NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Dec 06 21:46:20 2012 +0100 (2012-12-06)
changeset 50406 c28753665b8e
parent 50232 289a34f9c383
child 50455 c7f366a861ed
permissions -rw-r--r--
documentation for isabelle build_dialog and its implicit use in isabelle jedit;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    65 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    66 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    67 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    68 
    69 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    70 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    71 
    72 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    73 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    74 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. system option
    75 "editor_tracing_limit").  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    76 potentially infinite message streams.
    77 
    78 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    79 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    80 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    81 schemes.
    82 
    83 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    84 symbols.
    85 
    86 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    87 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    88 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    89 
    90 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    91 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    92 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    93 
    94 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
    95 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
    96 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
    97 Isabelle distribution.
    98 
    99 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   100 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   101 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   102 
   103 
   104 *** Pure ***
   105 
   106 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   107 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   108 
   109 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
   110 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
   111 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
   112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   115 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   116 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   117 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   118 with some care where this is really required.
   119 
   120 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   121 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   122 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   123 
   124   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   125 
   126 
   127 *** HOL ***
   128 
   129 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   130 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   133 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   136 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   137 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   138 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   139 accordingly.
   140 
   141 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   142 
   143   - Renamed constants
   144       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   145 
   146   - Renamed facts
   147       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   148 
   149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   152 
   153 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   154 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   155 
   156 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   157 to lattice type classes.
   158 
   159 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   160 
   161 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   162 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   163 
   164   - Renamed constants:
   165 
   166       prefix ~> prefixeq
   167       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   168 
   169     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   172     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   173     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   174     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   177     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   178 
   179   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   180     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   181     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   182     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   185     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   186 
   187       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   188       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   189       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   190       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   191       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   192       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   193       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   194       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   195       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   196       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   197       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   198       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   199       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   200       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   201       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   202       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   203 
   204     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   207 
   208 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   209 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   210 
   211 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   212 
   213 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   214 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   215 non-free datatypes.
   216 
   217 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   218 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   219 
   220 * HOL/Probability:
   221   - Add simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability
   222 
   223   - Add induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint)
   224     and for Borel-measurable functions (borel_measurable_induct).
   225 
   226   - The Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a projective family)
   227 
   228 * Library/Countable_Set.thy: Theory of countable sets.
   229 
   230 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   231 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   232 
   233 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   234 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   235 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   236 
   237       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   238       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   239       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   240       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   241       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   242       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   243       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   244       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   245       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   246       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   247 
   248   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   249 
   250 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   251 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   252 
   253 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   254 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   255 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   256 
   257 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   258 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   259 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   262 
   263 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   264 expressions.
   265 
   266 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   267 pointfree expressions.
   268 
   269 * Quickcheck:
   270 
   271   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   272     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   273     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   274 
   275 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   276 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   277 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   278 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   279 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * Sledgehammer:
   282 
   283   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   284     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   285   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   286   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   287   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   288   - Renamed options:
   289       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   290       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   291       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   292       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   293 
   294 
   295 *** Document preparation ***
   296 
   297 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   298 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   299 
   300 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   301 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   302 document/root.tex.
   303 
   304 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   305 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 
   308 *** ML ***
   309 
   310 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   311 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   312 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   313 
   314 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   315 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   316 necessarily printing visible text.
   317 
   318 
   319 *** System ***
   320 
   321 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   322 instead of 4.
   323 
   324 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   325 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   326 for home-made configurations.
   327 
   328 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   329 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   330 
   331 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   332 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   333 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   334 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   335 
   336 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   337 
   338 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   339 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   340 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   341 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   342 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   343 
   344 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   345 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   346 
   347   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   348 
   349 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   350 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   351 
   352 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   353 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   354 "isabelle usedir".
   355 
   356 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   357 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   358 version of Isabelle.
   359 
   360 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   364 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   365 configuration.
   366 
   367 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   368 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   369 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   370 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   371 bundled as Isabelle component.
   372 
   373 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   374 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   375 
   376 
   377 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   378 ------------------------------
   379 
   380 *** General ***
   381 
   382 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   383 
   384   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   385     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   386   - markup for bound variables
   387   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   388   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   389   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   390     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   391 
   392 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   393 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   394 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   395 
   396 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   397 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   398 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   399 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   400 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   401 
   402   context
   403     fixes x y z :: 'a
   404     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   405   begin
   406 
   407   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   408 
   409   end
   410 
   411   thm my_trans
   412 
   413 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   414 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   415 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   416 
   417 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   418 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   419 
   420 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   421 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   422 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   423 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   424 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   425 
   426 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   427 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   428 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   429 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   430 indices of schematic variables.
   431 
   432 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   433 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   434 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   435 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   436 etc. was exploited.
   437 
   438 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   439 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   440 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   441 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   442 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   443 of the material of that old tutorial.
   444 
   445 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   446 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   447 manual.
   448 
   449 
   450 *** Pure ***
   451 
   452 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   453 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   454 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   455 
   456 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   457 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   458 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   459 undocumented feature.)
   460 
   461 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   462 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   463 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   464 
   465   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   466 
   467   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   468     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   469 
   470 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   471 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   472 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   473 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   474 
   475 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   476 
   477     num ~> num_token
   478     xnum ~> xnum_token
   479     xstr ~> str_token
   480 
   481 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   482 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   483 position information via constraints).
   484 
   485 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   486 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   487 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   488 
   489 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   490 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   491 
   492 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   493 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   494 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   495 
   496 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   497 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   498 
   499 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   500 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   501 
   502   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   503 
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   507 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   510 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   511 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   512 
   513 
   514 *** HOL ***
   515 
   516 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   517 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   518 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   519 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   520 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   521 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   522 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   523 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   524 possible.
   525 
   526 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   527 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   528 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   529 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   530 
   531 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   532 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   535 
   536 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   537 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   538 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   539 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   540 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   541 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   542 
   543   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   544     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   545 
   546   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   547     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   548     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   549 
   550   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   551     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   552 
   553   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   554     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   555     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   556 
   557   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   558     Redefine using other integer operations.
   559 
   560 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   561 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   562 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   563 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   564 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   565 
   566   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   567     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   568     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   569     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   570     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   571 
   572     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   573     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   574 
   575   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   576     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   577     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   578     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   579     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   580     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   581     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   582     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   583 
   584   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   585     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   586     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   587     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   588 
   589   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   590     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   591     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   592     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   593 
   594   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   595     from type nat to type int.
   596 
   597 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   598 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   599 
   600   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   601     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   602     type.  Example syntax:
   603 
   604     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   605       is List.insert
   606 
   607     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   608     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   609     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   610     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   611     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   612     by the package.
   613 
   614   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   615     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   616     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   617     code generation for each constant.
   618 
   619   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   620     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   621     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   622     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   623     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   624 
   625   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   626     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   627     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   628 
   629 * Quotient package:
   630 
   631   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   632     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   633 
   634   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   635     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   636 
   637   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   638     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   639     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   642     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   645 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   646 
   647 * Quickcheck:
   648 
   649   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   650     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   651     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   652     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   653     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   654 
   655     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   656     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   657     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   658 
   659     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   660     continues searching for genuine ones.
   661 
   662     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   663     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   664     show genuine counterexamples.
   665 
   666   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   667     value generators for a given type and operations.
   668 
   669     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   670     constructors of that type.
   671 
   672   - Support for multisets.
   673 
   674   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   675 
   676   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   677     conjectures in a locale context.
   678 
   679 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   680 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   681 
   682 * Sledgehammer:
   683   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   684     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   685   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   686   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   687     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   688   - Sped up the minimizer.
   689   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   690   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   691   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   692 
   693 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   694 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   695 
   696 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   697 
   698 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   701 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   702 
   703   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   704 
   705 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   706 a list and a nat.
   707 
   708 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   709 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   710 
   711 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   712 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   713 default.
   714 
   715 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   716 
   717   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   718 
   719 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   720 
   721 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   722 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   723 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   724 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   725 one_case.
   726 
   727 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   728 the result of the fact expression.
   729 
   730 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   731 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   732 of some relation theorems:
   733 
   734   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   735   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   736   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   737   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   738   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   739   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   740 
   741 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   742 
   743 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   744 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   745 
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   749 to match the constant's name:
   750 
   751   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   752   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   753   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   754   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   755   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   756   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   757   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   758   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   759   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   760   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   761   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   762   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   763   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   764   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   765   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   766   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   767   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   768   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   769   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   770   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   771   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   772   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   773   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   774   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   775 
   776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   777 
   778 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   779 and corresponding theorem names:
   780 
   781   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   782 
   783   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   784 
   785   - Renamed theorems:
   786 
   787     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   788     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   789     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   790     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   791     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   792     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   793     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   794     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   795     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   796     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   797     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   798     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   799     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   800     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   801     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   802     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   803     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   804     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   805     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   806     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   807     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   808     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   809     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   810 
   811     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   812 
   813     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   814 
   815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   816 
   817 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   818 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   819 
   820   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   821   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   822   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   823   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   824   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   825   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   826   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   827   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   828   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   829   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   830   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   831   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   832   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   833   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   834   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   835   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   836   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   837   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   838   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   839   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   840   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   841 
   842 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   843 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   848 
   849   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   850   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   851   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   852   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   853   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   854   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   855   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   856   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   857   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   858   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   859   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   860   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   861   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   862   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   863   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   864   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   865   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   866   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   867 
   868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   871 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   872 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   873 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   874 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   875 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   876 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   877 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   878 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   879 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   880 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   881 
   882 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   883 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   884 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   885 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   886 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   887 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   888 
   889 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   890 through option types.
   891 
   892 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   893 relations.
   894 
   895 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   898 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   899 
   900   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   901   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   902   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   903   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   904   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   905   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   906   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   907   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   908   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   909   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   910   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   911   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   912   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   913   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   914   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   915   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   916   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   917   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   918   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   919   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   920   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   921   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   922   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   923   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   924   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   925   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   926   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   927   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   928   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   929   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   930   zless_le ~> less_le
   931   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   932   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   933   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   934 
   935 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   936 
   937   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   938 
   939 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   940 
   941 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   942 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   943 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   944 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   946 
   947 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   948 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   949 
   950 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   951 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   952 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   953 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   954 follows:
   955 
   956   Operations:
   957   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   958   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   959   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   960   del -> rbt_del
   961   delete -> rbt_delete
   962   ins -> rbt_ins
   963   insert -> rbt_insert
   964   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   965   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   966   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   967   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   968   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   969   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   970   tree_less -> rbt_less
   971   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   972   union -> rbt_union
   973   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   974   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   975 
   976   Lemmas:
   977   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   978   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   979   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   980   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   981   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   982   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   983   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   984   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   985   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   986   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   987   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   988   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   989   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   990   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   991   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   992   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   993   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   994   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   995   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   996   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   997   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   998   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   999   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1000   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1001   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1002   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1003   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1004   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1005   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1006   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1007   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1008   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1009   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1010   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1011   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1012   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1013   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1014   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1015   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1016   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1017   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1018   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1019   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1020   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1021   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1022   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1023   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1024   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1025   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1026   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1027   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1028   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1029   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1030   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1031   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1032   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1033   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1034   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1035   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1036   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1037   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1038   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1039   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1040   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1041   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1042   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1043   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1044   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1045   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1046   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1047   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1048   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1049   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1050   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1051   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1052   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1053   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1054   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1055   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1056   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1057   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1058   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1059   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1060 
  1061 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1062 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1063 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065   Changed Operations:
  1066   float_abs -> abs
  1067   float_nprt -> nprt
  1068   float_pprt -> pprt
  1069   pow2 -> use powr
  1070   round_down -> float_round_down
  1071   round_up -> float_round_up
  1072   scale -> exponent
  1073 
  1074   Removed Operations:
  1075   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1076 
  1077   Renamed Lemmas:
  1078   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1079   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1080   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1081   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1082   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1083   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1084   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1085   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1086   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1087   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1088   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1089   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1090   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1091   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1092   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1093   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1094   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1095   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1096   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1097   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1098   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1099   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1100   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1101   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1102   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1103   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1104   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1105   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1106   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1107   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1108   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1109   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1110   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1111   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1112   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1113   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1114 
  1115   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1116   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1117   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1118   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1119   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1120   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1121   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1122   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1123   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1124   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1125 
  1126 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1127 association lists with distinct keys.
  1128 
  1129 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1130 annotated commands.
  1131 
  1132 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1133 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1134 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1135 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1138 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1139 instead.
  1140 
  1141   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1142   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1143   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1144   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1145   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1146   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1147   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1148   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1149   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1150   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1151   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1152   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1153   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1154   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1155   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1156   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1157   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1158   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1159   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1160   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1161   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1162   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1163   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1164   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1165   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1166   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1167   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1168   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1169   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1170   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1171   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1172   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1173   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1174   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1175   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1176   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1177   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1178   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1179   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1180   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1181   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1182 
  1183 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1184 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1185 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1186 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1187 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1188 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1189 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1190 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1191 
  1192 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1193 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1194 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1195 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1196 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1197 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1198 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1199 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1200 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1201 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1202 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1203 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1204 
  1205   Renamed constants:
  1206   measure -> emeasure
  1207   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1208   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1209   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1210   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1211 
  1212   Removed locales:
  1213   completeable_measure_space
  1214   finite_measure_space
  1215   finite_prob_space
  1216   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1217   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1218   finite_sigma_algebra
  1219   measure_space
  1220   pair_finite_prob_space
  1221   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1222   pair_finite_space
  1223   pair_sigma_algebra
  1224   product_sigma_algebra
  1225 
  1226   Removed constants:
  1227   conditional_space
  1228   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1229   image_space
  1230   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1231   pair_measure_generator
  1232   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1233   subvimage
  1234 
  1235   Replacement theorems:
  1236   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1237   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1238   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1239   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1240   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1241   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1242   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1243   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1244   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1245   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1246   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1247   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1248   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1249   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1250   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1251   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1252   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1253   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1254   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1255   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1256   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1257   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1258   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1259   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1260   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1261   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1262   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1263   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1264   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1265   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1266   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1267   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1268   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1269   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1270   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1271   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1272   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1273   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1274   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1275   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1276   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1277   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1278   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1279   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1280   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1281   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1282   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1283   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1284   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1285   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1286   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1287   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1288   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1289   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1290   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1291   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1292   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1293   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1294   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1295   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1296   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1297   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1298   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1299   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1300   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1301   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1302   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1303   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1304   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1305   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1306   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1307   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1308   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1309   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1310   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1311   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1312   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1313   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1314   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1315   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1316   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1317   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1318   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1319   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1320   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1321   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1322   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1323   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1324   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1325   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1326   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1327   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1328   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1329   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1330   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1331   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1332   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1333   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1334   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1335   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1336   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1337   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1338   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1339   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1340   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1341   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1342   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1343   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1344   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1345   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1346   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1347   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1348   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1349   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1350   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1351   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1352   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1353   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1354   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1355   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1356   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1357   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1358   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1359   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1360   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1361   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1362   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1363   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1364 
  1365 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1366 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1367 
  1368 
  1369 *** FOL ***
  1370 
  1371 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1372 
  1373 
  1374 *** ZF ***
  1375 
  1376 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1377 analysis.
  1378 
  1379 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1380 
  1381 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1382 
  1383 
  1384 *** ML ***
  1385 
  1386 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1387 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1388 
  1389 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1390 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1391 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1392 
  1393 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1394 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1395 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1396 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1397 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1398 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1399 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1400 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1401 
  1402 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1403 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1404 
  1405 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1406 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1407 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1408 
  1409 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1410 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1411 
  1412 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1413 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1414 context as well.
  1415 
  1416 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1417 
  1418   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1419   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1420   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1421   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1422   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1423   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1424   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1425   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1426   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1427   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1428   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1429   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1430 
  1431 
  1432 *** System ***
  1433 
  1434 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1435 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1436 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1437 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1438 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1439 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1440 the generic user home was intended.
  1441 
  1442 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1443 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1444 
  1445 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1446 (not just JRE).
  1447 
  1448 
  1449 
  1450 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1451 ------------------------------------
  1452 
  1453 *** General ***
  1454 
  1455 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1456 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1457 
  1458   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1459     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1460     files for checking).
  1461 
  1462   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1463     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1464     positions.
  1465 
  1466   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1467     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1468     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1469 
  1470   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1471     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1472     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1473 
  1474   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1475     cores.
  1476 
  1477   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1478     versions (garbage collection).
  1479 
  1480 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1481 including some remaining limitations.
  1482 
  1483 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1484 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1485 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1486 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1487 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1491 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1492 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1493 
  1494 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1495 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1496 usedir option -Q.
  1497 
  1498 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1499 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1500 
  1501   long_names   ~> names_long
  1502   short_names  ~> names_short
  1503   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1504 
  1505 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1506 
  1507   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1508 
  1509 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1510 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1511 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1512 
  1513 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1514 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1515 
  1516 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1517   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1518   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1519   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1520     "Classical Reasoner".
  1521 
  1522 
  1523 *** HOL ***
  1524 
  1525 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1526 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1527 
  1528 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1529 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1530 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1531 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1532 class complete_linorder.
  1533 
  1534 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1535 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1536 
  1537 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1538 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1539 
  1540   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1541   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1542   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1543   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1544   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1545   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1546   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1547   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1548   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1549   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1550   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1551 
  1552 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1553 
  1554   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1555   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1556   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1557   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1558   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1559   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1560   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1561   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1562   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1563   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1564   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1565   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1566   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1567   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1568   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1569   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1570 
  1571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1572 
  1573 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575 
  1576 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1577 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1578 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1579 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1582 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1583 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1585 
  1586 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1587 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1588 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1589 
  1590 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1591 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1592 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593 
  1594 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1595 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1596 
  1597 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1598 
  1599     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1600     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1601 
  1602 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1603 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1606 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1609 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1610 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1611 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612 
  1613   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1614   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1615   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1616   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1617   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1618   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1619   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1620 
  1621 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1622 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1623 
  1624   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1625   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1626   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1627   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1628   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1629   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1630   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1631   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1632   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1633   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1634   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1635   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1636   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1637   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1638   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1639   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1640   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1641   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1642   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1643   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1644   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1645   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1646   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1647   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1648   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1649   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1650   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1651   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1652   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1653   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1654   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1655   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1656   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1657   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1658   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1659   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1660   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1661   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1662   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1663   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1664   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1665   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1666   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1667   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1668   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1669   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1670   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1671   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1672   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1673   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1674   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1675   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1676   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1677   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1678   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1679   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1680   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1681   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1682   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1683   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1684   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1685   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1686   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1687   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1688   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1689   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1690   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1691   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1692   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1693   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1694   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1695   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1696   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1697   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1698   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1699   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1700   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1701   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1702   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1703   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1704   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1705   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1706 
  1707 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1708 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1709 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1710 
  1711 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1712 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1713 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1714 
  1715 * Code generation:
  1716 
  1717   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1718     characters in the target language.
  1719 
  1720   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1721     instead.
  1722 
  1723   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1724 
  1725   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1726     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1727 
  1728       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1729 
  1730 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731 
  1732 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1733 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1734 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1735 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1736 syntax.
  1737 
  1738 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1739 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1740 
  1741 * Nitpick:
  1742   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1743   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1744   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1745     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747 * Sledgehammer:
  1748   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1749   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1750     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1751   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1752     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1753   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1754     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1756     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1757   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1758     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * Metis:
  1761   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1763     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765 * Command 'try':
  1766   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1767     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1768   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1769     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1770 
  1771 * Quickcheck:
  1772   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1773     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1774   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1775     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1776   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1777     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1778     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1779     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1780   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1781     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1782 
  1783 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1784 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1785 
  1786 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1787 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1788 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1789 
  1790 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1791 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1793 
  1794 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1795 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1796 
  1797 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1798 arithmetic.
  1799 
  1800 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1801 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1802 and lattice type classes.
  1803 
  1804 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1805 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1806 
  1807 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1808 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1809 
  1810 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1811 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1812 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813 
  1814   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1815   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1816   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1817   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1818 
  1819 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1820 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1821 constants:
  1822 
  1823   type inat   ~> type enat
  1824   Fin         ~> enat
  1825   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1826   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1827   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1828 
  1829 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1830 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831 
  1832 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1833 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1834 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1835 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1836 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1837 
  1838 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1839 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1840 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1841 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1842 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1843 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1844 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1845 
  1846   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1847   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1848   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1849   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1850 
  1851 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1852 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1853 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1854 
  1855   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1856   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1857   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1858   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1859   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1860   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1861   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1862   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1863   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1864   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1865   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1866   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1867   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1868   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1869   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1870   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1871   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1872   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1873   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1874   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1875   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1876   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1877   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1878   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1879   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1880   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1881   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1882   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1883   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1884   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1885   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1886   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1887   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1888   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1889   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1890   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1891   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1892   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1893   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1894   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1895   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1896   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1897   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1898   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1899   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1900   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1901   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1902   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1903   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1904   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1905   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1906 
  1907 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1908   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1909   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1910   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1911   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1912     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1913 
  1914 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1917   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1918   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1919   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1920   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1921   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1922   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1923   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1924   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1925   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1926   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1927   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1928   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1929   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1930   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1931   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1932   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1933   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1934   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1935   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1936   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1937   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1938   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1939   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1940   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1941 
  1942 
  1943 *** Document preparation ***
  1944 
  1945 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1946 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1947 same.
  1948 
  1949 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1950 result.
  1951 
  1952 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1953 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1954 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1955 
  1956 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1957 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1958 
  1959 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1960 like this:
  1961 
  1962   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1963   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1964 
  1965 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1966 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1967 layouts.
  1968 
  1969 
  1970 *** ML ***
  1971 
  1972 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1973 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1974 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1975 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1976 under external program control.
  1977 
  1978 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1979 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1980 
  1981 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1982 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1983 (better known as Proof General).
  1984 
  1985 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1986 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1987 
  1988 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1989 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1990 
  1991 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1992 (including quotes etc.).
  1993 
  1994 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1995 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1996 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1997 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1998 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1999 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2000 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2001 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2002 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2003 
  2004 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2005 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2006 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2007 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2008 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2009 
  2010 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2011 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2012 
  2013 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2014 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2015 
  2016 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2017 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2018 
  2019 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2020 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2021 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2022 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2023 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2024 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2025 proper Proof.context.
  2026 
  2027 
  2028 *** System ***
  2029 
  2030 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2031 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2032 
  2033 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2034 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2035 
  2036 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2037 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2038 
  2039   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2040   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2041   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2042   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2043   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2044 
  2045 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2046 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2049 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2050 example:
  2051 
  2052   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2053 
  2054 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2055 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2056 
  2057 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2058 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2059 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2060 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2061 
  2062 
  2063 
  2064 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2065 ----------------------------------
  2066 
  2067 *** General ***
  2068 
  2069 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2070 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2071 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2072 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2073 like this:
  2074 
  2075   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2076 
  2077 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2078 
  2079 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2080 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2081 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2082 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2083 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2084 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2085 
  2086 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2087 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2088 the following package declarations:
  2089 
  2090   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2091   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2092 
  2093 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2094 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2095 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2096 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2097 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2098 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2099 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2100 
  2101 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2102 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2103 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2104 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2105 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2106 
  2107 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2108 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2109 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2110 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2111 
  2112 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2113 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2114 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2115 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2116 
  2117   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2118 
  2119   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2120   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2121   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2122   show_types                    show_types
  2123   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2124   show_consts                   show_consts
  2125   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2126 
  2127   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2128   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2129   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2130 
  2131   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2132   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2133 
  2134   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2135 
  2136   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2137   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2138   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2139   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2140   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2141 
  2142 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2143 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2144 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2145 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2146 
  2147 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2149 
  2150   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2151   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2152 
  2153 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2154 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2155 float_token.
  2156 
  2157 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2158 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2160 
  2161 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2162 DejaVu Sans.
  2163 
  2164 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2165 
  2166 
  2167 *** Pure ***
  2168 
  2169 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2170 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2171 time.
  2172 
  2173 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2174 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2177 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2178 
  2179 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2180 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2181 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2182 command already provided this functionality.
  2183 
  2184 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2185 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2186 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2187 without interpretations.
  2188 
  2189 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2190 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2191 
  2192 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2193 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2194 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2195 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2196 
  2197 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2198 'definition' instead.
  2199 
  2200 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2201 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2202 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2203 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2204 
  2205 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2206 constructors.
  2207 
  2208 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2209 the local file system.
  2210 
  2211 
  2212 *** HOL ***
  2213 
  2214 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2215 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2216 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2217 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2218 
  2219   declare [[coercion f]]
  2220 
  2221 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2222 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2223 
  2224   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2225 
  2226 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2227 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2228 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2229 other theories like this:
  2230 
  2231   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2232 
  2233 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2234 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2235 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2236 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2237 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2238 for examples.
  2239 
  2240 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2241 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2244 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2245 
  2246 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2247 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2248 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2249 
  2250 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2251 functorial structure of types.
  2252 
  2253 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2254 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2255 
  2256 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2257 languages.
  2258 
  2259 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2260 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2262 
  2263 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2264 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2267 combinators any longer.
  2268 
  2269 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2270 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2271 
  2272 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2273 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2274 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2275 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2276 
  2277   record 'a foo = ...
  2278   ...
  2279   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2280 
  2281 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2282 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2286 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2287 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2288 
  2289 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2290 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2291 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2292 
  2293 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2294 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2295 
  2296 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2297 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2298 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2299 independently.
  2300 
  2301 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2302 counter example search.
  2303 
  2304 * Sledgehammer:
  2305   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2306     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2307     sledgehammer").
  2308   - Renamed commands:
  2309     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2310     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2311     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313   - Renamed options:
  2314     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2315     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2316     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2317     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2319 
  2320 * Nitpick:
  2321   - Renamed options:
  2322     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2323     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2324     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2326   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2327   - Added "whack" option.
  2328   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2329   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2330   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2331   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2332     higher cardinalities.
  2333   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2334 
  2335 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2336 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2337 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2338 
  2339     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2340 
  2341 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2342 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2343 
  2344 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2345 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2346 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2347 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2348 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2349 "smt_solver".
  2350 
  2351 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2352 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2353 
  2354 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2355 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2356 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2357 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2360   - Renamed:
  2361     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2362     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2363     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364   - Added:
  2365     smt_verbose
  2366     smt_random_seed
  2367     smt_datatypes
  2368     smt_infer_triggers
  2369     smt_monomorph_limit
  2370     cvc3_options
  2371     remote_cvc3_options
  2372     remote_z3_options
  2373     yices_options
  2374 
  2375 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2376 header.
  2377 
  2378 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2379 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2380 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2381 
  2382   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2383 
  2384 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2387 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2388 
  2389 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390 
  2391 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2392 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2395 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2396 
  2397 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2398 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399 
  2400 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2401 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2402 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2405 
  2406 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2408 
  2409 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2410 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2411 
  2412 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2413 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2414 for congruent(2)).
  2415 
  2416 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2417 
  2418   types
  2419     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2420     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2421 
  2422   constants
  2423     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2424     True ~> HOL.True
  2425     False ~> HOL.False
  2426     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2427     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2428     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2429     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2430     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2431     The ~> HOL.The
  2432     All ~> HOL.All
  2433     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2434     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2435     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2436     If ~> HOL.If
  2437     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2438     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2439     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2440     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2441     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2442     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2443     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2444     op : ~> Set.member
  2445     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2446 
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2450 
  2451     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2452     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2453     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2454     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2455     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2456     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2457     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2458     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2459 
  2460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461 
  2462 * More stylized fact names:
  2463 
  2464   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2465   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2466   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2467   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2468 
  2469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2472 
  2473   constants
  2474     null ~> List.null
  2475 
  2476   facts
  2477     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2478     null_empty ~> null_def
  2479 
  2480 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2481 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2482 generation.
  2483 
  2484 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2485 Haskell code.
  2486 
  2487 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2488 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2489 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2490 
  2491 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2492 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2495 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2496 
  2497 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2498 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2499 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2502 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2508 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2509 referred to by its qualified name.
  2510 
  2511   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2512   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2513   product ~>  Enum.product
  2514 
  2515 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2516 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2518 
  2519 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2520 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2521 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2525 sort_key.
  2526 
  2527 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2531 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2532 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2533 
  2534   types
  2535     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2536               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2537               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2538         (depends on your needs)
  2539 
  2540   constants
  2541      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2542      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2543      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2544 
  2545 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2546 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2547 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2548 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2551 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2552 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2553 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2554 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2560 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2561 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2562 
  2563 
  2564 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2565 
  2566 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2567 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2568 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2569 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2570 compatibility.
  2571 
  2572 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2573 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2574 
  2575 
  2576 *** HOLCF ***
  2577 
  2578 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2579 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2580 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2582 
  2583 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2584 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2585 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2588   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2589   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2590 
  2591 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2592 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2593 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2596 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2597 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2598 domain definition now works:
  2599 
  2600   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2601 
  2602 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2603 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2604 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2605 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2606 
  2607   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2608     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2609 
  2610   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2611 
  2612 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2613 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2614 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615 
  2616 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2617 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2620 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2621 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2622 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2623 
  2624 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2625 
  2626 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627 
  2628 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629 
  2630 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2634 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2635 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2636 
  2637 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2638 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2639 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2642 still supported as an input translation.
  2643 
  2644 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2645 
  2646   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2647   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2648   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2649   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2650   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2651   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2652   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2653 
  2654 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2655 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2658   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2659   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2660   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2661   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2662   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2663 
  2664 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2665 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2668 
  2669   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2670   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2671   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2672   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2673 
  2674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2675 
  2676 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2677 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2678 
  2679 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2680 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2683   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2684   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2685   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2686   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2687   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2688   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2689   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2690   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2691   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2692   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2693   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2694   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2695   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2696   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2697   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2698   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2699   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2700   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2701   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2702 
  2703 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2704 
  2705   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2706   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2707   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2708   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2709   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2710   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2711   box_less             ~> box_below
  2712   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2713   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2714   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2715   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2716   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2717   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2718   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2719   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2720   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2721   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2722   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2723   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2724   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2725   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2726   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2727   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2728   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2729   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2730   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2731   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2732   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2733   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2734   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2735   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2736   up_less              ~> up_below
  2737   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2738   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2739   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2740   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2741   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2742   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2743   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2744   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2745   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2746   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2747   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2748   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2749   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2750 
  2751 
  2752 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2753 
  2754 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2755 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757 
  2758 *** ML ***
  2759 
  2760 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2761 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2762 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2763 
  2764 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2765 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2766 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2767 
  2768 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2769 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2770 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2771 
  2772 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2773 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2774 
  2775 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2776 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2777 
  2778 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2779 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2780 
  2781 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2782 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2783 
  2784 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2785 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2786 almost all situations.
  2787 
  2788 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2789 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2790 Isabelle/ML.
  2791 
  2792 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2793 meaning.
  2794 
  2795 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2796 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2797 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2798 
  2799 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2800 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2801 
  2802 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2803 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2804 
  2805 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2806 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2807 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2808 
  2809 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2810 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2811 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2812 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2813 configuration options.
  2814 
  2815 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2816 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2817 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2818 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2819 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2820 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2821 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2822 
  2823 
  2824 
  2825 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2826 ---------------------------------
  2827 
  2828 *** General ***
  2829 
  2830 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2831 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2832 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2833 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2834 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2835 their full internal name.
  2836 
  2837 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2838 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2839 Some hints on upgrading:
  2840 
  2841   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2842     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2843     which are independent of this issue.
  2844 
  2845   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2846     provides the following special forms:
  2847 
  2848       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2849       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2850       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2851 
  2852     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2853     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2854     extra variables".
  2855 
  2856     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2857     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2858     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2859     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2860     "logic".
  2861 
  2862   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2863     antiquotations:
  2864 
  2865       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2866       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2867       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2868       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2869 
  2870   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2871     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2872     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2873     antiquotations.
  2874 
  2875 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2876 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2877 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2878 diagnose syntax problems.
  2879 
  2880 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2881 
  2882 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2883 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2884 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2885 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2886 
  2887 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2888 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2889 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2890 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2891 
  2892 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2893 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2894 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2895 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2896 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897 
  2898 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2899 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2900 
  2901 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2902 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2903 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2904 
  2905   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2906 
  2907 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2908 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2909 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2910 
  2911 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2912 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2914 
  2915 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2916 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2917 
  2918 
  2919 *** Pure ***
  2920 
  2921 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2922 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2923 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2924 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2925 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2926 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2927 inspect proof terms.
  2928 
  2929 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2930 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2931 are added internally.  For example:
  2932 
  2933   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2934 
  2935 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2936 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2941 'class' instead.
  2942 
  2943 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2944 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2948 invariants.
  2949 
  2950 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2951 user space functionality any longer.
  2952 
  2953 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2954 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2958 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2959 
  2960 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2961 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2962 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2963 
  2964 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2965 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2966 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2967 
  2968 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2969 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971 
  2972 *** HOL ***
  2973 
  2974 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2975 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2976 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2977 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2978 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2979 
  2980 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2981 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2982 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2983 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2984 
  2985   fun
  2986     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2987   where
  2988     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2989 
  2990   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2991     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2992 
  2993   quotient_definition
  2994     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2995 
  2996 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2997 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2998 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2999 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3000 
  3001 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3002 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3003 
  3004 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3005 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3006 
  3007 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3011 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3012 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3013 
  3014 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3015 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3024 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3027 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3028 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3029 
  3030   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3031   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3032   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3033   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3034   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3035   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3036   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3037   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3038   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3039   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3040   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3041   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3042   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3043   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3044   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3045   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3046   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3047   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3048   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3049   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3050   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3051   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3052   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3053   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3054   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3055   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3056   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3057   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3058   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3059   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3060 
  3061 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3062 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3063 
  3064 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3065 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3066 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3067 
  3068 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3069 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3070 
  3071 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3072 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3075 
  3076 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3077 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3080 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3081 
  3082 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3085 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3086 
  3087 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3088 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3089 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3090 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3093   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3094   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3095   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3099 lattices):
  3100 
  3101     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3102     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3103 
  3104     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3105 
  3106     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3107     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3108     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3109     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3110     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3111     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3112     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3113     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3114     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3115     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3116     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3117     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3118     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3119 
  3120     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3121     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3122     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3123     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3124     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3125     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3126     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3127     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3128     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3129     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3130     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3131     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3132     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3133     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3134     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3135     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3136     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3137     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3138 
  3139   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3140   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3141 
  3142     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3143     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3144     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3145     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3146     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3147 
  3148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3149 
  3150 * Refined field classes:
  3151   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3152     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3153     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3154   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3158   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3159   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3160   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3161     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3162   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3163     equal_neg_zero.
  3164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3167 sets to lattices:
  3168 
  3169   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3170   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3171   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3172   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3173   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3174   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3175   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3176   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3177   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3178   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3179 
  3180 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3181 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3182 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3183 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3184 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3185 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3188 multiset order:
  3189 
  3190   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3191     <= and <;
  3192   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3193     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3194     multiset_order;
  3195   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3196     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3197     generation;
  3198   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3199     if needed.
  3200 
  3201 Renamed:
  3202 
  3203   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3204   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3205   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3206 
  3207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3210 
  3211 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3212 
  3213 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3214 
  3215 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3216 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3217 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219   Constants:
  3220   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3221   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3222   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3223   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3224   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3225   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3226   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3227   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3228   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3229   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3230   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3231   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3232   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3233 
  3234   Lemmas:
  3235   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3236   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3237   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3238   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3239   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3240   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3241   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3242   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3243   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3244   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3245   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3246   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3247   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3248 
  3249 * Sledgehammer:
  3250   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3251     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3252     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3253     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3254     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3255     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3258   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3259     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3260   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3261     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3262     is still experimental.)
  3263   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3264     full-typed mode.
  3265   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3266 
  3267 * Nitpick:
  3268   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3269   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3270   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3271     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3272   - Added support for quotient types.
  3273   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3274     constructs.
  3275   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3276     "termination" proofs).
  3277   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3278   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3279   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3280   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3281     record getters.
  3282   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3283   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3284   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3285   - Added "atoms" option.
  3286   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3287     problems.
  3288   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3289     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3290     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3292     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3293   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3296   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3297   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3298   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3299   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3300   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3301   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3302   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3303   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3304   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305 
  3306 
  3307 *** HOLCF ***
  3308 
  3309 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3310 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3311 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3314 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3315 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3316 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3319 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3320 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3321 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3322 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3323 
  3324 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3325 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3326 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3329 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330 
  3331   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3332   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3333 
  3334 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3335 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3338   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3339   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3340   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3341   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3342 
  3343 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3344 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3347   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3348   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3349 
  3350 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3351 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3353 
  3354 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3355 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3356 
  3357 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358 
  3359 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3360 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3361 
  3362 
  3363 *** ML ***
  3364 
  3365 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3366 
  3367     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3368     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3369 
  3370     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3371     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3372     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3373     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3374 
  3375     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3376     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3377     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3378 
  3379 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3380 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3381 
  3382 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3383 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3384 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3385 
  3386 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3387 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3388 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3389 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3390 
  3391 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3392 the context or even global references.
  3393 
  3394 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3395 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3396 
  3397 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3398 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3399 
  3400   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3401   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3402   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3403   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3404   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3405   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3406   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3407   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3408   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3409   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3410 
  3411 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3412 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3413 
  3414 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3415 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3416 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3417 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3418 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3419 
  3420 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3421 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3422 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3423 Theory_Data version.
  3424 
  3425 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3426 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3427 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3428 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3429 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3430 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3431 explicitly in rare situations.
  3432 
  3433 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3434 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3438 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3441 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3442 quite rare).
  3443 
  3444 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3445 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3448 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3449 terms.
  3450 
  3451 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3452 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3453 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3454 
  3455 
  3456 *** System ***
  3457 
  3458 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3459 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3460 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3461 
  3462 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3463 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3464 respectively.
  3465 
  3466 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3467 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3468 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3469 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3470 
  3471   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3472 
  3473 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3474 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3475 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3476 component.
  3477 
  3478 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3479 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3480 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3481 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3482 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3483 the user for manual installation.
  3484 
  3485 
  3486 
  3487 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3488 -------------------------------------
  3489 
  3490 *** General ***
  3491 
  3492 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3493 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3494 
  3495 
  3496 *** Pure ***
  3497 
  3498 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3499 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3500 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3501 
  3502 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3503 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3504 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3505 
  3506 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3507 interpretation.
  3508 
  3509 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3510 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 
  3513 *** Document preparation ***
  3514 
  3515 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3516 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3517 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3518 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3519 
  3520 
  3521 *** HOL ***
  3522 
  3523 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3524 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3525 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3526 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3527 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3528 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3529 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3530 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3531 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3532 
  3533 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3534 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3535 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3536 
  3537 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3538 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3539 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3540 
  3541 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3542 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3543 
  3544 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3545 
  3546 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3547 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3548 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3549 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3550 
  3551 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3552 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3553 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3554 "mirabelle" utility.
  3555 
  3556 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3557 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3558 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3559 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3560 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3561 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3562 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3563 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3564 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3565 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3566 
  3567 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3568 procedure only.
  3569 
  3570 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3571 
  3572 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3573 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3574 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3575 that fail later.
  3576 
  3577 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3578 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3579 
  3580 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3581 the same method as the approximation method.
  3582 
  3583 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3584 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3585 series expansion.
  3586 
  3587 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3588 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3589 
  3590 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3591 reals.
  3592 
  3593 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3594 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3595 
  3596 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3597 fixpoint theorem.
  3598 
  3599 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3600   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3601     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3602   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3603     accordingly
  3604   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3605     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3606   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3607     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3608 
  3609 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3610 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3611 lattice.
  3612 
  3613 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3614 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3615 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3616 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3617 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3618 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3622   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3623     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3624   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3625     le_inf_iff
  3626   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3627     sup_aci)
  3628   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3629   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3630   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3631     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3632     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3633     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3634     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3635     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3636     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3637     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3638     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3639     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3640     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3641   - authentic syntax for
  3642     Set.Pow
  3643     Set.image
  3644   - mere abbreviations:
  3645     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3646     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3647     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3648     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3649     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3650     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3651     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3652     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3653   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3654 
  3655 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3656 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3657 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3658 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3659 
  3660 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3661 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3662 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3665 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3668 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3669 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3670 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3673 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3674 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3675 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3676 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3677 
  3678 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3679 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3683 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684 
  3685 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3686 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3687 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3688 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3689 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3690 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3691 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3695     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3696     code_post       replaces    code post
  3697     etc.
  3698   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3699 
  3700 * Renamed methods:
  3701     sizechange -> size_change
  3702     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3703   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3706 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3707 
  3708 * Renamed theorems:
  3709     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3710     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3711     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3712     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3713     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3714   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3718 
  3719 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 
  3723 *** HOLCF ***
  3724 
  3725 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3726 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3727 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3728 
  3729 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3730 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3731 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3732 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3733 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3734 
  3735 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3736 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3737 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3738 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3739 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3740 
  3741 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3742 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3743 constructor are pre-configured.
  3744 
  3745 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3746 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3747 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3748 
  3749 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3750 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3751 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3752 as well.)
  3753 
  3754 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3755 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3756 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3757 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3758 examples.
  3759 
  3760 
  3761 *** ML ***
  3762 
  3763 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3764 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3765 
  3766 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3767 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3768 position, logical grouping etc.
  3769 
  3770 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3771 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3772 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3773 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3774 
  3775 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3776 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3777 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3778 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3779 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3780 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3781 
  3782 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3783 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3784 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3785 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3786 experiments with references.
  3787 
  3788 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3789 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3790 
  3791 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3792 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3793 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3794 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3795 
  3796 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3797 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3798 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3799 
  3800 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3801 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3802 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3810 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3811 
  3812 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3813 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3814 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3815 
  3816 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3817 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3818 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3821 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3822 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3826 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3827 instead of global theory.
  3828 
  3829 
  3830 *** System ***
  3831 
  3832 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3833 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3834 usedir option -q.
  3835 
  3836 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3837 also the system manual.
  3838 
  3839 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3840 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3841 
  3842 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3843 this is always enabled.
  3844 
  3845 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3846 
  3847 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3848 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3849 currently supported on Linux only.
  3850 
  3851 
  3852 
  3853 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3854 --------------------------------
  3855 
  3856 *** General ***
  3857 
  3858 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3859 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3860 
  3861   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3862     "isatool."
  3863 
  3864   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3865     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3866 
  3867   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3868     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3869 
  3870 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3871 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3872 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3873 
  3874 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3875 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3876 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3877 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3878 via "isabelle emacs".
  3879 
  3880 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3881 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3882 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3883 
  3884 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3885 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3886 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3887 
  3888 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3889 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3890 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3891 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3892 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3893 
  3894 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3895 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3896 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3897 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3898 
  3899 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3900 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3901 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3902 
  3903 
  3904 *** Pure ***
  3905 
  3906 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3907 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3908 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3909 
  3910 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3911 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3912 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3913 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3914 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3915 
  3916 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3917 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3918 useful in locale declarations.
  3919 
  3920 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3921 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3922 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3923 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3924 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3925 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3926 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3927 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3928 no longer generated.
  3929 
  3930 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3931 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3932 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3933 
  3934 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3935 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3936 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3937 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3938 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3939 
  3940 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3942 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3943 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3944 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3945 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3946 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3947 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3948 
  3949 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3950 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3951 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3952 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3953 
  3954 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3957 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3958 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3959 
  3960 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3961 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3964 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3965 in HOL, write
  3966 
  3967     class foo = ...
  3968 
  3969 instead of
  3970 
  3971     class foo = type + ...
  3972 
  3973 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3974 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3977 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3978 
  3979 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3980 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3981 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3982 
  3983 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3984 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3985 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3986 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3987 directly in regular applications.
  3988 
  3989 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3990 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3991 
  3992 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3993 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3994 
  3995 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3996 theory context.
  3997 
  3998 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3999 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4002 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4003 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4004 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4005 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4006 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4007 
  4008   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4009 
  4010 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4011 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4012 normalization.
  4013 
  4014 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4015 addressing etc.
  4016 
  4017 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4018 
  4019   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4020   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4021 
  4022 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4023 
  4024   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4025      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4026      parts of the code generator framework).
  4027 
  4028   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4029      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4030      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4031 
  4032 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4033 
  4034 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4035 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4036 
  4037 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4038 patterns, e.g.
  4039 
  4040     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4041 
  4042 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4043 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4044 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4045 hyphen:
  4046 
  4047     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4048 
  4049 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4050 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4051 
  4052 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4053 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4054 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4055 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4056 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4057 higher-order unification.
  4058 
  4059 
  4060 *** Document preparation ***
  4061 
  4062 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4063 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4064 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4065 
  4066 
  4067 *** HOL ***
  4068 
  4069 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4070 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4071 
  4072 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4073 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4074 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4075 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4076 Main, as before.
  4077 
  4078 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4079 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4080 
  4081 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4082 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4083 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4084 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4085 
  4086 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4087 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4088 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4089 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4090 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4091 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4092 
  4093 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4094 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4095 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4096 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4097 
  4098 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4099 menu.
  4100 
  4101 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4102 (contains the empty clause).
  4103 
  4104 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4105 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4106 
  4107 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4108 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4109 
  4110 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4111 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4112 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4115 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4116 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4117 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4118 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4119 
  4120 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4121 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4122 
  4123 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4124 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4125 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4126 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4127 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4128 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4129 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4130 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4131 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4132 
  4133 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4134 
  4135 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4136 
  4137 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4138 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4141 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4142 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4143 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4144 
  4145 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4146 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4147 
  4148     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4149     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4150     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4151     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4152     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4153     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4154     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4155     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4156 
  4157 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4158 theory Set.
  4159 
  4160 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4161 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4162 
  4163 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4164 
  4165 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4166 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4167 
  4168 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4169 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4170 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4171 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4172 allowed. For examples see
  4173 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4174 
  4175 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4176 
  4177 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4181 structure:
  4182 
  4183     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4184     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4185     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4186     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4187     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4188     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4189     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4190     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4191     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4192     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4193     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4194     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4195     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4196     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4197     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4198     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4199     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4200     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4201     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4202     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4203     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4204     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4205     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4206     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4207     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4208     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4209     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4210     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4211     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4212     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4213     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4214     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4215     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4216 
  4217     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4218     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4219     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4220     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4221     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4222     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4223     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4224     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4225     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4226     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4227 
  4228     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4229     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4230     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4231     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4232     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4233     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4234 
  4235 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4236 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4237 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4238 
  4239 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4240 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4241 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4242 
  4243 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4244 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4247 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4248 
  4249 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4250 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4251 proofs, e.g.
  4252 
  4253   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4254 
  4255 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4256 
  4257 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4258 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4259 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4260 
  4261 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4262 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4266 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4267 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4269 
  4270 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4271 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4272 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4273 preorder_class.*.
  4274 
  4275 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4276 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4277 
  4278 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4279 
  4280   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4281 
  4282 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4283 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4284 fold_image.
  4285 
  4286 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4287 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4288 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4289 the former will disappear at some point.
  4290 
  4291 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4292 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4293 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4294 
  4295 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4296 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4297 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4298 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4299 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4300 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4301 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4302 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4303 
  4304 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4305 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4306 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4307 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4308 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4309 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4310 
  4311     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4312     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4313     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4314     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4315     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4316     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4317     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4318 
  4319 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4320 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4321 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4322 
  4323 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4324 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4325 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4326 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4327 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4328 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4329 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4330 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4331 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4332 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4333 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4334 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4335 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4336 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4337 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4338 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4339 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4340 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4341 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4342 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4343 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4344 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4345 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4346 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4347 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4348 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4349 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4350 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4351 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4352 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4353 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4354 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4355 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4356 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4357 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4358 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4359 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4360 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4361 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4362 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4363 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4364 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4365 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4366 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4367 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4368 
  4369 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4372 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4373 
  4374 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4375 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4376 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4377 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4378 
  4379 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4380 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4381 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4382 theory RealVector.
  4383 
  4384 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4385 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4386 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4387 and inner products are included.
  4388 
  4389 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4390 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4391 supported.
  4392 
  4393 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4394 first diagonalization argument.
  4395 
  4396 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4397 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4398 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4399 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4400 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4401 
  4402     hide (open) const gcd
  4403     abbreviation gcd where
  4404       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4405     notation (output)
  4406       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4407 
  4408 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4409 
  4410 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4411 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4412 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4413 
  4414 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4415 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4416 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4417 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4418 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4419 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4420 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4421 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4422 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4423 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4424 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4425 cases.
  4426 
  4427 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4428 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4429 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4430 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4431 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4432 
  4433     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4434     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4435     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4436     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4437     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4438 
  4439 
  4440 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4441 
  4442 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4443 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4444 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4445 
  4446 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4447 
  4448 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4449 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4450 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4451 
  4452 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4453 
  4454 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4455 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4456 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4457 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4458 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4459 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4460 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4461 
  4462 
  4463 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4464 
  4465 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4466 
  4467 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4468 theory targets.
  4469 
  4470 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4471 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4472 'inductive' etc.
  4473 
  4474 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4475 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4476 
  4477 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4478 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4479 
  4480 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4481 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4482 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4483 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4484 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4485 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4486 the algorithm W:
  4487 
  4488  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4489  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4490          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4491 
  4492 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4493 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4494 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4495 
  4496 
  4497 *** HOLCF ***
  4498 
  4499 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4500 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4501 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4502 
  4503 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4504 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4505 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4506 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4507 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4508 
  4509 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4510 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4511 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4512 
  4513 
  4514 *** ZF ***
  4515 
  4516 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4517 
  4518 
  4519 *** ML ***
  4520 
  4521 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4522 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4523 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4524 5.2.1!
  4525 
  4526 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4527 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4528 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4529 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4530 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4531 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4532 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4533 
  4534 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4535 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4536 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4537 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4538 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4539 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4540 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4541 
  4542 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4543 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4544 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4545 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4546 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4547 
  4548 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4549 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4550 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4551 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4552 Method.add_method.
  4553 
  4554 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4555 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4556 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4557 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4558 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4559 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4560 
  4561 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4562 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4563 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4564 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4565 examples.
  4566 
  4567 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4568 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4569 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4570 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4571 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4572 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4573 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4574 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4575 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4576 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4577 
  4578 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4579 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4580 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4581 
  4582 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4583 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4584 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4585 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4586 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4587 resort for legacy applications.
  4588 
  4589 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4590 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4591 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4592 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4593 explicit runtime argument.
  4594 
  4595 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4596 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4597 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4598 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4599 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4602 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4603 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4604 theory state.
  4605 
  4606 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4607 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4608 
  4609   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4610   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4611   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4612   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4613   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4614   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4615   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4616   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4617   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4618   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4619 
  4620 
  4621 *** System ***
  4622 
  4623 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4624 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4625 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4626 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4627 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4628 
  4629 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4630 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4631 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4632 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4633 
  4634 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4635 
  4636 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4637 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4638 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4639 prover operations.
  4640 
  4641 
  4642 
  4643 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4644 -------------------------------
  4645 
  4646 *** General ***
  4647 
  4648 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4649 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4650 
  4651 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4652 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4653 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4654 provides a proper context already.
  4655 
  4656 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4657 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4658 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4659 
  4660 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4661 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4662 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4663 swap theory imports.
  4664 
  4665 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4666 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4667 
  4668 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4669 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4670 white space without escapes.
  4671 
  4672 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4673 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4674 "foo_bar".
  4675 
  4676 
  4677 *** Pure ***
  4678 
  4679 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4680 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4681 
  4682 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4683 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4684 
  4685 (1) unused_thms
  4686      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4687 
  4688 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4689      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4690      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4691 
  4692 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4693      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4694      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4695      their ancestors.
  4696 
  4697 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4698 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4699 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4700 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4701 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4702 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4703 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4704 
  4705 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4706 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4707 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4708 
  4709 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4710 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4711 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4712 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4713 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4714 
  4715 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4716 
  4717 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4718 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4719 update of theories within ML code.
  4720 
  4721 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4722 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4723 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4724 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4725 
  4726 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4727 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4728 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4732 
  4733 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4734 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4735 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4736 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4737 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4738 
  4739 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4740 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4741 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4742 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4743 situations.
  4744 
  4745 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4746 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4747 proof text.
  4748 
  4749 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4750 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4751 
  4752 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4753 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4754 predicates.
  4755 
  4756 
  4757 *** Document preparation ***
  4758 
  4759 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4760 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4761 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4762 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4763 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4764 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4765 
  4766 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4767 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4768 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4769 
  4770 
  4771 *** HOL ***
  4772 
  4773 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4774 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4775 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4776 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4777 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4778 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4779 
  4780 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4781 with multithreading.
  4782 
  4783 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4784 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4785 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4786 
  4787 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4788 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4789 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4790 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4791 
  4792 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4793 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4794 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4795 and makes them available separately.  See
  4796 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4797 
  4798 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4799 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4800 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4801 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4802 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4803 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4804 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4805 the declared rules.
  4806 
  4807 This setup also deals with rules like
  4808 
  4809   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4810 
  4811 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4812 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4813 
  4814 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4815 
  4816   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4817 
  4818   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4819     definitions on => and bool.
  4820 
  4821   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4822     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4823     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4824 
  4825       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4826       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4827       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4828       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4829       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4830       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4831       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4832       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4833 
  4834   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4835     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4836     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4837 
  4838   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4839     The proof pattern
  4840 
  4841       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4842       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4843 
  4844     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4845     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4846 
  4847       have "EX S. P S"
  4848       proof
  4849         show "P S" <...>
  4850       qed
  4851 
  4852   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4853     The proof pattern
  4854 
  4855       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4856       also have "S = T" <...>
  4857       finally have "P T" .
  4858 
  4859     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4860     must be replaced by something like
  4861 
  4862       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4863       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4864       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4865 
  4866   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4867     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4868 
  4869       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4870 
  4871     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4872     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4873     type of the form
  4874 
  4875       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4876 
  4877     rather than
  4878 
  4879       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4880 
  4881 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4882 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4883 
  4884 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4885 
  4886 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4887 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4891 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4892 
  4893 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4894 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4895 
  4896 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4897 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4898 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4899 
  4900 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4901 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4902 
  4903   less_trans
  4904   less_linear
  4905   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4906   le_less_trans
  4907   less_le_trans
  4908   less_not_sym
  4909   less_asym
  4910 
  4911 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4912 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4913 and different variable names.
  4914 
  4915 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4916 
  4917 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4918 finite maps.
  4919 
  4920 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4921 
  4922 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4923 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4924 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4925 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4926 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4927 accordingly.
  4928 
  4929 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4930 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4931 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4932 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4933 
  4934 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4935 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4936 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4937 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4938 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4942 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4945 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4946 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4947 
  4948 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4950 
  4951 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4952 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4953 
  4954 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4955 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4956 
  4957 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4958 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4959 
  4960 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4961 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4963 
  4964 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4965 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4966 
  4967 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4968 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4969 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4970 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4971 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4972 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4973 
  4974 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4975 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4976 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4977 
  4978 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4979 
  4980 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4981 
  4982 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4983 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4984 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4985 
  4986 
  4987 *** ZF ***
  4988 
  4989 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4990 same session:
  4991 
  4992   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4993   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4994   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4995   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4996   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4997   List      -> List_ZF
  4998   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4999 
  5000 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5001 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5002 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5003 
  5004 
  5005 *** ML ***
  5006 
  5007 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5008 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5009 
  5010 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5011 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5012 
  5013 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5014 
  5015 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5016 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5017 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5018 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5019 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5020 
  5021 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5022 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5023 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5024 
  5025 
  5026 *** System ***
  5027 
  5028 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5029 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5030 
  5031 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5032 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5033 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5034 
  5035 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5036 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5037 
  5038 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5039 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5040 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5041 
  5042 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5043 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5044 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5045 
  5046 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5047 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5048 
  5049 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5050 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5051 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5052 script.
  5053 
  5054 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5055 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5056 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5057 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5058 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5059 
  5060 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5061 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5062 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5063 
  5064 
  5065 
  5066 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5067 -----------------------------------
  5068 
  5069 *** General ***
  5070 
  5071 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5072 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5073 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5074 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5075 
  5076 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5077 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5078 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5079 
  5080 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5081 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5082 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5083 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5084 
  5085 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5086 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5087 quotes.
  5088 
  5089 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5090 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5091 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5092 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5093 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5094 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5095 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5096 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5097 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5098 
  5099 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5100 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5101 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5102 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5103 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5104 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5105 
  5106 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5107 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5108 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5109 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5110 
  5111 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5112 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5113 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5114 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5115 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5116 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5117 
  5118 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5119 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5120 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5121 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5122 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5123 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5124 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5125 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5126 
  5127 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5128 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5129 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5130 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5131 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5132 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5133 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5134 
  5135 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5136 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5137 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5138 
  5139 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5140 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5141 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5142 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5143 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5144 limit is imposed.
  5145 
  5146 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5147 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5148 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5149 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5150 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5151 and scalability.
  5152 
  5153 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5154 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5155 
  5156 
  5157 *** Document preparation ***
  5158 
  5159 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5160 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5161 current context.
  5162 
  5163 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5164 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5165 
  5166 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5167 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5168 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5169 
  5170 
  5171 *** Pure ***
  5172 
  5173 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5174 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5175 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5176 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5177 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5178 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5179 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5180 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5181 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5182 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5183 
  5184 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5185 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5186 sketch:
  5187 
  5188     internal compilation:
  5189         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5190     writing SML code to a file:
  5191         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5192     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5193         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5194     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5195         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5196 
  5197     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5198         method ``eval''
  5199 
  5200 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5201 
  5202 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5203 
  5204     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5205     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5206     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5207     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5208 
  5209 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5210 
  5211     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5212       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5213 
  5214     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5215       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5216 
  5217     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5218       {(target)}+
  5219         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5220 
  5221     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5222       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5223         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5224 
  5225 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5226 
  5227 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5228 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5229 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5230 codegen".
  5231 
  5232 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5233 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5234 annotations).
  5235 
  5236 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5237 syntax.
  5238 
  5239 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5240 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5241 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5242 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5243 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5244 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5245 
  5246 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5247 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5248 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5249 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5250 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5251 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5252 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5253 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5254 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5255 equations, see section "definitions".
  5256 
  5257 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5258 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5259 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5260 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5261 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5262 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5263 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5264 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5265 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5266 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5267 
  5268 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5269 configuration options:
  5270 
  5271   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5272   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5273   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5274   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5275   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5276   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5277   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5278   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5279   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5280 
  5281 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5282 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5283 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5284 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5285 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5286 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5287 order.
  5288 
  5289 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5290 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5291 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5292 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5293 context encountered later on.
  5294 
  5295 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5296 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5297 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5298 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5299 
  5300 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5301 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5302 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5303 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5304 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5305 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5306 
  5307 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5308 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5309 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5310 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5311 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5312 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5313 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5314 more permissive.
  5315 
  5316 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5317 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5318 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5319 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5320 maintainability of proof texts.
  5321 
  5322 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5323 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5324 
  5325   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5326   then guess x and y by clarify
  5327 
  5328 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5329 proof tools being involved here.
  5330 
  5331 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5332 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5333 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5334 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5335 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5336 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5337 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5338 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5339 
  5340 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5341 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5342 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5343 
  5344   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5345   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5346   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5347   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5348 
  5349 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5350 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5351 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5352 
  5353 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5354 both named and unnamed ones.
  5355 
  5356 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5357 
  5358   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5359 
  5360 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5361 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5362 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5363 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5364 
  5365 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5366 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5367 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5368 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5369 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5370 
  5371 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5372 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5373 
  5374 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5375 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5376 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5377 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5378 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5379 originally first one.
  5380 
  5381 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5382 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5383 expected.
  5384 
  5385 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5386 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5387 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5388 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5389 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5390 
  5391   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5392     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5393     obtains x where "P x"
  5394 
  5395   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5396     assumes "A & B"
  5397     obtains A and B
  5398 
  5399   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5400     assumes "A | B"
  5401     obtains
  5402       A
  5403     | B
  5404 
  5405 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5406 explicitly:
  5407 
  5408   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5409     obtains "~ thesis"
  5410 
  5411   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5412     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5413 
  5414 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5415 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5416 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5417 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5418 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5419 case_names).
  5420 
  5421 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5422 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5423 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5424 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5425 
  5426 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5427 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5428 top-level lemma.
  5429 
  5430 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5431 introduction rule (default "that").
  5432 
  5433 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5434 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5435 to occur.
  5436 
  5437 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5438 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5439 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5440 representations independently of name spaces.
  5441 
  5442 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5443 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5444 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5445 
  5446 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5447 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5448 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5449 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5450 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5451 current context.
  5452 
  5453 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5454 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5455 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5456 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5457 
  5458   axiomatization
  5459     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5460     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5461 
  5462   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5463   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5464 
  5465   abbreviation
  5466     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5467     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5468 
  5469 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5470 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5471 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5472 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5473 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5474 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5475 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5476 
  5477 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5478 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5479 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5480 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5481 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5482 
  5483 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5484 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5485 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5486 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5487 
  5488 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5489 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5490 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5491 
  5492   definition "K x _ = x"
  5493 
  5494   inductive conj for A B
  5495   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5496 
  5497 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5498 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5499 abbreviations on output.
  5500 
  5501 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5502 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5503 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5504 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5505 
  5506 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5507 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5508 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5509 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5510 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5511 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5512 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5513 
  5514 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5515 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5516 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5517 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5518 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5519 
  5520 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5521 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5522 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5523 
  5524 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5525 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5526 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5527 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5528 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5529 
  5530   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5531     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5532 
  5533 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5534 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5535 partial_order.
  5536 
  5537 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5538 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5539 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5540 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5541 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5542 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5543 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5544 examples.
  5545 
  5546 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5547 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5548 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5549 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5550 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5551 
  5552 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5553 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5554 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5555 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5556 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5557 
  5558   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5559   (induct set: foo bar)
  5560   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5561   (induct type: foo bar)
  5562 
  5563 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5564 new format.
  5565 
  5566 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5567 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5568 
  5569 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5570 considered a legacy feature.
  5571 
  5572 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5573 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5574 
  5575 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5576 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5577 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5578 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5579 
  5580 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5581 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5582 manipulating the claset.
  5583 
  5584 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5585 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5586 least one premise.
  5587 
  5588 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5589 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5590 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5591 rule steps.
  5592 
  5593 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5594 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5595 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5596 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5597 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5598 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5599 
  5600 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5601 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5602 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5603 
  5604 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5605 the graph browser tool.
  5606 
  5607 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5608 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5609 
  5610 
  5611 *** HOL ***
  5612 
  5613 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5614 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5615 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5616 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5617 multi-threading.
  5618 
  5619 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5620 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5621 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5622 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5623 work with multi-threading.
  5624 
  5625 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5626 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5627 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5628 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5629 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5630 
  5631 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5632 
  5633 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5634 equality.
  5635 
  5636 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5637 the new 'class' package:
  5638 
  5639     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5640     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5641     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5642     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5643     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5644     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5645     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5646     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5647     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5648     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5649     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5650     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5651     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5652     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5653     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5654     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5655     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5656     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5657     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5658     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5659 
  5660 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5661 
  5662 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5663 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5664 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5665 names.
  5666 
  5667 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5668 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5669 
  5670 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5671 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5672 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5673 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5674 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5675 
  5676 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5677 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5678 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5679 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5680 
  5681 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5682 
  5683 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5684 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5685 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5686 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5688 
  5689 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5690 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5691 
  5692 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5693 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5694 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5695 
  5696 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5697 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5698 
  5699 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5700 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5701 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5702 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5703 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5704 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5705 in the current context.
  5706 
  5707 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5708 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5710 
  5711 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5712 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5713 
  5714 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5715 
  5716     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5717     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5718 
  5719     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5720       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5721     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5722     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5723 
  5724     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5725     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5726 
  5727   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5728 
  5729     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5730     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5731     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5732     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5733     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5734     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5735     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5736     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5737     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5738     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5739     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5740     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5741     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5742     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5743     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5744     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5745     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5746     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5747     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5748     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5749     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5750     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5751     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5752     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5753     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5754     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5755     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5756     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5757     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5758     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5759     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5760     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5761     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5762     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5763     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5764 
  5765     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5766     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5767     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5768     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5769     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5770     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5771     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5772     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5773     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5774     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5775     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5776     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5777     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5778     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5779     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5780     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5781     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5782 
  5783     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5784     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5785     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5786     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5787     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5788     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5789     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5790     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5791     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5792     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5793     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5794     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5795     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5796     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5797     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5798     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5799     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5800     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5801     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5802     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5803     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5804     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5805     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5806     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5807     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5808     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5809     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5810     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5811 
  5812     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5813     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5814     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5815     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5816     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5817     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5818 
  5819     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5820     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5821     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5822     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5823 
  5824     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5825     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5826 
  5827     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5828     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5829 
  5830 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5831 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5832 
  5833 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5834 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5835 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5836 "*.size".
  5837 
  5838 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5842 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5843 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5844 
  5845 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5846 
  5847 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5848 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5849 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5850 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5851 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5852 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5853 numerals on all operations.
  5854 
  5855 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5856 
  5857 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5858 
  5859 * Code generator library theories:
  5860   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5861     languages.
  5862   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5863     languages.
  5864   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5865     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5866   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5867   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5868     denominator).
  5869   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5870     representable by rational numbers.
  5871   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5872     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5873     includes Code_Integer.
  5874   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5875     target-language built-in integers.
  5876   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5877     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5878 
  5879 * New package for inductive predicates
  5880 
  5881   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5882 
  5883     inductive
  5884       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5885       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5886     where
  5887       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5888     | ...
  5889 
  5890   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5891 
  5892     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5893 
  5894     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5895     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5896 
  5897     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5898     intros
  5899       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5900       ...
  5901 
  5902   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5903   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5904 
  5905     inductive_set
  5906       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5907       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5908     where
  5909       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5910     | ...
  5911 
  5912   or
  5913 
  5914     inductive_set
  5915       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5916       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5917       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5918     where
  5919       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5920     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5921     | ...
  5922 
  5923   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5924 
  5925   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5926   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5927 
  5928   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5929 
  5930   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5931     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5932     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5933     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5934     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5935 
  5936   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5937     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5938     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5939     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5940     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5941     statements of the form
  5942 
  5943       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5944 
  5945     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5946     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5947 
  5948       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5949 
  5950   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5951 
  5952       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5953         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5954         ==> ... ==> P
  5955 
  5956     for predicates and
  5957 
  5958       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5959         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5960         ==> ... ==> P
  5961 
  5962     for sets rather than
  5963 
  5964       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5965         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5966         ==> ... ==> P
  5967 
  5968     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5969     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5970     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5971 
  5972   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5973     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5974     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5975 
  5976 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5977 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5978 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5979 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5980 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5981 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5982 
  5983 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5984 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5985 
  5986 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5987 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5988 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5989 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5990 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5991 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5992 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5993 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5994 variable.
  5995 
  5996 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5997 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5998 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5999 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6000   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6001   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6002 
  6003 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6004 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6005 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6006 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6007 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6008 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6009 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6010 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6011 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6012 
  6013 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6014 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6015 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6016 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6017 rat, etc.
  6018 
  6019 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6020 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6021 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6022 
  6023 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6024 
  6025 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6026 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6027 
  6028 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6029 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6030 
  6031 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6032 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6033 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6034 
  6035 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6036 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6038 
  6039 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6040 
  6041 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6042 
  6043 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6044 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6045 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6046 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6047 
  6048 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6049 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6050 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6051 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6052 
  6053 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6054 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6055 algebraic operations.
  6056 
  6057 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6059 
  6060 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6062 
  6063 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6064 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6065 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6066 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6067 adapted.
  6068 
  6069 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6070 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6071 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6072 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6073 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6074 
  6075 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6076 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6077 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6078 
  6079 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6080 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6081 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6082 
  6083 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6084 
  6085 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6086 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6087 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6088   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6089       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6090   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6091   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6092   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6093 
  6094 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6095 
  6096 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6097 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6098 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6099 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6100 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6101 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6102 
  6103 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6104 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6105 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6106 
  6107 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6108 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6109 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6111 
  6112 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6113 
  6114 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6115 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6116 
  6117 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6118 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6119 
  6120 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6121 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6122 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6123 
  6124 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6125 True/False.
  6126 
  6127 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6128 
  6129 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6130 
  6131 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6132 ``rule'' method.
  6133 
  6134 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6135 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6136 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6137 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6138 
  6139 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6140 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6141 
  6142 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6143 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6144 
  6145 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6146 Library.
  6147 
  6148 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6149 
  6150 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6151 as greatest fixed-point.
  6152 
  6153 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6154 association lists.
  6155 
  6156 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6157 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6158 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6159 
  6160 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6161 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6162 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6163 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6164 behavior.
  6165 
  6166 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6167 
  6168 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6169 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6170 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6171 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6172 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6173 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6174 
  6175 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6176 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6177 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6178 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6179 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6180 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6181 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6182 
  6183 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6184 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6185 
  6186 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6187 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6188 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6189 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6190 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6191 
  6192 
  6193 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6194 
  6195 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6196 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6197 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6198 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6200 
  6201 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6202 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6203 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6204 
  6205 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6206 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6207 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6208 
  6209 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6210 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6211 
  6212 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6213 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6214 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6216 
  6217   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6218   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6219   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6220   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6221   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6222   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6223   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6224   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6225   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6226   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6227   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6228   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6229   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6230   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6231   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6232 
  6233 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6234 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6235 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
<