512 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3513 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3514 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3515 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3516 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3517 
  3518 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3519 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3520 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3521 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3522 
  3523 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3524 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3525 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3526 
  3527 
  3528 *** Pure ***
  3529 
  3530 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3531 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3532 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3533 
  3534 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3535 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3536 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3537 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3538 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3539 
  3540 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3541 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3542 useful in locale declarations.
  3543 
  3544 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3545 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3546 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3547 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3548 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3549 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3550 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3551 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3552 no longer generated.
  3553 
  3554 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3555 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3556 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3557 
  3558 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3559 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3560 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3561 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3562 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3563 
  3564 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3566 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3567 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3568 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3569 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3570 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3571 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3572 
  3573 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3574 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3575 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3576 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3577 
  3578 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3581 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3582 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3583 
  3584 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3585 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3586 
  3587 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3588 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3589 in HOL, write
  3590 
  3591     class foo = ...
  3592 
  3593 instead of
  3594 
  3595     class foo = type + ...
  3596 
  3597 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3598 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3601 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3602 
  3603 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3604 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3605 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3606 
  3607 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3608 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3609 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3610 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3611 directly in regular applications.
  3612 
  3613 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3614 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3615 
  3616 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3617 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3618 
  3619 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3620 theory context.
  3621 
  3622 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3623 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3626 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3627 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3628 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3629 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3630 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3631 
  3632   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3633 
  3634 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3635 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3636 normalization.
  3637 
  3638 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3639 addressing etc.
  3640 
  3641 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3642 
  3643   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3644   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3645 
  3646 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3647 
  3648   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3649      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3650      parts of the code generator framework).
  3651 
  3652   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3653      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3654      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3655 
  3656 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3659 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3662 patterns, e.g.
  3663 
  3664     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3665 
  3666 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3667 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3668 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3669 hyphen:
  3670 
  3671     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3672 
  3673 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3674 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3675 
  3676 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3677 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3678 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3679 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3680 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3681 higher-order unification.
  3682 
  3683 
  3684 *** Document preparation ***
  3685 
  3686 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3687 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3688 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3689 
  3690 
  3691 *** HOL ***
  3692 
  3693 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3694 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3695 
  3696 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3697 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3698 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3699 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3700 Main, as before.
  3701 
  3702 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3703 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3704 
  3705 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3706 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3707 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3708 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3709 
  3710 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3711 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3712 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3713 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3714 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3715 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3716 
  3717 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3718 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3719 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3720 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3721 
  3722 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3723 menu.
  3724 
  3725 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3726 (contains the empty clause).
  3727 
  3728 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3729 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3730 
  3731 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3732 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3733 
  3734 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3735 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3736 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3737 
  3738 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3739 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3740 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3741 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3742 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3743 
  3744 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3745 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3746 
  3747 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3748 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3749 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3750 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3751 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3752 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3753 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3754 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3755 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3756 
  3757 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3758 
  3759 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3760 
  3761 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3762 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3765 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3766 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3767 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3768 
  3769 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3770 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3771 
  3772     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3773     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3774     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3775     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3776     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3777     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3778     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3779     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3780 
  3781 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3782 theory Set.
  3783 
  3784 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3785 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3786 
  3787 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3788 
  3789 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3790 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3791 
  3792 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3793 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3794 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3795 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3796 allowed. For examples see
  3797 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3798 
  3799 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3800 
  3801 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3805 structure:
  3806 
  3807     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3808     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3809     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3810     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3811     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3812     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3813     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3814     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3815     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3816     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3817     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3818     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3819     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3820     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3821     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3822     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3823     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3824     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3825     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3826     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3827     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3828     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3829     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3830     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3831     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3832     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3833     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3834     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3835     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3836     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3837     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3838     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3839     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3840 
  3841     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3842     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3843     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3844     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3845     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3846     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3847     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3848     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3849     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3850     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3851 
  3852     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3853     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3854     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3855     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3856     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3857     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3858 
  3859 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3860 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3861 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3862 
  3863 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3864 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3865 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3866 
  3867 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3868 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3871 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3872 
  3873 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3874 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3875 proofs, e.g.
  3876 
  3877   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3878 
  3879 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3880 
  3881 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3882 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3883 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3886 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3890 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3891 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3895 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3896 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3897 preorder_class.*.
  3898 
  3899 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3900 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3901 
  3902 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3903 
  3904   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3905 
  3906 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3907 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3908 fold_image.
  3909 
  3910 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3911 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3912 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3913 the former will disappear at some point.
  3914 
  3915 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3916 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3917 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3918 
  3919 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3920 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3921 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3922 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3923 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3924 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3925 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3926 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3927 
  3928 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3929 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3930 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3931 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3932 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3933 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3934 
  3935     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3936     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3937     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3938     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3939     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3940     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3941     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3942 
  3943 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3944 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3945 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3946 
  3947 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3948 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3949 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3950 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3951 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3952 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3953 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3954 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3955 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3956 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3957 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3958 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3959 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3960 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3961 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3962 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3963 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3964 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3965 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3966 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3967 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3968 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3969 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3970 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3971 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3972 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3973 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3974 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3975 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3976 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3977 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3978 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3979 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3980 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3981 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3982 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3983 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3984 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3985 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3986 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3987 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3988 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3989 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3990 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3991 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3992 
  3993 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994 
  3995 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3996 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3997 
  3998 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3999 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4000 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4001 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4002 
  4003 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4004 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4005 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4006 theory RealVector.
  4007 
  4008 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4009 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4010 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4011 and inner products are included.
  4012 
  4013 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4014 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4015 supported.
  4016 
  4017 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4018 first diagonalization argument.
  4019 
  4020 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4021 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4022 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4023 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4024 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4025 
  4026     hide (open) const gcd
  4027     abbreviation gcd where
  4028       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4029     notation (output)
  4030       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4031 
  4032 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4033 
  4034 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4035 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4036 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4037 
  4038 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4039 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4040 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4041 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4042 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4043 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4044 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4045 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4046 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4047 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4048 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4049 cases.
  4050 
  4051 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4052 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4053 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4054 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4055 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4056 
  4057     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4058     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4059     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4060     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4061     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4062 
  4063 
  4064 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4065 
  4066 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4067 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4068 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4069 
  4070 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4071 
  4072 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4073 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4074 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4075 
  4076 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4077 
  4078 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4079 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4080 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4081 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4082 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4083 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4084 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4085 
  4086 
  4087 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4088 
  4089 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4090 
  4091 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4092 theory targets.
  4093 
  4094 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4095 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4096 'inductive' etc.
  4097 
  4098 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4099 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4100 
  4101 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4102 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4103 
  4104 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4105 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4106 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4107 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4108 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4109 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4110 the algorithm W:
  4111 
  4112  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4113  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4114          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4115 
  4116 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4117 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4118 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4119 
  4120 
  4121 *** HOLCF ***
  4122 
  4123 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4124 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4125 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4126 
  4127 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4128 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4129 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4130 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4131 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4132 
  4133 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4134 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4135 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 
  4138 *** ZF ***
  4139 
  4140 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4141 
  4142 
  4143 *** ML ***
  4144 
  4145 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4146 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4147 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4148 5.2.1!
  4149 
  4150 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4151 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4152 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4153 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4154 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4155 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4156 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4157 
  4158 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4159 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4160 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4161 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4162 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4163 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4164 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4165 
  4166 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4167 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4168 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4169 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4170 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4171 
  4172 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4173 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4174 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4175 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4176 Method.add_method.
  4177 
  4178 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4179 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4180 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4181 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4182 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4183 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4184 
  4185 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4186 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4187 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4188 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4189 examples.
  4190 
  4191 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4192 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4193 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4194 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4195 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4196 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4197 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4198 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4199 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4200 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4201 
  4202 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4203 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4204 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4205 
  4206 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4207 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4208 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4209 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4210 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4211 resort for legacy applications.
  4212 
  4213 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4214 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4215 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4216 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4217 explicit runtime argument.
  4218 
  4219 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4220 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4221 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4222 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4223 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4224 
  4225 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4226 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4227 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4228 theory state.
  4229 
  4230 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4231 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4232 
  4233   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4234   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4235   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4236   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4237   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4238   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4239   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4240   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4241   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4242   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4243 
  4244 
  4245 *** System ***
  4246 
  4247 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4248 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4249 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4250 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4251 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4252 
  4253 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4254 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4255 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4256 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4257 
  4258 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4259 
  4260 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4261 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4262 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4263 prover operations.
  4264 
  4265 
  4266 
  4267 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4268 -------------------------------
  4269 
  4270 *** General ***
  4271 
  4272 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4273 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4274 
  4275 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4276 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4277 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4278 provides a proper context already.
  4279 
  4280 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4281 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4282 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4283 
  4284 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4285 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4286 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4287 swap theory imports.
  4288 
  4289 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4290 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4291 
  4292 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4293 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4294 white space without escapes.
  4295 
  4296 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4297 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4298 "foo_bar".
  4299 
  4300 
  4301 *** Pure ***
  4302 
  4303 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4304 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4305 
  4306 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4307 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4308 
  4309 (1) unused_thms
  4310      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4311 
  4312 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4313      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4314      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4315 
  4316 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4317      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4318      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4319      their ancestors.
  4320 
  4321 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4322 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4323 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4324 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4325 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4326 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4327 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4328 
  4329 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4330 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4331 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4332 
  4333 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4334 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4335 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4336 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4337 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4338 
  4339 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4340 
  4341 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4342 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4343 update of theories within ML code.
  4344 
  4345 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4346 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4347 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4348 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4349 
  4350 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4351 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4352 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4354 
  4355 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4356 
  4357 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4358 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4359 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4360 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4361 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4362 
  4363 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4364 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4365 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4366 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4367 situations.
  4368 
  4369 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4370 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4371 proof text.
  4372 
  4373 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4374 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4375 
  4376 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4377 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4378 predicates.
  4379 
  4380 
  4381 *** Document preparation ***
  4382 
  4383 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4384 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4385 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4386 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4387 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4388 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4389 
  4390 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4391 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4392 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4393 
  4394 
  4395 *** HOL ***
  4396 
  4397 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4398 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4399 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4400 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4401 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4402 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4403 
  4404 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4405 with multithreading.
  4406 
  4407 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4408 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4409 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4410 
  4411 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4412 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4413 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4414 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4417 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4418 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4419 and makes them available separately.  See
  4420 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4421 
  4422 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4423 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4424 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4425 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4426 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4427 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4428 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4429 the declared rules.
  4430 
  4431 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4432 
  4433   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4434 
  4435 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4436 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4437 
  4438 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4439 
  4440   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4441 
  4442   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4443     definitions on => and bool.
  4444 
  4445   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4446     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4447     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4448 
  4449       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4450       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4451       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4452       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4453       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4454       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4455       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4456       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4457 
  4458   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4459     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4460     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4461 
  4462   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4463     The proof pattern
  4464 
  4465       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4466       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4467 
  4468     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4469     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4470 
  4471       have "EX S. P S"
  4472       proof
  4473         show "P S" <...>
  4474       qed
  4475 
  4476   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4477     The proof pattern
  4478 
  4479       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4480       also have "S = T" <...>
  4481       finally have "P T" .
  4482 
  4483     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4484     must be replaced by something like
  4485 
  4486       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4487       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4488       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4489 
  4490   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4491     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4492 
  4493       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4494 
  4495     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4496     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4497     type of the form
  4498 
  4499       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4500 
  4501     rather than
  4502 
  4503       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4504 
  4505 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4506 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4507 
  4508 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4511 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4513 
  4514 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4515 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4516 
  4517 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4518 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4519 
  4520 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4521 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4522 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4523 
  4524 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4525 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4526 
  4527   less_trans
  4528   less_linear
  4529   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4530   le_less_trans
  4531   less_le_trans
  4532   less_not_sym
  4533   less_asym
  4534 
  4535 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4536 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4537 and different variable names.
  4538 
  4539 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4540 
  4541 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4542 finite maps.
  4543 
  4544 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4545 
  4546 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4547 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4548 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4549 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4550 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4551 accordingly.
  4552 
  4553 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4554 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4555 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4556 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4557 
  4558 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4559 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4560 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4561 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4562 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4564 
  4565 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4566 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4567 
  4568 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4569 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4570 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4571 
  4572 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4576 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4577 
  4578 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4579 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4582 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4585 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4589 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4592 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4593 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4594 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4595 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4596 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4599 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4600 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4601 
  4602 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4603 
  4604 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4605 
  4606 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4607 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4608 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4609 
  4610 
  4611 *** ZF ***
  4612 
  4613 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4614 same session:
  4615 
  4616   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4617   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4618   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4619   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4620   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4621   List      -> List_ZF
  4622   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4623 
  4624 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4625 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4626 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4627 
  4628 
  4629 *** ML ***
  4630 
  4631 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4632 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4633 
  4634 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4635 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4636 
  4637 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4638 
  4639 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4640 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4641 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4642 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4643 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4646 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4647 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4648 
  4649 
  4650 *** System ***
  4651 
  4652 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4653 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4654 
  4655 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4656 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4657 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4658 
  4659 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4660 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4661 
  4662 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4663 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4664 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4665 
  4666 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4667 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4668 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4669 
  4670 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4671 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4672 
  4673 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4674 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4675 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4676 script.
  4677 
  4678 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4679 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4680 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4681 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4682 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4683 
  4684 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4685 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4686 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4687 
  4688 
  4689 
  4690 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4691 -----------------------------------
  4692 
  4693 *** General ***
  4694 
  4695 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4696 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4697 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4698 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4699 
  4700 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4701 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4702 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4705 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4706 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4707 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4710 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4711 quotes.
  4712 
  4713 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4714 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4715 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4716 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4717 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4718 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4719 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4720 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4721 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4722 
  4723 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4724 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4725 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4726 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4727 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4728 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4729 
  4730 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4731 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4732 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4733 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4734 
  4735 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4736 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4737 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4738 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4739 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4740 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4741 
  4742 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4743 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4744 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4745 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4746 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4747 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4748 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4749 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4750 
  4751 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4752 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4753 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4754 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4755 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4756 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4757 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4758 
  4759 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4760 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4761 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4762 
  4763 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4764 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4765 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4766 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4767 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4768 limit is imposed.
  4769 
  4770 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4771 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4772 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4773 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4774 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4775 and scalability.
  4776 
  4777 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4778 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4779 
  4780 
  4781 *** Document preparation ***
  4782 
  4783 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4784 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4785 current context.
  4786 
  4787 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4788 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4789 
  4790 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4791 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4792 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4793 
  4794 
  4795 *** Pure ***
  4796 
  4797 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4798 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4799 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4800 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4801 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4802 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4803 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4804 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4805 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4806 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4807 
  4808 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4809 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4810 sketch:
  4811 
  4812     internal compilation:
  4813         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4814     writing SML code to a file:
  4815         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4816     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4817         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4818     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4819         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4820 
  4821     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4822         method ``eval''
  4823 
  4824 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4825 
  4826 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4827 
  4828     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4829     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4830     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4831     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4832 
  4833 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4834 
  4835     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4836       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4837 
  4838     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4839       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4840 
  4841     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4842       {(target)}+
  4843         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4844 
  4845     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4846       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4847         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4848 
  4849 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4850 
  4851 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4852 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4853 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4854 codegen".
  4855 
  4856 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4857 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4858 annotations).
  4859 
  4860 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4861 syntax.
  4862 
  4863 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4864 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4865 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4866 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4867 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4868 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4869 
  4870 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4871 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4872 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4873 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4874 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4875 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4876 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4877 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4878 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4879 equations, see section "definitions".
  4880 
  4881 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4882 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4883 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4884 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4885 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4886 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4887 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4888 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4889 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4890 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4891 
  4892 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4893 configuration options:
  4894 
  4895   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4896   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4897   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4898   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4899   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4900   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4901   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4902   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4903   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4904 
  4905 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4906 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4907 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4908 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4909 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4910 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4911 order.
  4912 
  4913 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4914 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4915 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4916 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4917 context encountered later on.
  4918 
  4919 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4920 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4921 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4922 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4923 
  4924 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4925 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4926 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4927 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4928 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4929 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4930 
  4931 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4932 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4933 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4934 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4935 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4936 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4937 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4938 more permissive.
  4939 
  4940 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4941 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4942 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4943 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4944 maintainability of proof texts.
  4945 
  4946 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4947 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4948 
  4949   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4950   then guess x and y by clarify
  4951 
  4952 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4953 proof tools being involved here.
  4954 
  4955 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4956 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4957 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4958 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4959 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4960 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4961 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4962 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4963 
  4964 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4965 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4966 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4967 
  4968   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4969   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4970   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4971   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4972 
  4973 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4974 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4975 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4976 
  4977 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4978 both named and unnamed ones.
  4979 
  4980 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4981 
  4982   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4983 
  4984 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4985 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4986 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4987 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4988 
  4989 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4990 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4991 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4992 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4993 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4994 
  4995 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4996 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4997 
  4998 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4999 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5000 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5001 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5002 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5003 originally first one.
  5004 
  5005 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5006 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5007 expected.
  5008 
  5009 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5010 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5011 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5012 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5013 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5014 
  5015   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5016     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5017     obtains x where "P x"
  5018 
  5019   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5020     assumes "A & B"
  5021     obtains A and B
  5022 
  5023   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5024     assumes "A | B"
  5025     obtains
  5026       A
  5027     | B
  5028 
  5029 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5030 explicitly:
  5031 
  5032   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5033     obtains "~ thesis"
  5034 
  5035   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5036     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5037 
  5038 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5039 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5040 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5041 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5042 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5043 case_names).
  5044 
  5045 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5046 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5047 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5048 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5049 
  5050 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5051 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5052 top-level lemma.
  5053 
  5054 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5055 introduction rule (default "that").
  5056 
  5057 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5058 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5059 to occur.
  5060 
  5061 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5062 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5063 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5064 representations independently of name spaces.
  5065 
  5066 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5067 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5068 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5069 
  5070 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5071 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5072 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5073 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5074 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5075 current context.
  5076 
  5077 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5078 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5079 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5080 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5081 
  5082   axiomatization
  5083     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5084     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5085 
  5086   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5087   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5088 
  5089   abbreviation
  5090     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5091     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5092 
  5093 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5094 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5095 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5096 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5097 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5098 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5099 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5100 
  5101 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5102 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5103 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5104 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5105 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5106 
  5107 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5108 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5109 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5110 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5111 
  5112 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5113 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5114 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5115 
  5116   definition "K x _ = x"
  5117 
  5118   inductive conj for A B
  5119   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5120 
  5121 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5122 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5123 abbreviations on output.
  5124 
  5125 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5126 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5127 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5128 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5129 
  5130 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5131 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5132 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5133 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5134 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5135 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5136 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5137 
  5138 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5139 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5140 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5141 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5142 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5143 
  5144 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5145 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5146 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5147 
  5148 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5149 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5150 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5151 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5152 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5153 
  5154   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5155     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5156 
  5157 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5158 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5159 partial_order.
  5160 
  5161 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5162 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5163 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5164 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5165 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5166 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5167 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5168 examples.
  5169 
  5170 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5171 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5172 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5173 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5174 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5175 
  5176 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5177 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5178 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5179 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5180 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5181 
  5182   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5183   (induct set: foo bar)
  5184   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5185   (induct type: foo bar)
  5186 
  5187 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5188 new format.
  5189 
  5190 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5191 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5192 
  5193 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5194 considered a legacy feature.
  5195 
  5196 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5197 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5198 
  5199 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5200 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5201 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5202 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5203   
  5204 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5205 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5206 manipulating the claset.
  5207 
  5208 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5209 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5210 least one premise.
  5211 
  5212 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5213 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5214 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5215 rule steps.
  5216 
  5217 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5218 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5219 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5220 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5221 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5222 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5223 
  5224 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5225 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5226 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5227 
  5228 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5229 the graph browser tool.
  5230 
  5231 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5232 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5233 
  5234 
  5235 *** HOL ***
  5236 
  5237 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5238 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5239 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5240 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5241 multi-threading.
  5242   
  5243 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5244 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5245 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5246 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5247 work with multi-threading.
  5248 
  5249 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5250 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5251 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5252 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5253 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5254 
  5255 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5256 
  5257 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5258 equality.
  5259 
  5260 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5261 the new 'class' package:
  5262 
  5263     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5264     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5265     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5266     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5267     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5268     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5269     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5270     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5271     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5272     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5273     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5274     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5275     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5276     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5277     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5278     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5279     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5280     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5281     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5282     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5283 
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5285 
  5286 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5287 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5288 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5289 names.
  5290 
  5291 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5292 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5293 
  5294 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5295 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5296 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5297 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5298 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5299 
  5300 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5301 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5302 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5303 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5304 
  5305 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5306 
  5307 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5308 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5309 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5310 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5312 
  5313 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5314 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5315 
  5316 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5317 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5318 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5319 
  5320 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5321 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5322 
  5323 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5324 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5325 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5326 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5327 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5328 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5329 in the current context.
  5330 
  5331 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5332 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5334 
  5335 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5336 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5337 
  5338 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5339 
  5340     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5341     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5342 
  5343     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5344       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5345     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5346     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5347 
  5348     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5349     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5350 
  5351   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5352 
  5353     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5354     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5355     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5356     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5357     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5358     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5359     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5360     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5361     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5362     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5363     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5364     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5365     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5366     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5367     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5368     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5369     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5370     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5371     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5372     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5373     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5374     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5375     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5376     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5377     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5378     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5379     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5380     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5381     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5382     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5383     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5384     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5385     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5386     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5387     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5388 
  5389     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5390     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5391     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5392     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5393     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5394     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5395     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5396     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5397     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5398     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5399     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5400     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5401     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5402     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5403     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5404     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5405     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5406 
  5407     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5408     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5409     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5410     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5411     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5412     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5413     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5414     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5415     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5416     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5417     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5418     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5419     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5420     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5421     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5422     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5423     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5424     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5425     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5426     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5427     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5428     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5429     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5430     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5431     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5432     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5433     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5434     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5435 
  5436     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5437     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5438     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5439     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5440     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5441     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5442 
  5443     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5444     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5445     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5446     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5447 
  5448     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5449     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5450 
  5451     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5452     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5453 
  5454 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5455 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5456 
  5457 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5458 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5459 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5460 "*.size".
  5461 
  5462 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5464 
  5465 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5466 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5467 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5468 
  5469 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5470 
  5471 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5472 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5473 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5474 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5475 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5476 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5477 numerals on all operations.
  5478 
  5479 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5480 
  5481 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5482 
  5483 * Code generator library theories:
  5484   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5485     languages.
  5486   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5487     languages.
  5488   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5489     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5490   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5491   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5492     denominator).
  5493   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5494     representable by rational numbers.
  5495   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5496     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5497     includes Code_Integer.
  5498   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5499     target-language built-in integers.
  5500   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5501     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5502 
  5503 * New package for inductive predicates
  5504 
  5505   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5506 
  5507     inductive
  5508       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5509       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5510     where
  5511       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5512     | ...
  5513 
  5514   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5515 
  5516     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5517 
  5518     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5519     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5520 
  5521     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5522     intros
  5523       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5524       ...
  5525 
  5526   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5527   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5528 
  5529     inductive_set
  5530       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5531       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5532     where
  5533       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5534     | ...
  5535 
  5536   or
  5537 
  5538     inductive_set
  5539       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5540       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5541       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5542     where
  5543       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5544     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5545     | ...
  5546 
  5547   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5548 
  5549   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5550   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5551 
  5552   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5553 
  5554   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5555     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5556     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5557     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5558     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5559 
  5560   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5561     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5562     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5563     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5564     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5565     statements of the form
  5566 
  5567       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5568 
  5569     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5570     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5571 
  5572       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5573 
  5574   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5575 
  5576       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5577         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5578         ==> ... ==> P
  5579 
  5580     for predicates and
  5581 
  5582       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5583         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5584         ==> ... ==> P
  5585 
  5586     for sets rather than
  5587 
  5588       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5589         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5590         ==> ... ==> P
  5591 
  5592     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5593     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5594     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5595 
  5596   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5597     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5598     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5599 
  5600 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5601 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5602 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5603 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5604 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5605 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5606 
  5607 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5608 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5609 
  5610 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5611 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5612 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5613 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5614 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5615 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5616 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5617 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5618 variable.
  5619 
  5620 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5621 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5622 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5623 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5624   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5625   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5626 
  5627 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5628 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5629 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5630 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5631 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5632 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5633 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5634 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5635 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5636 
  5637 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5638 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5639 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5640 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5641 rat, etc.
  5642 
  5643 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5644 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5645 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5646 
  5647 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5648 
  5649 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5650 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5651 
  5652 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5653 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5654 
  5655 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5656 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5657 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5660 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5662 
  5663 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5664 
  5665 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5666 
  5667 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5668 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5669 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5670 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5671 
  5672 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5673 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5674 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5675 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5676 
  5677 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5678 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5679 algebraic operations.
  5680 
  5681 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5683 
  5684 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5686 
  5687 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5688 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5689 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5690 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5691 adapted.
  5692  
  5693 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5694 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5695 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5696 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5697 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5698 
  5699 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5700 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5701 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5702 
  5703 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5704 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5705 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5706 
  5707 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5708 
  5709 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5710 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5711 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5712   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5713       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5714   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5715   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5716   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5717 
  5718 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5719 
  5720 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5721 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5722 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5723 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5724 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5725 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5726 
  5727 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5728 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5729 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5730 
  5731 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5732 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5733 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5735 
  5736 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5737 
  5738 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5739 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5740 
  5741 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5742 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5743 
  5744 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5745 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5746 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5747 
  5748 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5749 True/False.
  5750 
  5751 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5752 
  5753 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5754 
  5755 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5756 ``rule'' method.
  5757 
  5758 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5759 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5760 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5761 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5762 
  5763 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5764 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5765 
  5766 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5767 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5768 
  5769 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5770 Library.
  5771 
  5772 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5773 
  5774 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5775 as greatest fixed-point.
  5776 
  5777 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5778 association lists.
  5779 
  5780 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5781 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5782 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5783 
  5784 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5785 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5786 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5787 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5788 behavior.
  5789 
  5790 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5791 
  5792 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5793 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5794 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5795 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5796 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5797 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5798 
  5799 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5800 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5801 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5802 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5803 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5804 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5805 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5806 
  5807 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5808 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5809 
  5810 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5811 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5812 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5813 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5814 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5815 
  5816 
  5817 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5818 
  5819 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5820 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5821 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5822 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5824 
  5825 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5826 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5827 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5828 
  5829 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5830 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5831 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5832 
  5833 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5834 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5835 
  5836 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5837 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5838 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5842   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5843   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5844   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5845   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5846   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5847   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5848   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5849   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5850   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5851   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5852   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5853   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5854   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5855   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5856 
  5857 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5858 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5859 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5860 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5861 
  5862   approx        <-- capprox
  5863   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5864   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5865   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5866   monad         <-- cmonad
  5867   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5868   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5869   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5870   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5871 
  5872 
  5873 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5874 
  5875 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5876 
  5877 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5879 
  5880 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5881 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5884 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5885 of algebraic structures.
  5886 
  5887 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5888 
  5889 
  5890 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5891 
  5892 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5893 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5894 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5895 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5896 
  5897 
  5898 *** ML ***
  5899 
  5900 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5901 (even on SML/NJ).
  5902 
  5903 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5904 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5905 compile-time.  For example:
  5906 
  5907 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5908 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5909 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5910 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5911 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5912 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5913 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5914 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5915 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5916 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5917 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5918 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5919 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5920 ML {* @{context} *}
  5921 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5922 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5923 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5924 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5925 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5926 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5927 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5928 
  5929 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5930 
  5931 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5932 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5933 
  5934 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5935 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5936 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5937 
  5938 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5939 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5940 
  5941 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5942 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5943 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5944 
  5945 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5946 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5947 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5948 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5949 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5950 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5951 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5952 declarations and definitions.
  5953 
  5954 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5955 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5956 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5957 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5958 
  5959 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5960 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5961 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5962 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5963 
  5964 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5965 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5966 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5967 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5968 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5969 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5970 
  5971 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5972 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5973 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5974 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5975 attributes, methods, etc.
  5976 
  5977 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5978 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5979 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5980 fold_map combinators.
  5981 
  5982 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5983 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5984 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5985 derivation.
  5986 
  5987 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5988 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5989 achieve the old behaviour.
  5990 
  5991 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5992 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5993 statements.
  5994 
  5995 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5996 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5997 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5998 
  5999 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6000 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6001 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6002 
  6003   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6004   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6005   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6006 
  6007 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6008 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6009 
  6010 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6011 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6012 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6013 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6014 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6015 
  6016 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6017 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6018 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6019 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6020 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6021 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6022 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6023 in a locale context).
  6024 
  6025 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6026 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6027 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6028 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6029 
  6030 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6031 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6032 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6033 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6034 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6035 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6036 
  6037 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6038 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6039 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6040 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6041 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6042 
  6043   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6044 
  6045 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6046 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6047 this:
  6048 
  6049   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6050 
  6051 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6052 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6053 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6054 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6055 
  6056 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6057 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6058 
  6059 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6060 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6061 
  6062 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6063 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6064 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6065 batch mode.
  6066 
  6067 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6068 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6069 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6070 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6071 
  6072 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6073 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6074 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6075 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6076 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6077 
  6078 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6079 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6080 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6081 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6082 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6083 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6084 
  6085 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6086 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6087 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6089 
  6090 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6091 "Trueprop" etc.
  6092 
  6093 
  6094 *** System ***
  6095 
  6096 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6097 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6098 Isabelle installations.
  6099 
  6100 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6101 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6102 code.
  6103 
  6104 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6105 
  6106 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6107 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6108 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6109 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6110 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6111 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6112 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6113 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6114 Implementation manual.
  6115 
  6116 
  6117 
  6118 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6119 ----------------------------------
  6120 
  6121 *** General ***
  6122 
  6123 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6124 
  6125   theory <name>
  6126   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6127   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6128   begin
  6129 
  6130 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6131 
  6132   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6133 
  6134 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6135 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6136 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6137 
  6138 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6139 relative and absolute paths.
  6140 
  6141 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6142 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6143 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6144 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6145 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  6146 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  6147 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  6148 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  6149 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  6150 
  6151   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  6152 
  6153 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  6154 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  6155 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  6156 
  6157 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  6158 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6159 
  6160 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  6161 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  6162 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  6163 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  6164 
  6165   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  6166   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  6167 
  6168 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  6169 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  6170 faster.
  6171 
  6172 
  6173 *** Document preparation ***
  6174 
  6175 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  6176 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  6177 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  6178 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  6179 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  6180 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  6181 
  6182 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  6183 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  6184 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  6185 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  6186 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  6187 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  6188 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  6189 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  6190 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  6191 \isadroptag.
  6192 
  6193 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  6194 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  6195 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  6196 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  6197 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  6198 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  6199 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  6200 specified above.
  6201 
  6202 * Several new antiquotations:
  6203 
  6204   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  6205 
  6206   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  6207 
  6208   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  6209   argument is a known logical constant;
  6210 
  6211   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  6212   theorem applying a "style" to it
  6213 
  6214   @{ML text}
  6215 
  6216 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  6217 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  6218 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  6219 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  6220 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  6221 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  6222 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  6223 
  6224 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  6225 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  6226 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  6227 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  6228 
  6229 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  6230 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  6231 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  6232 
  6233 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  6234 a proof context.
  6235