NEWS
author blanchet
Thu Mar 06 15:14:09 2014 +0100 (2014-03-06)
changeset 55942 c2d96043de4b
parent 55940 7339ef350739
child 55943 5c2df04e97d1
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed 'filter_rel' to 'rel_filter'
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    44 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    45 
    46 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    47 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    48 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    49 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    50 
    51 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    52 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    53 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    54 
    55 
    56 *** Pure ***
    57 
    58 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    59 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    60 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    61 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    62 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    63 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    64 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    65 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    66 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    67 
    68 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    69 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    70 instantiated theorem.
    71 
    72 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    73 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    74 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    75 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    76 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    77 
    78   attribute_setup standard =
    79     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    80 
    81 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    82 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    83 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    84 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    85 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    86 
    87 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    88 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    89 differently).
    90 
    91 
    92 *** HOL ***
    93 
    94 * HOL-Word:
    95   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
    96   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
    97   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
    98   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
    99   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   100 
   101 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   105 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   108 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   111 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   114   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   115   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   116   Theory renamings:
   117     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   118     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   119     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   120     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   121     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   122     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   123     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   124     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   125     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   126     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   127     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   128     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   129     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   130     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   131     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   132     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   133     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   134     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   135     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   136     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   137     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   138     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   139   New theories:
   140     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   141     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   142     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   143     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   144     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   145   Discontinued theories:
   146     BNF/BNF.thy
   147     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   148   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * New datatype package:
   151   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   152   * Renamed commands:
   153       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   154       primrec_new ~> primrec
   155       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   156     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   158     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   159     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   161     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   162     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Old datatype package:
   165   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   166     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   167     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   169     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   170     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   173   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   174   datatype package.
   175   Renamed constants:
   176     Option.set ~> set_option
   177     Option.map ~> map_option
   178     option_rel ~> rel_option
   179     option_rec ~> case_option
   180   Renamed theorems:
   181     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   182     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   183     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   184     option.recs ~> option.case
   185     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   186     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   187     map.simps ~> list.map
   188     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   189     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   190     the.simps ~> option.sel
   191   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   194     sum_map ~> map_sum
   195     map_pair ~> map_prod
   196     set_rel ~> rel_set
   197     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   198     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   199     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   200     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   201 
   202 * New theory:
   203     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   204 
   205 * Theory reorganizations:
   206   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   207 
   208 * Sledgehammer:
   209   - New option:
   210       smt_proofs
   211   - Renamed options:
   212       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   213       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   214     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * Metis:
   217   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   218     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   219 
   220 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   221 
   222 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   225 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   226 
   227 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   228 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   229 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   230 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   231 
   232 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   236 with the given constants.
   237 
   238 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   239 
   240 Fact consolidations:
   241     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   242     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   243     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   244     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   245     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   246     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   247     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   248     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   249     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   250     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   251     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   252     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   253     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   254     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   255     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   256     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   257     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   258     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   259     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   260     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   261     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   262     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   263     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   264     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   265     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   266     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   267     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   268     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   269     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   270     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   271     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   272     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   273     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   274     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   275     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   276     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   277     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   278     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   279     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   280     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   281 
   282 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   283 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   284 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   285 
   286 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   287 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   288 
   289 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   290 
   291 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   292 
   293 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295 
   296 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   300 operations on records.
   301 
   302 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   306     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   310     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   311     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   315   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   316   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   317   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   318     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   319   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   320     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   321   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   322 INCOMPATBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   325     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   326     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   327     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   328     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Fact name consolidation:
   332     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   333     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   334     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   335     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   336     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   340 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   341 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   342 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   343 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   344 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   345 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   346 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347 
   348 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   349 
   350 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   351 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   352 
   353 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   354 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   355 
   356 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   357 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   358 or the brute way with
   359 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   360 
   361 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   362 
   363 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   364 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365 
   366 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   367 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   368 
   369 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   370 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   371 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   372 INCOMPATIBILITY
   373 
   374 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   375 
   376 * Nitpick:
   377   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   378     infinite values.
   379   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   380     "Rep_Integ".
   381   - Removed "std" option.
   382   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   383     "hide_types".
   384 
   385 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   386   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   387   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   388     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   389     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   390     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   391     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   392     intervals.
   393 
   394 
   395 *** Scala ***
   396 
   397 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   398 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   399 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   400 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   401 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 
   404 *** ML ***
   405 
   406 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   407 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   408 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   409 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   410 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   411 of schematic variables.
   412 
   413 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   414 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   415 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   416 formal context.
   417 
   418 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   419 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   420 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   421 actually belongs to it).
   422 
   423 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   424 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   425 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   426 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   427 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   428 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   429 
   430 
   431 *** System ***
   432 
   433 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   434 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   435 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   436 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   437 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   438 
   439 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   440 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   441 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   442 
   443 
   444 
   445 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   446 -------------------------------------
   447 
   448 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   449 
   450 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   451 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   452 
   453 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   454 after edits surrounding the command location.
   455 
   456 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   457 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   458 e.g. out-of-memory).
   459 
   460 
   461 *** System ***
   462 
   463 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   464 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   465 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   466 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   467 
   468 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   469 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   470 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   471 
   472 
   473 
   474 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   475 -------------------------------------
   476 
   477 *** General ***
   478 
   479 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   480 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   481 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   484 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   485 
   486 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   487 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   488 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   489 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   490 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   491 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   492 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   493 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   494 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   495 syntax.
   496 
   497 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   498 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   501 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   502 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   503 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   504 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   505 
   506 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   510 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   511 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   512 
   513 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   514 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   515 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   516 
   517 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   518 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   519 
   520 
   521 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   522 
   523 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   524 Documentation panel.
   525 
   526 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   527 documentation.
   528 
   529 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   530 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   531 
   532 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   533 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   534 normal editing and checking process.
   535 
   536 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   537 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   538 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   539 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   540 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   541 
   542 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   543 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   544 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   545 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   546 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   547 
   548 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   549 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   550 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   551 
   552 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   553 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   554 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   555 to resolve conflict.
   556 
   557 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   558 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   559 
   560 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   561 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   562 such command executions while editing.
   563 
   564 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   565 document content.
   566 
   567 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   568 toplevel theorem statements.
   569 
   570 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   571 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   572 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   573 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   574 
   575 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   576 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   577 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   578 
   579 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   580 / Global Options / Appearance".
   581 
   582 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   583 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   584 
   585 
   586 *** Pure ***
   587 
   588 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   589 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   590 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   591 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   592 details.
   593 
   594 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   595 
   596 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   597 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   598 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   599 
   600 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   604 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   605 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   606 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   609 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   610 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   611 
   612 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   613 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   614 
   615 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   616 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   617 situations.
   618 
   619 
   620 *** HOL ***
   621 
   622 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   623 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   625 
   626 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   627 
   628 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   629 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   630 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   631 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   632 
   633   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   634 
   635 * Code generator:
   636   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   637     'code_instance'.
   638   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   639     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   640 
   641 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   642 examples.
   643 
   644 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   645 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   646 to distinguish both when desired.
   647 
   648 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   649 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   650 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   651 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   654 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   655 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   656 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   657 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   658 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   661 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   662 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   663 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   664 
   665 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   666 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   667 
   668 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   669 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   670 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   671 
   672 * Lifting:
   673   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   674     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   675       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   676       transfer rules
   677     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   678       correspondence relation can be generated
   679     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   680       parametricity
   681     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   682   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   683   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   684     copies
   685   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   686     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   687     anonymous context)
   688   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   689     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   690   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   691     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   692   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   693     INCOMPATIBILITY
   694 
   695 * Transfer:
   696   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   697     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   698   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   699   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   700     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   701   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   702 
   703 * Reification and reflection:
   704   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   705     "Reification".
   706   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   707   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   711   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   712     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   713     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   714   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   715     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   716   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   717     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   718     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   719     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   720     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   721     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   722     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   723     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   724   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   725     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   726   - Fact renames:
   727       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   728       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   730 
   731 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   732 
   733 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   734 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   735 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   737 
   738 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   739 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   740 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   741 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   742 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   743 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   744 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   745 lemmas.
   746 
   747 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   748 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   749 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   752 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   753 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   754 
   755 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   756 top and bottom elements.
   757 
   758 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   759 
   760 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   761 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   762 
   763  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   764    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   765    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   766 
   767  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   768    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   769    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   770 
   771    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   772    arbitrary filter.
   773 
   774  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   775    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   776    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   777    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   778    on a compact set.
   779 
   780  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   781    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   782    linear_continuum_topology).
   783 
   784  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   785    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   786    on all sequences converging to x.
   787 
   788  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   789    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   790    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   791    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   792    left or right.
   793 
   794  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   795 
   796      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   797 
   798  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   799    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   800 
   801  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   802    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   803    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   804    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   805    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   806    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   807 
   808  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   809 
   810    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   811 
   812    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   813      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   814 
   815    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   816 
   817    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   818      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   819 
   820    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   821 
   822    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   823 
   824  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   825 
   826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827 
   828 * Nitpick:
   829   - Added option "spy".
   830   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   831 
   832 * Sledgehammer:
   833   - Renamed option:
   834       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   835     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   837   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   838   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   839 
   840 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   841 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   842 
   843 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   844   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   845   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   846     generated code.
   847   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   848   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   849   - Fact renames:
   850     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   851     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   852     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   853 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   856 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   857 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   858 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   859 
   860 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   861 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   862 
   863 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   866 
   867     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   868     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   869 
   870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   871 
   872 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   873 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   874 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   875 
   876 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   877 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   878 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   879 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * HOL-BNF:
   882   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   883     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   884     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   885     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   886   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   887     coinduct).
   888   - Renamed keywords:
   889     data ~> datatype_new
   890     codata ~> codatatype
   891     bnf_def ~> bnf
   892   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   893     discs ~> disc
   894     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   895     map_id' ~> map_id
   896     sels ~> sel
   897     set_map' ~> set_map
   898     sets ~> set
   899 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   900 
   901 
   902 *** ML ***
   903 
   904 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   905 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   906 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   907 Examples.thy in particular.
   908 
   909 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   910 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   911 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   912 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   913 
   914 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   915 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   916 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   917 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   921 
   922     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   923     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   924 
   925 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   926 
   927 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   928 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   929 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   930 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   931 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   932 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   933 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   934 
   935 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   936 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   937 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   938 clasets separately from the context.
   939 
   940 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   941 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   942 
   943 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   944 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   945 
   946 
   947 *** System ***
   948 
   949 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   950 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   953 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   956 settings variable.
   957 
   958 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   959 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   960 always pdf.
   961 
   962 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   963 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   964 
   965 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   966 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   967 
   968 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   969 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   970 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   971 
   972 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   973 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   974 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   975 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   976 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   977 for HTML presentation of theories.
   978 
   979 
   980 
   981 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   982 -----------------------------------
   983 
   984 *** General ***
   985 
   986 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   987 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   988 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   989 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   990 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   991 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   992 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   993 
   994 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   995 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   996 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   997 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   998 
   999 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1000 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1001 
  1002 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1003 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1004 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1005 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1006 dependencies properly.
  1007 
  1008 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1009 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1010 
  1011 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1012 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1013 
  1014 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1015 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1016 and "class ... context ...".
  1017 
  1018 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1019 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1020 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1021 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1022 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1023 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1024 
  1025 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1026 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1027 
  1028 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1029 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1030 
  1031 
  1032 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1033 
  1034 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1035 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1036 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1037 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1038 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1039 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1040 
  1041 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1042 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1043 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1044 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1045 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1046 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1047 
  1048 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1049 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1050 browser on demand.
  1051 
  1052 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1053 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1054 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1055 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1056 
  1057 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1058 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1059 
  1060 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1061 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1062 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1063 potentially infinite message streams.
  1064 
  1065 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1066 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1067 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1068 schemes.
  1069 
  1070 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1071 symbols.
  1072 
  1073 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1074 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1075 
  1076 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1077 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1078 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1079 
  1080 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1081 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1082 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1083 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1084 
  1085 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1086 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1087 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1088 
  1089 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1090 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1091 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1092 Isabelle distribution.
  1093 
  1094 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1095 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1096 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1097 
  1098 
  1099 *** Pure ***
  1100 
  1101 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1102 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1103 
  1104 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1105 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1106 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1107 
  1108 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1109 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1110 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1111 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1112 with some care where this is really required.
  1113 
  1114 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1115 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1116 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1117 
  1118   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1119 
  1120 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1121 a Hasse diagram.
  1122 
  1123 
  1124 *** HOL ***
  1125 
  1126 * Sledgehammer:
  1127 
  1128   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1129     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1130   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1131   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1132   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1133   - Renamed options:
  1134       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1135       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1136       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1137       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1138 
  1139 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1140 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1141 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1142 
  1143 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1145 
  1146 * Lifting:
  1147   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1148   - quot_del attribute
  1149   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1150 
  1151 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1152 expressions.
  1153 
  1154 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1155 pointfree expressions.
  1156 
  1157 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1158 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1159 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1160 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1162 
  1163 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1164 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1165 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1166 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1167 accordingly.
  1168 
  1169 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1170 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1171 
  1172 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1173 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1176 
  1177 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1178 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1179 
  1180 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1181 
  1182 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1183 
  1184   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1185   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1186 
  1187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1188 
  1189 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1190 
  1191   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1192   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1193 
  1194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1195 
  1196 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1197 
  1198   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1199     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1200     output f x converges to G.
  1201 
  1202   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1203     infinity (at_bot).
  1204 
  1205   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1206     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1207 
  1208   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1209     at_top".
  1210 
  1211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1214 lattice type classes.
  1215 
  1216 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1217 
  1218     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1219     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1220 
  1221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1222 
  1223 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1224 changes as follows.
  1225 
  1226   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1227 
  1228       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1229       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1230 
  1231   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1232     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1233     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1234     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1235 
  1236   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1237     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1238     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1239 
  1240   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1241     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1242     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1243     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1244 
  1245   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1246     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1247 
  1248       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1249       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1250       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1251       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1252       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1253       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1254       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1255       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1256       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1257       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1258       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1259       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1260       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1261       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1262       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1263       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1264 
  1265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1268 
  1269 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1270 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1271 
  1272 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1273 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1274 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1275 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1276 
  1277   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1278   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1279   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1280   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1281   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1282   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1283   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1284   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1285   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1286   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1287 
  1288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1289 
  1290 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1291 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1292 Data").
  1293 
  1294 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1295 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1296 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1297 code.
  1298 
  1299 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1300 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1301 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1303 
  1304 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1305 
  1306 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1307 
  1308 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1309 
  1310   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1311   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1312 
  1313 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1314 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1315 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1316 
  1317   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1318 
  1319     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1320     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1321     cart_base i  removed
  1322     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1323 
  1324   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1325 
  1326   Renamed lemmas:
  1327 
  1328     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1329     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1330     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1331     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1332     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1333     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1334     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1335     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1336     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1337     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1338 
  1339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1340 
  1341 * HOL/Probability:
  1342 
  1343   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1344 
  1345   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1346     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1347     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1348 
  1349   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1350     projective family).
  1351 
  1352 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1353 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1354 
  1355 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1356 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1357 datatypes.
  1358 
  1359 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1360 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1361 
  1362 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1363 trees for the code generator.
  1364 
  1365 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1366 Lifting/Transfer.
  1367 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1368 
  1369 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1371 
  1372 
  1373 *** Document preparation ***
  1374 
  1375 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1376 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1377 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1378 
  1379 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1380 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1381 
  1382 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1383 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1384 document/root.tex.
  1385 
  1386 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1387 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1388 
  1389 
  1390 *** ML ***
  1391 
  1392 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1393 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1394 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1395 
  1396 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1397 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1398 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1399 
  1400 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1401 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1402 necessarily printing visible text.
  1403 
  1404 
  1405 *** System ***
  1406 
  1407 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1408 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1409 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1410 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1411 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1412 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1413 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1414 
  1415 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1416 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1417 
  1418   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1419 
  1420 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1421 
  1422 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1423 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1424 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1425 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1426 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1427 
  1428 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1429 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1430 
  1431 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1432 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1433 
  1434 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1436 
  1437 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1438 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1439 version of Isabelle.
  1440 
  1441 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1442 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1443 
  1444 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1445 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1446 for home-made settings.
  1447 
  1448 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1449 
  1450 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1451 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1452 configuration.
  1453 
  1454 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1455 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1456 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1457 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1458 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1459 
  1460 
  1461 
  1462 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1463 ------------------------------
  1464 
  1465 *** General ***
  1466 
  1467 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1468 
  1469   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1470     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1471   - markup for bound variables
  1472   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1473   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1474   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1475     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1476 
  1477 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1478 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1479 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1480 
  1481 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1482 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1483 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1484 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1485 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1486 
  1487   context
  1488     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1489     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1490   begin
  1491 
  1492   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1493 
  1494   end
  1495 
  1496   thm my_trans
  1497 
  1498 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1499 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1500 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1501 
  1502 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1503 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1504 
  1505 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1506 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1507 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1508 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1509 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1510 
  1511 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1512 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1513 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1514 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1515 indices of schematic variables.
  1516 
  1517 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1518 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1519 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1520 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1521 etc. was exploited.
  1522 
  1523 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1524 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1525 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1526 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1527 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1528 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1529 
  1530 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1531 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1532 manual.
  1533 
  1534 
  1535 *** Pure ***
  1536 
  1537 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1538 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1539 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1540 
  1541 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1542 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1543 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1544 undocumented feature.)
  1545 
  1546 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1547 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1548 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1549 
  1550   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1551 
  1552   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1553     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1554 
  1555 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1556 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1557 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1558 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1559 
  1560 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1561 
  1562     num ~> num_token
  1563     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1564     xstr ~> str_token
  1565 
  1566 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1567 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1568 position information via constraints).
  1569 
  1570 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1571 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1572 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1575 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1576 
  1577 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1578 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1579 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1582 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1585 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1586 
  1587   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1588 
  1589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1592 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593 
  1594 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1595 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1596 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1597 
  1598 
  1599 *** HOL ***
  1600 
  1601 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1602 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1603 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1604 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1605 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1606 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1607 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1608 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1609 possible.
  1610 
  1611 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1612 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1613 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1614 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1615 
  1616 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1617 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1618 
  1619 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1620 
  1621 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1622 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1623 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1624 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1625 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1626 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1627 
  1628   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1629     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1630 
  1631   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1632     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1633     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1634 
  1635   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1636     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1637 
  1638   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1639     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1640     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1641 
  1642   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1643     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1644 
  1645 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1646 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1647 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1648 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1649 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1650 
  1651   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1652     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1653     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1654     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1655     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1656 
  1657     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1658     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1659 
  1660   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1661     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1662     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1663     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1664     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1665     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1666     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1667     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1668 
  1669   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1670     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1671     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1672     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1673 
  1674   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1675     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1676     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1677     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1678 
  1679   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1680     from type nat to type int.
  1681 
  1682 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1683 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1684 
  1685   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1686     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1687     type.  Example syntax:
  1688 
  1689     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1690       is List.insert
  1691 
  1692     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1693     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1694     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1695     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1696     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1697     by the package.
  1698 
  1699   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1700     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1701     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1702     code generation for each constant.
  1703 
  1704   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1705     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1706     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1707     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1708     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1709 
  1710   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1711     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1712     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1713 
  1714 * Quotient package:
  1715 
  1716   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1717     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1718 
  1719   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1720     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1721 
  1722   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1723     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1724     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1727     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1728 
  1729 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1730 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1731 
  1732 * Quickcheck:
  1733 
  1734   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1735     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1736     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1737     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1738     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1739 
  1740     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1741     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1742     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1743 
  1744     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1745     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1746 
  1747     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1748     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1749     show genuine counterexamples.
  1750 
  1751   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1752     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1753 
  1754     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1755     constructors of that type.
  1756 
  1757   - Support for multisets.
  1758 
  1759   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1760 
  1761   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1762     conjectures in a locale context.
  1763 
  1764 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1765 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1766 
  1767 * Sledgehammer:
  1768   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1769     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1770   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1771   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1772     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1773   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1774   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1775   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1776   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1777 
  1778 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1779 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1780 
  1781 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1782 
  1783 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1784 
  1785 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1786 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1787 
  1788   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1789 
  1790 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1791 a list and a nat.
  1792 
  1793 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1794 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1795 
  1796 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1797 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1798 default.
  1799 
  1800 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1801 
  1802   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1803 
  1804 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1805 
  1806 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1807 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1808 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1809 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1810 one_case.
  1811 
  1812 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1813 the result of the fact expression.
  1814 
  1815 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1816 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1817 of some relation theorems:
  1818 
  1819   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1820   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1821   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1822   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1823   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1824   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1825 
  1826 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1827 
  1828 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1829 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1830 
  1831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1832 
  1833 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1834 to match the constant's name:
  1835 
  1836   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1837   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1838   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1839   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1840   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1841   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1842   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1843   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1844   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1845   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1846   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1847   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1848   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1849   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1850   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1851   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1852   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1853   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1854   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1855   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1856   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1857   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1858   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1859   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1860 
  1861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1862 
  1863 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1864 and corresponding theorem names:
  1865 
  1866   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1867 
  1868   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1869 
  1870   - Renamed theorems:
  1871 
  1872     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1873     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1874     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1875     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1876     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1877     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1878     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1879     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1880     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1881     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1882     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1883     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1884     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1885     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1886     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1887     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1888     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1889     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1890     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1891     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1892     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1893     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1894     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1895 
  1896     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1897 
  1898     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1899 
  1900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1901 
  1902 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1903 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1904 
  1905   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1906   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1907   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1908   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1909   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1910   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1911   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1912   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1913   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1914   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1915   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1916   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1917   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1918   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1919   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1920   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1921   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1922   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1923   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1924   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1925   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1926 
  1927 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1928 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1933 
  1934   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1935   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1936   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1937   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1938   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1939   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1940   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1941   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1942   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1943   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1944   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1945   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1946   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1947   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1948   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1949   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1950   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1951   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1952 
  1953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1954 
  1955 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1956 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1957 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1958 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1959 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1960 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1961 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1962 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1963 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1964 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1965 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1966 
  1967 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1968 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1969 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1970 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1971 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1972 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1973 
  1974 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1975 through option types.
  1976 
  1977 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1978 relations.
  1979 
  1980 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1981 
  1982 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1983 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1984 
  1985   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1986   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1987   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1988   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1989   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1990   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1991   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1992   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1993   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1994   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1995   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1996   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1997   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1998   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1999   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2000   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2001   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2002   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2003   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2004   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2005   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2006   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2007   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2008   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2009   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2010   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2011   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2012   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2013   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2014   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2015   zless_le ~> less_le
  2016   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2017   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2018   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2019 
  2020 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2021 
  2022   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2023 
  2024 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2025 
  2026 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2027 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2028 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2029 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2033 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2034 
  2035 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2036 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2037 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2038 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2039 follows:
  2040 
  2041   Operations:
  2042   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2043   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2044   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2045   del -> rbt_del
  2046   delete -> rbt_delete
  2047   ins -> rbt_ins
  2048   insert -> rbt_insert
  2049   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2050   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2051   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2052   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2053   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2054   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2055   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2056   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2057   union -> rbt_union
  2058   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2059   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2060 
  2061   Lemmas:
  2062   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2063   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2064   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2065   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2066   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2067   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2068   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2069   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2070   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2071   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2072   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2073   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2074   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2075   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2076   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2077   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2078   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2079   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2080   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2081   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2082   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2083   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2084   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2085   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2086   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2087   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2088   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2089   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2090   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2091   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2092   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2093   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2094   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2095   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2096   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2097   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2098   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2099   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2100   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2101   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2102   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2103   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2104   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2105   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2106   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2107   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2108   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2109   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2110   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2111   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2112   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2113   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2114   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2115   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2116   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2117   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2118   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2119   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2120   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2121   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2122   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2123   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2124   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2125   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2126   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2127   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2128   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2129   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2130   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2131   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2132   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2133   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2134   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2135   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2136   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2137   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2138   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2139   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2140   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2141   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2142   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2143   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2144   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2145 
  2146 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2147 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2148 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2149 
  2150   Changed Operations:
  2151   float_abs -> abs
  2152   float_nprt -> nprt
  2153   float_pprt -> pprt
  2154   pow2 -> use powr
  2155   round_down -> float_round_down
  2156   round_up -> float_round_up
  2157   scale -> exponent
  2158 
  2159   Removed Operations:
  2160   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2161 
  2162   Renamed Lemmas:
  2163   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2164   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2165   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2166   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2167   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2168   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2169   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2170   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2171   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2172   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2173   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2174   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2175   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2176   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2177   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2178   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2179   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2180   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2181   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2182   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2183   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2184   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2185   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2186   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2187   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2188   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2189   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2190   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2191   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2192   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2193   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2194   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2195   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2196   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2197   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2198   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2199 
  2200   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2201   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2202   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2203   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2204   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2205   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2206   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2207   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2208   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2209   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2210 
  2211 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2212 association lists with distinct keys.
  2213 
  2214 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2215 annotated commands.
  2216 
  2217 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2218 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2219 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2220 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2221 
  2222 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2223 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2224 instead.
  2225 
  2226   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2227   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2228   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2229   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2230   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2231   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2232   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2233   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2234   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2235   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2236   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2237   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2238   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2239   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2240   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2241   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2242   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2243   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2244   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2245   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2246   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2247   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2248   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2249   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2250   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2251   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2252   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2253   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2254   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2255   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2256   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2257   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2258   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2259   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2260   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2261   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2262   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2263   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2264   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2265   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2266   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2267 
  2268 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2269 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2270 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2271 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2272 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2273 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2274 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2275 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2276 
  2277 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2278 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2279 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2280 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2281 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2282 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2283 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2284 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2285 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2286 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2287 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2288 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290   Renamed constants:
  2291   measure -> emeasure
  2292   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2293   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2294   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2295   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2296 
  2297   Removed locales:
  2298   completeable_measure_space
  2299   finite_measure_space
  2300   finite_prob_space
  2301   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2302   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2303   finite_sigma_algebra
  2304   measure_space
  2305   pair_finite_prob_space
  2306   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2307   pair_finite_space
  2308   pair_sigma_algebra
  2309   product_sigma_algebra
  2310 
  2311   Removed constants:
  2312   conditional_space
  2313   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2314   image_space
  2315   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2316   pair_measure_generator
  2317   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2318   subvimage
  2319 
  2320   Replacement theorems:
  2321   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2322   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2323   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2324   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2325   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2326   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2327   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2328   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2329   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2330   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2331   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2332   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2333   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2334   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2335   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2336   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2337   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2338   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2339   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2340   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2341   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2342   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2343   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2344   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2345   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2346   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2347   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2348   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2349   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2350   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2351   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2352   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2353   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2354   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2355   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2356   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2357   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2358   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2359   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2360   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2361   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2362   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2363   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2364   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2365   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2366   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2367   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2368   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2369   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2370   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2371   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2372   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2373   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2374   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2375   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2376   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2377   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2378   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2379   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2380   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2381   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2382   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2383   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2384   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2385   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2386   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2387   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2388   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2389   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2390   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2391   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2392   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2393   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2394   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2395   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2396   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2397   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2398   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2399   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2400   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2401   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2402   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2403   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2404   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2405   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2406   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2407   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2408   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2409   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2410   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2411   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2412   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2413   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2414   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2415   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2416   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2417   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2418   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2419   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2420   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2421   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2422   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2423   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2424   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2425   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2426   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2427   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2428   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2429   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2430   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2431   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2432   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2433   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2434   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2435   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2436   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2437   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2438   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2439   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2440   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2441   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2442   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2443   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2444   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2445   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2446   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2447   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2448   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2449 
  2450 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2451 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2452 
  2453 
  2454 *** FOL ***
  2455 
  2456 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2457 
  2458 
  2459 *** ZF ***
  2460 
  2461 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2462 analysis.
  2463 
  2464 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2465 
  2466 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468 
  2469 *** ML ***
  2470 
  2471 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2472 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2473 
  2474 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2475 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2476 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2477 
  2478 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2479 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2480 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2481 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2482 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2483 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2484 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2485 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2486 
  2487 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2488 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2489 
  2490 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2491 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2492 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2493 
  2494 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2495 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496 
  2497 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2498 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2499 context as well.
  2500 
  2501 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2502 
  2503   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2504   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2505   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2506   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2507   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2508   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2509   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2510   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2511   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2512   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2513   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2514   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2515 
  2516 
  2517 *** System ***
  2518 
  2519 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2520 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2521 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2522 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2523 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2524 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2525 the generic user home was intended.
  2526 
  2527 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2528 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2529 
  2530 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2531 (not just JRE).
  2532 
  2533 
  2534 
  2535 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2536 ------------------------------------
  2537 
  2538 *** General ***
  2539 
  2540 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2541 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2542 
  2543   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2544     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2545     files for checking).
  2546 
  2547   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2548     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2549     positions.
  2550 
  2551   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2552     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2553     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2554 
  2555   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2556     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2557     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2558 
  2559   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2560     cores.
  2561 
  2562   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2563     versions (garbage collection).
  2564 
  2565 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2566 including some remaining limitations.
  2567 
  2568 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2569 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2570 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2571 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2572 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2576 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2577 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2578 
  2579 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2580 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2581 usedir option -Q.
  2582 
  2583 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2584 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2585 
  2586   long_names   ~> names_long
  2587   short_names  ~> names_short
  2588   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2589 
  2590 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2591 
  2592   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2593 
  2594 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2595 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2596 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2597 
  2598 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2599 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2600 
  2601 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2602   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2603   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2604   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2605     "Classical Reasoner".
  2606 
  2607 
  2608 *** HOL ***
  2609 
  2610 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2611 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2614 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2615 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2616 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2617 class complete_linorder.
  2618 
  2619 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2620 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2621 
  2622 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2623 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2624 
  2625   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2626   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2627   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2628   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2629   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2630   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2631   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2632   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2633   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2634   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2635   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2636 
  2637 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2638 
  2639   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2640   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2641   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2642   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2643   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2644   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2645   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2646   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2647   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2648   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2649   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2650   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2651   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2652   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2653   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2654   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2655 
  2656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2660 
  2661 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2662 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2663 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2664 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2667 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2668 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2670 
  2671 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2672 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2673 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2674 
  2675 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2676 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2677 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2678 
  2679 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2680 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2681 
  2682 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2683 
  2684     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2685     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2686 
  2687 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2688 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689 
  2690 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2691 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2692 
  2693 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2694 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2695 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2696 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2699   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2700   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2701   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2702   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2703   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2704   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2705 
  2706 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2707 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2708 
  2709   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2710   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2711   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2712   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2713   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2714   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2715   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2716   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2717   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2718   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2719   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2720   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2721   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2722   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2723   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2724   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2725   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2726   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2727   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2728   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2729   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2730   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2731   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2732   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2733   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2734   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2735   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2736   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2737   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2738   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2739   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2740   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2741   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2742   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2743   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2744   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2745   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2746   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2747   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2748   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2749   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2750   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2751   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2752   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2753   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2754   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2755   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2756   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2757   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2758   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2759   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2760   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2761   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2762   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2763   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2764   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2765   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2766   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2767   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2768   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2769   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2770   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2771   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2772   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2773   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2774   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2775   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2776   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2777   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2778   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2779   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2780   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2781   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2782   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2783   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2784   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2785   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2786   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2787   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2788   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2789   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2790   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2791 
  2792 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2793 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2794 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2795 
  2796 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2797 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2798 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2799 
  2800 * Code generation:
  2801 
  2802   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2803     characters in the target language.
  2804 
  2805   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2806     instead.
  2807 
  2808   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2809 
  2810   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2811     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2812 
  2813       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2814 
  2815 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2816 
  2817 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2818 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2819 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2820 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2821 syntax.
  2822 
  2823 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2824 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2825 
  2826 * Nitpick:
  2827   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2828   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2829   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2830     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832 * Sledgehammer:
  2833   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2834   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2835     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2836   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2837     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2838   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2839     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2841     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2842   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2843     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * Metis:
  2846   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2848     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Command 'try':
  2851   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2852     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2853   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2854     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2855 
  2856 * Quickcheck:
  2857   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2858     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2859   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2860     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2861   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2862     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2863     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2864     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2865   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2866     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2867 
  2868 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2869 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2870 
  2871 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2872 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2873 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2874 
  2875 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2876 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2880 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2883 arithmetic.
  2884 
  2885 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2886 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2887 and lattice type classes.
  2888 
  2889 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2890 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2891 
  2892 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2893 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2894 
  2895 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2896 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2897 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2898 
  2899   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2900   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2901   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2902   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2903 
  2904 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2905 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2906 constants:
  2907 
  2908   type inat   ~> type enat
  2909   Fin         ~> enat
  2910   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2911   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2912   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2913 
  2914 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2915 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2918 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2919 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2920 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2921 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2922 
  2923 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2924 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2925 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2926 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2927 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2928 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2929 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2930 
  2931   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2932   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2933   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2934   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2935 
  2936 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2937 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2938 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2941   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2942   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2943   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2944   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2945   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2946   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2947   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2948   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2949   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2950   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2951   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2952   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2953   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2954   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2955   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2956   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2957   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2958   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2959   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2960   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2961   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2962   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2963   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2964   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2965   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2966   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2967   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2968   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2969   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2970   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2971   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2972   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2973   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2974   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2975   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2976   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2977   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2978   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2979   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2980   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2981   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2982   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2983   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2984   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2985   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2986   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2987   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2988   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2989   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2990   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2991 
  2992 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2993   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2994   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2995   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2996   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2997     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3000 
  3001   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3002   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3003   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3004   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3005   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3006   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3007   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3008   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3009   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3010   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3011   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3012   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3013   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3014   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3015   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3016   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3017   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3018   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3019   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3020   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3021   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3022   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3023   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3024   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3025   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3026 
  3027 
  3028 *** Document preparation ***
  3029 
  3030 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3031 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3032 same.
  3033 
  3034 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3035 result.
  3036 
  3037 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3038 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3039 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3040 
  3041 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3042 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3043 
  3044 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3045 like this:
  3046 
  3047   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3048   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3049 
  3050 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3051 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3052 layouts.
  3053 
  3054 
  3055 *** ML ***
  3056 
  3057 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3058 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3059 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3060 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3061 under external program control.
  3062 
  3063 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3064 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3065 
  3066 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3067 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3068 (better known as Proof General).
  3069 
  3070 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3071 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3072 
  3073 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3074 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3075 
  3076 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3077 (including quotes etc.).
  3078 
  3079 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3080 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3081 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3082 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3083 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3084 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3085 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3086 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3087 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3088 
  3089 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3090 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3091 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3092 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3093 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3094 
  3095 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3096 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3097 
  3098 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3099 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3100 
  3101 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3102 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3103 
  3104 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3105 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3106 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3107 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3108 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3109 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3110 proper Proof.context.
  3111 
  3112 
  3113 *** System ***
  3114 
  3115 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3116 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3117 
  3118 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3119 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3120 
  3121 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3122 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3123 
  3124   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3125   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3126   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3127   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3128   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3129 
  3130 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3131 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3134 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3135 example:
  3136 
  3137   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3138 
  3139 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3140 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3141 
  3142 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3143 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3144 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3145 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3146 
  3147 
  3148 
  3149 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3150 ----------------------------------
  3151 
  3152 *** General ***
  3153 
  3154 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3155 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3156 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3157 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3158 like this:
  3159 
  3160   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3161 
  3162 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3163 
  3164 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3165 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3166 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3167 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3168 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3169 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3170 
  3171 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3172 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3173 the following package declarations:
  3174 
  3175   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3176   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3177 
  3178 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3179 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3180 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3181 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3182 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3183 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3184 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3185 
  3186 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3187 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3188 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3189 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3190 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3191 
  3192 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3193 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3194 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3195 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3196 
  3197 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3198 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3199 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3200 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3201 
  3202   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3203 
  3204   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3205   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3206   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3207   show_types                    show_types
  3208   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3209   show_consts                   show_consts
  3210   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3211 
  3212   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3213   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3214   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3215 
  3216   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3217   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3218 
  3219   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3220 
  3221   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3222   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3223   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3224   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3225   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3226 
  3227 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3228 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3229 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3230 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3231 
  3232 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3236   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3237 
  3238 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3239 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3240 float_token.
  3241 
  3242 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3243 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3247 DejaVu Sans.
  3248 
  3249 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3250 
  3251 
  3252 *** Pure ***
  3253 
  3254 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3255 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3256 time.
  3257 
  3258 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3259 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3262 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3265 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3266 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3267 command already provided this functionality.
  3268 
  3269 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3270 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3271 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3272 without interpretations.
  3273 
  3274 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3275 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3276 
  3277 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3278 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3279 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3280 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3281 
  3282 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3283 'definition' instead.
  3284 
  3285 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3286 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3287 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3288 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3289 
  3290 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3291 constructors.
  3292 
  3293 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3294 the local file system.
  3295 
  3296 
  3297 *** HOL ***
  3298 
  3299 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3300 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3301 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3302 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3303 
  3304   declare [[coercion f]]
  3305 
  3306 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3307 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3308 
  3309   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3310 
  3311 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3312 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3313 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3314 other theories like this:
  3315 
  3316   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3317 
  3318 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3319 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3320 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3321 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3322 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3323 for examples.
  3324 
  3325 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3326 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3329 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3330 
  3331 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3332 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3333 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3334 
  3335 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3336 functorial structure of types.
  3337 
  3338 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3339 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3340 
  3341 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3342 languages.
  3343 
  3344 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3345 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3347 
  3348 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3349 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3352 combinators any longer.
  3353 
  3354 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3355 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3356 
  3357 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3358 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3359 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3360 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3361 
  3362   record 'a foo = ...
  3363   ...
  3364   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3365 
  3366 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3367 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369 
  3370 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3371 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3372 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3373 
  3374 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3375 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3376 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3377 
  3378 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3379 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3382 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3383 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3384 independently.
  3385 
  3386 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3387 counter example search.
  3388 
  3389 * Sledgehammer:
  3390   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3391     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3392     sledgehammer").
  3393   - Renamed commands:
  3394     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3395     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3396     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3397     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398   - Renamed options:
  3399     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3400     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3401     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3402     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Nitpick:
  3406   - Renamed options:
  3407     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3408     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3409     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3411   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3412   - Added "whack" option.
  3413   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3414   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3415   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3416   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3417     higher cardinalities.
  3418   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3419 
  3420 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3421 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3422 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3423 
  3424     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3425 
  3426 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3427 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3428 
  3429 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3430 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3431 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3432 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3433 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3434 "smt_solver".
  3435 
  3436 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3437 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3438 
  3439 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3440 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3441 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3442 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3445   - Renamed:
  3446     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3447     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3448     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449   - Added:
  3450     smt_verbose
  3451     smt_random_seed
  3452     smt_datatypes
  3453     smt_infer_triggers
  3454     smt_monomorph_limit
  3455     cvc3_options
  3456     remote_cvc3_options
  3457     remote_z3_options
  3458     yices_options
  3459 
  3460 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3461 header.
  3462 
  3463 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3464 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3465 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3466 
  3467   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3468 
  3469 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3472 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3473 
  3474 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3477 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3478 
  3479 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3480 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3481 
  3482 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3483 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3486 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3487 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3495 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3498 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3499 for congruent(2)).
  3500 
  3501 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3502 
  3503   types
  3504     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3505     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3506 
  3507   constants
  3508     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3509     True ~> HOL.True
  3510     False ~> HOL.False
  3511     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3512     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3513     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3514     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3515     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3516     The ~> HOL.The
  3517     All ~> HOL.All
  3518     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3519     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3520     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3521     If ~> HOL.If
  3522     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3523     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3524     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3525     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3526     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3527     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3528     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3529     op : ~> Set.member
  3530     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3531 
  3532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3533 
  3534 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3535 
  3536     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3537     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3538     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3539     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3540     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3541     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3542     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3543     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3544 
  3545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * More stylized fact names:
  3548 
  3549   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3550   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3551   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3552   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3553 
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3557 
  3558   constants
  3559     null ~> List.null
  3560 
  3561   facts
  3562     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3563     null_empty ~> null_def
  3564 
  3565 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3566 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3567 generation.
  3568 
  3569 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3570 Haskell code.
  3571 
  3572 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3573 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3574 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3575 
  3576 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3577 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3578 
  3579 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3580 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3581 
  3582 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3583 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3584 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3587 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588 
  3589 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591 
  3592 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3593 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3594 referred to by its qualified name.
  3595 
  3596   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3597   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3598   product ~>  Enum.product
  3599 
  3600 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3601 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3605 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3606 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3610 sort_key.
  3611 
  3612 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3616 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3617 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3618 
  3619   types
  3620     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3621               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3622               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3623         (depends on your needs)
  3624 
  3625   constants
  3626      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3627      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3628      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3629 
  3630 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3631 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3632 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3633 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3634 
  3635 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3636 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3637 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3638 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3639 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3645 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3646 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3647 
  3648 
  3649 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3650 
  3651 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3652 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3653 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3654 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3655 compatibility.
  3656 
  3657 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3658 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3659 
  3660 
  3661 *** HOLCF ***
  3662 
  3663 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3664 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3665 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3669 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3670 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3673   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3674   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3675 
  3676 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3677 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3678 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3681 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3682 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3683 domain definition now works:
  3684 
  3685   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3686 
  3687 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3688 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3689 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3690 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3691 
  3692   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3693     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3694 
  3695   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3696 
  3697 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3698 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3699 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3702 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3705 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3706 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3707 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3708 
  3709 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3710 
  3711 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3719 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3720 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3721 
  3722 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3723 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3724 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3727 still supported as an input translation.
  3728 
  3729 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3730 
  3731   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3732   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3733   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3734   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3735   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3736   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3737   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3738 
  3739 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3740 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3743   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3744   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3745   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3746   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3747   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3748 
  3749 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3750 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3753 
  3754   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3755   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3756   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3757   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3758 
  3759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760 
  3761 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3762 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3765 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3768   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3769   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3770   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3771   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3772   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3773   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3774   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3775   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3776   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3777   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3778   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3779   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3780   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3781   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3782   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3783   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3784   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3785   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3786   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3787 
  3788 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3791   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3792   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3793   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3794   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3795   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3796   box_less             ~> box_below
  3797   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3798   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3799   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3800   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3801   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3802   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3803   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3804   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3805   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3806   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3807   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3808   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3809   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3810   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3811   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3812   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3813   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3814   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3815   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3816   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3817   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3818   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3819   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3820   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3821   up_less              ~> up_below
  3822   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3823   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3824   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3825   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3826   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3827   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3828   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3829   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3830   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3831   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3832   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3833   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3834   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3835 
  3836 
  3837 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3838 
  3839 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3840 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 
  3843 *** ML ***
  3844 
  3845 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3846 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3847 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3848 
  3849 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3850 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3851 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3852 
  3853 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3854 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3855 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3856 
  3857 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3858 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3859 
  3860 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3861 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3862 
  3863 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3864 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3865 
  3866 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3867 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3868 
  3869 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3870 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3871 almost all situations.
  3872 
  3873 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3874 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3875 Isabelle/ML.
  3876 
  3877 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3878 meaning.
  3879 
  3880 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3881 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3882 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3883 
  3884 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3885 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3886 
  3887 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3888 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3889 
  3890 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3891 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3892 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3893 
  3894 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3895 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3896 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3897 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3898 configuration options.
  3899 
  3900 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3901 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3902 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3903 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3904 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3905 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3906 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3907 
  3908 
  3909 
  3910 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3911 ---------------------------------
  3912 
  3913 *** General ***
  3914 
  3915 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3916 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3917 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3918 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3919 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3920 their full internal name.
  3921 
  3922 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3923 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3924 Some hints on upgrading:
  3925 
  3926   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3927     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3928     which are independent of this issue.
  3929 
  3930   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3931     provides the following special forms:
  3932 
  3933       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3934       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3935       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3936 
  3937     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3938     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3939     extra variables".
  3940 
  3941     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3942     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3943     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3944     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3945     "logic".
  3946 
  3947   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3948     antiquotations:
  3949 
  3950       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3951       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3952       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3953       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3954 
  3955   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3956     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3957     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3958     antiquotations.
  3959 
  3960 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3961 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3962 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3963 diagnose syntax problems.
  3964 
  3965 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3966 
  3967 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3968 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3969 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3970 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3971 
  3972 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3973 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3974 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3975 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3978 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3979 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3980 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3981 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3982 
  3983 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3984 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3985 
  3986 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3987 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3988 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3989 
  3990   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3991 
  3992 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3993 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3994 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3995 
  3996 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3997 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4001 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4002 
  4003 
  4004 *** Pure ***
  4005 
  4006 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4007 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4008 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4009 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4010 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4011 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4012 inspect proof terms.
  4013 
  4014 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4015 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4016 are added internally.  For example:
  4017 
  4018   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4019 
  4020 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4021 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024 
  4025 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4026 'class' instead.
  4027 
  4028 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4029 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4031 
  4032 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4033 invariants.
  4034 
  4035 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4036 user space functionality any longer.
  4037 
  4038 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4039 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4041 
  4042 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4043 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4044 
  4045 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4046 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4047 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4048 
  4049 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4050 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4051 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4052 
  4053 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4054 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 
  4057 *** HOL ***
  4058 
  4059 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4060 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4061 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4062 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4063 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4064 
  4065 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4066 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4067 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4068 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4069 
  4070   fun
  4071     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4072   where
  4073     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4074 
  4075   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4076     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4077 
  4078   quotient_definition
  4079     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4080 
  4081 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4082 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4083 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4084 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4085 
  4086 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4087 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4088 
  4089 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4090 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4091 
  4092 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4096 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4097 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4098 
  4099 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4100 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4101 
  4102 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4109 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4110 
  4111 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4112 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4113 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4116   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4117   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4118   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4119   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4120   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4121   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4122   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4123   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4124   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4125   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4126   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4127   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4128   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4129   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4130   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4131   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4132   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4133   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4134   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4135   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4136   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4137   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4138   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4139   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4140   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4141   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4142   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4143   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4144   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4145 
  4146 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4147 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4148 
  4149 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4150 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4151 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4152 
  4153 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4154 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4155 
  4156 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4157 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4158 
  4159 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4160 
  4161 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4162 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4163 
  4164 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4165 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4166 
  4167 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4170 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4171 
  4172 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4173 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4174 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4175 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4178   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4179   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4180   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4184 lattices):
  4185 
  4186     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4187     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4188 
  4189     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4190 
  4191     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4192     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4193     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4194     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4195     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4196     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4197     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4198     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4199     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4200     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4201     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4202     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4203     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4204 
  4205     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4206     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4207     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4208     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4209     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4210     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4211     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4212     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4213     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4214     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4215     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4216     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4217     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4218     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4219     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4220     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4221     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4222     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4223 
  4224   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4225   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4226 
  4227     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4228     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4229     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4230     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4231     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4232 
  4233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 * Refined field classes:
  4236   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4237     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4238     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4239   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4243   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4244   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4245   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4246     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4247   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4248     equal_neg_zero.
  4249 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4252 sets to lattices:
  4253 
  4254   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4255   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4256   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4257   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4258   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4259   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4260   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4261   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4262   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4263   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4264 
  4265 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4266 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4267 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4268 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4269 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4270 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4271 
  4272 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4273 multiset order:
  4274 
  4275   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4276     <= and <;
  4277   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4278     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4279     multiset_order;
  4280   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4281     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4282     generation;
  4283   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4284     if needed.
  4285 
  4286 Renamed:
  4287 
  4288   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4289   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4290   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4291 
  4292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4293 
  4294 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4295 
  4296 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4297 
  4298 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4299 
  4300 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4301 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4302 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304   Constants:
  4305   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4306   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4307   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4308   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4309   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4310   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4311   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4312   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4313   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4314   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4315   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4316   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4317   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4318 
  4319   Lemmas:
  4320   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4321   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4322   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4323   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4324   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4325   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4326   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4327   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4328   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4329   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4330   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4331   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4332   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4333 
  4334 * Sledgehammer:
  4335   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4336     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4337     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4338     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4339     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4340     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4341     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4342   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4343   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4344     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4345   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4346     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4347     is still experimental.)
  4348   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4349     full-typed mode.
  4350   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4351 
  4352 * Nitpick:
  4353   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4354   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4355   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4356     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4357   - Added support for quotient types.
  4358   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4359     constructs.
  4360   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4361     "termination" proofs).
  4362   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4363   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4364   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4365   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4366     record getters.
  4367   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4368   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4369   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4370   - Added "atoms" option.
  4371   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4372     problems.
  4373   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4374     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4375     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4376   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4377     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4379 
  4380 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4381   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4382   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4383   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4384   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4385   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4386   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4387   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4388   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4389   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4390 
  4391 
  4392 *** HOLCF ***
  4393 
  4394 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4395 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4396 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4397 
  4398 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4399 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4400 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4401 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4402 
  4403 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4404 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4405 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4406 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4407 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4408 
  4409 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4410 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4411 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4414 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4417   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4418 
  4419 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4420 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4421 
  4422   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4423   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4424   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4425   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4426   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4427 
  4428 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4429 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4432   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4433   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4434 
  4435 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4436 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4440 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4441 
  4442 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4445 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4446 
  4447 
  4448 *** ML ***
  4449 
  4450 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4451 
  4452     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4453     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4454 
  4455     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4456     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4457     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4458     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4459 
  4460     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4461     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4462     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4463 
  4464 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4465 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4466 
  4467 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4468 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4469 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4470 
  4471 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4472 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4473 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4474 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4475 
  4476 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4477 the context or even global references.
  4478 
  4479 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4480 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4481 
  4482 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4483 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4484 
  4485   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4486   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4487   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4488   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4489   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4490   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4491   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4492   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4493   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4494   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4495 
  4496 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4497 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4498 
  4499 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4500 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4501 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4502 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4503 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4504 
  4505 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4506 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4507 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4508 Theory_Data version.
  4509 
  4510 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4511 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4512 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4513 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4514 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4515 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4516 explicitly in rare situations.
  4517 
  4518 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4519 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4523 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4526 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4527 quite rare).
  4528 
  4529 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4530 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4531 
  4532 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4533 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4534 terms.
  4535 
  4536 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4537 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4538 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4539 
  4540 
  4541 *** System ***
  4542 
  4543 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4544 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4545 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4546 
  4547 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4548 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4549 respectively.
  4550 
  4551 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4552 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4553 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4554 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4555 
  4556   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4557 
  4558 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4559 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4560 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4561 component.
  4562 
  4563 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4564 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4565 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4566 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4567 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4568 the user for manual installation.
  4569 
  4570 
  4571 
  4572 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4573 -------------------------------------
  4574 
  4575 *** General ***
  4576 
  4577 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4578 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4579 
  4580 
  4581 *** Pure ***
  4582 
  4583 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4584 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4585 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4586 
  4587 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4588 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4589 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4590 
  4591 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4592 interpretation.
  4593 
  4594 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4595 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596 
  4597 
  4598 *** Document preparation ***
  4599 
  4600 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4601 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4602 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4603 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4604 
  4605 
  4606 *** HOL ***
  4607 
  4608 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4609 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4610 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4611 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4612 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4613 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4614 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4615 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4616 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4617 
  4618 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4619 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4620 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4621 
  4622 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4623 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4624 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4625 
  4626 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4627 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4628 
  4629 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4630 
  4631 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4632 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4633 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4634 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4635 
  4636 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4637 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4638 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4639 "mirabelle" utility.
  4640 
  4641 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4642 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4643 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4644 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4645 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4646 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4647 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4648 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4649 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4650 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4651 
  4652 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4653 procedure only.
  4654 
  4655 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4656 
  4657 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4658 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4659 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4660 that fail later.
  4661 
  4662 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4663 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4664 
  4665 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4666 the same method as the approximation method.
  4667 
  4668 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4669 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4670 series expansion.
  4671 
  4672 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4673 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4674 
  4675 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4676 reals.
  4677 
  4678 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4679 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4680 
  4681 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4682 fixpoint theorem.
  4683 
  4684 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4685   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4686     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4687   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4688     accordingly
  4689   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4690     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4691   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4692     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4693 
  4694 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4695 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4696 lattice.
  4697 
  4698 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4699 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4700 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4701 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4702 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4703 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4705 
  4706 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4707   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4708     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4709   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4710     le_inf_iff
  4711   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4712     sup_aci)
  4713   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4714   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4715   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4716     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4717     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4718     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4719     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4720     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4721     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4722     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4723     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4724     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4725     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4726   - authentic syntax for
  4727     Set.Pow
  4728     Set.image
  4729   - mere abbreviations:
  4730     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4731     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4732     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4733     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4734     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4735     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4736     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4737     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4738   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4739 
  4740 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4741 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4742 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4743 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4744 
  4745 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4746 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4747 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4750 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4753 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4754 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4755 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4758 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4759 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4760 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4761 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4762 
  4763 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4764 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4766 
  4767 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4768 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4769 
  4770 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4771 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4772 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4773 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4774 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4775 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4776 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4780     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4781     code_post       replaces    code post
  4782     etc.
  4783   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785 * Renamed methods:
  4786     sizechange -> size_change
  4787     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4788   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4791 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4792 
  4793 * Renamed theorems:
  4794     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4795     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4796     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4797     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4798     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4799   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4800 
  4801 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4803 
  4804 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4806 
  4807 
  4808 *** HOLCF ***
  4809 
  4810 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4811 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4812 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4813 
  4814 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4815 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4816 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4817 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4818 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4819 
  4820 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4821 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4822 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4823 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4824 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4825 
  4826 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4827 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4828 constructor are pre-configured.
  4829 
  4830 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4831 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4832 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4833 
  4834 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4835 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4836 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4837 as well.)
  4838 
  4839 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4840 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4841 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4842 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4843 examples.
  4844 
  4845 
  4846 *** ML ***
  4847 
  4848 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4849 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4850 
  4851 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4852 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4853 position, logical grouping etc.
  4854 
  4855 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4856 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4857 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4858 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4859 
  4860 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4861 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4862 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4863 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4864 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4865 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4866 
  4867 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4868 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4869 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4870 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4871 experiments with references.
  4872 
  4873 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4874 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4875 
  4876 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4877 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4878 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4879 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4880 
  4881 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4882 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4883 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4884 
  4885 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4886 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4887 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4890 
  4891 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4895 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4896 
  4897 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4898 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4899 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4900 
  4901 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4902 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4903 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4906 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4907 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4911 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4912 instead of global theory.
  4913 
  4914 
  4915 *** System ***
  4916 
  4917 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4918 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4919 usedir option -q.
  4920 
  4921 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4922 also the system manual.
  4923 
  4924 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4925 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4926 
  4927 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4928 this is always enabled.
  4929 
  4930 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4931 
  4932 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4933 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4934 currently supported on Linux only.
  4935 
  4936 
  4937 
  4938 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4939 --------------------------------
  4940 
  4941 *** General ***
  4942 
  4943 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4944 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4945 
  4946   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4947     "isatool."
  4948 
  4949   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4950     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4951 
  4952   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4953     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4954 
  4955 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4956 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4957 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4958 
  4959 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4960 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4961 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4962 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4963 via "isabelle emacs".
  4964 
  4965 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4966 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4967 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4968 
  4969 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4970 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4971 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4972 
  4973 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4974 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4975 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4976 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4977 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4978 
  4979 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4980 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4981 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4982 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4983 
  4984 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4985 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4986 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4987 
  4988 
  4989 *** Pure ***
  4990 
  4991 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4992 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4993 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4994 
  4995 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4996 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4997 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4998 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4999 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5000 
  5001 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5002 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5003 useful in locale declarations.
  5004 
  5005 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5006 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5007 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5008 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5009 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5010 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5011 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5012 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5013 no longer generated.
  5014 
  5015 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5016 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5017 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5018 
  5019 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5020 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5021 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5022 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5023 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5024 
  5025 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5027 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5028 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5029 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5030 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5031 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5032 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5033 
  5034 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5035 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5036 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5037 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5038 
  5039 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5040 
  5041 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5042 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5043 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5044 
  5045 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5046 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5049 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5050 in HOL, write
  5051 
  5052     class foo = ...
  5053 
  5054 instead of
  5055 
  5056     class foo = type + ...
  5057 
  5058 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5059 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5060 
  5061 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5062 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5063 
  5064 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5065 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5066 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5067 
  5068 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5069 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5070 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5071 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5072 directly in regular applications.
  5073 
  5074 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5075 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5076 
  5077 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5078 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5079 
  5080 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5081 theory context.
  5082 
  5083 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5084 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5085 
  5086 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5087 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5088 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5089 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5090 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5091 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5092 
  5093   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5094 
  5095 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5096 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5097 normalization.
  5098 
  5099 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5100 addressing etc.
  5101 
  5102 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5103 
  5104   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5105   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5106 
  5107 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5108 
  5109   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5110      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5111      parts of the code generator framework).
  5112 
  5113   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5114      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5115      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5116 
  5117 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5118 
  5119 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5120 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5121 
  5122 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5123 patterns, e.g.
  5124 
  5125     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5126 
  5127 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5128 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5129 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5130 hyphen:
  5131 
  5132     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5133 
  5134 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5135 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5136 
  5137 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5138 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5139 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5140 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5141 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5142 higher-order unification.
  5143 
  5144 
  5145 *** Document preparation ***
  5146 
  5147 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5148 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5149 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5150 
  5151 
  5152 *** HOL ***
  5153 
  5154 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5155 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5156 
  5157 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5158 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5159 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5160 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5161 Main, as before.
  5162 
  5163 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5164 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5165 
  5166 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5167 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5168 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5169 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5170 
  5171 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5172 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5173 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5174 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5175 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5176 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5177 
  5178 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5179 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5180 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5181 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5182 
  5183 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5184 menu.
  5185 
  5186 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5187 (contains the empty clause).
  5188 
  5189 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5190 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5191 
  5192 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5193 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5194 
  5195 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5196 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5197 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5198 
  5199 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5200 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5201 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5202 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5203 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5204 
  5205 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5206 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5207 
  5208 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5209 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5210 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5211 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5212 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5213 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5214 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5215 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5216 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5217 
  5218 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5219 
  5220 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5221 
  5222 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5223 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5224 
  5225 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5226 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5227 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5228 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5229 
  5230 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5231 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5232 
  5233     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5234     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5235     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5236     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5237     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5238     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5239     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5240     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5241 
  5242 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5243 theory Set.
  5244 
  5245 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5246 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5247 
  5248 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5249 
  5250 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5251 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5252 
  5253 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5254 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5255 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5256 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5257 allowed. For examples see
  5258 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5259 
  5260 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5261 
  5262 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5264 
  5265 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5266 structure:
  5267 
  5268     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5269     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5270     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5271     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5272     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5273     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5274     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5275     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5276     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5277     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5278     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5279     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5280     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5281     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5282     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5283     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5284     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5285     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5286     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5287     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5288     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5289     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5290     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5291     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5292     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5293     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5294     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5295     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5296     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5297     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5298     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5299     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5300     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5301 
  5302     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5303     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5304     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5305     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5306     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5307     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5308     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5309     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5310     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5311     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5312 
  5313     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5314     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5315     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5316     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5317     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5318     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5319 
  5320 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5321 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5322 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5323 
  5324 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5325 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5326 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5327 
  5328 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5329 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5330 
  5331 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5332 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5333 
  5334 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5335 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5336 proofs, e.g.
  5337 
  5338   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5339 
  5340 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5341 
  5342 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5343 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5344 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5345 
  5346 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5347 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5349 
  5350 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5351 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5352 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5354 
  5355 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5356 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5357 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5358 preorder_class.*.
  5359 
  5360 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5361 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5362 
  5363 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5364 
  5365   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5366 
  5367 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5368 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5369 fold_image.
  5370 
  5371 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5372 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5373 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5374 the former will disappear at some point.
  5375 
  5376 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5377 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5378 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5379 
  5380 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5381 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5382 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5383 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5384 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5385 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5386 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5387 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5388 
  5389 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5390 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5391 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5392 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5393 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5394 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5395 
  5396     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5397     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5398     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5399     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5400     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5401     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5402     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5403 
  5404 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5405 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5406 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5407 
  5408 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5409 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5410 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5411 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5412 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5413 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5414 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5415 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5416 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5417 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5418 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5419 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5420 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5421 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5422 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5423 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5424 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5425 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5426 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5427 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5428 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5429 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5430 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5431 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5432 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5433 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5434 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5435 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5436 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5437 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5438 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5439 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5440 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5441 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5442 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5443 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5444 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5445 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5446 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5447 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5448 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5449 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5450 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5451 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5452 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5453 
  5454 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5455 
  5456 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5457 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5458 
  5459 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5460 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5461 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5462 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5463 
  5464 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5465 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5466 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5467 theory RealVector.
  5468 
  5469 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5470 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5471 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5472 and inner products are included.
  5473 
  5474 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5475 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5476 supported.
  5477 
  5478 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5479 first diagonalization argument.
  5480 
  5481 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5482 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5483 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5484 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5485 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5486 
  5487     hide (open) const gcd
  5488     abbreviation gcd where
  5489       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5490     notation (output)
  5491       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5492 
  5493 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5494 
  5495 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5496 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5497 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5498 
  5499 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5500 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5501 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5502 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5503 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5504 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5505 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5506 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5507 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5508 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5509 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5510 cases.
  5511 
  5512 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5513 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5514 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5515 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5516 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5517 
  5518     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5519     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5520     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5521     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5522     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5523 
  5524 
  5525 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5526 
  5527 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5528 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5529 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5530 
  5531 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5532 
  5533 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5534 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5535 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5536 
  5537 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5538 
  5539 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5540 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5541 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5542 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5543 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5544 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5545 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5546 
  5547 
  5548 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5549 
  5550 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5551 
  5552 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5553 theory targets.
  5554 
  5555 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5556 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5557 'inductive' etc.
  5558 
  5559 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5560 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5561 
  5562 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5563 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5564 
  5565 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5566 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5567 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5568 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5569 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5570 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5571 the algorithm W:
  5572 
  5573  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5574  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5575          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5576 
  5577 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5578 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5579 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5580 
  5581 
  5582 *** HOLCF ***
  5583 
  5584 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5585 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5586 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5587 
  5588 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5589 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5590 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5591 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5592 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5593 
  5594 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5595 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5596 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5597 
  5598 
  5599 *** ZF ***
  5600 
  5601 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5602 
  5603 
  5604 *** ML ***
  5605 
  5606 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5607 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5608 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5609 5.2.1!
  5610 
  5611 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5612 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5613 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5614 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5615 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5616 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5617 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5618 
  5619 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5620 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5621 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5622 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5623 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5624 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5625 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5626 
  5627 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5628 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5629 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5630 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5631 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5632 
  5633 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5634 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5635 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5636 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5637 Method.add_method.
  5638 
  5639 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5640 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5641 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5642 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5643 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5644 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5645 
  5646 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5647 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5648 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5649 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5650 examples.
  5651 
  5652 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5653 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5654 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5655 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5656 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5657 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5658 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5659 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5660 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5661 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5662 
  5663 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5664 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5665 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5666 
  5667 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5668 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5669 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5670 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5671 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5672 resort for legacy applications.
  5673 
  5674 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5675 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5676 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5677 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5678 explicit runtime argument.
  5679 
  5680 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5681 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5682 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5683 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5684 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5687 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5688 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5689 theory state.
  5690 
  5691 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5692 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5693 
  5694   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5695   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5696   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5697   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5698   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5699   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5700   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5701   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5702   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5703   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5704 
  5705 
  5706 *** System ***
  5707 
  5708 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5709 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5710 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5711 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5712 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5713 
  5714 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5715 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5716 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5717 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5718 
  5719 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5720 
  5721 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5722 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5723 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5724 prover operations.
  5725 
  5726 
  5727 
  5728 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5729 -------------------------------
  5730 
  5731 *** General ***
  5732 
  5733 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5734 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5735 
  5736 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5737 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5738 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5739 provides a proper context already.
  5740 
  5741 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5742 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5743 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5744 
  5745 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5746 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5747 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5748 swap theory imports.
  5749 
  5750 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5751 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5752 
  5753 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5754 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5755 white space without escapes.
  5756 
  5757 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5758 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5759 "foo_bar".
  5760 
  5761 
  5762 *** Pure ***
  5763 
  5764 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5765 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5766 
  5767 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5768 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5769 
  5770 (1) unused_thms
  5771      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5772 
  5773 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5774      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5775      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5776 
  5777 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5778      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5779      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5780      their ancestors.
  5781 
  5782 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5783 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5784 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5785 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5786 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5787 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5788 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5789 
  5790 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5791 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5792 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5793 
  5794 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5795 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5796 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5797 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5798 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5799 
  5800 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5801 
  5802 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5803 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5804 update of theories within ML code.
  5805 
  5806 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5807 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5808 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5809 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5810 
  5811 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5812 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5813 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5815 
  5816 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5817 
  5818 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5819 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5820 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5821 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5822 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5823 
  5824 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5825 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5826 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5827 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5828 situations.
  5829 
  5830 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5831 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5832 proof text.
  5833 
  5834 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5835 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5836 
  5837 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5838 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5839 predicates.
  5840 
  5841 
  5842 *** Document preparation ***
  5843 
  5844 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5845 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5846 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5847 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5848 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5849 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5850 
  5851 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5852 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5853 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5854 
  5855 
  5856 *** HOL ***
  5857 
  5858 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5859 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5860 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5861 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5862 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5863 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5864 
  5865 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5866 with multithreading.
  5867 
  5868 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5869 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5870 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5871 
  5872 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5873 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5874 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5875 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5876 
  5877 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5878 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5879 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5880 and makes them available separately.  See
  5881 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5882 
  5883 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5884 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5885 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5886 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5887 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5888 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5889 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5890 the declared rules.
  5891 
  5892 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5893 
  5894   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5895 
  5896 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5897 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5898 
  5899 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5900 
  5901   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5902 
  5903   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5904     definitions on => and bool.
  5905 
  5906   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5907     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5908     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5909 
  5910       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5911       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5912       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5913       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5914       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5915       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5916       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5917       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5918 
  5919   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5920     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5921     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5922 
  5923   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5924     The proof pattern
  5925 
  5926       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5927       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5928 
  5929     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5930     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5931 
  5932       have "EX S. P S"
  5933       proof
  5934         show "P S" <...>
  5935       qed
  5936 
  5937   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5938     The proof pattern
  5939 
  5940       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5941       also have "S = T" <...>
  5942       finally have "P T" .
  5943 
  5944     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5945     must be replaced by something like
  5946 
  5947       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5948       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5949       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5950 
  5951   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5952     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5953 
  5954       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5955 
  5956     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5957     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5958     type of the form
  5959 
  5960       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5961 
  5962     rather than
  5963 
  5964       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5965 
  5966 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5967 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5968 
  5969 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5970 
  5971 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5972 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5974 
  5975 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5976 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5977 
  5978 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5979 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5980 
  5981 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5982 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5983 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5984 
  5985 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5986 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5987 
  5988   less_trans
  5989   less_linear
  5990   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5991   le_less_trans
  5992   less_le_trans
  5993   less_not_sym
  5994   less_asym
  5995 
  5996 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5997 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5998 and different variable names.
  5999 
  6000 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6001 
  6002 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6003 finite maps.
  6004 
  6005 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6006 
  6007 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6008 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6009 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6010 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6011 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6012 accordingly.
  6013 
  6014 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6015 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6016 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6017 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6018 
  6019 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6020 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6021 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6022 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6023 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6025 
  6026 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6027 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6028 
  6029 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6030 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6031 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6032 
  6033 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6035 
  6036 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6037 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6038 
  6039 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6040 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6041 
  6042 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6043 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6044 
  6045 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6046 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6048 
  6049 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6050 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6051 
  6052 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6053 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6054 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6055 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6056 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6057 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6058 
  6059 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6060 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6061 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6062 
  6063 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6064 
  6065 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6066 
  6067 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6068 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6069 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6070 
  6071 
  6072 *** ZF ***
  6073 
  6074 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6075 same session:
  6076 
  6077   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6078   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6079   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6080   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6081   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6082   List      -> List_ZF
  6083   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6084 
  6085 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6086 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6087 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6088 
  6089 
  6090 *** ML ***
  6091 
  6092 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6093 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6094 
  6095 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6096 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6097 
  6098 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6099 
  6100 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6101 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6102 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6103 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6104 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6105 
  6106 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6107 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6108 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6109 
  6110 
  6111 *** System ***
  6112 
  6113 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6114 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6115 
  6116 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6117 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6118 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6119 
  6120 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6121 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6122 
  6123 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6124 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6125 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6126 
  6127 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6128 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6129 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6130 
  6131 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6132 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6133 
  6134 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6135 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6136 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6137 script.
  6138 
  6139 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6140 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6141 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6142 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6143 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6144 
  6145 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6146 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6147 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6148 
  6149 
  6150 
  6151 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6152 -----------------------------------
  6153 
  6154 *** General ***
  6155 
  6156 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6157 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6158 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6159 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6160 
  6161 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6162 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6163 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6164 
  6165 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6166 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6167 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6168 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6169 
  6170 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6171 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6172 quotes.
  6173 
  6174 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6175 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6176 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6177 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6178 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6179 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6180 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6181 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6182 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6183 
  6184 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6185 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6186 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6187 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6188 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6189 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6190 
  6191 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6192 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6193 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6194 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6195 
  6196 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6197 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6198 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6199 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6200 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6201 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6202 
  6203 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6204 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6205 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6206 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6207 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6208 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6209 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6210 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6211 
  6212 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6213 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6214 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6215 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6216 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6217 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6218 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6219 
  6220 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6221 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6222 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6223 
  6224 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6225 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6226 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6227 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6228 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6229 limit is imposed.
  6230 
  6231 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6232 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6233 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6234 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6235 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6236 and scalability.
  6237 
  6238 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6239 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6240 
  6241 
  6242 *** Document preparation ***
  6243 
  6244 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6245 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6246 current context.
  6247 
  6248 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6249 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6250 
  6251 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6252 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6253 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6254 
  6255 
  6256 *** Pure ***
  6257 
  6258 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6259 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6260 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6261 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6262 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6263 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6264 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6265 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6266 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6267 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6268