NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Dec 31 13:08:37 2012 +0100 (2012-12-31)
changeset 50646 c02e6a75aa3f
parent 50645 cb8f93361e86
child 50701 054f6bf349d2
permissions -rw-r--r--
misc tuning for release;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    65 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    66 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    67 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    68 
    69 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    70 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    71 
    72 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    73 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    74 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    75 potentially infinite message streams.
    76 
    77 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    78 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    79 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    80 schemes.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    83 symbols.
    84 
    85 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    86 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    87 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    88 
    89 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    90 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    91 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    92 
    93 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
    94 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
    95 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
    96 Isabelle distribution.
    97 
    98 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    99 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   100 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   101 
   102 
   103 *** Pure ***
   104 
   105 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   106 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   107 
   108 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   109 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   110 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   113 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   114 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   115 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   116 with some care where this is really required.
   117 
   118 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   119 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   120 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   121 
   122   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   123 
   124 
   125 *** HOL ***
   126 
   127 * Sledgehammer:
   128 
   129   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   130     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   131   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   132   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   133   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   134   - Renamed options:
   135       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   136       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   137       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   138       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   139 
   140 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   141 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   142 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   143 
   144 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   145 expressions.
   146 
   147 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   148 pointfree expressions.
   149 
   150 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   151 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   152 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   153 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   157 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   158 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   159 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   160 accordingly.
   161 
   162 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   163 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   166 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   171 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   172 
   173 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   174 
   175 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   176 
   177   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   178   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   179 
   180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   181 
   182 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   183 
   184   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   185   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   186 
   187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   190 
   191   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   192     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   193     output f x converges to G.
   194 
   195   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   196     infinity (at_bot).
   197 
   198   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   199     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   200 
   201   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   202     at_top".
   203 
   204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   207 lattice type classes.
   208 
   209 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   210 
   211     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   212     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   213 
   214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   217 changes as follows.
   218 
   219   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   220 
   221       prefix ~> prefixeq
   222       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   223 
   224   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   225     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   226     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   227     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   228 
   229   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   230     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   231     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   232 
   233   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   234     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   235     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   236     Library/Prefix_Order.
   237 
   238   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   239     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   240 
   241       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   242       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   243       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   244       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   245       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   246       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   247       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   248       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   249       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   250       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   251       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   252       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   253       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   254       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   255       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   256       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   257 
   258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 
   261 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   262 
   263 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   264 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   265 
   266 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   267 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   268 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   269 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   270 
   271   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   272   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   273   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   274   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   275   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   276   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   277   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   278   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   279   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   280   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   281 
   282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   285 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   286 Data").
   287 
   288 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   289 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   290 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   291 code.
   292 
   293 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   294 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   295 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   299 
   300 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   301 
   302 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   303 
   304   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   305   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   306 
   307 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   308 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   309 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   310 
   311   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   312 
   313     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   314     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   315     cart_base i  removed
   316     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   317 
   318   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   319 
   320   Renamed lemmas:
   321 
   322     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   323     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   324     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   325     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   326     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   327     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   328     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   329     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   330     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   331     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   332 
   333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   334 
   335 * HOL/Probability:
   336 
   337   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   338 
   339   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   340     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   341     (borel_measurable_induct).
   342 
   343   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   344     projective family).
   345 
   346 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   347 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   348 
   349 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   350 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   351 datatypes.
   352 
   353 
   354 *** Document preparation ***
   355 
   356 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   357 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   358 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   359 
   360 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   361 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   362 
   363 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   364 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   365 document/root.tex.
   366 
   367 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   368 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   369 
   370 
   371 *** ML ***
   372 
   373 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   374 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   375 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   376 
   377 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   378 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   379 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   380 
   381 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   382 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   383 necessarily printing visible text.
   384 
   385 
   386 *** System ***
   387 
   388 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   389 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   390 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   391 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   392 
   393 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   394 
   395 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   396 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   397 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   398 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   399 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   400 
   401 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   402 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   403 
   404   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   405 
   406 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   407 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   408 
   409 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   410 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   411 "isabelle usedir".
   412 
   413 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   414 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   415 
   416 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   420 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   421 version of Isabelle.
   422 
   423 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   424 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   425 
   426 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   427 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   428 for home-made settings.
   429 
   430 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   431 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   432 configuration.
   433 
   434 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   435 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   436 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   437 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   438 bundled as Isabelle component.
   439 
   440 
   441 
   442 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   443 ------------------------------
   444 
   445 *** General ***
   446 
   447 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   448 
   449   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   450     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   451   - markup for bound variables
   452   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   453   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   454   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   455     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   456 
   457 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   458 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   459 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   460 
   461 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   462 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   463 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   464 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   465 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   466 
   467   context
   468     fixes x y z :: 'a
   469     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   470   begin
   471 
   472   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   473 
   474   end
   475 
   476   thm my_trans
   477 
   478 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   479 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   480 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   481 
   482 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   483 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   484 
   485 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   486 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   487 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   488 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   489 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   490 
   491 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   492 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   493 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   494 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   495 indices of schematic variables.
   496 
   497 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   498 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   499 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   500 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   501 etc. was exploited.
   502 
   503 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   504 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   505 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   506 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   507 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   508 of the material of that old tutorial.
   509 
   510 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   511 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   512 manual.
   513 
   514 
   515 *** Pure ***
   516 
   517 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   518 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   519 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   520 
   521 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   522 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   523 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   524 undocumented feature.)
   525 
   526 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   527 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   528 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   529 
   530   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   531 
   532   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   533     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   534 
   535 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   536 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   537 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   538 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   539 
   540 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   541 
   542     num ~> num_token
   543     xnum ~> xnum_token
   544     xstr ~> str_token
   545 
   546 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   547 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   548 position information via constraints).
   549 
   550 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   551 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   552 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   553 
   554 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   555 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   556 
   557 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   558 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   559 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   560 
   561 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   562 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   563 
   564 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   565 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   566 
   567   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   568 
   569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   570 
   571 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   572 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   575 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   576 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   577 
   578 
   579 *** HOL ***
   580 
   581 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   582 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   583 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   584 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   585 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   586 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   587 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   588 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   589 possible.
   590 
   591 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   592 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   593 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   594 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   595 
   596 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   597 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598 
   599 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   600 
   601 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   602 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   603 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   604 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   605 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   606 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   607 
   608   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   609     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   610 
   611   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   612     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   613     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   614 
   615   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   616     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   617 
   618   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   619     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   620     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   621 
   622   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   623     Redefine using other integer operations.
   624 
   625 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   626 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   627 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   628 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   629 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   630 
   631   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   632     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   633     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   634     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   635     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   636 
   637     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   638     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   639 
   640   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   641     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   642     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   643     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   644     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   645     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   646     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   647     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   648 
   649   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   650     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   651     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   652     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   653 
   654   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   655     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   656     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   657     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   658 
   659   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   660     from type nat to type int.
   661 
   662 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   663 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   664 
   665   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   666     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   667     type.  Example syntax:
   668 
   669     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   670       is List.insert
   671 
   672     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   673     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   674     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   675     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   676     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   677     by the package.
   678 
   679   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   680     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   681     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   682     code generation for each constant.
   683 
   684   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   685     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   686     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   687     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   688     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   689 
   690   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   691     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   692     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   693 
   694 * Quotient package:
   695 
   696   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   697     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   698 
   699   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   700     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   701 
   702   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   703     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   704     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   707     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   708 
   709 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   710 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   711 
   712 * Quickcheck:
   713 
   714   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   715     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   716     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   717     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   718     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   719 
   720     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   721     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   722     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   723 
   724     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   725     continues searching for genuine ones.
   726 
   727     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   728     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   729     show genuine counterexamples.
   730 
   731   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   732     value generators for a given type and operations.
   733 
   734     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   735     constructors of that type.
   736 
   737   - Support for multisets.
   738 
   739   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   740 
   741   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   742     conjectures in a locale context.
   743 
   744 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   745 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   746 
   747 * Sledgehammer:
   748   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   749     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   750   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   751   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   752     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   753   - Sped up the minimizer.
   754   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   755   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   756   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   757 
   758 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   759 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   760 
   761 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   762 
   763 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   766 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   767 
   768   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   769 
   770 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   771 a list and a nat.
   772 
   773 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   774 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   775 
   776 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   777 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   778 default.
   779 
   780 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   781 
   782   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   783 
   784 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   785 
   786 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   787 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   788 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   789 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   790 one_case.
   791 
   792 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   793 the result of the fact expression.
   794 
   795 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   796 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   797 of some relation theorems:
   798 
   799   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   800   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   801   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   802   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   803   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   804   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   805 
   806 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   807 
   808 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   809 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   810 
   811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   814 to match the constant's name:
   815 
   816   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   817   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   818   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   819   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   820   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   821   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   822   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   823   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   824   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   825   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   826   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   827   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   828   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   829   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   830   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   831   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   832   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   833   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   834   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   835   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   836   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   837   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   838   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   839   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   840 
   841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   842 
   843 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   844 and corresponding theorem names:
   845 
   846   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   847 
   848   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   849 
   850   - Renamed theorems:
   851 
   852     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   853     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   854     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   855     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   856     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   857     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   858     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   859     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   860     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   861     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   862     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   863     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   864     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   865     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   866     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   867     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   868     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   869     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   870     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   871     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   872     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   873     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   874     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   875 
   876     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   877 
   878     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   879 
   880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   883 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   884 
   885   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   886   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   887   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   888   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   889   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   890   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   891   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   892   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   893   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   894   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   895   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   896   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   897   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   898   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   899   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   900   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   901   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   902   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   903   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   904   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   905   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   906 
   907 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   908 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   909 
   910 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911 
   912 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   913 
   914   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   915   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   916   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   917   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   918   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   919   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   920   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   921   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   922   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   923   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   924   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   925   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   926   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   927   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   928   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   929   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   930   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   931   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   932 
   933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   936 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   937 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   938 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   939 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   940 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   941 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   942 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   943 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   944 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   945 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   946 
   947 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   948 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   949 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   950 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   951 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   952 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   953 
   954 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   955 through option types.
   956 
   957 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   958 relations.
   959 
   960 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   961 
   962 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   963 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   964 
   965   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   966   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   967   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   968   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   969   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   970   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   971   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   972   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   973   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   974   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   975   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   976   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   977   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   978   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   979   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   980   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   981   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   982   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   983   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   984   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   985   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   986   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   987   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   988   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   989   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   990   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   991   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   992   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   993   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   994   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   995   zless_le ~> less_le
   996   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   997   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   998   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   999 
  1000 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1001 
  1002   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1003 
  1004 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1005 
  1006 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1007 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1008 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1009 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011 
  1012 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1013 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1014 
  1015 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1016 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1017 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1018 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1019 follows:
  1020 
  1021   Operations:
  1022   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1023   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1024   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1025   del -> rbt_del
  1026   delete -> rbt_delete
  1027   ins -> rbt_ins
  1028   insert -> rbt_insert
  1029   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1030   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1031   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1032   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1033   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1034   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1035   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1036   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1037   union -> rbt_union
  1038   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1039   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1040 
  1041   Lemmas:
  1042   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1043   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1044   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1045   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1046   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1047   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1048   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1049   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1050   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1051   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1052   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1053   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1054   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1055   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1056   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1057   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1058   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1059   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1060   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1061   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1062   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1063   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1064   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1065   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1066   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1067   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1068   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1069   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1070   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1071   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1072   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1073   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1074   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1075   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1076   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1077   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1078   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1079   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1080   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1081   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1082   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1083   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1084   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1085   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1086   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1087   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1088   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1089   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1090   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1091   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1092   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1093   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1094   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1095   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1096   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1097   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1098   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1099   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1100   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1101   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1102   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1103   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1104   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1105   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1106   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1107   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1108   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1109   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1110   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1111   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1112   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1113   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1114   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1115   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1116   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1117   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1118   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1119   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1120   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1121   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1122   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1123   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1124   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1125 
  1126 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1127 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1128 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130   Changed Operations:
  1131   float_abs -> abs
  1132   float_nprt -> nprt
  1133   float_pprt -> pprt
  1134   pow2 -> use powr
  1135   round_down -> float_round_down
  1136   round_up -> float_round_up
  1137   scale -> exponent
  1138 
  1139   Removed Operations:
  1140   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1141 
  1142   Renamed Lemmas:
  1143   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1144   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1145   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1146   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1147   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1148   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1149   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1150   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1151   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1152   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1153   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1154   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1155   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1156   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1157   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1158   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1159   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1160   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1161   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1162   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1163   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1164   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1165   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1166   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1167   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1168   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1169   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1170   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1171   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1172   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1173   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1174   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1175   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1176   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1177   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1178   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1179 
  1180   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1181   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1182   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1183   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1184   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1185   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1186   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1187   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1188   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1189   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1190 
  1191 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1192 association lists with distinct keys.
  1193 
  1194 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1195 annotated commands.
  1196 
  1197 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1198 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1199 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1200 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1203 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1204 instead.
  1205 
  1206   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1207   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1208   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1209   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1210   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1211   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1212   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1213   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1214   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1215   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1216   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1217   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1218   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1219   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1220   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1221   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1222   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1223   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1224   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1225   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1226   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1227   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1228   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1229   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1230   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1231   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1232   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1233   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1234   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1235   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1236   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1237   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1238   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1239   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1240   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1241   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1242   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1243   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1244   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1245   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1246   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1247 
  1248 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1249 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1250 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1251 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1252 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1253 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1254 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1255 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1256 
  1257 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1258 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1259 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1260 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1261 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1262 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1263 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1264 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1265 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1266 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1267 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1268 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1269 
  1270   Renamed constants:
  1271   measure -> emeasure
  1272   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1273   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1274   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1275   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1276 
  1277   Removed locales:
  1278   completeable_measure_space
  1279   finite_measure_space
  1280   finite_prob_space
  1281   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1282   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1283   finite_sigma_algebra
  1284   measure_space
  1285   pair_finite_prob_space
  1286   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1287   pair_finite_space
  1288   pair_sigma_algebra
  1289   product_sigma_algebra
  1290 
  1291   Removed constants:
  1292   conditional_space
  1293   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1294   image_space
  1295   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1296   pair_measure_generator
  1297   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1298   subvimage
  1299 
  1300   Replacement theorems:
  1301   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1302   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1303   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1304   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1305   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1306   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1307   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1308   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1309   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1310   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1311   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1312   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1313   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1314   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1315   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1316   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1317   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1318   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1319   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1320   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1321   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1322   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1323   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1324   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1325   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1326   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1327   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1328   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1329   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1330   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1331   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1332   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1333   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1334   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1335   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1336   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1337   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1338   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1339   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1340   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1341   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1342   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1343   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1344   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1345   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1346   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1347   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1348   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1349   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1350   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1351   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1352   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1353   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1354   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1355   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1356   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1357   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1358   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1359   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1360   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1361   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1362   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1363   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1364   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1365   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1366   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1367   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1368   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1369   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1370   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1371   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1372   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1373   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1374   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1375   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1376   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1377   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1378   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1379   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1380   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1381   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1382   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1383   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1384   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1385   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1386   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1387   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1388   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1389   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1390   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1391   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1392   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1393   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1394   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1395   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1396   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1397   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1398   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1399   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1400   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1401   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1402   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1403   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1404   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1405   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1406   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1407   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1408   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1409   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1410   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1411   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1412   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1413   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1414   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1415   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1416   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1417   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1418   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1419   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1420   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1421   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1422   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1423   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1424   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1425   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1426   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1427   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1428   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1429 
  1430 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1431 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1432 
  1433 
  1434 *** FOL ***
  1435 
  1436 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1437 
  1438 
  1439 *** ZF ***
  1440 
  1441 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1442 analysis.
  1443 
  1444 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1445 
  1446 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1447 
  1448 
  1449 *** ML ***
  1450 
  1451 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1452 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1453 
  1454 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1455 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1456 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1457 
  1458 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1459 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1460 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1461 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1462 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1463 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1464 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1465 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1466 
  1467 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1468 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1469 
  1470 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1471 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1472 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1473 
  1474 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1475 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1476 
  1477 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1478 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1479 context as well.
  1480 
  1481 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1482 
  1483   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1484   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1485   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1486   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1487   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1488   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1489   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1490   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1491   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1492   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1493   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1494   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1495 
  1496 
  1497 *** System ***
  1498 
  1499 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1500 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1501 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1502 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1503 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1504 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1505 the generic user home was intended.
  1506 
  1507 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1508 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1509 
  1510 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1511 (not just JRE).
  1512 
  1513 
  1514 
  1515 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1516 ------------------------------------
  1517 
  1518 *** General ***
  1519 
  1520 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1521 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1522 
  1523   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1524     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1525     files for checking).
  1526 
  1527   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1528     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1529     positions.
  1530 
  1531   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1532     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1533     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1534 
  1535   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1536     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1537     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1538 
  1539   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1540     cores.
  1541 
  1542   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1543     versions (garbage collection).
  1544 
  1545 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1546 including some remaining limitations.
  1547 
  1548 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1549 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1550 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1551 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1552 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1556 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1557 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1558 
  1559 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1560 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1561 usedir option -Q.
  1562 
  1563 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1564 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1565 
  1566   long_names   ~> names_long
  1567   short_names  ~> names_short
  1568   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1569 
  1570 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1571 
  1572   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1573 
  1574 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1575 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1576 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1577 
  1578 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1579 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1580 
  1581 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1582   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1583   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1584   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1585     "Classical Reasoner".
  1586 
  1587 
  1588 *** HOL ***
  1589 
  1590 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1591 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1592 
  1593 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1594 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1595 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1596 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1597 class complete_linorder.
  1598 
  1599 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1600 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1601 
  1602 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1603 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1604 
  1605   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1606   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1607   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1608   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1609   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1610   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1611   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1612   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1613   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1614   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1615   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1616 
  1617 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1618 
  1619   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1620   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1621   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1622   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1623   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1624   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1625   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1626   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1627   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1628   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1629   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1630   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1631   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1632   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1633   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1634   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1635 
  1636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1642 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1643 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1644 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1647 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1648 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1652 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1653 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1654 
  1655 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1656 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1657 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1658 
  1659 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1660 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1661 
  1662 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1663 
  1664     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1665     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1666 
  1667 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1668 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1669 
  1670 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1671 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1672 
  1673 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1674 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1675 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1676 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1679   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1680   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1681   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1682   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1683   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1684   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1685 
  1686 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1687 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1690   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1691   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1692   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1693   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1694   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1695   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1696   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1697   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1698   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1699   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1700   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1701   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1702   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1703   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1704   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1705   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1706   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1707   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1708   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1709   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1710   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1711   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1712   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1713   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1714   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1715   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1716   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1717   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1718   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1719   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1720   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1721   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1722   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1723   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1724   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1725   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1726   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1727   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1728   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1729   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1730   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1731   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1732   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1733   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1734   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1735   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1736   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1737   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1738   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1739   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1740   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1741   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1742   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1743   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1744   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1745   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1746   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1747   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1748   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1749   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1750   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1751   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1752   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1753   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1754   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1755   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1756   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1757   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1758   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1759   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1760   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1761   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1762   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1763   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1764   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1765   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1766   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1767   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1768   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1769   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1770   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1771 
  1772 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1773 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1774 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1775 
  1776 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1777 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1778 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1779 
  1780 * Code generation:
  1781 
  1782   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1783     characters in the target language.
  1784 
  1785   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1786     instead.
  1787 
  1788   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1789 
  1790   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1791     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1792 
  1793       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1794 
  1795 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1798 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1799 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1800 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1801 syntax.
  1802 
  1803 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1804 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1805 
  1806 * Nitpick:
  1807   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1808   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1809   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1810     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812 * Sledgehammer:
  1813   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1814   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1815     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1816   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1817     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1818   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1819     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1820   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1821     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1822   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1823     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1824 
  1825 * Metis:
  1826   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1827   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1828     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Command 'try':
  1831   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1832     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1834     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1835 
  1836 * Quickcheck:
  1837   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1838     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1839   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1840     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1841   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1842     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1843     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1844     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1845   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1846     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1847 
  1848 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1849 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1850 
  1851 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1852 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1853 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1854 
  1855 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1856 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1858 
  1859 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1860 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1861 
  1862 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1863 arithmetic.
  1864 
  1865 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1866 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1867 and lattice type classes.
  1868 
  1869 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1870 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1871 
  1872 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1873 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1874 
  1875 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1876 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1877 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1880   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1881   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1882   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1883 
  1884 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1885 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1886 constants:
  1887 
  1888   type inat   ~> type enat
  1889   Fin         ~> enat
  1890   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1891   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1892   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1893 
  1894 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1895 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1898 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1899 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1900 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1901 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1902 
  1903 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1904 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1905 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1906 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1907 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1908 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1909 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1910 
  1911   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1912   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1913   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1914   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1915 
  1916 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1917 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1918 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1919 
  1920   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1921   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1922   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1923   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1924   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1925   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1926   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1927   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1928   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1929   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1930   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1931   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1932   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1933   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1934   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1935   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1936   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1937   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1938   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1939   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1940   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1941   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1942   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1943   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1944   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1945   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1946   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1947   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1948   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1949   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1950   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1951   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1952   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1953   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1954   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1955   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1956   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1957   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1958   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1959   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1960   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1961   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1962   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1963   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1964   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1965   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1966   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1967   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1968   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1969   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1970   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1971 
  1972 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1973   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1974   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1975   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1976   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1977     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1978 
  1979 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1980 
  1981   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1982   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1983   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1984   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1985   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1986   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1987   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1988   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1989   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1990   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1991   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1992   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1993   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1994   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1995   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1996   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1997   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1998   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1999   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2000   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2001   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2002   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2003   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2004   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2005   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2006 
  2007 
  2008 *** Document preparation ***
  2009 
  2010 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2011 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2012 same.
  2013 
  2014 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2015 result.
  2016 
  2017 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2018 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2019 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2020 
  2021 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2022 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2023 
  2024 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2025 like this:
  2026 
  2027   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2028   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2029 
  2030 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2031 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2032 layouts.
  2033 
  2034 
  2035 *** ML ***
  2036 
  2037 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2038 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2039 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2040 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2041 under external program control.
  2042 
  2043 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2044 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2045 
  2046 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2047 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2048 (better known as Proof General).
  2049 
  2050 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2051 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2052 
  2053 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2054 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2055 
  2056 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2057 (including quotes etc.).
  2058 
  2059 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2060 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2061 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2062 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2063 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2064 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2065 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2066 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2067 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2068 
  2069 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2070 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2071 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2072 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2073 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2074 
  2075 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2076 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2077 
  2078 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2079 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2080 
  2081 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2082 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2083 
  2084 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2085 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2086 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2087 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2088 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2089 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2090 proper Proof.context.
  2091 
  2092 
  2093 *** System ***
  2094 
  2095 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2096 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2097 
  2098 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2099 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2100 
  2101 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2102 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2103 
  2104   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2105   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2106   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2107   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2108   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2109 
  2110 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2111 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2112 
  2113 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2114 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2115 example:
  2116 
  2117   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2118 
  2119 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2120 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2121 
  2122 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2123 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2124 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2125 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2126 
  2127 
  2128 
  2129 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2130 ----------------------------------
  2131 
  2132 *** General ***
  2133 
  2134 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2135 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2136 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2137 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2138 like this:
  2139 
  2140   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2141 
  2142 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2143 
  2144 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2145 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2146 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2147 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2148 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2149 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2150 
  2151 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2152 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2153 the following package declarations:
  2154 
  2155   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2156   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2157 
  2158 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2159 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2160 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2161 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2162 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2163 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2164 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2165 
  2166 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2167 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2168 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2169 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2170 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2171 
  2172 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2173 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2174 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2175 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2176 
  2177 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2178 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2179 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2180 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2181 
  2182   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2183 
  2184   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2185   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2186   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2187   show_types                    show_types
  2188   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2189   show_consts                   show_consts
  2190   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2191 
  2192   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2193   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2194   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2195 
  2196   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2197   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2198 
  2199   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2200 
  2201   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2202   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2203   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2204   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2205   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2206 
  2207 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2208 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2209 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2210 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2211 
  2212 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2214 
  2215   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2216   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2217 
  2218 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2219 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2220 float_token.
  2221 
  2222 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2223 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2227 DejaVu Sans.
  2228 
  2229 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2230 
  2231 
  2232 *** Pure ***
  2233 
  2234 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2235 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2236 time.
  2237 
  2238 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2239 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2242 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2245 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2246 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2247 command already provided this functionality.
  2248 
  2249 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2250 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2251 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2252 without interpretations.
  2253 
  2254 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2255 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2256 
  2257 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2258 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2259 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2260 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2261 
  2262 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2263 'definition' instead.
  2264 
  2265 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2266 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2267 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2268 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2269 
  2270 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2271 constructors.
  2272 
  2273 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2274 the local file system.
  2275 
  2276 
  2277 *** HOL ***
  2278 
  2279 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2280 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2281 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2282 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2283 
  2284   declare [[coercion f]]
  2285 
  2286 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2287 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2288 
  2289   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2290 
  2291 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2292 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2293 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2294 other theories like this:
  2295 
  2296   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2297 
  2298 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2299 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2300 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2301 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2302 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2303 for examples.
  2304 
  2305 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2306 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2307 
  2308 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2309 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2310 
  2311 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2312 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2313 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2314 
  2315 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2316 functorial structure of types.
  2317 
  2318 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2319 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2320 
  2321 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2322 languages.
  2323 
  2324 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2325 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2329 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2332 combinators any longer.
  2333 
  2334 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2335 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2336 
  2337 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2338 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2339 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2340 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2341 
  2342   record 'a foo = ...
  2343   ...
  2344   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2345 
  2346 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2347 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2351 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2352 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2353 
  2354 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2355 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2356 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2357 
  2358 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2359 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2362 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2363 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2364 independently.
  2365 
  2366 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2367 counter example search.
  2368 
  2369 * Sledgehammer:
  2370   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2371     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2372     sledgehammer").
  2373   - Renamed commands:
  2374     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2375     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2376     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2377     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378   - Renamed options:
  2379     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2380     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2381     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2382     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2383     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2384 
  2385 * Nitpick:
  2386   - Renamed options:
  2387     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2388     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2389     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2391   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2392   - Added "whack" option.
  2393   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2394   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2395   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2396   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2397     higher cardinalities.
  2398   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2399 
  2400 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2401 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2402 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2403 
  2404     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2405 
  2406 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2407 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2408 
  2409 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2410 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2411 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2412 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2413 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2414 "smt_solver".
  2415 
  2416 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2417 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2418 
  2419 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2420 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2421 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2422 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2425   - Renamed:
  2426     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2427     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2428     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2429   - Added:
  2430     smt_verbose
  2431     smt_random_seed
  2432     smt_datatypes
  2433     smt_infer_triggers
  2434     smt_monomorph_limit
  2435     cvc3_options
  2436     remote_cvc3_options
  2437     remote_z3_options
  2438     yices_options
  2439 
  2440 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2441 header.
  2442 
  2443 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2444 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2445 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2446 
  2447   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2448 
  2449 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2450 
  2451 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2452 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453 
  2454 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2457 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2458 
  2459 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2460 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2461 
  2462 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2463 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2464 
  2465 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2466 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2467 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2468 
  2469 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473 
  2474 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2475 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2476 
  2477 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2478 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2479 for congruent(2)).
  2480 
  2481 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2482 
  2483   types
  2484     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2485     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2486 
  2487   constants
  2488     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2489     True ~> HOL.True
  2490     False ~> HOL.False
  2491     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2492     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2493     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2494     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2495     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2496     The ~> HOL.The
  2497     All ~> HOL.All
  2498     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2499     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2500     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2501     If ~> HOL.If
  2502     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2503     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2504     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2505     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2506     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2507     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2508     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2509     op : ~> Set.member
  2510     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2511 
  2512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2515 
  2516     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2517     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2518     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2519     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2520     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2521     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2522     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2523     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2524 
  2525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2526 
  2527 * More stylized fact names:
  2528 
  2529   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2530   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2531   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2532   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2533 
  2534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2537 
  2538   constants
  2539     null ~> List.null
  2540 
  2541   facts
  2542     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2543     null_empty ~> null_def
  2544 
  2545 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2546 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2547 generation.
  2548 
  2549 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2550 Haskell code.
  2551 
  2552 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2553 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2554 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2557 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2560 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2561 
  2562 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2563 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2564 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2567 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2573 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2574 referred to by its qualified name.
  2575 
  2576   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2577   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2578   product ~>  Enum.product
  2579 
  2580 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2581 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2585 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2586 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2590 sort_key.
  2591 
  2592 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2596 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2597 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2598 
  2599   types
  2600     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2601               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2602               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2603         (depends on your needs)
  2604 
  2605   constants
  2606      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2607      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2608      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2609 
  2610 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2611 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2612 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2613 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614 
  2615 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2616 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2617 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2618 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2619 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2625 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2626 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2627 
  2628 
  2629 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2630 
  2631 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2632 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2633 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2634 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2635 compatibility.
  2636 
  2637 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2638 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2639 
  2640 
  2641 *** HOLCF ***
  2642 
  2643 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2644 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2645 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2647 
  2648 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2649 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2650 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2651 
  2652   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2653   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2654   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2655 
  2656 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2657 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2658 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2659 
  2660 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2661 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2662 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2663 domain definition now works:
  2664 
  2665   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2666 
  2667 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2668 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2669 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2670 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2671 
  2672   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2673     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2674 
  2675   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2676 
  2677 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2678 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2679 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2682 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2685 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2686 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2687 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2688 
  2689 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2690 
  2691 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2692 
  2693 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2699 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2700 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2701 
  2702 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2703 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2704 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2707 still supported as an input translation.
  2708 
  2709 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2710 
  2711   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2712   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2713   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2714   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2715   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2716   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2717   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2718 
  2719 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2720 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2723   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2724   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2725   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2726   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2727   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2728 
  2729 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2730 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2733 
  2734   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2735   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2736   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2737   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2738 
  2739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2742 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2745 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2748   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2749   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2750   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2751   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2752   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2753   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2754   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2755   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2756   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2757   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2758   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2759   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2760   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2761   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2762   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2763   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2764   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2765   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2766   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2767 
  2768 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2769 
  2770   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2771   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2772   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2773   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2774   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2775   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2776   box_less             ~> box_below
  2777   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2778   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2779   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2780   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2781   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2782   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2783   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2784   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2785   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2786   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2787   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2788   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2789   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2790   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2791   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2792   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2793   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2794   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2795   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2796   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2797   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2798   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2799   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2800   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2801   up_less              ~> up_below
  2802   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2803   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2804   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2805   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2806   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2807   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2808   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2809   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2810   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2811   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2812   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2813   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2814   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2815 
  2816 
  2817 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2818 
  2819 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2820 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2821 
  2822 
  2823 *** ML ***
  2824 
  2825 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2826 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2827 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2828 
  2829 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2830 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2831 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2832 
  2833 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2834 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2835 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2836 
  2837 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2838 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2839 
  2840 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2841 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2842 
  2843 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2844 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2845 
  2846 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2847 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2848 
  2849 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2850 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2851 almost all situations.
  2852 
  2853 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2854 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2855 Isabelle/ML.
  2856 
  2857 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2858 meaning.
  2859 
  2860 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2861 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2862 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2863 
  2864 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2865 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2866 
  2867 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2868 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2869 
  2870 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2871 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2872 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2873 
  2874 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2875 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2876 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2877 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2878 configuration options.
  2879 
  2880 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2881 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2882 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2883 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2884 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2885 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2886 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2887 
  2888 
  2889 
  2890 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2891 ---------------------------------
  2892 
  2893 *** General ***
  2894 
  2895 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2896 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2897 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2898 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2899 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2900 their full internal name.
  2901 
  2902 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2903 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2904 Some hints on upgrading:
  2905 
  2906   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2907     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2908     which are independent of this issue.
  2909 
  2910   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2911     provides the following special forms:
  2912 
  2913       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2914       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2915       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2916 
  2917     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2918     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2919     extra variables".
  2920 
  2921     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2922     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2923     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2924     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2925     "logic".
  2926 
  2927   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2928     antiquotations:
  2929 
  2930       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2931       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2932       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2933       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2934 
  2935   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2936     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2937     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2938     antiquotations.
  2939 
  2940 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2941 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2942 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2943 diagnose syntax problems.
  2944 
  2945 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2946 
  2947 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2948 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2949 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2950 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2951 
  2952 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2953 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2954 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2955 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2958 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2959 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2960 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2961 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2962 
  2963 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2964 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2965 
  2966 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2967 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2968 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2969 
  2970   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2971 
  2972 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2973 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2974 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2975 
  2976 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2977 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2981 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2982 
  2983 
  2984 *** Pure ***
  2985 
  2986 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2987 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2988 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2989 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2990 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2991 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2992 inspect proof terms.
  2993 
  2994 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2995 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2996 are added internally.  For example:
  2997 
  2998   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2999 
  3000 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3001 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3006 'class' instead.
  3007 
  3008 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3009 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3011 
  3012 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3013 invariants.
  3014 
  3015 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3016 user space functionality any longer.
  3017 
  3018 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3019 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3023 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3024 
  3025 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3026 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3027 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3028 
  3029 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3030 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3031 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3032 
  3033 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3034 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3035 
  3036 
  3037 *** HOL ***
  3038 
  3039 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3040 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3041 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3042 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3043 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3044 
  3045 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3046 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3047 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3048 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3049 
  3050   fun
  3051     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3052   where
  3053     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3054 
  3055   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3056     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3057 
  3058   quotient_definition
  3059     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3060 
  3061 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3062 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3063 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3064 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3065 
  3066 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3067 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3068 
  3069 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3070 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3071 
  3072 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3076 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3077 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3078 
  3079 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3080 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3089 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3092 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3093 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3096   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3097   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3098   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3099   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3100   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3101   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3102   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3103   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3104   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3105   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3106   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3107   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3108   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3109   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3110   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3111   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3112   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3113   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3114   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3115   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3116   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3117   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3118   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3119   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3120   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3121   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3122   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3123   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3124   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3125 
  3126 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3127 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3128 
  3129 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3130 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3131 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3132 
  3133 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3134 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3135 
  3136 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3137 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3140 
  3141 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3142 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3145 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3150 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3151 
  3152 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3153 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3154 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3155 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3158   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3159   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3160   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3164 lattices):
  3165 
  3166     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3167     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3168 
  3169     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3170 
  3171     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3172     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3173     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3174     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3175     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3176     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3177     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3178     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3179     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3180     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3181     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3182     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3183     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3184 
  3185     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3186     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3187     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3188     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3189     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3190     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3191     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3192     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3193     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3194     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3195     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3196     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3197     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3198     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3199     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3200     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3201     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3202     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3203 
  3204   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3205   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3206 
  3207     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3208     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3209     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3210     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3211     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3212 
  3213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3214 
  3215 * Refined field classes:
  3216   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3217     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3218     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3219   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221 
  3222 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3223   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3224   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3225   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3226     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3227   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3228     equal_neg_zero.
  3229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3232 sets to lattices:
  3233 
  3234   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3235   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3236   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3237   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3238   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3239   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3240   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3241   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3242   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3243   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3244 
  3245 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3246 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3247 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3248 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3249 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3250 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3253 multiset order:
  3254 
  3255   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3256     <= and <;
  3257   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3258     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3259     multiset_order;
  3260   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3261     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3262     generation;
  3263   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3264     if needed.
  3265 
  3266 Renamed:
  3267 
  3268   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3269   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3270   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3271 
  3272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3275 
  3276 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3277 
  3278 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3279 
  3280 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3281 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3282 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284   Constants:
  3285   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3286   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3287   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3288   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3289   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3290   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3291   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3292   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3293   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3294   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3295   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3296   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3297   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3298 
  3299   Lemmas:
  3300   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3301   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3302   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3303   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3304   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3305   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3306   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3307   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3308   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3309   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3310   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3311   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3312   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3313 
  3314 * Sledgehammer:
  3315   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3316     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3317     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3318     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3319     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3320     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3321     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3323   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3324     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3325   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3326     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3327     is still experimental.)
  3328   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3329     full-typed mode.
  3330   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3331 
  3332 * Nitpick:
  3333   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3334   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3335   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3336     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3337   - Added support for quotient types.
  3338   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3339     constructs.
  3340   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3341     "termination" proofs).
  3342   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3343   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3344   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3345   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3346     record getters.
  3347   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3348   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3349   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3350   - Added "atoms" option.
  3351   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3352     problems.
  3353   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3354     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3355     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3356   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3357     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359 
  3360 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3361   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3362   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3363   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3364   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3365   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3366   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3367   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3368   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3369   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 
  3372 *** HOLCF ***
  3373 
  3374 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3375 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3376 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3379 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3380 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3381 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3384 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3385 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3386 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3387 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3390 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3391 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3394 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3397   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3398 
  3399 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3400 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3403   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3404   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3405   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3406   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3407 
  3408 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3409 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3412   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3413   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3414 
  3415 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3416 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3420 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3425 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 
  3428 *** ML ***
  3429 
  3430 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3431 
  3432     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3433     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3434 
  3435     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3436     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3437     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3438     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3439 
  3440     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3441     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3442     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3443 
  3444 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3445 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3446 
  3447 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3448 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3449 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3450 
  3451 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3452 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3453 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3454 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3455 
  3456 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3457 the context or even global references.
  3458 
  3459 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3460 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3461 
  3462 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3463 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3464 
  3465   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3466   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3467   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3468   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3469   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3470   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3471   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3472   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3473   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3474   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3475 
  3476 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3477 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3478 
  3479 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3480 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3481 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3482 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3483 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3484 
  3485 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3486 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3487 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3488 Theory_Data version.
  3489 
  3490 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3491 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3492 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3493 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3494 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3495 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3496 explicitly in rare situations.
  3497 
  3498 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3499 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3503 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3506 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3507 quite rare).
  3508 
  3509 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3510 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3513 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3514 terms.
  3515 
  3516 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3517 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3518 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3519 
  3520 
  3521 *** System ***
  3522 
  3523 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3524 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3525 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3526 
  3527 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3528 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3529 respectively.
  3530 
  3531 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3532 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3533 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3534 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3535 
  3536   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3537 
  3538 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3539 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3540 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3541 component.
  3542 
  3543 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3544 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3545 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3546 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3547 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3548 the user for manual installation.
  3549 
  3550 
  3551 
  3552 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3553 -------------------------------------
  3554 
  3555 *** General ***
  3556 
  3557 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3558 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3559 
  3560 
  3561 *** Pure ***
  3562 
  3563 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3564 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3565 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3566 
  3567 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3568 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3569 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3570 
  3571 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3572 interpretation.
  3573 
  3574 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3575 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577 
  3578 *** Document preparation ***
  3579 
  3580 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3581 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3582 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3583 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3584 
  3585 
  3586 *** HOL ***
  3587 
  3588 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3589 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3590 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3591 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3592 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3593 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3594 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3595 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3596 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3597 
  3598 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3599 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3600 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3601 
  3602 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3603 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3604 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3605 
  3606 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3607 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3608 
  3609 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3610 
  3611 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3612 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3613 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3614 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3615 
  3616 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3617 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3618 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3619 "mirabelle" utility.
  3620 
  3621 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3622 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3623 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3624 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3625 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3626 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3627 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3628 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3629 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3630 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3631 
  3632 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3633 procedure only.
  3634 
  3635 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3636 
  3637 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3638 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3639 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3640 that fail later.
  3641 
  3642 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3643 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3644 
  3645 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3646 the same method as the approximation method.
  3647 
  3648 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3649 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3650 series expansion.
  3651 
  3652 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3653 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3654 
  3655 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3656 reals.
  3657 
  3658 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3659 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3660 
  3661 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3662 fixpoint theorem.
  3663 
  3664 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3665   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3666     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3667   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3668     accordingly
  3669   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3670     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3671   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3672     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3673 
  3674 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3675 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3676 lattice.
  3677 
  3678 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3679 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3680 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3681 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3682 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3683 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3685 
  3686 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3687   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3688     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3689   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3690     le_inf_iff
  3691   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3692     sup_aci)
  3693   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3694   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3695   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3696     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3697     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3698     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3699     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3700     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3701     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3702     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3703     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3704     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3705     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3706   - authentic syntax for
  3707     Set.Pow
  3708     Set.image
  3709   - mere abbreviations:
  3710     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3711     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3712     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3713     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3714     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3715     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3716     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3717     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3718   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3719 
  3720 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3721 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3722 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3723 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3724 
  3725 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3726 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3727 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3730 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3731 
  3732 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3733 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3734 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3735 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3738 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3739 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3740 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3741 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3742 
  3743 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3744 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3748 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3751 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3752 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3753 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3754 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3755 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3756 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3760     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3761     code_post       replaces    code post
  3762     etc.
  3763   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Renamed methods:
  3766     sizechange -> size_change
  3767     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3768   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3771 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3772 
  3773 * Renamed theorems:
  3774     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3775     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3776     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3777     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3778     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3779   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3785 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3786 
  3787 
  3788 *** HOLCF ***
  3789 
  3790 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3791 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3792 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3793 
  3794 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3795 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3796 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3797 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3798 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3799 
  3800 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3801 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3802 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3803 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3804 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3805 
  3806 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3807 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3808 constructor are pre-configured.
  3809 
  3810 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3811 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3812 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3813 
  3814 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3815 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3816 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3817 as well.)
  3818 
  3819 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3820 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3821 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3822 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3823 examples.
  3824 
  3825 
  3826 *** ML ***
  3827 
  3828 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3829 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3830 
  3831 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3832 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3833 position, logical grouping etc.
  3834 
  3835 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3836 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3837 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3838 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3839 
  3840 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3841 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3842 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3843 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3844 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3845 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3846 
  3847 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3848 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3849 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3850 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3851 experiments with references.
  3852 
  3853 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3854 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3855 
  3856 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3857 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3858 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3859 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3860 
  3861 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3862 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3863 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3864 
  3865 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3866 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3867 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3875 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3876 
  3877 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3878 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3879 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3880 
  3881 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3882 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3883 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3886 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3887 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3891 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3892 instead of global theory.
  3893 
  3894 
  3895 *** System ***
  3896 
  3897 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3898 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3899 usedir option -q.
  3900 
  3901 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3902 also the system manual.
  3903 
  3904 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3905 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3906 
  3907 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3908 this is always enabled.
  3909 
  3910 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3911 
  3912 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3913 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3914 currently supported on Linux only.
  3915 
  3916 
  3917 
  3918 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3919 --------------------------------
  3920 
  3921 *** General ***
  3922 
  3923 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3924 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3925 
  3926   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3927     "isatool."
  3928 
  3929   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3930     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3931 
  3932   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3933     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3934 
  3935 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3936 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3937 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3938 
  3939 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3940 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3941 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3942 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3943 via "isabelle emacs".
  3944 
  3945 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3946 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3947 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3948 
  3949 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3950 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3951 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3952 
  3953 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3954 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3955 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3956 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3957 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3958 
  3959 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3960 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3961 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3962 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3963 
  3964 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3965 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3966 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3967 
  3968 
  3969 *** Pure ***
  3970 
  3971 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3972 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3973 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3974 
  3975 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3976 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3977 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3978 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3979 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3980 
  3981 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3982 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3983 useful in locale declarations.
  3984 
  3985 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3986 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3987 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3988 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3989 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3990 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3991 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3992 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3993 no longer generated.
  3994 
  3995 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3996 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3997 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3998 
  3999 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4000 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4001 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4002 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4003 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4004 
  4005 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4007 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4008 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4009 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4010 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4011 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4012 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4013 
  4014 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4015 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4016 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4017 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4018 
  4019 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4022 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4023 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4024 
  4025 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4026 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4029 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4030 in HOL, write
  4031 
  4032     class foo = ...
  4033 
  4034 instead of
  4035 
  4036     class foo = type + ...
  4037 
  4038 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4039 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4042 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4043 
  4044 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4045 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4046 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4047 
  4048 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4049 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4050 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4051 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4052 directly in regular applications.
  4053 
  4054 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4055 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4056 
  4057 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4058 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4059 
  4060 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4061 theory context.
  4062 
  4063 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4064 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4065 
  4066 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4067 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4068 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4069 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4070 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4071 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4072 
  4073   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4074 
  4075 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4076 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4077 normalization.
  4078 
  4079 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4080 addressing etc.
  4081 
  4082 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4083 
  4084   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4085   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4086 
  4087 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4088 
  4089   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4090      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4091      parts of the code generator framework).
  4092 
  4093   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4094      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4095      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4096 
  4097 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4100 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4101 
  4102 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4103 patterns, e.g.
  4104 
  4105     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4106 
  4107 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4108 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4109 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4110 hyphen:
  4111 
  4112     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4113 
  4114 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4115 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4116 
  4117 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4118 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4119 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4120 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4121 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4122 higher-order unification.
  4123 
  4124 
  4125 *** Document preparation ***
  4126 
  4127 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4128 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4129 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4130 
  4131 
  4132 *** HOL ***
  4133 
  4134 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4135 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4136 
  4137 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4138 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4139 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4140 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4141 Main, as before.
  4142 
  4143 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4144 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4145 
  4146 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4147 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4148 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4149 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4150 
  4151 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4152 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4153 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4154 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4155 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4156 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4157 
  4158 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4159 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4160 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4161 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4162 
  4163 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4164 menu.
  4165 
  4166 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4167 (contains the empty clause).
  4168 
  4169 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4170 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4171 
  4172 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4173 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4174 
  4175 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4176 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4177 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4180 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4181 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4182 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4183 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4184 
  4185 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4186 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4187 
  4188 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4189 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4190 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4191 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4192 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4193 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4194 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4195 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4196 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4197 
  4198 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4199 
  4200 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4201 
  4202 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4203 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4206 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4207 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4208 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4209 
  4210 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4211 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4212 
  4213     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4214     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4215     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4216     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4217     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4218     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4219     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4220     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4221 
  4222 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4223 theory Set.
  4224 
  4225 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4226 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4227 
  4228 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4229 
  4230 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4231 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4232 
  4233 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4234 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4235 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4236 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4237 allowed. For examples see
  4238 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4239 
  4240 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4241 
  4242 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4246 structure:
  4247 
  4248     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4249     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4250     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4251     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4252     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4253     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4254     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4255     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4256     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4257     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4258     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4259     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4260     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4261     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4262     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4263     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4264     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4265     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4266     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4267     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4268     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4269     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4270     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4271     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4272     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4273     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4274     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4275     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4276     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4277     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4278     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4279     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4280     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4281 
  4282     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4283     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4284     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4285     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4286     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4287     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4288     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4289     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4290     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4291     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4292 
  4293     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4294     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4295     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4296     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4297     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4298     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4299 
  4300 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4301 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4302 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4303 
  4304 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4305 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4306 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4307 
  4308 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4309 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4312 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4313 
  4314 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4315 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4316 proofs, e.g.
  4317 
  4318   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4319 
  4320 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4321 
  4322 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4323 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4324 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4325 
  4326 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4327 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4331 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4332 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4334 
  4335 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4336 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4337 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4338 preorder_class.*.
  4339 
  4340 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4341 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4342 
  4343 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4344 
  4345   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4346 
  4347 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4348 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4349 fold_image.
  4350 
  4351 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4352 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4353 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4354 the former will disappear at some point.
  4355 
  4356 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4357 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4358 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4359 
  4360 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4361 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4362 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4363 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4364 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4365 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4366 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4367 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4368 
  4369 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4370 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4371 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4372 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4373 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4374 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4375 
  4376     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4377     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4378     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4379     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4380     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4381     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4382     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4383 
  4384 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4385 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4386 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4387 
  4388 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4389 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4390 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4391 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4392 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4393 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4394 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4395 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4396 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4397 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4398 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4399 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4400 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4401 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4402 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4403 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4404 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4405 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4406 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4407 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4408 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4409 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4410 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4411 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4412 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4413 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4414 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4415 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4416 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4417 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4418 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4419 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4420 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4421 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4422 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4423 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4424 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4425 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4426 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4427 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4428 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4429 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4430 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4431 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4432 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4433 
  4434 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4435 
  4436 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4437 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4438 
  4439 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4440 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4441 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4442 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4443 
  4444 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4445 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4446 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4447 theory RealVector.
  4448 
  4449 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4450 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4451 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4452 and inner products are included.
  4453 
  4454 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4455 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4456 supported.
  4457 
  4458 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4459 first diagonalization argument.
  4460 
  4461 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4462 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4463 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4464 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4465 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4466 
  4467     hide (open) const gcd
  4468     abbreviation gcd where
  4469       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4470     notation (output)
  4471       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4472 
  4473 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4474 
  4475 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4476 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4477 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4480 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4481 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4482 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4483 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4484 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4485 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4486 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4487 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4488 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4489 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4490 cases.
  4491 
  4492 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4493 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4494 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4495 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4496 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4497 
  4498     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4499     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4500     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4501     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4502     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4503 
  4504 
  4505 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4506 
  4507 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4508 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4509 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4510 
  4511 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4512 
  4513 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4514 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4515 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4516 
  4517 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4518 
  4519 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4520 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4521 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4522 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4523 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4524 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4525 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4526 
  4527 
  4528 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4529 
  4530 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4531 
  4532 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4533 theory targets.
  4534 
  4535 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4536 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4537 'inductive' etc.
  4538 
  4539 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4540 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4541 
  4542 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4543 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4544 
  4545 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4546 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4547 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4548 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4549 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4550 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4551 the algorithm W:
  4552 
  4553  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4554  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4555          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4556 
  4557 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4558 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4559 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4560 
  4561 
  4562 *** HOLCF ***
  4563 
  4564 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4565 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4566 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4567 
  4568 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4569 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4570 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4571 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4572 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4573 
  4574 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4575 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4576 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 
  4579 *** ZF ***
  4580 
  4581 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4582 
  4583 
  4584 *** ML ***
  4585 
  4586 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4587 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4588 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4589 5.2.1!
  4590 
  4591 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4592 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4593 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4594 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4595 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4596 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4597 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4598 
  4599 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4600 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4601 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4602 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4603 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4604 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4605 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4606 
  4607 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4608 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4609 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4610 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4611 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4612 
  4613 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4614 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4615 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4616 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4617 Method.add_method.
  4618 
  4619 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4620 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4621 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4622 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4623 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4624 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4625 
  4626 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4627 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4628 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4629 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4630 examples.
  4631 
  4632 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4633 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4634 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4635 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4636 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4637 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4638 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4639 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4640 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4641 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4642 
  4643 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4644 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4645 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4646 
  4647 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4648 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4649 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4650 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4651 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4652 resort for legacy applications.
  4653 
  4654 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4655 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4656 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4657 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4658 explicit runtime argument.
  4659 
  4660 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4661 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4662 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4663 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4664 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4667 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4668 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4669 theory state.
  4670 
  4671 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4672 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4673 
  4674   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4675   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4676   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4677   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4678   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4679   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4680   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4681   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4682   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4683   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4684 
  4685 
  4686 *** System ***
  4687 
  4688 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4689 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4690 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4691 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4692 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4693 
  4694 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4695 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4696 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4697 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4698 
  4699 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4700 
  4701 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4702 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4703 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4704 prover operations.
  4705 
  4706 
  4707 
  4708 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4709 -------------------------------
  4710 
  4711 *** General ***
  4712 
  4713 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4714 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4715 
  4716 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4717 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4718 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4719 provides a proper context already.
  4720 
  4721 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4722 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4723 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4724 
  4725 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4726 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4727 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4728 swap theory imports.
  4729 
  4730 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4731 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4732 
  4733 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4734 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4735 white space without escapes.
  4736 
  4737 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4738 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4739 "foo_bar".
  4740 
  4741 
  4742 *** Pure ***
  4743 
  4744 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4745 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4746 
  4747 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4748 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4749 
  4750 (1) unused_thms
  4751      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4752 
  4753 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4754      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4755      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4756 
  4757 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4758      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4759      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4760      their ancestors.
  4761 
  4762 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4763 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4764 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4765 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4766 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4767 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4768 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4769 
  4770 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4771 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4772 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4773 
  4774 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4775 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4776 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4777 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4778 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4779 
  4780 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4781 
  4782 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4783 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4784 update of theories within ML code.
  4785 
  4786 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4787 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4788 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4789 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4790 
  4791 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4792 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4793 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4795 
  4796 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4797 
  4798 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4799 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4800 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4801 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4802 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4803 
  4804 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4805 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4806 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4807 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4808 situations.
  4809 
  4810 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4811 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4812 proof text.
  4813 
  4814 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4815 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4816 
  4817 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4818 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4819 predicates.
  4820 
  4821 
  4822 *** Document preparation ***
  4823 
  4824 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4825 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4826 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4827 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4828 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4829 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4830 
  4831 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4832 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4833 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4834 
  4835 
  4836 *** HOL ***
  4837 
  4838 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4839 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4840 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4841 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4842 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4843 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4844 
  4845 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4846 with multithreading.
  4847 
  4848 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4849 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4850 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4851 
  4852 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4853 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4854 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4855 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4858 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4859 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4860 and makes them available separately.  See
  4861 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4862 
  4863 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4864 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4865 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4866 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4867 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4868 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4869 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4870 the declared rules.
  4871 
  4872 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4873 
  4874   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4875 
  4876 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4877 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4878 
  4879 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4880 
  4881   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4882 
  4883   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4884     definitions on => and bool.
  4885 
  4886   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4887     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4888     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4889 
  4890       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4891       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4892       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4893       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4894       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4895       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4896       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4897       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4898 
  4899   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4900     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4901     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4902 
  4903   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4904     The proof pattern
  4905 
  4906       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4907       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4908 
  4909     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4910     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4911 
  4912       have "EX S. P S"
  4913       proof
  4914         show "P S" <...>
  4915       qed
  4916 
  4917   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4918     The proof pattern
  4919 
  4920       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4921       also have "S = T" <...>
  4922       finally have "P T" .
  4923 
  4924     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4925     must be replaced by something like
  4926 
  4927       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4928       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4929       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4930 
  4931   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4932     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4933 
  4934       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4935 
  4936     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4937     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4938     type of the form
  4939 
  4940       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4941 
  4942     rather than
  4943 
  4944       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4945 
  4946 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4947 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4948 
  4949 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4950 
  4951 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4952 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4956 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4959 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4962 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4963 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4966 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4967 
  4968   less_trans
  4969   less_linear
  4970   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4971   le_less_trans
  4972   less_le_trans
  4973   less_not_sym
  4974   less_asym
  4975 
  4976 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4977 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4978 and different variable names.
  4979 
  4980 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4981 
  4982 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4983 finite maps.
  4984 
  4985 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4986 
  4987 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4988 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4989 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4990 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4991 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4992 accordingly.
  4993 
  4994 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4995 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4996 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4997 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4998 
  4999 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5000 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5001 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5002 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5003 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 
  5006 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5007 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5008 
  5009 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5010 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5011 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5012 
  5013 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5017 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5018 
  5019 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5020 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5023 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5026 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5028 
  5029 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5030 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5031 
  5032 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5033 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5034 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5035 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5036 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5037 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5040 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5041 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5042 
  5043 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5044 
  5045 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5046 
  5047 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5048 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5049 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5050 
  5051 
  5052 *** ZF ***
  5053 
  5054 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5055 same session:
  5056 
  5057   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5058   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5059   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5060   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5061   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5062   List      -> List_ZF
  5063   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5064 
  5065 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5066 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5067 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5068 
  5069 
  5070 *** ML ***
  5071 
  5072 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5073 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5074 
  5075 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5076 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5077 
  5078 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5079 
  5080 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5081 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5082 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5083 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5084 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5085 
  5086 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5087 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5088 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5089 
  5090 
  5091 *** System ***
  5092 
  5093 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5094 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5095 
  5096 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5097 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5098 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5099 
  5100 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5101 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5102 
  5103 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5104 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5105 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5106 
  5107 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5108 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5109 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5110 
  5111 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5112 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5113 
  5114 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5115 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5116 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5117 script.
  5118 
  5119 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5120 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5121 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5122 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5123 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5124 
  5125 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5126 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5127 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5128 
  5129 
  5130 
  5131 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5132 -----------------------------------
  5133 
  5134 *** General ***
  5135 
  5136 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5137 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5138 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5139 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5140 
  5141 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5142 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5143 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5146 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5147 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5148 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5149 
  5150 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5151 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5152 quotes.
  5153 
  5154 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5155 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5156 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5157 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5158 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5159 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5160 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5161 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5162 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5163 
  5164 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5165 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5166 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5167 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5168 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5169 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5170 
  5171 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5172 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5173 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5174 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5175 
  5176 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5177 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5178 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5179 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5180 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5181 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5182 
  5183 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5184 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5185 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5186 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5187 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5188 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5189 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5190 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5191 
  5192 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5193 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5194 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5195 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5196 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5197 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5198 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5199 
  5200 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5201 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5202 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5203 
  5204 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5205 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5206 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5207 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5208 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5209 limit is imposed.
  5210 
  5211 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5212 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5213 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5214 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5215 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5216 and scalability.
  5217 
  5218 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5219 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5220 
  5221 
  5222 *** Document preparation ***
  5223 
  5224 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5225 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5226 current context.
  5227 
  5228 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5229 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5230 
  5231 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5232 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5233 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5234 
  5235 
  5236 *** Pure ***
  5237 
  5238 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5239 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5240 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5241 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5242 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5243 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5244 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5245 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5246 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5247 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5248 
  5249 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5250 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5251 sketch:
  5252 
  5253     internal compilation:
  5254         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5255     writing SML code to a file:
  5256         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5257     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5258         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5259     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5260         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5261 
  5262     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5263         method ``eval''
  5264 
  5265 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5266 
  5267 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5268 
  5269     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5270     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5271     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5272     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5273 
  5274 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5275 
  5276     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5277       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5278 
  5279     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5280       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5281 
  5282     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5283       {(target)}+
  5284         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5285 
  5286     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5287       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5288         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5289 
  5290 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5291 
  5292 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5293 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5294 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5295 codegen".
  5296 
  5297 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5298 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5299 annotations).
  5300 
  5301 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5302 syntax.
  5303 
  5304 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5305 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5306 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5307 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5308 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5309 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5310 
  5311 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5312 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5313 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5314 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5315 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5316 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5317 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5318 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5319 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5320 equations, see section "definitions".
  5321 
  5322 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5323 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5324 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5325 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5326 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5327 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5328 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5329 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5330 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5331 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5332 
  5333 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5334 configuration options:
  5335 
  5336   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5337   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5338   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5339   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5340   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5341   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5342   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5343   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5344   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5345 
  5346 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5347 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5348 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5349 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5350 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5351 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5352 order.
  5353 
  5354 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5355 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5356 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5357 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5358 context encountered later on.
  5359 
  5360 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5361 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5362 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5363 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5364 
  5365 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5366 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5367 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5368 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5369 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5370 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5371 
  5372 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5373 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5374 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5375 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5376 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5377 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5378 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5379 more permissive.
  5380 
  5381 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5382 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5383 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5384 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5385 maintainability of proof texts.
  5386 
  5387 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5388 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5389 
  5390   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5391   then guess x and y by clarify
  5392 
  5393 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5394 proof tools being involved here.
  5395 
  5396 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5397 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5398 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5399 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5400 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5401 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5402 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5403 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5404 
  5405 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5406 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5407 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5408 
  5409   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5410   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5411   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5412   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5413 
  5414 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5415 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5416 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5417 
  5418 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5419 both named and unnamed ones.
  5420 
  5421 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5422 
  5423   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5424 
  5425 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5426 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5427 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5428 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5429 
  5430 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5431 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5432 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5433 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5434 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5435 
  5436 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5437 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5438 
  5439 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5440 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5441 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5442 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5443 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5444 originally first one.
  5445 
  5446 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5447 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5448 expected.
  5449 
  5450 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5451 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5452 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5453 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5454 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5455 
  5456   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5457     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5458     obtains x where "P x"
  5459 
  5460   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5461     assumes "A & B"
  5462     obtains A and B
  5463 
  5464   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5465     assumes "A | B"
  5466     obtains
  5467       A
  5468     | B
  5469 
  5470 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5471 explicitly:
  5472 
  5473   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5474     obtains "~ thesis"
  5475 
  5476   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5477     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5478 
  5479 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5480 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5481 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5482 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5483 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5484 case_names).
  5485 
  5486 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5487 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5488 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5489 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5490 
  5491 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5492 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5493 top-level lemma.
  5494 
  5495 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5496 introduction rule (default "that").
  5497 
  5498 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5499 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5500 to occur.
  5501 
  5502 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5503 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5504 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5505 representations independently of name spaces.
  5506 
  5507 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5508 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5509 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5512 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5513 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5514 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5515 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5516 current context.
  5517 
  5518 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5519 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5520 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5521 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5522 
  5523   axiomatization
  5524     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5525     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5526 
  5527   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5528   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5529 
  5530   abbreviation
  5531     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5532     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5533 
  5534 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5535 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5536 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5537 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5538 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5539 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5540 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5541 
  5542 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5543 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5544 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5545 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5546 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5547 
  5548 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5549 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5550 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5551 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5552 
  5553 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5554 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5555 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5556 
  5557   definition "K x _ = x"
  5558 
  5559   inductive conj for A B
  5560   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5561 
  5562 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5563 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5564 abbreviations on output.
  5565 
  5566 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5567 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5568 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5569 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5570 
  5571 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5572 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5573 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5574 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5575 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5576 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5577 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5578 
  5579 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5580 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5581 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5582 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5583 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5584 
  5585 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5586 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5587 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5588 
  5589 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5590 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5591 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5592 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5593 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5594 
  5595   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5596     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5597 
  5598 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5599 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5600 partial_order.
  5601 
  5602 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5603 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5604 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5605 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5606 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5607 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5608 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5609 examples.
  5610 
  5611 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5612 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5613 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5614 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5615 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5616 
  5617 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5618 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5619 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5620 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5621 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5622 
  5623   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5624   (induct set: foo bar)
  5625   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5626   (induct type: foo bar)
  5627 
  5628 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5629 new format.
  5630 
  5631 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5632 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5633 
  5634 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5635 considered a legacy feature.
  5636 
  5637 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5638 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5639 
  5640 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5641 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5642 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5643 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5644   
  5645 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5646 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5647 manipulating the claset.
  5648 
  5649 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5650 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5651 least one premise.
  5652 
  5653 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5654 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5655 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5656 rule steps.
  5657 
  5658 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5659 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5660 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5661 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5662 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5663 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5664 
  5665 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5666 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5667 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5668 
  5669 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5670 the graph browser tool.
  5671 
  5672 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5673 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5674 
  5675 
  5676 *** HOL ***
  5677 
  5678 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5679 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5680 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5681 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5682 multi-threading.
  5683   
  5684 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5685 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5686 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5687 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5688 work with multi-threading.
  5689 
  5690 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5691 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5692 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5693 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5694 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5695 
  5696 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5697 
  5698 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5699 equality.
  5700 
  5701 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5702 the new 'class' package:
  5703 
  5704     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5705     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5706     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5707     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5708     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5709     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5710     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5711     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5712     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5713     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5714     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5715     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5716     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5717     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5718     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5719     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5720     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5721     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5722     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5723     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5724 
  5725 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5726 
  5727 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5728 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5729 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5730 names.
  5731 
  5732 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5733 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5734 
  5735 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5736 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5737 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5738 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5739 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5740 
  5741 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5742 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5743 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5744 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5745 
  5746 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5747 
  5748 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5749 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5750 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5751 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5753 
  5754 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5755 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5756 
  5757 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5758 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5759 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5760 
  5761 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5762 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5763 
  5764 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5765 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5766 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5767 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5768 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5769 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5770 in the current context.
  5771 
  5772 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5773 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5775 
  5776 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5777 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5778 
  5779 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5780 
  5781     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5782     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5783 
  5784     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5785       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5786     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5787     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5788 
  5789     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5790     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5791 
  5792   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5793 
  5794     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5795     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5796     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5797     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5798     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5799     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5800     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5801     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5802     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5803     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5804     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5805     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5806     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5807     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5808     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5809     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5810     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5811     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5812     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5813     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5814     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5815     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5816     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5817     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5818     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5819     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5820     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5821     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5822     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5823     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5824     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5825     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5826     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5827     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5828     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5829 
  5830     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5831     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5832     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5833     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5834     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5835     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5836     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5837     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5838     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5839     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5840     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5841     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5842     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5843     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5844     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5845     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5846     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5847 
  5848     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5849     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5850     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5851     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5852     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5853     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5854     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5855     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5856     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5857     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5858     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5859     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5860     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5861     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5862     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5863     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5864     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5865     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5866     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5867     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5868     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5869     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5870     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5871     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5872     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5873     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5874     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5875     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5876 
  5877     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5878     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5879     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5880     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5881     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5882     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5883 
  5884     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5885     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5886     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5887     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5888 
  5889     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5890     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5891 
  5892     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5893     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5894 
  5895 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5896 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5897 
  5898 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5899 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5900 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5901 "*.size".
  5902 
  5903 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5905 
  5906 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5907 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5908 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5909 
  5910 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5911 
  5912 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5913 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5914 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5915 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5916 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5917 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5918 numerals on all operations.
  5919 
  5920 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5921 
  5922 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5923 
  5924 * Code generator library theories:
  5925   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5926     languages.
  5927   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5928     languages.
  5929   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5930     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5931   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5932   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5933     denominator).
  5934   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5935     representable by rational numbers.
  5936   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5937     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5938     includes Code_Integer.
  5939   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5940     target-language built-in integers.
  5941   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5942     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5943 
  5944 * New package for inductive predicates
  5945 
  5946   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5947 
  5948     inductive
  5949       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5950       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5951     where
  5952       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5953     | ...
  5954 
  5955   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5956 
  5957     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5958 
  5959     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5960     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5961 
  5962     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5963     intros
  5964       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5965       ...
  5966 
  5967   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5968   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5969 
  5970     inductive_set
  5971       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5972       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5973     where
  5974       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5975     | ...
  5976 
  5977   or
  5978 
  5979     inductive_set
  5980       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5981       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5982       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5983     where
  5984       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5985     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5986     | ...
  5987 
  5988   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5989 
  5990   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5991   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5992 
  5993   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5994 
  5995   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5996     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5997     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5998     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5999     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6000 
  6001   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6002     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6003     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6004     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6005     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6006     statements of the form
  6007 
  6008       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6009 
  6010     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6011     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6012 
  6013       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6014 
  6015   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6016 
  6017       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6018         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6019         ==> ... ==> P
  6020 
  6021     for predicates and
  6022 
  6023       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6024         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6025         ==> ... ==> P
  6026 
  6027     for sets rather than
  6028 
  6029       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6030         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6031         ==> ... ==> P
  6032 
  6033     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6034     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6035     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6036 
  6037   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6038     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6039     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6040 
  6041 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6042 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6043 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6044 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6045 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6046 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6047 
  6048 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6049 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6050 
  6051 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6052 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6053 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6054 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6055 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6056 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6057 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6058 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6059 variable.
  6060 
  6061 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6062 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6063 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6064 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6065   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6066   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6067 
  6068 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6069 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6070 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6071 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6072 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6073 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6074 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6075 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6076 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6077 
  6078 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6079 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6080 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6081 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6082 rat, etc.
  6083 
  6084 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6085 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6086 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6087 
  6088 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6089 
  6090 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6091 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6092 
  6093 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6094 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6095 
  6096 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6097 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6098 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6099 
  6100 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6101 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6103 
  6104 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6105 
  6106 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6107 
  6108 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6109 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6110 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6111 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6112 
  6113 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6114 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6115 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6116 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6117 
  6118 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6119 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6120 algebraic operations.
  6121 
  6122 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6124 
  6125 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6127 
  6128 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6129 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6130 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6131 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6132 adapted.
  6133  
  6134 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6135 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6136 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6137 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6138 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6139 
  6140 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6141 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6142 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6143 
  6144 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6145 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6146 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6147 
  6148 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6149 
  6150 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6151 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6152 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6153   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6154       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6155   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6156   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6157   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6158 
  6159 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6160 
  6161 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6162 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6163 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6164 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6165 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6166 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6167 
  6168 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6169 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6170 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6171 
  6172 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6173 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6174 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6176 
  6177 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6178 
  6179 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6180 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6181 
  6182 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6183 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6184 
  6185 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6186 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6187 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6188 
  6189 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6190 True/False.
  6191 
  6192 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6193 
  6194 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6195 
  6196 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6197 ``rule'' method.
  6198 
  6199 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6200 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6201 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6202 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6203 
  6204 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6205 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6206 
  6207 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6208 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6209 
  6210 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6211 Library.
  6212 
  6213 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6214 
  6215 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6216 as greatest fixed-point.
  6217 
  6218 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6219 association lists.
  6220 
  6221 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6222 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6223 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6224 
  6225 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6226 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6227 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6228 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6229 behavior.
  6230 
  6231 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6232 
  6233 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6234 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6235 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6236 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6237 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6238 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6239 
  6240 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6241 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6242 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code