NEWS
author haftmann
Fri May 09 08:13:36 2014 +0200 (2014-05-09)
changeset 56923 c062543d380e
parent 56901 2f73ef9eb272
child 56927 4044a7d1720f
permissions -rw-r--r--
prefer separate command for approximation
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 
   141 *** Pure ***
   142 
   143 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   144 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   145 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   146 renaming needs to be applied:
   147 
   148   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   149   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   150   all            ~>  Pure.all
   151   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   152   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   153 
   154 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   155 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   156 old constants:
   157 
   158 setup {*
   159   fn thy => thy
   160     |> Sign.root_path
   161     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   162     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   163     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   164     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   165 *}
   166 
   167 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   168 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   169 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   170 
   171 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   172 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   173 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   174 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   175 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   176 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   177 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   178 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   179 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   180 
   181 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   182 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   183 instantiated theorem.
   184 
   185 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   186 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   187 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   188 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   189 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   190 
   191   attribute_setup standard =
   192     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   193 
   194 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   195 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   196 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   197 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   198 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   199 
   200 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   201 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   202 differently).
   203 
   204 
   205 *** HOL ***
   206 
   207 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   208 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATBILITY.
   209 
   210 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   211   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   212   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   213   and SUP instead uniformly.
   214   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   215   or SUP and Sup.
   216   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   217   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   218   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   219   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   220   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   224   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   225   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   226   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   227   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   228   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   231   can now deal with conjunctions.
   232   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   233   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   234   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   235 
   236 * HOL-Word:
   237   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   238   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   239   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   240   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   241   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   242 
   243 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   244 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   250 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   253 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   256 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   257 
   258 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   259   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   260   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   261   Theory renamings:
   262     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   263     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   264     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   265     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   266     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   267     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   268     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   269     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   270     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   271     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   272     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   273     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   274     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   275     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   276     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   277     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   278     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   279     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   280     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   281     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   282     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   283     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   284   New theories:
   285     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   286     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   287     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   288     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   289     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   290   Discontinued theories:
   291     BNF/BNF.thy
   292     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   293   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   294 
   295 * New (co)datatype package:
   296   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   297   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   298     required by "fun".
   299   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   300     with Transfer.
   301   * Renamed commands:
   302       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   303       primrec_new ~> primrec
   304       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   305     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   307     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   310     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   311     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312 
   313 * Old datatype package:
   314   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   315     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   316     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   318     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   319     "case_prod").
   320     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   321 
   322 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   323   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   324   datatype package.
   325   Renamed constants:
   326     Option.set ~> set_option
   327     Option.map ~> map_option
   328     option_rel ~> rel_option
   329   Renamed theorems:
   330     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   331     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   332     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   333     option.recs ~> option.rec
   334     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   335     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   336     map.simps ~> list.map
   337     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   338     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   339     the.simps ~> option.sel
   340   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   341 
   342 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   343     sum_map ~> map_sum
   344     map_pair ~> map_prod
   345     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   346     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   347     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   348     set_rel ~> rel_set
   349     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   350     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   351     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   352     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   353 
   354 * New theory:
   355     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   356 
   357 * Theory reorganizations:
   358   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   359 
   360 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   361   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   362   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   363   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   364   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   365   the old default can be restored using
   366   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 * SMT module:
   369   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   370     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   371     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   372     elsewhere.
   373 
   374 * Sledgehammer:
   375   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   376   - New option:
   377       smt_proofs
   378   - Renamed options:
   379       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   380       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   381     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 * Metis:
   384   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   385     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   388 
   389 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   392 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   393 
   394 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   395 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   396 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   397 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   398 
   399 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   401 
   402 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   403 with the given constants.
   404 
   405 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   406 
   407 Fact consolidations:
   408     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   409     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   410     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   411     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   412     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   413     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   414     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   415     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   416     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   417     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   418     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   419     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   420     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   421     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   422     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   423     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   424     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   425     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   426     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   427     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   428     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   429     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   430     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   431     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   432     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   433     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   434     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   435     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   436     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   437     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   438     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   439     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   440     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   441     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   442     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   443     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   444     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   445     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   446     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   447     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   448 
   449 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   450 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   451 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   452 
   453 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   454 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   455 
   456 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   457 
   458 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   459 
   460 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   465 
   466 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   467 operations on records.
   468 
   469 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   471 
   472 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   473     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   475 
   476 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   477     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   478     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   482   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   483   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   484   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   485     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   486   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   487     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   488   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   489 INCOMPATBILITY.
   490 
   491 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   492     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   493     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   494     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   495     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * Fact name consolidation:
   499     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   500     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   501     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   502     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   503     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   507 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   508 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   509 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   510 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   511 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   512 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   513 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   514 
   515 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   516 
   517 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   518 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   519 
   520 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   521 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   522 
   523 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   524 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   525 or the brute way with
   526 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   527 
   528 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   529 
   530 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   531 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   534 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   535 
   536 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   537 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   538 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   539 INCOMPATIBILITY
   540 
   541 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   542   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   543   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   544   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   545   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   546   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   547   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   548   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   549   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   550   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   551   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   552   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   553 
   554   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   555 
   556   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   557     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   558     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   559     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   560     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   564   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   565 
   566   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   567 
   568   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   569 
   570   - removed constant isDiff
   571 
   572   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   573     syntax.
   574 
   575   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   576 
   577   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   578 
   579   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   580 
   581   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   582 
   583   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   584     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   585 
   586   - Other renamings:
   587     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   588     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   589     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   590     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   591     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   592     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   593     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   595 
   596 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   597   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   598 
   599 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   600   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   601   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   602 
   603   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   604   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   605   removes
   606     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   607 
   608   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   609     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   610 
   611   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   612 
   613   Renamings:
   614     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   615     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   616     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   617     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   618     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   619     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   620     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   621     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   622     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   623     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   624     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   625     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   626 
   627     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   628     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   629     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   630 
   631   Removed theorems:
   632     complex_zero_def
   633     complex_add_def
   634     complex_minus_def
   635     complex_diff_def
   636     complex_one_def
   637     complex_mult_def
   638     complex_inverse_def
   639     complex_scaleR_def
   640 
   641 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   642 
   643 * Nitpick:
   644   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   645     infinite values.
   646   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   647     "Rep_Integ".
   648   - Removed "std" option.
   649   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   650     "hide_types".
   651 
   652 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   653   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   654   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   655     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   656     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   657     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   658     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   659     intervals.
   660 
   661   - renamed theorems:
   662     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   663     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   664     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   665 
   666 
   667 *** Scala ***
   668 
   669 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   670 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   671 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   672 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   673 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 
   676 *** ML ***
   677 
   678 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   679 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   680 
   681 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   682 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   683 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   684 
   685 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   689 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   690 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   694 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   695 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   696 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   697 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   698 of schematic variables.
   699 
   700 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   701 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   703 formal context.
   704 
   705 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   706 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   707 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   708 actually belongs to it).
   709 
   710 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   711 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   712 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   713 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   714 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   715 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   716 
   717 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   718 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   719 
   720 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   721 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   722 
   723 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   724 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   725 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   726 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   727 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   728 
   729 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   730 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   731 purposes.
   732 
   733 
   734 *** System ***
   735 
   736 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   737 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   738 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   739 processing is started.
   740 
   741 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   742 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   743 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   744 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   745 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   746 
   747 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   748 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   749 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   750 
   751 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   752 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   753 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   754 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   755 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   756 settings variable yet.
   757 
   758 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   759 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   760 
   761 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   762 -------------------------------------
   763 
   764 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   765 
   766 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   767 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   768 
   769 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   770 after edits surrounding the command location.
   771 
   772 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   773 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   774 e.g. out-of-memory).
   775 
   776 
   777 *** System ***
   778 
   779 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   780 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   781 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   782 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   783 
   784 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   785 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   786 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   787 
   788 
   789 
   790 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   791 -------------------------------------
   792 
   793 *** General ***
   794 
   795 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   796 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   797 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   798 
   799 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   800 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801 
   802 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   803 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   804 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   805 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   806 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   807 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   808 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   809 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   810 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   811 syntax.
   812 
   813 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   814 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   815 
   816 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   817 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   818 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   819 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   820 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   821 
   822 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824 
   825 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   826 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   827 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   828 
   829 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   830 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   831 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   832 
   833 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   834 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   835 
   836 
   837 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   838 
   839 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   840 Documentation panel.
   841 
   842 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   843 documentation.
   844 
   845 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   846 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   847 
   848 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   849 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   850 normal editing and checking process.
   851 
   852 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   853 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   854 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   855 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   856 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   857 
   858 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   859 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   860 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   861 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   862 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   863 
   864 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   865 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   866 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   867 
   868 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   869 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   870 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   871 to resolve conflict.
   872 
   873 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   874 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   875 
   876 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   877 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   878 such command executions while editing.
   879 
   880 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   881 document content.
   882 
   883 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   884 toplevel theorem statements.
   885 
   886 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   887 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   888 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   889 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   890 
   891 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   892 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   893 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   894 
   895 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   896 / Global Options / Appearance".
   897 
   898 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   899 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   900 
   901 
   902 *** Pure ***
   903 
   904 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   905 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   906 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   907 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   908 details.
   909 
   910 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   911 
   912 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   913 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   914 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   915 
   916 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   920 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   921 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   922 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923 
   924 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   925 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   926 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   929 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   930 
   931 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   932 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   933 situations.
   934 
   935 
   936 *** HOL ***
   937 
   938 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   939 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   941 
   942 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   943 
   944 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   945 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   946 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   947 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   948 
   949   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   950 
   951 * Code generator:
   952   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   953     'code_instance'.
   954   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   955     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   956 
   957 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   958 examples.
   959 
   960 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   961 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   962 to distinguish both when desired.
   963 
   964 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   965 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   966 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   967 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   968 
   969 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   970 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   971 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   972 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   973 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   974 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   977 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   978 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   979 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   980 
   981 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   982 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   983 
   984 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   985 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   986 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   987 
   988 * Lifting:
   989   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   990     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   991       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   992       transfer rules
   993     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   994       correspondence relation can be generated
   995     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   996       parametricity
   997     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   998   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   999   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1000     copies
  1001   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1002     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1003     anonymous context)
  1004   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1005     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1006   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1007     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1008   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1009     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1010 
  1011 * Transfer:
  1012   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1013     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1014   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1015   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1016     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1017   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1018 
  1019 * Reification and reflection:
  1020   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1021     "Reification".
  1022   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1023   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1027   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1028     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1029     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1030   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1031     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1032   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1033     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1034     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1035     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1036     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1037     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1038     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1039     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1040   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1041     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1042   - Fact renames:
  1043       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1044       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1048 
  1049 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1050 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1051 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053 
  1054 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1055 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1056 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1057 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1058 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1059 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1060 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1061 lemmas.
  1062 
  1063 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1064 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1065 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1068 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1069 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1070 
  1071 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1072 top and bottom elements.
  1073 
  1074 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1075 
  1076 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1077 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1078 
  1079  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1080    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1081    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1082 
  1083  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1084    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1085    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1086 
  1087    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1088    arbitrary filter.
  1089 
  1090  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1091    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1092    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1093    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1094    on a compact set.
  1095 
  1096  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1097    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1098    linear_continuum_topology).
  1099 
  1100  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1101    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1102    on all sequences converging to x.
  1103 
  1104  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1105    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1106    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1107    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1108    left or right.
  1109 
  1110  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1111 
  1112      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1113 
  1114  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1115    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1116 
  1117  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1118    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1119    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1120    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1121    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1122    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1123 
  1124  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1125 
  1126    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1127 
  1128    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1129      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1130 
  1131    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1132 
  1133    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1134      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1135 
  1136    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1137 
  1138    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1139 
  1140  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1141 
  1142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1143 
  1144 * Nitpick:
  1145   - Added option "spy".
  1146   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1147 
  1148 * Sledgehammer:
  1149   - Renamed option:
  1150       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1151     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1153   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1154   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1155 
  1156 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1157 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1158 
  1159 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1160   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1161   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1162     generated code.
  1163   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1164   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1165   - Fact renames:
  1166     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1167     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1168     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1169 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1170 
  1171 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1172 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1173 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1174 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1175 
  1176 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1177 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1178 
  1179 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1180 
  1181 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1182 
  1183     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1184     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1185 
  1186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1187 
  1188 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1189 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1190 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1191 
  1192 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1193 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1194 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1195 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1196 
  1197 * HOL-BNF:
  1198   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1199     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1200     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1201     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1202   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1203     coinduct).
  1204   - Renamed keywords:
  1205     data ~> datatype_new
  1206     codata ~> codatatype
  1207     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1208   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1209     discs ~> disc
  1210     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1211     map_id' ~> map_id
  1212     sels ~> sel
  1213     set_map' ~> set_map
  1214     sets ~> set
  1215 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1216 
  1217 
  1218 *** ML ***
  1219 
  1220 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1221 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1222 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1223 Examples.thy in particular.
  1224 
  1225 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1226 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1227 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1228 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1229 
  1230 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1231 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1232 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1233 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1235 
  1236 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1237 
  1238     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1239     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1240 
  1241 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1242 
  1243 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1244 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1245 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1246 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1247 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1248 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1249 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1250 
  1251 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1252 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1253 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1254 clasets separately from the context.
  1255 
  1256 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1257 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1258 
  1259 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1260 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1261 
  1262 
  1263 *** System ***
  1264 
  1265 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1266 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1267 
  1268 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1269 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1270 
  1271 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1272 settings variable.
  1273 
  1274 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1275 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1276 always pdf.
  1277 
  1278 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1279 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1280 
  1281 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1282 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1283 
  1284 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1285 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1286 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1287 
  1288 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1289 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1290 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1291 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1292 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1293 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1294 
  1295 
  1296 
  1297 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1298 -----------------------------------
  1299 
  1300 *** General ***
  1301 
  1302 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1303 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1304 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1305 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1306 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1307 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1308 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1309 
  1310 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1311 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1312 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1313 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1314 
  1315 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1316 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1317 
  1318 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1319 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1320 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1321 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1322 dependencies properly.
  1323 
  1324 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1325 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1326 
  1327 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1328 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1329 
  1330 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1331 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1332 and "class ... context ...".
  1333 
  1334 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1335 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1336 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1337 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1338 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1339 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1340 
  1341 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1342 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1343 
  1344 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1345 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1346 
  1347 
  1348 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1349 
  1350 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1351 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1352 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1353 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1354 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1355 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1356 
  1357 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1358 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1359 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1360 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1361 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1362 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1363 
  1364 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1365 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1366 browser on demand.
  1367 
  1368 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1369 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1370 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1371 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1372 
  1373 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1374 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1375 
  1376 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1377 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1378 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1379 potentially infinite message streams.
  1380 
  1381 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1382 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1383 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1384 schemes.
  1385 
  1386 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1387 symbols.
  1388 
  1389 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1390 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1391 
  1392 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1393 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1394 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1395 
  1396 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1397 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1398 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1399 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1400 
  1401 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1402 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1403 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1404 
  1405 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1406 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1407 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1408 Isabelle distribution.
  1409 
  1410 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1411 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1412 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1413 
  1414 
  1415 *** Pure ***
  1416 
  1417 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1418 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1419 
  1420 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1421 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1422 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1425 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1426 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1427 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1428 with some care where this is really required.
  1429 
  1430 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1431 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1432 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1433 
  1434   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1435 
  1436 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1437 a Hasse diagram.
  1438 
  1439 
  1440 *** HOL ***
  1441 
  1442 * Sledgehammer:
  1443 
  1444   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1445     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1446   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1447   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1448   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1449   - Renamed options:
  1450       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1451       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1452       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1453       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1454 
  1455 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1456 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1457 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1458 
  1459 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * Lifting:
  1463   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1464   - quot_del attribute
  1465   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1466 
  1467 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1468 expressions.
  1469 
  1470 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1471 pointfree expressions.
  1472 
  1473 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1474 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1475 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1476 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1480 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1481 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1482 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1483 accordingly.
  1484 
  1485 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1486 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1487 
  1488 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1489 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1492 
  1493 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1494 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1495 
  1496 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1497 
  1498 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1499 
  1500   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1501   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1502 
  1503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1504 
  1505 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1506 
  1507   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1508   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1509 
  1510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1513 
  1514   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1515     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1516     output f x converges to G.
  1517 
  1518   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1519     infinity (at_bot).
  1520 
  1521   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1522     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1523 
  1524   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1525     at_top".
  1526 
  1527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528 
  1529 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1530 lattice type classes.
  1531 
  1532 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1533 
  1534     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1535     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1536 
  1537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1540 changes as follows.
  1541 
  1542   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1543 
  1544       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1545       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1546 
  1547   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1548     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1549     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1550     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1551 
  1552   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1553     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1554     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1555 
  1556   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1557     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1558     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1559     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1560 
  1561   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1562     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1563 
  1564       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1565       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1566       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1567       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1568       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1569       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1570       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1571       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1572       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1573       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1574       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1575       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1576       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1577       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1578       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1579       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1580 
  1581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1582 
  1583 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1584 
  1585 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1586 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1587 
  1588 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1589 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1590 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1591 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1592 
  1593   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1594   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1595   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1596   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1597   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1598   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1599   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1600   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1601   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1602   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1603 
  1604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1605 
  1606 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1607 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1608 Data").
  1609 
  1610 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1611 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1612 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1613 code.
  1614 
  1615 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1616 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1617 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1621 
  1622 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1623 
  1624 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1625 
  1626   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1627   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1628 
  1629 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1630 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1631 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1632 
  1633   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1634 
  1635     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1636     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1637     cart_base i  removed
  1638     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1639 
  1640   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1641 
  1642   Renamed lemmas:
  1643 
  1644     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1645     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1646     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1647     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1648     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1649     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1650     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1651     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1652     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1653     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1654 
  1655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * HOL/Probability:
  1658 
  1659   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1660 
  1661   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1662     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1663     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1664 
  1665   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1666     projective family).
  1667 
  1668 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1669 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1670 
  1671 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1672 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1673 datatypes.
  1674 
  1675 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1676 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1677 
  1678 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1679 trees for the code generator.
  1680 
  1681 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1682 Lifting/Transfer.
  1683 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 
  1689 *** Document preparation ***
  1690 
  1691 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1692 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1693 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1694 
  1695 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1696 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1697 
  1698 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1699 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1700 document/root.tex.
  1701 
  1702 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1703 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705 
  1706 *** ML ***
  1707 
  1708 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1709 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1710 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1711 
  1712 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1713 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1714 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1715 
  1716 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1717 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1718 necessarily printing visible text.
  1719 
  1720 
  1721 *** System ***
  1722 
  1723 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1724 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1725 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1726 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1727 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1728 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1729 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1730 
  1731 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1732 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1733 
  1734   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1735 
  1736 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1737 
  1738 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1739 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1740 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1741 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1742 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1743 
  1744 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1745 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1746 
  1747 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1748 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1749 
  1750 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1752 
  1753 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1754 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1755 version of Isabelle.
  1756 
  1757 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1758 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1759 
  1760 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1761 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1762 for home-made settings.
  1763 
  1764 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1765 
  1766 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1767 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1768 configuration.
  1769 
  1770 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1771 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1772 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1773 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1774 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1775 
  1776 
  1777 
  1778 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1779 ------------------------------
  1780 
  1781 *** General ***
  1782 
  1783 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1784 
  1785   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1786     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1787   - markup for bound variables
  1788   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1789   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1790   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1791     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1792 
  1793 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1794 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1795 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1796 
  1797 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1798 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1799 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1800 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1801 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1802 
  1803   context
  1804     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1805     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1806   begin
  1807 
  1808   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1809 
  1810   end
  1811 
  1812   thm my_trans
  1813 
  1814 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1815 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1816 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1817 
  1818 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1819 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1820 
  1821 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1822 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1823 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1824 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1825 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1826 
  1827 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1828 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1829 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1830 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1831 indices of schematic variables.
  1832 
  1833 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1834 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1835 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1836 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1837 etc. was exploited.
  1838 
  1839 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1840 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1841 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1842 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1843 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1844 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1845 
  1846 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1847 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1848 manual.
  1849 
  1850 
  1851 *** Pure ***
  1852 
  1853 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1854 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1855 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1856 
  1857 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1858 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1859 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1860 undocumented feature.)
  1861 
  1862 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1863 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1864 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1865 
  1866   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1867 
  1868   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1869     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1870 
  1871 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1872 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1873 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1874 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1875 
  1876 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1877 
  1878     num ~> num_token
  1879     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1880     xstr ~> str_token
  1881 
  1882 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1883 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1884 position information via constraints).
  1885 
  1886 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1887 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1888 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889 
  1890 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1891 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1892 
  1893 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1894 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1895 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1898 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1899 
  1900 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1901 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1902 
  1903   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1904 
  1905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1906 
  1907 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1908 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1911 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1912 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1913 
  1914 
  1915 *** HOL ***
  1916 
  1917 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1918 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1919 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1920 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1921 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1922 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1923 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1924 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1925 possible.
  1926 
  1927 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1928 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1929 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1930 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1931 
  1932 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1933 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1934 
  1935 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1936 
  1937 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1938 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1939 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1940 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1941 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1942 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1943 
  1944   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1945     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1946 
  1947   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1948     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1949     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1950 
  1951   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1952     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1953 
  1954   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1955     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1956     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1957 
  1958   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1959     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1960 
  1961 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1962 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1963 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1964 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1965 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1966 
  1967   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1968     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1969     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1970     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1971     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1972 
  1973     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1974     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1975 
  1976   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1977     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1978     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1979     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1980     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1981     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1982     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1983     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1984 
  1985   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1986     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1987     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1988     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1989 
  1990   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1991     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1992     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1993     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1994 
  1995   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1996     from type nat to type int.
  1997 
  1998 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1999 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2000 
  2001   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2002     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2003     type.  Example syntax:
  2004 
  2005     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2006       is List.insert
  2007 
  2008     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2009     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2010     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2011     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2012     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2013     by the package.
  2014 
  2015   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2016     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2017     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2018     code generation for each constant.
  2019 
  2020   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2021     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2022     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2023     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2024     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2025 
  2026   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2027     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2028     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2029 
  2030 * Quotient package:
  2031 
  2032   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2033     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2034 
  2035   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2036     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2037 
  2038   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2039     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2040     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2043     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2044 
  2045 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2046 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2047 
  2048 * Quickcheck:
  2049 
  2050   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2051     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2052     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2053     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2054     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2055 
  2056     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2057     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2058     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2059 
  2060     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2061     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2062 
  2063     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2064     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2065     show genuine counterexamples.
  2066 
  2067   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2068     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2069 
  2070     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2071     constructors of that type.
  2072 
  2073   - Support for multisets.
  2074 
  2075   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2076 
  2077   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2078     conjectures in a locale context.
  2079 
  2080 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2081 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2082 
  2083 * Sledgehammer:
  2084   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2085     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2086   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2087   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2088     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2089   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2090   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2091   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2092   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2093 
  2094 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2095 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2096 
  2097 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2098 
  2099 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2100 
  2101 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2102 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2103 
  2104   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2105 
  2106 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2107 a list and a nat.
  2108 
  2109 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2110 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2111 
  2112 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2113 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2114 default.
  2115 
  2116 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2117 
  2118   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2119 
  2120 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2121 
  2122 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2123 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2124 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2125 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2126 one_case.
  2127 
  2128 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2129 the result of the fact expression.
  2130 
  2131 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2132 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2133 of some relation theorems:
  2134 
  2135   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2136   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2137   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2138   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2139   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2140   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2141 
  2142 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2143 
  2144 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2145 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2146 
  2147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2150 to match the constant's name:
  2151 
  2152   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2153   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2154   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2155   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2156   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2157   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2158   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2159   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2160   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2161   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2162   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2163   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2164   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2165   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2166   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2167   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2168   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2169   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2170   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2171   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2172   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2173   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2174   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2175   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2176 
  2177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2178 
  2179 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2180 and corresponding theorem names:
  2181 
  2182   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2183 
  2184   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2185 
  2186   - Renamed theorems:
  2187 
  2188     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2189     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2190     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2191     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2192     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2193     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2194     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2195     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2196     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2197     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2198     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2199     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2200     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2201     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2202     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2203     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2204     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2205     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2206     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2207     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2208     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2209     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2210     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2211 
  2212     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2213 
  2214     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2215 
  2216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2219 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2220 
  2221   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2222   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2223   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2224   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2225   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2226   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2227   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2228   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2229   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2230   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2231   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2232   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2233   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2234   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2235   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2236   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2237   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2238   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2239   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2240   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2241   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2242 
  2243 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2244 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2245 
  2246 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2249 
  2250   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2251   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2252   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2253   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2254   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2255   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2256   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2257   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2258   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2259   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2260   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2261   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2262   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2263   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2264   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2265   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2266   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2267   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2268 
  2269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2272 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2273 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2274 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2275 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2276 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2277 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2278 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2279 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2280 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2281 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2282 
  2283 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2284 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2285 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2286 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2287 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2288 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2289 
  2290 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2291 through option types.
  2292 
  2293 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2294 relations.
  2295 
  2296 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2299 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2300 
  2301   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2302   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2303   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2304   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2305   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2306   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2307   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2308   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2309   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2310   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2311   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2312   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2313   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2314   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2315   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2316   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2317   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2318   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2319   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2320   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2321   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2322   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2323   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2324   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2325   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2326   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2327   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2328   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2329   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2330   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2331   zless_le ~> less_le
  2332   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2333   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2334   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2335 
  2336 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2337 
  2338   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2339 
  2340 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2341 
  2342 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2343 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2344 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2345 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2349 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2350 
  2351 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2352 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2353 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2354 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2355 follows:
  2356 
  2357   Operations:
  2358   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2359   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2360   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2361   del -> rbt_del
  2362   delete -> rbt_delete
  2363   ins -> rbt_ins
  2364   insert -> rbt_insert
  2365   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2366   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2367   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2368   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2369   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2370   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2371   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2372   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2373   union -> rbt_union
  2374   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2375   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2376 
  2377   Lemmas:
  2378   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2379   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2380   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2381   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2382   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2383   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2384   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2385   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2386   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2387   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2388   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2389   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2390   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2391   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2392   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2393   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2394   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2395   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2396   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2397   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2398   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2399   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2400   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2401   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2402   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2403   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2404   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2405   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2406   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2407   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2408   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2409   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2410   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2411   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2412   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2413   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2414   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2415   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2416   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2417   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2418   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2419   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2420   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2421   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2422   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2423   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2424   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2425   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2426   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2427   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2428   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2429   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2430   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2431   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2432   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2433   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2434   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2435   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2436   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2437   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2438   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2439   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2440   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2441   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2442   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2443   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2444   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2445   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2446   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2447   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2448   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2449   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2450   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2451   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2452   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2453   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2454   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2455   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2456   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2457   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2458   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2459   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2460   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2461 
  2462 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2463 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2464 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465 
  2466   Changed Operations:
  2467   float_abs -> abs
  2468   float_nprt -> nprt
  2469   float_pprt -> pprt
  2470   pow2 -> use powr
  2471   round_down -> float_round_down
  2472   round_up -> float_round_up
  2473   scale -> exponent
  2474 
  2475   Removed Operations:
  2476   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2477 
  2478   Renamed Lemmas:
  2479   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2480   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2481   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2482   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2483   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2484   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2485   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2486   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2487   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2488   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2489   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2490   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2491   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2492   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2493   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2494   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2495   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2496   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2497   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2498   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2499   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2500   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2501   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2502   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2503   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2504   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2505   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2506   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2507   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2508   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2509   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2510   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2511   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2512   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2513   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2514   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2515 
  2516   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2517   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2518   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2519   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2520   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2521   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2522   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2523   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2524   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2525   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2526 
  2527 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2528 association lists with distinct keys.
  2529 
  2530 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2531 annotated commands.
  2532 
  2533 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2534 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2535 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2536 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2539 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2540 instead.
  2541 
  2542   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2543   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2544   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2545   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2546   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2547   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2548   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2549   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2550   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2551   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2552   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2553   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2554   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2555   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2556   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2557   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2558   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2559   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2560   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2561   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2562   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2563   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2564   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2565   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2566   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2567   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2568   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2569   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2570   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2571   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2572   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2573   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2574   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2575   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2576   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2577   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2578   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2579   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2580   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2581   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2582   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2583 
  2584 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2585 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2586 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2587 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2588 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2589 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2590 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2591 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2592 
  2593 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2594 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2595 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2596 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2597 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2598 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2599 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2600 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2601 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2602 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2603 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2604 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2605 
  2606   Renamed constants:
  2607   measure -> emeasure
  2608   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2609   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2610   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2611   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2612 
  2613   Removed locales:
  2614   completeable_measure_space
  2615   finite_measure_space
  2616   finite_prob_space
  2617   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2618   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2619   finite_sigma_algebra
  2620   measure_space
  2621   pair_finite_prob_space
  2622   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2623   pair_finite_space
  2624   pair_sigma_algebra
  2625   product_sigma_algebra
  2626 
  2627   Removed constants:
  2628   conditional_space
  2629   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2630   image_space
  2631   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2632   pair_measure_generator
  2633   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2634   subvimage
  2635 
  2636   Replacement theorems:
  2637   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2638   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2639   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2640   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2641   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2642   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2643   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2644   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2645   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2646   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2647   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2648   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2649   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2650   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2651   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2652   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2653   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2654   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2655   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2656   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2657   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2658   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2659   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2660   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2661   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2662   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2663   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2664   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2665   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2666   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2667   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2668   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2669   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2670   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2671   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2672   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2673   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2674   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2675   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2676   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2677   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2678   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2679   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2680   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2681   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2682   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2683   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2684   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2685   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2686   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2687   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2688   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2689   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2690   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2691   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2692   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2693   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2694   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2695   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2696   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2697   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2698   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2699   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2700   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2701   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2702   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2703   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2704   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2705   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2706   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2707   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2708   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2709   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2710   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2711   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2712   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2713   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2714   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2715   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2716   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2717   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2718   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2719   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2720   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2721   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2722   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2723   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2724   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2725   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2726   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2727   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2728   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2729   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2730   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2731   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2732   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2733   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2734   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2735   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2736   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2737   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2738   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2739   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2740   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2741   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2742   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2743   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2744   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2745   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2746   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2747   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2748   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2749   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2750   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2751   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2752   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2753   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2754   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2755   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2756   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2757   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2758   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2759   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2760   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2761   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2762   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2763   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2764   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2765 
  2766 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2767 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2768 
  2769 
  2770 *** FOL ***
  2771 
  2772 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2773 
  2774 
  2775 *** ZF ***
  2776 
  2777 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2778 analysis.
  2779 
  2780 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2781 
  2782 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 
  2785 *** ML ***
  2786 
  2787 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2788 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2789 
  2790 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2791 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2792 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2793 
  2794 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2795 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2796 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2797 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2798 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2799 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2800 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2801 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2802 
  2803 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2804 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2805 
  2806 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2807 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2808 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2809 
  2810 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2811 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2812 
  2813 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2814 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2815 context as well.
  2816 
  2817 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2818 
  2819   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2820   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2821   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2822   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2823   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2824   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2825   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2826   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2827   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2828   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2829   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2830   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2831 
  2832 
  2833 *** System ***
  2834 
  2835 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2836 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2837 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2838 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2839 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2840 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2841 the generic user home was intended.
  2842 
  2843 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2844 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2845 
  2846 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2847 (not just JRE).
  2848 
  2849 
  2850 
  2851 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2852 ------------------------------------
  2853 
  2854 *** General ***
  2855 
  2856 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2857 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2858 
  2859   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2860     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2861     files for checking).
  2862 
  2863   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2864     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2865     positions.
  2866 
  2867   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2868     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2869     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2870 
  2871   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2872     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2873     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2874 
  2875   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2876     cores.
  2877 
  2878   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2879     versions (garbage collection).
  2880 
  2881 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2882 including some remaining limitations.
  2883 
  2884 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2885 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2886 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2887 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2888 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890 
  2891 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2892 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2893 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2894 
  2895 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2896 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2897 usedir option -Q.
  2898 
  2899 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2900 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2901 
  2902   long_names   ~> names_long
  2903   short_names  ~> names_short
  2904   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2905 
  2906 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2907 
  2908   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2909 
  2910 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2911 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2912 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2913 
  2914 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2915 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2916 
  2917 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2918   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2919   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2920   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2921     "Classical Reasoner".
  2922 
  2923 
  2924 *** HOL ***
  2925 
  2926 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2927 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2930 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2931 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2932 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2933 class complete_linorder.
  2934 
  2935 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2936 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2937 
  2938 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2939 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2940 
  2941   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2942   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2943   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2944   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2945   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2946   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2947   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2948   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2949   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2950   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2951   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2952 
  2953 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2954 
  2955   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2956   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2957   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2958   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2959   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2960   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2961   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2962   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2963   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2964   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2965   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2966   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2967   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2968   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2969   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2970   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2971 
  2972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2978 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2979 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2980 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2981 
  2982 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2983 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2984 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2988 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2989 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2990 
  2991 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2992 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2993 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2996 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2997 
  2998 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2999 
  3000     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3001     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3002 
  3003 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3004 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3007 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3010 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3011 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3012 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3015   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3016   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3017   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3018   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3019   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3020   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3021 
  3022 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3023 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3024 
  3025   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3026   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3027   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3028   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3029   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3030   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3031   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3032   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3033   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3034   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3035   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3036   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3037   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3038   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3039   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3040   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3041   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3042   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3043   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3044   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3045   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3046   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3047   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3048   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3049   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3050   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3051   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3052   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3053   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3054   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3055   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3056   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3057   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3058   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3059   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3060   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3061   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3062   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3063   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3064   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3065   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3066   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3067   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3068   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3069   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3070   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3071   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3072   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3073   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3074   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3075   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3076   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3077   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3078   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3079   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3080   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3081   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3082   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3083   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3084   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3085   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3086   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3087   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3088   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3089   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3090   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3091   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3092   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3093   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3094   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3095   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3096   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3097   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3098   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3099   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3100   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3101   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3102   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3103   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3104   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3105   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3106   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3107 
  3108 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3109 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3110 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3111 
  3112 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3113 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3114 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3115 
  3116 * Code generation:
  3117 
  3118   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3119     characters in the target language.
  3120 
  3121   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3122     instead.
  3123 
  3124   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3125 
  3126   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3127     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3128 
  3129       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3130 
  3131 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3134 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3135 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3136 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3137 syntax.
  3138 
  3139 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3140 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3141 
  3142 * Nitpick:
  3143   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3144   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3145   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3146     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Sledgehammer:
  3149   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3150   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3151     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3152   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3153     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3154   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3155     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3157     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3158   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3159     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Metis:
  3162   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3164     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Command 'try':
  3167   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3168     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3170     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3171 
  3172 * Quickcheck:
  3173   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3174     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3175   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3176     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3177   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3178     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3179     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3180     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3181   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3182     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3183 
  3184 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3185 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3186 
  3187 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3188 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3189 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3190 
  3191 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3192 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3196 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3197 
  3198 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3199 arithmetic.
  3200 
  3201 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3202 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3203 and lattice type classes.
  3204 
  3205 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3206 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3207 
  3208 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3209 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3210 
  3211 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3212 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3213 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3214 
  3215   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3216   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3217   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3218   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3219 
  3220 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3221 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3222 constants:
  3223 
  3224   type inat   ~> type enat
  3225   Fin         ~> enat
  3226   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3227   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3228   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3229 
  3230 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3231 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3234 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3235 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3236 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3237 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3238 
  3239 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3240 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3241 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3242 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3243 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3244 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3245 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3246 
  3247   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3248   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3249   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3250   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3251 
  3252 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3253 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3254 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3257   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3258   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3259   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3260   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3261   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3262   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3263   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3264   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3265   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3266   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3267   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3268   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3269   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3270   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3271   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3272   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3273   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3274   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3275   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3276   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3277   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3278   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3279   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3280   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3281   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3282   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3283   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3284   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3285   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3286   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3287   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3288   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3289   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3290   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3291   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3292   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3293   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3294   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3295   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3296   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3297   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3298   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3299   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3300   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3301   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3302   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3303   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3304   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3305   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3306   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3307 
  3308 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3309   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3310   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3311   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3312   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3313     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314 
  3315 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3318   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3319   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3320   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3321   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3322   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3323   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3324   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3325   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3326   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3327   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3328   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3329   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3330   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3331   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3332   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3333   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3334   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3335   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3336   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3337   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3338   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3339   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3340   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3341   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3342 
  3343 
  3344 *** Document preparation ***
  3345 
  3346 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3347 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3348 same.
  3349 
  3350 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3351 result.
  3352 
  3353 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3354 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3355 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3356 
  3357 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3358 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3359 
  3360 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3361 like this:
  3362 
  3363   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3364   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3365 
  3366 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3367 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3368 layouts.
  3369 
  3370 
  3371 *** ML ***
  3372 
  3373 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3374 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3375 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3376 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3377 under external program control.
  3378 
  3379 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3380 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3381 
  3382 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3383 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3384 (better known as Proof General).
  3385 
  3386 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3387 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3388 
  3389 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3390 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3391 
  3392 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3393 (including quotes etc.).
  3394 
  3395 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3396 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3397 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3398 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3399 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3400 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3401 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3402 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3403 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3404 
  3405 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3406 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3407 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3408 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3409 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3410 
  3411 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3412 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3413 
  3414 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3415 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3416 
  3417 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3418 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3419 
  3420 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3421 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3422 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3423 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3424 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3425 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3426 proper Proof.context.
  3427 
  3428 
  3429 *** System ***
  3430 
  3431 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3432 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3433 
  3434 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3435 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3436 
  3437 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3438 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3439 
  3440   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3441   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3442   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3443   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3444   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3445 
  3446 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3447 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3450 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3451 example:
  3452 
  3453   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3454 
  3455 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3456 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3457 
  3458 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3459 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3460 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3461 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3462 
  3463 
  3464 
  3465 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3466 ----------------------------------
  3467 
  3468 *** General ***
  3469 
  3470 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3471 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3472 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3473 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3474 like this:
  3475 
  3476   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3477 
  3478 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3479 
  3480 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3481 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3482 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3483 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3484 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3485 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3486 
  3487 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3488 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3489 the following package declarations:
  3490 
  3491   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3492   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3493 
  3494 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3495 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3496 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3497 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3498 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3499 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3500 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3501 
  3502 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3503 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3504 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3505 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3506 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3507 
  3508 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3509 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3510 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3511 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3512 
  3513 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3514 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3515 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3516 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3517 
  3518   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3519 
  3520   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3521   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3522   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3523   show_types                    show_types
  3524   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3525   show_consts                   show_consts
  3526   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3527 
  3528   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3529   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3530   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3531 
  3532   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3533   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3534 
  3535   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3536 
  3537   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3538   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3539   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3540   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3541   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3542 
  3543 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3544 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3545 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3546 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3547 
  3548 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3552   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3553 
  3554 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3555 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3556 float_token.
  3557 
  3558 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3559 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3563 DejaVu Sans.
  3564 
  3565 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3566 
  3567 
  3568 *** Pure ***
  3569 
  3570 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3571 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3572 time.
  3573 
  3574 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3575 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3578 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3581 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3582 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3583 command already provided this functionality.
  3584 
  3585 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3586 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3587 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3588 without interpretations.
  3589 
  3590 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3591 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3592 
  3593 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3594 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3595 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3596 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3597 
  3598 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3599 'definition' instead.
  3600 
  3601 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3602 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3603 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3604 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3605 
  3606 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3607 constructors.
  3608 
  3609 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3610 the local file system.
  3611 
  3612 
  3613 *** HOL ***
  3614 
  3615 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3616 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3617 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3618 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3619 
  3620   declare [[coercion f]]
  3621 
  3622 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3623 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3624 
  3625   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3626 
  3627 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3628 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3629 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3630 other theories like this:
  3631 
  3632   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3633 
  3634 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3635 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3636 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3637 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3638 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3639 for examples.
  3640 
  3641 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3642 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3645 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3646 
  3647 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3648 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3649 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3650 
  3651 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3652 functorial structure of types.
  3653 
  3654 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3655 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3656 
  3657 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3658 languages.
  3659 
  3660 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3661 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3665 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3668 combinators any longer.
  3669 
  3670 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3671 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3672 
  3673 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3674 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3675 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3676 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3677 
  3678   record 'a foo = ...
  3679   ...
  3680   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3681 
  3682 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3683 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3685 
  3686 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3687 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3688 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3689 
  3690 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3691 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3692 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3693 
  3694 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3695 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3698 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3699 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3700 independently.
  3701 
  3702 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3703 counter example search.
  3704 
  3705 * Sledgehammer:
  3706   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3707     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3708     sledgehammer").
  3709   - Renamed commands:
  3710     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3711     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3712     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3713     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714   - Renamed options:
  3715     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3716     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3717     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3718     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3719     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721 * Nitpick:
  3722   - Renamed options:
  3723     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3724     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3725     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3726   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3727   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3728   - Added "whack" option.
  3729   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3730   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3731   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3732   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3733     higher cardinalities.
  3734   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3735 
  3736 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3737 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3738 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3739 
  3740     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3741 
  3742 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3743 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3744 
  3745 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3746 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3747 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3748 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3749 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3750 "smt_solver".
  3751 
  3752 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3753 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3754 
  3755 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3756 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3757 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3758 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3761   - Renamed:
  3762     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3763     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3764     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765   - Added:
  3766     smt_verbose
  3767     smt_random_seed
  3768     smt_datatypes
  3769     smt_infer_triggers
  3770     smt_monomorph_limit
  3771     cvc3_options
  3772     remote_cvc3_options
  3773     remote_z3_options
  3774     yices_options
  3775 
  3776 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3777 header.
  3778 
  3779 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3780 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3781 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3782 
  3783   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3784 
  3785 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3786 
  3787 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3788 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3793 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3796 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3797 
  3798 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3799 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3802 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3803 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3811 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3814 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3815 for congruent(2)).
  3816 
  3817 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3818 
  3819   types
  3820     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3821     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3822 
  3823   constants
  3824     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3825     True ~> HOL.True
  3826     False ~> HOL.False
  3827     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3828     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3829     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3830     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3831     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3832     The ~> HOL.The
  3833     All ~> HOL.All
  3834     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3835     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3836     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3837     If ~> HOL.If
  3838     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3839     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3840     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3841     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3842     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3843     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3844     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3845     op : ~> Set.member
  3846     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3847 
  3848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3849 
  3850 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3851 
  3852     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3853     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3854     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3855     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3856     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3857     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3858     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3859     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3860 
  3861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * More stylized fact names:
  3864 
  3865   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3866   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3867   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3868   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3869 
  3870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3873 
  3874   constants
  3875     null ~> List.null
  3876 
  3877   facts
  3878     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3879     null_empty ~> null_def
  3880 
  3881 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3882 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3883 generation.
  3884 
  3885 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3886 Haskell code.
  3887 
  3888 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3889 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3890 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3893 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3896 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3897 
  3898 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3899 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3900 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3903 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3909 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3910 referred to by its qualified name.
  3911 
  3912   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3913   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3914   product ~>  Enum.product
  3915 
  3916 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3917 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3921 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3922 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3926 sort_key.
  3927 
  3928 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3932 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3933 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3934 
  3935   types
  3936     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3937               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3938               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3939         (depends on your needs)
  3940 
  3941   constants
  3942      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3943      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3944      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3945 
  3946 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3947 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3948 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3949 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3952 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3953 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3954 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3955 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3961 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3962 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3963 
  3964 
  3965 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3966 
  3967 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3968 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3969 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3970 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3971 compatibility.
  3972 
  3973 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3974 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3975 
  3976 
  3977 *** HOLCF ***
  3978 
  3979 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3980 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3981 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3985 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3986 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3989   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3990   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3991 
  3992 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3993 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3994 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995 
  3996 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3997 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3998 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3999 domain definition now works:
  4000 
  4001   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4002 
  4003 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4004 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4005 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4006 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4007 
  4008   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4009     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4010 
  4011   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4012 
  4013 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4014 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4015 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4018 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4021 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4022 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4023 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4024 
  4025 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4026 
  4027 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4033 
  4034 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4035 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4036 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4037 
  4038 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4039 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4040 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4041 
  4042 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4043 still supported as an input translation.
  4044 
  4045 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4046 
  4047   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4048   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4049   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4050   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4051   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4052   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4053   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4054 
  4055 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4056 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4059   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4060   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4061   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4062   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4063   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4064 
  4065 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4066 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4067 
  4068 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4069 
  4070   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4071   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4072   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4073   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4074 
  4075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4078 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4081 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4082 
  4083   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4084   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4085   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4086   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4087   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4088   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4089   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4090   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4091   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4092   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4093   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4094   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4095   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4096   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4097   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4098   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4099   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4100   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4101   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4102   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4103 
  4104 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4107   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4108   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4109   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4110   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4111   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4112   box_less             ~> box_below
  4113   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4114   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4115   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4116   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4117   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4118   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4119   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4120   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4121   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4122   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4123   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4124   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4125   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4126   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4127   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4128   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4129   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4130   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4131   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4132   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4133   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4134   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4135   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4136   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4137   up_less              ~> up_below
  4138   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4139   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4140   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4141   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4142   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4143   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4144   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4145   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4146   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4147   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4148   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4149   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4150   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4151 
  4152 
  4153 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4154 
  4155 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4156 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4157 
  4158 
  4159 *** ML ***
  4160 
  4161 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4162 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4163 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4164 
  4165 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4166 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4167 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4168 
  4169 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4170 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4171 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4172 
  4173 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4174 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4175 
  4176 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4177 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4178 
  4179 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4180 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4181 
  4182 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4183 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4184 
  4185 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4186 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4187 almost all situations.
  4188 
  4189 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4190 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4191 Isabelle/ML.
  4192 
  4193 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4194 meaning.
  4195 
  4196 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4197 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4198 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4199 
  4200 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4201 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4202 
  4203 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4204 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4205 
  4206 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4207 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4208 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4209 
  4210 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4211 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4212 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4213 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4214 configuration options.
  4215 
  4216 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4217 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4218 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4219 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4220 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4221 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4222 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4223 
  4224 
  4225 
  4226 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4227 ---------------------------------
  4228 
  4229 *** General ***
  4230 
  4231 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4232 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4233 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4234 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4235 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4236 their full internal name.
  4237 
  4238 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4239 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4240 Some hints on upgrading:
  4241 
  4242   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4243     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4244     which are independent of this issue.
  4245 
  4246   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4247     provides the following special forms:
  4248 
  4249       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4250       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4251       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4252 
  4253     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4254     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4255     extra variables".
  4256 
  4257     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4258     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4259     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4260     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4261     "logic".
  4262 
  4263   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4264     antiquotations:
  4265 
  4266       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4267       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4268       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4269       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4270 
  4271   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4272     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4273     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4274     antiquotations.
  4275 
  4276 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4277 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4278 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4279 diagnose syntax problems.
  4280 
  4281 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4282 
  4283 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4284 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4285 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4286 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4287 
  4288 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4289 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4290 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4291 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4294 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4295 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4296 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4297 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4300 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4301 
  4302 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4303 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4304 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4305 
  4306   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4307 
  4308 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4309 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4310 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4311 
  4312 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4313 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4317 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4318 
  4319 
  4320 *** Pure ***
  4321 
  4322 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4323 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4324 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4325 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4326 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4327 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4328 inspect proof terms.
  4329 
  4330 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4331 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4332 are added internally.  For example:
  4333 
  4334   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4335 
  4336 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4337 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4338 
  4339 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340 
  4341 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4342 'class' instead.
  4343 
  4344 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4345 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4349 invariants.
  4350 
  4351 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4352 user space functionality any longer.
  4353 
  4354 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4355 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4359 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4360 
  4361 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4362 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4363 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4364 
  4365 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4366 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4367 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4368 
  4369 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4370 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 
  4373 *** HOL ***
  4374 
  4375 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4376 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4377 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4378 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4379 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4380 
  4381 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4382 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4383 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4384 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4385 
  4386   fun
  4387     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4388   where
  4389     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4390 
  4391   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4392     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4393 
  4394   quotient_definition
  4395     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4396 
  4397 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4398 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4399 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4400 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4401 
  4402 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4403 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4404 
  4405 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4406 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4407 
  4408 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4412 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4413 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4414 
  4415 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4416 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4425 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4428 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4429 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4432   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4433   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4434   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4435   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4436   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4437   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4438   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4439   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4440   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4441   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4442   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4443   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4444   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4445   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4446   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4447   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4448   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4449   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4450   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4451   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4452   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4453   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4454   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4455   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4456   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4457   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4458   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4459   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4460   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4461 
  4462 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4463 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4464 
  4465 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4466 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4467 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4468 
  4469 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4470 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4471 
  4472 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4473 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4474 
  4475 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4476 
  4477 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4478 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4481 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4482 
  4483 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4486 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4487 
  4488 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4489 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4490 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4491 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4492 
  4493 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4494   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4495   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4496   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4498 
  4499 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4500 lattices):
  4501 
  4502     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4503     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4504 
  4505     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4506 
  4507     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4508     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4509     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4510     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4511     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4512     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4513     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4514     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4515     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4516     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4517     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4518     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4519     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4520 
  4521     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4522     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4523     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4524     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4525     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4526     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4527     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4528     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4529     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4530     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4531     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4532     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4533     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4534     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4535     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4536     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4537     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4538     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4539 
  4540   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4541   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4542 
  4543     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4544     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4545     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4546     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4547     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4548 
  4549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * Refined field classes:
  4552   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4553     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4554     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4555   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4559   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4560   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4561   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4562     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4563   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4564     equal_neg_zero.
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4568 sets to lattices:
  4569 
  4570   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4571   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4572   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4573   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4574   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4575   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4576   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4577   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4578   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4579   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4580 
  4581 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4582 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4583 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4584 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4585 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4586 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4589 multiset order:
  4590 
  4591   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4592     <= and <;
  4593   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4594     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4595     multiset_order;
  4596   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4597     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4598     generation;
  4599   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4600     if needed.
  4601 
  4602 Renamed:
  4603 
  4604   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4605   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4606   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4607 
  4608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4609 
  4610 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4611 
  4612 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4613 
  4614 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4615 
  4616 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4617 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4618 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620   Constants:
  4621   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4622   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4623   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4624   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4625   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4626   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4627   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4628   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4629   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4630   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4631   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4632   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4633   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4634 
  4635   Lemmas:
  4636   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4637   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4638   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4639   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4640   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4641   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4642   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4643   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4644   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4645   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4646   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4647   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4648   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4649 
  4650 * Sledgehammer:
  4651   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4652     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4653     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4654     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4655     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4656     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4657     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4659   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4660     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4661   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4662     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4663     is still experimental.)
  4664   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4665     full-typed mode.
  4666   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4667 
  4668 * Nitpick:
  4669   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4670   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4671   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4672     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4673   - Added support for quotient types.
  4674   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4675     constructs.
  4676   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4677     "termination" proofs).
  4678   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4679   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4680   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4681   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4682     record getters.
  4683   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4684   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4685   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4686   - Added "atoms" option.
  4687   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4688     problems.
  4689   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4690     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4691     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4693     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4694   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4697   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4698   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4699   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4700   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4701   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4702   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4703   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4704   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4705   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 
  4708 *** HOLCF ***
  4709 
  4710 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4711 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4712 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4715 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4716 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4717 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4718 
  4719 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4720 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4721 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4722 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4723 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4724 
  4725 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4726 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4727 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4730 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4733   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4734 
  4735 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4736 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4739   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4740   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4741   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4742   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4743 
  4744 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4745 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746 
  4747   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4748   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4749   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4750 
  4751 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4752 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4756 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4759 
  4760 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4761 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4762 
  4763 
  4764 *** ML ***
  4765 
  4766 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4767 
  4768     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4769     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4770 
  4771     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4772     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4773     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4774     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4775 
  4776     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4777     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4778     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4779 
  4780 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4781 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4782 
  4783 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4784 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4785 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4786 
  4787 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4788 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4789 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4790 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4791 
  4792 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4793 the context or even global references.
  4794 
  4795 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4796 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4797 
  4798 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4799 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4800 
  4801   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4802   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4803   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4804   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4805   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4806   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4807   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4808   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4809   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4810   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4811 
  4812 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4813 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4814 
  4815 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4816 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4817 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4818 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4819 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4820 
  4821 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4822 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4823 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4824 Theory_Data version.
  4825 
  4826 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4827 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4828 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4829 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4830 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4831 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4832 explicitly in rare situations.
  4833 
  4834 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4835 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4839 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4842 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4843 quite rare).
  4844 
  4845 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4846 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4849 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4850 terms.
  4851 
  4852 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4853 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4854 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4855 
  4856 
  4857 *** System ***
  4858 
  4859 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4860 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4861 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4862 
  4863 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4864 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4865 respectively.
  4866 
  4867 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4868 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4869 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4870 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4871 
  4872   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4873 
  4874 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4875 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4876 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4877 component.
  4878 
  4879 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4880 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4881 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4882 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4883 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4884 the user for manual installation.
  4885 
  4886 
  4887 
  4888 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4889 -------------------------------------
  4890 
  4891 *** General ***
  4892 
  4893 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4894 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4895 
  4896 
  4897 *** Pure ***
  4898 
  4899 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4900 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4901 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4902 
  4903 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4904 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4905 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4906 
  4907 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4908 interpretation.
  4909 
  4910 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4911 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 
  4913 
  4914 *** Document preparation ***
  4915 
  4916 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4917 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4918 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4919 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4920 
  4921 
  4922 *** HOL ***
  4923 
  4924 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4925 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4926 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4927 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4928 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4929 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4930 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4931 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4932 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4933 
  4934 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4935 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4936 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4937 
  4938 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4939 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4940 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4941 
  4942 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4943 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4944 
  4945 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4946 
  4947 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4948 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4949 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4950 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4951 
  4952 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4953 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4954 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4955 "mirabelle" utility.
  4956 
  4957 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4958 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4959 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4960 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4961 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4962 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4963 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4964 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4965 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4966 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4967 
  4968 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4969 procedure only.
  4970 
  4971 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4972 
  4973 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4974 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4975 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4976 that fail later.
  4977 
  4978 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4979 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4980 
  4981 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4982 the same method as the approximation method.
  4983 
  4984 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4985 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4986 series expansion.
  4987 
  4988 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4989 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4990 
  4991 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4992 reals.
  4993 
  4994 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4995 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4996 
  4997 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4998 fixpoint theorem.
  4999 
  5000 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5001   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5002     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5003   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5004     accordingly
  5005   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5006     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5007   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5008     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5009 
  5010 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5011 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5012 lattice.
  5013 
  5014 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5015 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5016 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5017 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5018 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5019 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5023   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5024     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5025   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5026     le_inf_iff
  5027   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5028     sup_aci)
  5029   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5030   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5031   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5032     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5033     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5034     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5035     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5036     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5037     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5038     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5039     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5040     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5041     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5042   - authentic syntax for
  5043     Set.Pow
  5044     Set.image
  5045   - mere abbreviations:
  5046     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5047     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5048     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5049     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5050     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5051     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5052     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5053     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5054   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5055 
  5056 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5057 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5058 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5059 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5060 
  5061 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5062 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5063 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5066 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5067 
  5068 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5069 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5070 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5071 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 
  5073 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5074 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5075 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5076 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5077 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5078 
  5079 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5080 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5084 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5085 
  5086 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5087 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5088 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5089 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5090 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5091 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5092 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5094 
  5095 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5096     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5097     code_post       replaces    code post
  5098     etc.
  5099   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5100 
  5101 * Renamed methods:
  5102     sizechange -> size_change
  5103     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5104   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5105 
  5106 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5107 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5108 
  5109 * Renamed theorems:
  5110     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5111     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5112     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5113     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5114     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5115   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5122 
  5123 
  5124 *** HOLCF ***
  5125 
  5126 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5127 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5128 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5129 
  5130 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5131 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5132 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5133 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5134 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5135 
  5136 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5137 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5138 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5139 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5140 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5141 
  5142 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5143 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5144 constructor are pre-configured.
  5145 
  5146 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5147 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5148 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5149 
  5150 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5151 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5152 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5153 as well.)
  5154 
  5155 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5156 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5157 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5158 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5159 examples.
  5160 
  5161 
  5162 *** ML ***
  5163 
  5164 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5165 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5166 
  5167 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5168 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5169 position, logical grouping etc.
  5170 
  5171 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5172 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5173 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5174 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5175 
  5176 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5177 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5178 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5179 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5180 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5181 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5182 
  5183 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5184 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5185 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5186 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5187 experiments with references.
  5188 
  5189 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5190 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5191 
  5192 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5193 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5194 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5195 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5196 
  5197 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5198 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5199 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5200 
  5201 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5202 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5203 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5204 
  5205 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5206 
  5207 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5209 
  5210 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5211 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5212 
  5213 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5214 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5215 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5216 
  5217 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5218 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5219 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5220 
  5221 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5222 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5223 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5225 
  5226 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5227 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5228 instead of global theory.
  5229 
  5230 
  5231 *** System ***
  5232 
  5233 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5234 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5235 usedir option -q.
  5236 
  5237 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5238 also the system manual.
  5239 
  5240 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5241 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5242 
  5243 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5244 this is always enabled.
  5245 
  5246 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5247 
  5248 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5249 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5250 currently supported on Linux only.
  5251 
  5252 
  5253 
  5254 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5255 --------------------------------
  5256 
  5257 *** General ***
  5258 
  5259 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5260 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5261 
  5262   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5263     "isatool."
  5264 
  5265   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5266     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5267 
  5268   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5269     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5270 
  5271 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5272 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5273 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5274 
  5275 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5276 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5277 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5278 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5279 via "isabelle emacs".
  5280 
  5281 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5282 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5283 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5284 
  5285 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5286 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5287 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5288 
  5289 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5290 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5291 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5292 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5293 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5294 
  5295 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5296 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5297 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5298 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5299 
  5300 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5301 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5302 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5303 
  5304 
  5305 *** Pure ***
  5306 
  5307 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5308 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5309 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5310 
  5311 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5312 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5313 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5314 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5315 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5316 
  5317 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5318 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5319 useful in locale declarations.
  5320 
  5321 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5322 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5323 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5324 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5325 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5326 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5327 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5328 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5329 no longer generated.
  5330 
  5331 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5332 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5333 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5334 
  5335 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5336 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5337 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5338 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5339 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5340 
  5341 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5342 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5343 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5344 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5345 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5346 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5347 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5348 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5349 
  5350 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5351 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5352 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5353 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5354 
  5355 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5356 
  5357 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5358 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5359 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5360 
  5361 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5362 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5363 
  5364 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5365 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5366 in HOL, write
  5367 
  5368     class foo = ...
  5369 
  5370 instead of
  5371 
  5372     class foo = type + ...
  5373 
  5374 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5375 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5378 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5379 
  5380 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5381 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5382 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5383 
  5384 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5385 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5386 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5387 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5388 directly in regular applications.
  5389 
  5390 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5391 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5392 
  5393 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5394 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5395 
  5396 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5397 theory context.
  5398 
  5399 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5400 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5401 
  5402 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5403 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5404 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5405 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5406 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5407 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5408 
  5409   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5410 
  5411 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5412 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5413 normalization.
  5414 
  5415 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5416 addressing etc.
  5417 
  5418 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5419 
  5420   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5421   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5422 
  5423 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5424 
  5425   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5426      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5427      parts of the code generator framework).
  5428 
  5429   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5430      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5431      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5432 
  5433 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5434 
  5435 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5436 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5437 
  5438 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5439 patterns, e.g.
  5440 
  5441     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5442 
  5443 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5444 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5445 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5446 hyphen:
  5447 
  5448     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5449 
  5450 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5451 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5452 
  5453 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5454 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5455 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5456 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5457 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5458 higher-order unification.
  5459 
  5460 
  5461 *** Document preparation ***
  5462 
  5463 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5464 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5465 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5466 
  5467 
  5468 *** HOL ***
  5469 
  5470 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5471 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5472 
  5473 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5474 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5475 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5476 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5477 Main, as before.
  5478 
  5479 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5480 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5481 
  5482 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5483 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5484 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5485 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5486 
  5487 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5488 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5489 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5490 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5491 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5492 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5493 
  5494 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5495 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5496 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5497 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5498 
  5499 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5500 menu.
  5501 
  5502 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5503 (contains the empty clause).
  5504 
  5505 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5506 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5507 
  5508 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5509 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5510 
  5511 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5512 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5513 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 
  5515 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5516 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5517 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5518 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5519 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5520 
  5521 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5522 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5523 
  5524 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5525 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5526 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5527 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5528 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5529 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5530 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5531 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5532 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5533 
  5534 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5535 
  5536 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5537 
  5538 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5539 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5542 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5543 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5544 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5545 
  5546 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5547 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5548 
  5549     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5550     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5551     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5552     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5553     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5554     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5555     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5556     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5557 
  5558 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5559 theory Set.
  5560 
  5561 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5562 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5563 
  5564 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5565 
  5566 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5567 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5568 
  5569 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5570 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5571 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5572 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5573 allowed. For examples see
  5574 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5575 
  5576 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5577 
  5578 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5580 
  5581 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5582 structure:
  5583 
  5584     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5585     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5586     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5587     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5588     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5589     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5590     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5591     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5592     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5593     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5594     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5595     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5596     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5597     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5598     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5599     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5600     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5601     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5602     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5603     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5604     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5605     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5606     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5607     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5608     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5609     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5610     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5611     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5612     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5613     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5614     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5615     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5616     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5617 
  5618     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5619     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5620     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5621     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5622     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5623     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5624     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5625     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5626     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5627     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5628 
  5629     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5630     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5631     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5632     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5633     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5634     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5635 
  5636 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5637 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5638 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5639 
  5640 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5641 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5642 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5643 
  5644 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5645 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5648 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5649 
  5650 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5651 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5652 proofs, e.g.
  5653 
  5654   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5655 
  5656 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5657 
  5658 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5659 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5660 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5661 
  5662 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5663 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5665 
  5666 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5667 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5668 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5670 
  5671 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5672 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5673 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5674 preorder_class.*.
  5675 
  5676 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5677 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5678 
  5679 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5680 
  5681   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5682 
  5683 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5684 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5685 fold_image.
  5686 
  5687 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5688 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5689 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5690 the former will disappear at some point.
  5691 
  5692 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5693 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5694 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5695 
  5696 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5697 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5698 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5699 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5700 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5701 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5702 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5703 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5704 
  5705 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5706 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5707 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5708 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5709 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5710 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5711 
  5712     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5713     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5714     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5715     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5716     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5717     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5718     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5719 
  5720 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5721 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5722 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5723 
  5724 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5725 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5726 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5727 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5728 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5729 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5730 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5731 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5732 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5733 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5734 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5735 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5736 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5737 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5738 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5739 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5740 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5741 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5742 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5743 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5744 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5745 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5746 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5747 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5748 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5749 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5750 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5751 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5752 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5753 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5754 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5755 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5756 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5757 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5758 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5759 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5760 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5761 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5762 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5763 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5764 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5765 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5766 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5767 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5768 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5769 
  5770 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5771 
  5772 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5773 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5774 
  5775 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5776 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5777 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5778 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5779 
  5780 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5781 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5782 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5783 theory RealVector.
  5784 
  5785 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5786 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5787 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5788 and inner products are included.
  5789 
  5790 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5791 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5792 supported.
  5793 
  5794 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5795 first diagonalization argument.
  5796 
  5797 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5798 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5799 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5800 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5801 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5802 
  5803     hide (open) const gcd
  5804     abbreviation gcd where
  5805       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5806     notation (output)
  5807       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5808 
  5809 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5810 
  5811 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5812 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5813 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5814 
  5815 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5816 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5817 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5818 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5819 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5820 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5821 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5822 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5823 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5824 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5825 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5826 cases.
  5827 
  5828 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5829 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5830 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5831 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5832 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5833 
  5834     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5835     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5836     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5837     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5838     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5839 
  5840 
  5841 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5842 
  5843 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5844 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5845 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5846 
  5847 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5848 
  5849 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5850 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5851 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5852 
  5853 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5854 
  5855 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5856 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5857 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5858 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5859 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5860 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5861 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5862 
  5863 
  5864 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5865 
  5866 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5867 
  5868 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5869 theory targets.
  5870 
  5871 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5872 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5873 'inductive' etc.
  5874 
  5875 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5876 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5877 
  5878 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5879 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5880 
  5881 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5882 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5883 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5884 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5885 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5886 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5887 the algorithm W:
  5888 
  5889  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5890  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5891          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5892 
  5893 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5894 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5895 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5896 
  5897 
  5898 *** HOLCF ***
  5899 
  5900 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5901 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5902 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5903 
  5904 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5905 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5906 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5907 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5908 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5909 
  5910 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5911 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5912 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5913 
  5914 
  5915 *** ZF ***
  5916 
  5917 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5918 
  5919 
  5920 *** ML ***
  5921 
  5922 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5923 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5924 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5925 5.2.1!
  5926 
  5927 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5928 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5929 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5930 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5931 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5932 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5933 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5934 
  5935 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5936 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5937 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5938 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5939 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5940 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5941 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5942 
  5943 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5944 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5945 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5946 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5947 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5948 
  5949 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5950 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5951 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5952 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5953 Method.add_method.
  5954 
  5955 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5956 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5957 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5958 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5959 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5960 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5961 
  5962 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5963 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5964 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5965 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5966 examples.
  5967 
  5968 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5969 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5970 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5971 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5972 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5973 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5974 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5975 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5976 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5977 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5978 
  5979 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5980 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5981 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5982 
  5983 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5984 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5985 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5986 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5987 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5988 resort for legacy applications.
  5989 
  5990 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5991 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5992 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5993 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5994 explicit runtime argument.
  5995 
  5996 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5997 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5998 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5999 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6000 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 
  6002 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6003 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6004 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6005 theory state.
  6006 
  6007 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6008 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6009 
  6010   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6011   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6012   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6013   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6014   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6015   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6016   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6017   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6018   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6019   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6020 
  6021 
  6022 *** System ***
  6023 
  6024 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6025 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6026 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6027 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6028 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6029 
  6030 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6031 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6032 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6033 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6034 
  6035 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6036 
  6037 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6038 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6039 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6040 prover operations.
  6041 
  6042 
  6043 
  6044 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6045 -------------------------------
  6046 
  6047 *** General ***
  6048 
  6049 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6050 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6051 
  6052 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6053 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6054 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6055 provides a proper context already.
  6056 
  6057 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6058 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6059 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6060 
  6061 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6062 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6063 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6064 swap theory imports.
  6065 
  6066 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6067 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6068 
  6069 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6070 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6071 white space without escapes.
  6072 
  6073 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6074 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6075 "foo_bar".
  6076 
  6077 
  6078 *** Pure ***
  6079 
  6080 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6081 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6082 
  6083 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6084 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6085 
  6086 (1) unused_thms
  6087      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6088 
  6089 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6090      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6091      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6092 
  6093 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6094      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6095      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6096      their ancestors.
  6097 
  6098 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6099 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6100 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6101 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6102 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6103 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6104 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6105 
  6106 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6107 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6108 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6109 
  6110 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6111 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6112 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6113 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6114 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6115 
  6116 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6117 
  6118 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6119 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6120 update of theories within ML code.
  6121 
  6122 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6123 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6124 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6125 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6126 
  6127 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6128 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6129 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6131 
  6132 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6133 
  6134 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6135 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6136 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6137 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6138 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6139 
  6140 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6141 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6142 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6143 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6144 situations.
  6145 
  6146 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6147 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6148 proof text.
  6149 
  6150 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6151 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6152 
  6153 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6154 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6155 predicates.
  6156 
  6157 
  6158 *** Document preparation ***
  6159 
  6160 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6161 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6162 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6163 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6164 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6165 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6166 
  6167 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6168 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6169 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6170 
  6171 
  6172 *** HOL ***
  6173 
  6174 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6175 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6176 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6177 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6178 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6179 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6180 
  6181 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6182 with multithreading.
  6183 
  6184 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6185 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6186 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6187 
  6188 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6189 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6190 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6191 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6194 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6195 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6196 and makes them available separately.  See
  6197 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6198 
  6199 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6200 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6201 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6202 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6203 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6204 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6205 type and generates all solutions by Prolog-style backward proof using
  6206 the declared rules.
  6207 
  6208 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6209 
  6210   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6211 
  6212 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6213 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6214 
  6215 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6216 
  6217   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6218 
  6219   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6220     definitions on => and bool.
  6221 
  6222   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6223     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6224     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6225 
  6226       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6227       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6228       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6229       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6230       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6231       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6232       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6233       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6234 
  6235   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6236     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6237     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6238 
  6239   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6240     The proof pattern
  6241 
  6242       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6243       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6244 
  6245     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6246     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6247 
  6248       have "EX S. P S"
  6249       proof
  6250         show "P S" <...>
  6251       qed
  6252 
  6253   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6254     The proof pattern
  6255 
  6256       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6257       also have "S = T" <...>
  6258       finally have "P T" .
  6259 
  6260     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6261     must be replaced by something like
  6262