NEWS
author blanchet
Wed Jun 06 10:35:05 2012 +0200 (2012-06-06)
changeset 48094 c3d4f4d9e54c
parent 48069 e9b2782c4f99
child 48111 33414f2e82ab
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 
    13 *** System ***
    14 
    15 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
    16 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
    17 configuration.
    18 
    19 
    20 *** HOL ***
    21 
    22 * Quickcheck:
    23 
    24   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    25     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    26     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    27 
    28 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    29 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    30 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    31 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    32 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    33 
    34 * Sledgehammer:
    35 
    36   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    37 
    38 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
    39 ------------------------------
    40 
    41 *** General ***
    42 
    43 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    44 
    45   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    46     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    47   - markup for bound variables
    48   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
    49   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    50   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    51     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    52 
    53 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    54 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    55 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    56 
    57 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    58 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    59 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    60 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    61 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    62 
    63   context
    64     fixes x y z :: 'a
    65     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    66   begin
    67 
    68   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    69 
    70   end
    71 
    72   thm my_trans
    73 
    74 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    75 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    76 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    77 
    78 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    79 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    80 
    81 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    82 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    83 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    84 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
    85 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
    86 
    87 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    88 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    89 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    90 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    91 indices of schematic variables.
    92 
    93 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    94 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    95 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    96 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    97 etc. was exploited.
    98 
    99 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   100 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   101 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   102 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   103 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   104 of the material of that old tutorial.
   105 
   106 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   107 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   108 manual.
   109 
   110 
   111 *** Pure ***
   112 
   113 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   114 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   115 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   116 
   117 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   118 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   119 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   120 undocumented feature.)
   121 
   122 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   123 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   124 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   127 
   128   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   129     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   130 
   131 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   132 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   133 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   134 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   135 
   136 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   137 
   138     num ~> num_token
   139     xnum ~> xnum_token
   140     xstr ~> str_token
   141 
   142 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   143 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   144 position information via constraints).
   145 
   146 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   147 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   148 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   151 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   152 
   153 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   154 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   155 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   158 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   161 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   162 
   163   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   164 
   165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   168 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   171 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   172 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   173 
   174 
   175 *** HOL ***
   176 
   177 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   178 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   179 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   180 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   181 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   182 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   183 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   184 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   185 possible.
   186 
   187 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   188 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   189 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   190 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   191 
   192 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   193 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   194 
   195 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   196 
   197 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   198 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   199 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   200 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   201 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   202 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   203 
   204   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   205     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   206 
   207   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   208     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   209     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   210 
   211   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   212     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   213 
   214   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   215     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   216     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   217 
   218   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   219     Redefine using other integer operations.
   220 
   221 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   222 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   223 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   224 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   225 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   226 
   227   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   228     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   229     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   230     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   231     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   232 
   233     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   234     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   235 
   236   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   237     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   238     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   239     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   240     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   241     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   242     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   243     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   244 
   245   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   246     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   247     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   248     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   249 
   250   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   251     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   252     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   253     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   254 
   255   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   256     from type nat to type int.
   257 
   258 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   259 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   260 
   261   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   262     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   263     type.  Example syntax:
   264 
   265     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   266       is List.insert
   267 
   268     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   269     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   270     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   271     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   272     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   273     by the package.
   274 
   275   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   276     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   277     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   278     code generation for each constant.
   279 
   280   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   281     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   282     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   283     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   284     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   285 
   286   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   287     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   288     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   289 
   290 * Quotient package:
   291 
   292   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   293     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   294 
   295   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   296     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   297 
   298   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   299     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   300     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   303     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   306 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   307 
   308 * Quickcheck:
   309 
   310   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   311     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   312     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   313     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   314     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   315 
   316     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   317     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   318     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   319 
   320     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   321     continues searching for genuine ones.
   322 
   323     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   324     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   325     show genuine counterexamples.
   326 
   327   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   328     value generators for a given type and operations.
   329 
   330     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   331     constructors of that type.
   332 
   333   - Support for multisets.
   334 
   335   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   336 
   337   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   338     conjectures in a locale context.
   339 
   340 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   341 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   342 
   343 * Sledgehammer:
   344   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   345     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   346   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   347   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   348     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   349   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   350   - Sped up the minimizer.
   351   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   352   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   353   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   354 
   355 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   356 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   357 
   358 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   359 
   360 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   361 
   362 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   363 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   364 
   365   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   366 
   367 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   368 a list and a nat.
   369 
   370 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   371 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   372 
   373 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   374 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   375 default.
   376 
   377 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   378 
   379   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   380 
   381 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   382 
   383 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   384 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   385 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   386 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   387 one_case.
   388 
   389 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   390 the result of the fact expression.
   391 
   392 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   393 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   394 of some relation theorems:
   395 
   396   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   397   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   398   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   399   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   400   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   401   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   402 
   403 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   404 
   405 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   406 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   407 
   408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 
   410 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   411 to match the constant's name:
   412 
   413   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   414   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   415   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   416   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   417   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   418   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   419   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   420   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   421   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   422   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   423   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   424   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   425   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   426   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   427   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   428   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   429   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   430   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   431   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   432   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   433   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   434   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   435   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   436   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   437 
   438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   439 
   440 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   441 and corresponding theorem names:
   442 
   443   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   444 
   445   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   446 
   447   - Renamed theorems:
   448 
   449     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   450     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   451     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   452     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   453     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   454     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   455     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   456     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   457     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   458     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   459     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   460     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   461     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   462     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   463     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   464     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   465     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   466     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   467     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   468     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   469     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   470     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   471     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   472 
   473     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   474 
   475     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   476 
   477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   480 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   481 
   482   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   483   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   484   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   485   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   486   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   487   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   488   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   489   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   490   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   491   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   492   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   493   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   494   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   495   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   496   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   497   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   498   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   499   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   500   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   501   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   502   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   503 
   504 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   505 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   506 
   507 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   510 
   511   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   512   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   513   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   514   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   515   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   516   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   517   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   518   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   519   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   520   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   521   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   522   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   523   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   524   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   525   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   526   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   527   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   528   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   529 
   530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   531 
   532 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   533 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   534 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   535 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   536 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   537 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   538 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   539 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   540 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   541 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   542 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   543 
   544 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   545 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   546 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   547 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   548 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   549 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   550 
   551 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   552 through option types.
   553 
   554 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   555 relations.
   556 
   557 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   558 
   559 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   560 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   561 
   562   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   563   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   564   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   565   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   566   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   567   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   568   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   569   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   570   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   571   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   572   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   573   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   574   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   575   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   576   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   577   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   578   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   579   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   580   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   581   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   582   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   583   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   584   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   585   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   586   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   587   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   588   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   589   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   590   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   591   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   592   zless_le ~> less_le
   593   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   594   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   595   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   596 
   597 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   598 
   599   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   600 
   601 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   602 
   603 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   604 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   605 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   606 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   608 
   609 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   610 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   611 
   612 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   613 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   614 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   615 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   616 follows:
   617 
   618   Operations:
   619   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   620   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   621   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   622   del -> rbt_del
   623   delete -> rbt_delete
   624   ins -> rbt_ins
   625   insert -> rbt_insert
   626   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   627   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   628   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   629   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   630   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   631   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   632   tree_less -> rbt_less
   633   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   634   union -> rbt_union
   635   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   636   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   637 
   638   Lemmas:
   639   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   640   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   641   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   642   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   643   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   644   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   645   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   646   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   647   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   648   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   649   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   650   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   651   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   652   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   653   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   654   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   655   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   656   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   657   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   658   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   659   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   660   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   661   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   662   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   663   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   664   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   665   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   666   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   667   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   668   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   669   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   670   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   671   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   672   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   673   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   674   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   675   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   676   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   677   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   678   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   679   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   680   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   681   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   682   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   683   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   684   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   685   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   686   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   687   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   688   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   689   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   690   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   691   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   692   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   693   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   694   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   695   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   696   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   697   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   698   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   699   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   700   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   701   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   702   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   703   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   704   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   705   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   706   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   707   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   708   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   709   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   710   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   711   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   712   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   713   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   714   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   715   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   716   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   717   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   718   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   719   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   720   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   721   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   722 
   723 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   724 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   725 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   726 
   727   Changed Operations:
   728   float_abs -> abs
   729   float_nprt -> nprt
   730   float_pprt -> pprt
   731   pow2 -> use powr
   732   round_down -> float_round_down
   733   round_up -> float_round_up
   734   scale -> exponent
   735 
   736   Removed Operations:
   737   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   738 
   739   Renamed Lemmas:
   740   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   741   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   742   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   743   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   744   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   745   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   746   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   747   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   748   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   749   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   750   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   751   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   752   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   753   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   754   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   755   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   756   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   757   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   758   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   759   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   760   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   761   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   762   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   763   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   764   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   765   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   766   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   767   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   768   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   769   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   770   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   771   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   772   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   773   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   774   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   775   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   776 
   777   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   778   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   779   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   780   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   781   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   782   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   783   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   784   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   785   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   786   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   787 
   788 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   789 association lists with distinct keys.
   790 
   791 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   792 annotated commands.
   793 
   794 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   795 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   796 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   797 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   798 
   799 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   800 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   801 instead.
   802 
   803   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   804   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   805   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   806   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   807   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   808   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   809   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   810   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   811   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   812   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   813   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   814   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   815   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   816   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   817   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   818   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   819   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   820   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   821   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   822   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   823   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   824   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   825   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   826   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   827   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   828   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   829   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   830   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   831   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   832   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   833   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   834   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   835   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   836   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   837   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   838   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   839   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   840   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   841   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   842   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   843   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   844 
   845 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   846 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   847 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   848 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   849 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   850 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   851 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   852 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   853 
   854 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   855 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   856 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   857 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   858 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   859 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   860 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   861 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   862 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   863 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   864 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   865 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867   Renamed constants:
   868   measure -> emeasure
   869   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   870   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   871   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   872   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   873 
   874   Removed locales:
   875   completeable_measure_space
   876   finite_measure_space
   877   finite_prob_space
   878   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   879   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   880   finite_sigma_algebra
   881   measure_space
   882   pair_finite_prob_space
   883   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   884   pair_finite_space
   885   pair_sigma_algebra
   886   product_sigma_algebra
   887 
   888   Removed constants:
   889   conditional_space
   890   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   891   image_space
   892   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   893   pair_measure_generator
   894   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   895   subvimage
   896 
   897   Replacement theorems:
   898   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   899   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   900   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   901   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   902   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   903   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   904   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   905   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   906   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   907   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   908   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   909   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   910   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   911   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   912   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   913   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   914   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   915   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   916   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   917   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   918   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   919   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
   920   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
   921   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   922   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
   923   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
   924   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
   925   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   926   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   927   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   928   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   929   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   930   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   931   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   932   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   933   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   934   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   935   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   936   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   937   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   938   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   939   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   940   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   941   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   942   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
   943   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
   944   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
   945   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
   946   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
   947   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
   948   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
   949   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
   950   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   951   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
   952   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
   953   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
   954   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
   955   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
   956   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   957   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
   958   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
   959   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
   960   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   961   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
   962   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
   963   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
   964   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
   965   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
   966   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
   967   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
   968   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
   969   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
   970   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
   971   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
   972   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   973   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
   974   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
   975   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
   976   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
   977   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   978   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   979   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   980   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   981   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
   982   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
   983   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
   984   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
   985   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
   986   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
   987   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
   988   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
   989   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
   990   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
   991   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
   992   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
   993   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
   994   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
   995   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
   996   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
   997   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
   998   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
   999   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1000   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1001   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1002   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1003   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1004   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1005   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1006   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1007   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1008   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1009   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1010   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1011   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1012   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1013   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1014   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1015   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1016   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1017   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1018   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1019   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1020   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1021   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1022   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1023   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1024   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1025   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1026 
  1027 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1028 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1029 
  1030 
  1031 *** FOL ***
  1032 
  1033 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1034 
  1035 
  1036 *** ZF ***
  1037 
  1038 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1039 analysis.
  1040 
  1041 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1042 
  1043 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 
  1046 *** ML ***
  1047 
  1048 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1049 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1050 
  1051 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1052 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1053 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1054 
  1055 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1056 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1057 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1058 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1059 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1060 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1061 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1062 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1063 
  1064 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1065 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1066 
  1067 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1068 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1069 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1070 
  1071 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1072 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1075 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1076 context as well.
  1077 
  1078 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1079 
  1080   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1081   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1082   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1083   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1084   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1085   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1086   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1087   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1088   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1089   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1090   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1091   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1092 
  1093 
  1094 *** System ***
  1095 
  1096 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1097 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1098 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1099 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1100 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1101 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1102 the generic user home was intended.
  1103 
  1104 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1105 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1106 
  1107 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1108 (not just JRE).
  1109 
  1110 
  1111 
  1112 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1113 ------------------------------------
  1114 
  1115 *** General ***
  1116 
  1117 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1118 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1119 
  1120   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1121     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1122     files for checking).
  1123 
  1124   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1125     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1126     positions.
  1127 
  1128   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1129     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1130     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1131 
  1132   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1133     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1134     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1135 
  1136   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1137     cores.
  1138 
  1139   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1140     versions (garbage collection).
  1141 
  1142 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1143 including some remaining limitations.
  1144 
  1145 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1146 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1147 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1148 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1149 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1151 
  1152 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1153 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1154 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1155 
  1156 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1157 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1158 usedir option -Q.
  1159 
  1160 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1161 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1162 
  1163   long_names   ~> names_long
  1164   short_names  ~> names_short
  1165   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1166 
  1167 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1168 
  1169   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1170 
  1171 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1172 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1173 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1174 
  1175 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1176 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1177 
  1178 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1179   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1180   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1181   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1182     "Classical Reasoner".
  1183 
  1184 
  1185 *** HOL ***
  1186 
  1187 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1188 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1191 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1192 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1193 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1194 class complete_linorder.
  1195 
  1196 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1197 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1198 
  1199 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1200 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1201 
  1202   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1203   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1204   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1205   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1206   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1207   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1208   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1209   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1210   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1211   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1212   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1213 
  1214 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1215 
  1216   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1217   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1218   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1219   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1220   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1221   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1222   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1223   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1224   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1225   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1226   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1227   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1228   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1229   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1230   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1231   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1232 
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1239 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1240 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1241 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1242 
  1243 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1244 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1245 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1247 
  1248 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1249 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1250 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1251 
  1252 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1253 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1254 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1257 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1258 
  1259 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1260 
  1261     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1262     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1263 
  1264 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1265 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1268 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1269 
  1270 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1271 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1272 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1273 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1276   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1277   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1278   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1279   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1280   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1281   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1282 
  1283 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1284 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1287   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1288   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1289   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1290   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1291   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1292   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1293   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1294   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1295   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1296   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1297   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1298   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1299   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1300   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1301   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1302   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1303   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1304   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1305   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1306   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1307   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1308   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1309   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1310   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1311   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1312   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1313   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1314   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1315   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1316   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1317   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1318   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1319   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1320   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1321   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1322   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1323   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1324   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1325   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1326   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1327   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1328   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1329   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1330   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1331   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1332   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1333   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1334   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1335   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1336   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1337   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1338   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1339   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1340   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1341   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1342   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1343   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1344   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1345   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1346   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1347   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1348   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1349   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1350   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1351   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1352   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1353   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1354   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1355   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1356   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1357   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1358   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1359   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1360   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1361   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1362   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1363   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1364   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1365   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1366   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1367   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1368 
  1369 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1370 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1371 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1372 
  1373 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1374 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1375 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1376 
  1377 * Code generation:
  1378 
  1379   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1380     characters in the target language.
  1381 
  1382   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1383     instead.
  1384 
  1385   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1386 
  1387   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1388     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1389 
  1390       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1391 
  1392 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1393 
  1394 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1395 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1396 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1397 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1398 syntax.
  1399 
  1400 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1401 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1402 
  1403 * Nitpick:
  1404   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1405   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1406   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1407     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1408 
  1409 * Sledgehammer:
  1410   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1411   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1412     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1413   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1414     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1415   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1416     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1417   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1418     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1419   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1420     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1421 
  1422 * Metis:
  1423   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1424   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1425     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1426 
  1427 * Command 'try':
  1428   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1429     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1430   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1431     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1432 
  1433 * Quickcheck:
  1434   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1435     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1436   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1437     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1438   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1439     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1440     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1441     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1442   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1443     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1444 
  1445 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1446 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1447 
  1448 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1449 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1450 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1451 
  1452 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1453 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1457 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1460 arithmetic.
  1461 
  1462 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1463 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1464 and lattice type classes.
  1465 
  1466 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1467 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1468 
  1469 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1470 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1471 
  1472 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1473 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1474 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1475 
  1476   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1477   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1478   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1479   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1480 
  1481 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1482 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1483 constants:
  1484 
  1485   type inat   ~> type enat
  1486   Fin         ~> enat
  1487   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1488   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1489   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1490 
  1491 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1492 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1495 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1496 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1497 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1498 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1499 
  1500 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1501 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1502 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1503 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1504 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1505 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1506 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1507 
  1508   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1509   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1510   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1511   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1512 
  1513 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1514 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1515 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1518   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1519   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1520   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1521   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1522   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1523   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1524   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1525   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1526   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1527   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1528   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1529   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1530   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1531   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1532   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1533   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1534   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1535   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1536   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1537   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1538   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1539   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1540   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1541   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1542   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1543   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1544   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1545   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1546   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1547   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1548   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1549   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1550   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1551   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1552   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1553   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1554   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1555   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1556   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1557   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1558   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1559   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1560   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1561   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1562   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1563   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1564   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1565   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1566   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1567   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1568 
  1569 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1570   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1571   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1572   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1573   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1574     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575 
  1576 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1577 
  1578   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1579   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1580   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1581   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1582   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1583   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1584   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1585   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1586   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1587   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1588   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1589   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1590   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1591   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1592   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1593   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1594   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1595   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1596   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1597   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1598   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1599   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1600   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1601   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1602   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1603 
  1604 
  1605 *** Document preparation ***
  1606 
  1607 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1608 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1609 same.
  1610 
  1611 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1612 result.
  1613 
  1614 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1615 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1616 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1617 
  1618 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1619 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1620 
  1621 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1622 like this:
  1623 
  1624   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1625   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1626 
  1627 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1628 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1629 layouts.
  1630 
  1631 
  1632 *** ML ***
  1633 
  1634 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1635 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1636 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1637 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1638 under external program control.
  1639 
  1640 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1641 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1642 
  1643 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1644 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1645 (better known as Proof General).
  1646 
  1647 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1648 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1649 
  1650 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1651 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1652 
  1653 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1654 (including quotes etc.).
  1655 
  1656 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1657 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1658 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1659 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1660 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1661 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1662 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1663 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1664 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1665 
  1666 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1667 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1668 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1669 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1670 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1671 
  1672 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1673 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1674 
  1675 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1676 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1677 
  1678 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1679 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1680 
  1681 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1682 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1683 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1684 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1685 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1686 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1687 proper Proof.context.
  1688 
  1689 
  1690 *** System ***
  1691 
  1692 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1693 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1694 
  1695 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1696 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1697 
  1698 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1699 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1700 
  1701   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1702   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1703   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1704   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1705   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1706 
  1707 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1708 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1709 
  1710 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1711 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1712 example:
  1713 
  1714   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1715 
  1716 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1717 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1718 
  1719 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1720 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1721 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1722 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1723 
  1724 
  1725 
  1726 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1727 ----------------------------------
  1728 
  1729 *** General ***
  1730 
  1731 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1732 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1733 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1734 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1735 like this:
  1736 
  1737   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1738 
  1739 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1740 
  1741 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1742 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1743 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1744 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1745 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1746 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1747 
  1748 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1749 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1750 the following package declarations:
  1751 
  1752   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1753   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1754 
  1755 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1756 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1757 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1758 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1759 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1760 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1761 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1762 
  1763 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1764 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1765 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1766 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1767 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1768 
  1769 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1770 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1771 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1772 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1773 
  1774 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1775 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1776 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1777 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1778 
  1779   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1780 
  1781   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1782   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1783   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1784   show_types                    show_types
  1785   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1786   show_consts                   show_consts
  1787   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1788 
  1789   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1790   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1791   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1792 
  1793   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1794   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1795 
  1796   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1797 
  1798   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1799   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1800   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1801   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1802   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1803 
  1804 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1805 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1806 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1807 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1808 
  1809 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1813   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1814 
  1815 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1816 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1817 float_token.
  1818 
  1819 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1820 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1822 
  1823 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1824 DejaVu Sans.
  1825 
  1826 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1827 
  1828 
  1829 *** Pure ***
  1830 
  1831 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1832 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1833 time.
  1834 
  1835 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1836 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1837 
  1838 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1839 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840 
  1841 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1842 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1843 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1844 command already provided this functionality.
  1845 
  1846 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1847 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1848 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1849 without interpretations.
  1850 
  1851 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1852 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1853 
  1854 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1855 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1856 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1857 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1858 
  1859 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1860 'definition' instead.
  1861 
  1862 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1863 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1864 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1865 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1866 
  1867 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1868 constructors.
  1869 
  1870 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1871 the local file system.
  1872 
  1873 
  1874 *** HOL ***
  1875 
  1876 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1877 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1878 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1879 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1880 
  1881   declare [[coercion f]]
  1882 
  1883 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1884 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1885 
  1886   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1887 
  1888 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1889 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1890 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1891 other theories like this:
  1892 
  1893   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1894 
  1895 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1896 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1897 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1898 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1899 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1900 for examples.
  1901 
  1902 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1903 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1906 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1907 
  1908 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1909 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1910 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1911 
  1912 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1913 functorial structure of types.
  1914 
  1915 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1916 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1917 
  1918 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1919 languages.
  1920 
  1921 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1922 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1924 
  1925 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1926 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1927 
  1928 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1929 combinators any longer.
  1930 
  1931 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1932 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1933 
  1934 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1935 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1936 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1937 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1938 
  1939   record 'a foo = ...
  1940   ...
  1941   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1942 
  1943 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1944 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946 
  1947 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1948 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1949 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1950 
  1951 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1952 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1953 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1954 
  1955 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1956 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1957 
  1958 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1959 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1960 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1961 independently.
  1962 
  1963 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1964 counter example search.
  1965 
  1966 * Sledgehammer:
  1967   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1968     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1969     sledgehammer").
  1970   - Renamed commands:
  1971     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1972     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1973     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1974     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975   - Renamed options:
  1976     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1977     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1978     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1979     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1980     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1981 
  1982 * Nitpick:
  1983   - Renamed options:
  1984     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1985     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1986     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1988   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1989   - Added "whack" option.
  1990   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1991   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1992   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1993   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1994     higher cardinalities.
  1995   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1996 
  1997 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1998 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1999 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2000 
  2001     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2002 
  2003 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2004 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2005 
  2006 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2007 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2008 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2009 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2010 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2011 "smt_solver".
  2012 
  2013 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2014 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2015 
  2016 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2017 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2018 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2019 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2020 
  2021 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2022   - Renamed:
  2023     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2024     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2025     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026   - Added:
  2027     smt_verbose
  2028     smt_random_seed
  2029     smt_datatypes
  2030     smt_infer_triggers
  2031     smt_monomorph_limit
  2032     cvc3_options
  2033     remote_cvc3_options
  2034     remote_z3_options
  2035     yices_options
  2036 
  2037 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2038 header.
  2039 
  2040 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2041 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2042 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2043 
  2044   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2045 
  2046 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2049 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050 
  2051 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2052 
  2053 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2054 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2057 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2058 
  2059 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2060 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2061 
  2062 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2063 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2064 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2067 
  2068 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2072 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2073 
  2074 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2075 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2076 for congruent(2)).
  2077 
  2078 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2079 
  2080   types
  2081     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2082     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2083 
  2084   constants
  2085     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2086     True ~> HOL.True
  2087     False ~> HOL.False
  2088     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2089     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2090     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2091     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2092     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2093     The ~> HOL.The
  2094     All ~> HOL.All
  2095     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2096     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2097     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2098     If ~> HOL.If
  2099     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2100     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2101     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2102     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2103     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2104     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2105     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2106     op : ~> Set.member
  2107     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2108 
  2109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2110 
  2111 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2112 
  2113     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2114     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2115     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2116     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2117     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2118     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2119     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2120     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2121 
  2122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 * More stylized fact names:
  2125 
  2126   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2127   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2128   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2129   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2130 
  2131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2134 
  2135   constants
  2136     null ~> List.null
  2137 
  2138   facts
  2139     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2140     null_empty ~> null_def
  2141 
  2142 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2143 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2144 generation.
  2145 
  2146 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2147 Haskell code.
  2148 
  2149 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2150 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2151 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2154 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2157 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2158 
  2159 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2160 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2161 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2162 
  2163 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2164 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2168 
  2169 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2170 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2171 referred to by its qualified name.
  2172 
  2173   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2174   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2175   product ~>  Enum.product
  2176 
  2177 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2178 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2182 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2183 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2187 sort_key.
  2188 
  2189 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2191 
  2192 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2193 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2194 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2195 
  2196   types
  2197     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2198               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2199               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2200         (depends on your needs)
  2201 
  2202   constants
  2203      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2204      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2205      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2206 
  2207 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2208 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2209 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2210 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2213 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2214 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2215 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2216 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2217 
  2218 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2222 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2223 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2224 
  2225 
  2226 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2227 
  2228 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2229 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2230 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2231 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2232 compatibility.
  2233 
  2234 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2235 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2236 
  2237 
  2238 *** HOLCF ***
  2239 
  2240 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2241 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2242 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244 
  2245 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2246 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2247 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2250   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2251   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2252 
  2253 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2254 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2255 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2258 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2259 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2260 domain definition now works:
  2261 
  2262   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2263 
  2264 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2265 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2266 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2267 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2268 
  2269   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2270     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2271 
  2272   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2273 
  2274 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2275 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2276 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2279 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2282 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2283 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2284 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2285 
  2286 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2287 
  2288 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2296 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2297 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2298 
  2299 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2300 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2301 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2304 still supported as an input translation.
  2305 
  2306 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2307 
  2308   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2309   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2310   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2311   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2312   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2313   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2314   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2315 
  2316 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2317 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2318 
  2319   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2320   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2321   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2322   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2323   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2324   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2325 
  2326 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2327 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2328 
  2329 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2330 
  2331   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2332   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2333   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2334   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2335 
  2336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2339 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2340 
  2341 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2342 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2345   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2346   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2347   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2348   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2349   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2350   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2351   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2352   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2353   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2354   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2355   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2356   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2357   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2358   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2359   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2360   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2361   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2362   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2363   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2364 
  2365 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2368   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2369   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2370   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2371   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2372   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2373   box_less             ~> box_below
  2374   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2375   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2376   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2377   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2378   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2379   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2380   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2381   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2382   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2383   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2384   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2385   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2386   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2387   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2388   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2389   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2390   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2391   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2392   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2393   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2394   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2395   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2396   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2397   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2398   up_less              ~> up_below
  2399   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2400   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2401   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2402   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2403   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2404   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2405   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2406   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2407   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2408   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2409   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2410   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2411   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2412 
  2413 
  2414 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2415 
  2416 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2417 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 
  2420 *** ML ***
  2421 
  2422 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2423 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2424 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2425 
  2426 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2427 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2428 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2429 
  2430 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2431 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2432 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2433 
  2434 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2435 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2436 
  2437 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2438 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2439 
  2440 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2441 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2442 
  2443 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2444 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2445 
  2446 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2447 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2448 almost all situations.
  2449 
  2450 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2451 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2452 Isabelle/ML.
  2453 
  2454 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2455 meaning.
  2456 
  2457 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2458 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2459 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2460 
  2461 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2462 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2463 
  2464 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2465 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2466 
  2467 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2468 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2469 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2470 
  2471 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2472 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2473 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2474 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2475 configuration options.
  2476 
  2477 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2478 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2479 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2480 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2481 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2482 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2483 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2484 
  2485 
  2486 
  2487 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2488 ---------------------------------
  2489 
  2490 *** General ***
  2491 
  2492 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2493 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2494 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2495 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2496 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2497 their full internal name.
  2498 
  2499 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2500 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2501 Some hints on upgrading:
  2502 
  2503   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2504     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2505     which are independent of this issue.
  2506 
  2507   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2508     provides the following special forms:
  2509 
  2510       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2511       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2512       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2513 
  2514     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2515     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2516     extra variables".
  2517 
  2518     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2519     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2520     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2521     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2522     "logic".
  2523 
  2524   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2525     antiquotations:
  2526 
  2527       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2528       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2529       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2530       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2531 
  2532   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2533     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2534     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2535     antiquotations.
  2536 
  2537 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2538 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2539 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2540 diagnose syntax problems.
  2541 
  2542 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2543 
  2544 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2545 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2546 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2547 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2548 
  2549 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2550 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2551 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2552 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2555 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2556 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2557 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2558 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2559 
  2560 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2561 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2562 
  2563 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2564 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2565 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2566 
  2567   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2568 
  2569 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2570 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2571 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2572 
  2573 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2574 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2578 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2579 
  2580 
  2581 *** Pure ***
  2582 
  2583 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2584 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2585 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2586 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2587 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2588 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2589 inspect proof terms.
  2590 
  2591 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2592 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2593 are added internally.  For example:
  2594 
  2595   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2596 
  2597 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2598 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2599 
  2600 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2601 
  2602 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2603 'class' instead.
  2604 
  2605 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2606 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2610 invariants.
  2611 
  2612 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2613 user space functionality any longer.
  2614 
  2615 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2616 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2620 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2621 
  2622 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2623 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2624 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2625 
  2626 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2627 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2628 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2629 
  2630 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2631 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 
  2634 *** HOL ***
  2635 
  2636 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2637 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2638 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2639 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2640 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2641 
  2642 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2643 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2644 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2645 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2646 
  2647   fun
  2648     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2649   where
  2650     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2651 
  2652   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2653     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2654 
  2655   quotient_definition
  2656     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2657 
  2658 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2659 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2660 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2661 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2662 
  2663 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2664 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2665 
  2666 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2667 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2668 
  2669 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2671 
  2672 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2673 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2674 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2675 
  2676 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2677 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2678 
  2679 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2684 
  2685 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2686 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687 
  2688 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2689 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2690 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2693   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2694   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2695   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2696   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2697   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2698   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2699   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2700   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2701   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2702   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2703   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2704   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2705   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2706   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2707   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2708   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2709   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2710   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2711   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2712   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2713   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2714   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2715   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2716   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2717   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2718   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2719   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2720   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2721   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2722 
  2723 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2724 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2725 
  2726 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2727 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2728 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2729 
  2730 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2731 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2732 
  2733 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2734 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2737 
  2738 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2739 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2742 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2747 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2748 
  2749 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2750 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2751 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2752 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2755   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2756   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2757   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2761 lattices):
  2762 
  2763     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2764     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2765 
  2766     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2767 
  2768     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2769     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2770     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2771     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2772     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2773     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2774     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2775     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2776     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2777     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2778     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2779     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2780     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2781 
  2782     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2783     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2784     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2785     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2786     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2787     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2788     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2789     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2790     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2791     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2792     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2793     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2794     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2795     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2796     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2797     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2798     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2799     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2800 
  2801   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2802   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2803 
  2804     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2805     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2806     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2807     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2808     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2809 
  2810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2811 
  2812 * Refined field classes:
  2813   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2814     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2815     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2816   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2820   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2821   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2822   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2823     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2824   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2825     equal_neg_zero.
  2826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2829 sets to lattices:
  2830 
  2831   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2832   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2833   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2834   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2835   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2836   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2837   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2838   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2839   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2840   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2841 
  2842 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2843 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2844 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2845 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2846 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2847 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2850 multiset order:
  2851 
  2852   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2853     <= and <;
  2854   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2855     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2856     multiset_order;
  2857   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2858     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2859     generation;
  2860   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2861     if needed.
  2862 
  2863 Renamed:
  2864 
  2865   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2866   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2867   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2868 
  2869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870 
  2871 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2872 
  2873 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2874 
  2875 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2876 
  2877 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2878 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2879 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881   Constants:
  2882   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2883   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2884   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2885   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2886   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2887   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2888   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2889   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2890   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2891   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2892   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2893   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2894   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2895 
  2896   Lemmas:
  2897   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2898   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2899   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2900   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2901   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2902   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2903   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2904   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2905   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2906   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2907   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2908   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2909   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2910 
  2911 * Sledgehammer:
  2912   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2913     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2914     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2915     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2916     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2917     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2918     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2919   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2920   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2921     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2922   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2923     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2924     is still experimental.)
  2925   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2926     full-typed mode.
  2927   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2928 
  2929 * Nitpick:
  2930   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2931   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2932   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2933     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2934   - Added support for quotient types.
  2935   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2936     constructs.
  2937   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2938     "termination" proofs).
  2939   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2940   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2941   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2942   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2943     record getters.
  2944   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2945   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2946   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2947   - Added "atoms" option.
  2948   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2949     problems.
  2950   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2951     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2952     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2954     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2958   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2959   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2960   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2961   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2962   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2963   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2964   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2965   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2966   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2967 
  2968 
  2969 *** HOLCF ***
  2970 
  2971 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2972 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2973 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2976 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2977 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2978 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2981 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2982 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2983 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2984 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2985 
  2986 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2987 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2988 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2991 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2994   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2995 
  2996 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2997 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3000   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3001   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3002   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3003   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3004 
  3005 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3006 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007 
  3008   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3009   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3010   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3011 
  3012 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3013 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3017 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3022 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 
  3025 *** ML ***
  3026 
  3027 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3028 
  3029     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3030     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3031 
  3032     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3033     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3034     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3035     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3036 
  3037     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3038     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3039     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3040 
  3041 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3042 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3043 
  3044 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3045 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3046 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3047 
  3048 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3049 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3050 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3051 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3052 
  3053 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3054 the context or even global references.
  3055 
  3056 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3057 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3058 
  3059 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3060 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3061 
  3062   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3063   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3064   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3065   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3066   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3067   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3068   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3069   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3070   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3071   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3072 
  3073 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3074 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3075 
  3076 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3077 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3078 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3079 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3080 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3081 
  3082 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3083 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3084 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3085 Theory_Data version.
  3086 
  3087 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3088 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3089 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3090 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3091 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3092 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3093 explicitly in rare situations.
  3094 
  3095 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3096 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3100 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3103 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3104 quite rare).
  3105 
  3106 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3107 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3110 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3111 terms.
  3112 
  3113 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3114 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3115 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3116 
  3117 
  3118 *** System ***
  3119 
  3120 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3121 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3122 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3123 
  3124 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3125 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3126 respectively.
  3127 
  3128 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3129 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3130 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3131 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3132 
  3133   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3134 
  3135 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3136 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3137 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3138 component.
  3139 
  3140 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3141 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3142 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3143 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3144 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3145 the user for manual installation.
  3146 
  3147 
  3148 
  3149 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3150 -------------------------------------
  3151 
  3152 *** General ***
  3153 
  3154 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3155 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3156 
  3157 
  3158 *** Pure ***
  3159 
  3160 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3161 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3162 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3163 
  3164 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3165 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3166 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3167 
  3168 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3169 interpretation.
  3170 
  3171 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3172 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173 
  3174 
  3175 *** Document preparation ***
  3176 
  3177 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3178 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3179 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3180 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3181 
  3182 
  3183 *** HOL ***
  3184 
  3185 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3186 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3187 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3188 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3189 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3190 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3191 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3192 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3193 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3194 
  3195 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3196 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3197 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3198 
  3199 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3200 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3201 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3202 
  3203 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3204 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3205 
  3206 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3207 
  3208 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3209 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3210 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3211 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3212 
  3213 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3214 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3215 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3216 "mirabelle" utility.
  3217 
  3218 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3219 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3220 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3221 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3222 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3223 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3224 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3225 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3226 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3227 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3228 
  3229 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3230 procedure only.
  3231 
  3232 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3233 
  3234 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3235 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3236 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3237 that fail later.
  3238 
  3239 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3240 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3241 
  3242 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3243 the same method as the approximation method.
  3244 
  3245 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3246 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3247 series expansion.
  3248 
  3249 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3250 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3251 
  3252 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3253 reals.
  3254 
  3255 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3256 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3257 
  3258 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3259 fixpoint theorem.
  3260 
  3261 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3262   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3263     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3264   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3265     accordingly
  3266   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3267     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3268   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3269     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3270 
  3271 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3272 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3273 lattice.
  3274 
  3275 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3276 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3277 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3278 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3279 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3280 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282 
  3283 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3284   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3285     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3286   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3287     le_inf_iff
  3288   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3289     sup_aci)
  3290   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3291   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3292   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3293     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3294     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3295     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3296     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3297     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3298     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3299     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3300     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3301     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3302     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3303   - authentic syntax for
  3304     Set.Pow
  3305     Set.image
  3306   - mere abbreviations:
  3307     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3308     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3309     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3310     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3311     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3312     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3313     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3314     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3315   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3316 
  3317 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3318 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3319 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3320 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3321 
  3322 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3323 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3324 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3327 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3330 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3331 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3332 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3335 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3336 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3337 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3338 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3339 
  3340 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3341 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3345 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3346 
  3347 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3348 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3349 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3350 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3351 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3352 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3353 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3357     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3358     code_post       replaces    code post
  3359     etc.
  3360   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3361 
  3362 * Renamed methods:
  3363     sizechange -> size_change
  3364     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3365   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3368 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3369 
  3370 * Renamed theorems:
  3371     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3372     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3373     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3374     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3375     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3376   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 
  3385 *** HOLCF ***
  3386 
  3387 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3388 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3389 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3390 
  3391 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3392 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3393 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3394 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3395 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3396 
  3397 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3398 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3399 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3400 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3401 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3402 
  3403 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3404 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3405 constructor are pre-configured.
  3406 
  3407 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3408 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3409 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3410 
  3411 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3412 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3413 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3414 as well.)
  3415 
  3416 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3417 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3418 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3419 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3420 examples.
  3421 
  3422 
  3423 *** ML ***
  3424 
  3425 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3426 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3427 
  3428 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3429 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3430 position, logical grouping etc.
  3431 
  3432 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3433 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3434 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3435 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3436 
  3437 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3438 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3439 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3440 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3441 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3442 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3443 
  3444 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3445 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3446 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3447 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3448 experiments with references.
  3449 
  3450 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3451 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3452 
  3453 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3454 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3455 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3456 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3457 
  3458 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3459 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3460 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3461 
  3462 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3463 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3464 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3472 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3473 
  3474 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3475 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3476 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3477 
  3478 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3479 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3480 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3483 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3484 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3488 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3489 instead of global theory.
  3490 
  3491 
  3492 *** System ***
  3493 
  3494 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3495 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3496 usedir option -q.
  3497 
  3498 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3499 also the system manual.
  3500 
  3501 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3502 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3503 
  3504 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3505 this is always enabled.
  3506 
  3507 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3508 
  3509 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3510 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3511 currently supported on Linux only.
  3512 
  3513 
  3514 
  3515 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3516 --------------------------------
  3517 
  3518 *** General ***
  3519 
  3520 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3521 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3522 
  3523   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3524     "isatool."
  3525 
  3526   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3527     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3528 
  3529   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3530     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3531 
  3532 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3533 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3534 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3535 
  3536 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3537 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3538 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3539 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3540 via "isabelle emacs".
  3541 
  3542 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3543 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3544 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3545 
  3546 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3547 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3548 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3549 
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3551 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3552 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3553 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3554 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3555 
  3556 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3557 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3558 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3559 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3560 
  3561 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3562 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3563 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3564 
  3565 
  3566 *** Pure ***
  3567 
  3568 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3569 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3570 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3571 
  3572 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3573 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3574 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3575 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3576 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3577 
  3578 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3579 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3580 useful in locale declarations.
  3581 
  3582 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3583 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3584 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3585 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3586 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3587 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3588 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3589 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3590 no longer generated.
  3591 
  3592 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3593 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3594 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3595 
  3596 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3597 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3598 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3599 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3600 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3601 
  3602 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3604 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3605 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3606 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3607 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3608 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3609 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3610 
  3611 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3612 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3613 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3614 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3615 
  3616 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3619 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3620 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3621 
  3622 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3623 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3626 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3627 in HOL, write
  3628 
  3629     class foo = ...
  3630 
  3631 instead of
  3632 
  3633     class foo = type + ...
  3634 
  3635 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3636 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3639 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3640 
  3641 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3642 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3643 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3644 
  3645 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3646 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3647 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3648 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3649 directly in regular applications.
  3650 
  3651 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3652 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3653 
  3654 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3655 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3656 
  3657 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3658 theory context.
  3659 
  3660 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3661 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3664 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3665 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3666 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3667 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3668 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3669 
  3670   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3671 
  3672 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3673 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3674 normalization.
  3675 
  3676 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3677 addressing etc.
  3678 
  3679 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3680 
  3681   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3682   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3683 
  3684 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3685 
  3686   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3687      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3688      parts of the code generator framework).
  3689 
  3690   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3691      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3692      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3693 
  3694 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3697 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3700 patterns, e.g.
  3701 
  3702     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3703 
  3704 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3705 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3706 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3707 hyphen:
  3708 
  3709     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3710 
  3711 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3712 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3713 
  3714 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3715 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3716 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3717 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3718 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3719 higher-order unification.
  3720 
  3721 
  3722 *** Document preparation ***
  3723 
  3724 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3725 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3726 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3727 
  3728 
  3729 *** HOL ***
  3730 
  3731 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3732 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3733 
  3734 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3735 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3736 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3737 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3738 Main, as before.
  3739 
  3740 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3741 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3742 
  3743 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3744 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3745 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3746 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3747 
  3748 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3749 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3750 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3751 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3752 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3753 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3754 
  3755 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3756 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3757 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3758 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3759 
  3760 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3761 menu.
  3762 
  3763 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3764 (contains the empty clause).
  3765 
  3766 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3767 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3768 
  3769 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3770 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3771 
  3772 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3773 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3774 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3775 
  3776 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3777 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3778 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3779 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3780 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3781 
  3782 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3783 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3784 
  3785 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3786 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3787 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3788 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3789 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3790 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3791 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3792 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3793 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3794 
  3795 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3796 
  3797 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3798 
  3799 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3800 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3803 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3804 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3805 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3806 
  3807 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3808 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3809 
  3810     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3811     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3812     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3813     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3814     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3815     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3816     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3817     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3818 
  3819 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3820 theory Set.
  3821 
  3822 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3823 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3824 
  3825 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3826 
  3827 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3828 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3829 
  3830 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3831 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3832 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3833 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3834 allowed. For examples see
  3835 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3836 
  3837 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3838 
  3839 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3843 structure:
  3844 
  3845     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3846     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3847     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3848     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3849     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3850     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3851     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3852     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3853     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3854     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3855     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3856     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3857     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3858     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3859     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3860     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3861     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3862     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3863     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3864     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3865     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3866     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3867     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3868     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3869     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3870     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3871     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3872     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3873     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3874     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3875     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3876     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3877     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3878 
  3879     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3880     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3881     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3882     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3883     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3884     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3885     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3886     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3887     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3888     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3889 
  3890     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3891     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3892     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3893     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3894     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3895     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3896 
  3897 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3898 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3899 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3900 
  3901 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3902 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3903 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3904 
  3905 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3906 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3909 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3910 
  3911 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3912 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3913 proofs, e.g.
  3914 
  3915   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3916 
  3917 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3918 
  3919 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3920 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3921 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3924 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3928 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3929 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3933 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3934 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3935 preorder_class.*.
  3936 
  3937 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3938 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3939 
  3940 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3941 
  3942   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3943 
  3944 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3945 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3946 fold_image.
  3947 
  3948 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3949 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3950 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3951 the former will disappear at some point.
  3952 
  3953 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3954 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3955 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3956 
  3957 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3958 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3959 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3960 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3961 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3962 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3963 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3964 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3965 
  3966 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3967 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3968 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3969 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3970 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3971 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3972 
  3973     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3974     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3975     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3976     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3977     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3978     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3979     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3980 
  3981 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3982 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3983 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3984 
  3985 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3986 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3987 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3988 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3989 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3990 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3991 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3992 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3993 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3994 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3995 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3996 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3997 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3998 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3999 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4000 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4001 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4002 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4003 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4004 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4005 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4006 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4007 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4008 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4009 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4010 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4011 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4012 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4013 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4014 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4015 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4016 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4017 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4018 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4019 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4020 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4021 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4022 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4023 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4024 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4025 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4026 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4027 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4028 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4029 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4030 
  4031 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4034 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4035 
  4036 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4037 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4038 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4039 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4040 
  4041 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4042 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4043 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4044 theory RealVector.
  4045 
  4046 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4047 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4048 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4049 and inner products are included.
  4050 
  4051 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4052 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4053 supported.
  4054 
  4055 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4056 first diagonalization argument.
  4057 
  4058 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4059 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4060 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4061 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4062 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4063 
  4064     hide (open) const gcd
  4065     abbreviation gcd where
  4066       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4067     notation (output)
  4068       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4069 
  4070 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4071 
  4072 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4073 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4074 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4077 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4078 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4079 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4080 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4081 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4082 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4083 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4084 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4085 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4086 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4087 cases.
  4088 
  4089 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4090 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4091 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4092 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4093 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4094 
  4095     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4096     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4097     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4098     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4099     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4100 
  4101 
  4102 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4103 
  4104 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4105 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4106 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4107 
  4108 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4109 
  4110 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4111 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4112 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4113 
  4114 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4115 
  4116 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4117 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4118 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4119 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4120 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4121 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4122 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4123 
  4124 
  4125 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4126 
  4127 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4128 
  4129 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4130 theory targets.
  4131 
  4132 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4133 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4134 'inductive' etc.
  4135 
  4136 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4137 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4138 
  4139 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4140 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4141 
  4142 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4143 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4144 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4145 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4146 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4147 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4148 the algorithm W:
  4149 
  4150  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4151  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4152          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4153 
  4154 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4155 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4156 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4157 
  4158 
  4159 *** HOLCF ***
  4160 
  4161 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4162 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4163 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4164 
  4165 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4166 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4167 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4168 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4169 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4172 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4173 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175 
  4176 *** ZF ***
  4177 
  4178 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4179 
  4180 
  4181 *** ML ***
  4182 
  4183 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4184 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4185 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4186 5.2.1!
  4187 
  4188 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4189 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4190 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4191 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4192 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4193 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4194 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4195 
  4196 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4197 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4198 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4199 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4200 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4201 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4202 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4203 
  4204 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4205 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4206 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4207 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4208 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4209 
  4210 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4211 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4212 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4213 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4214 Method.add_method.
  4215 
  4216 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4217 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4218 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4219 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4220 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4221 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4222 
  4223 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4224 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4225 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4226 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4227 examples.
  4228 
  4229 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4230 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4231 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4232 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4233 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4234 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4235 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4236 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4237 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4238 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4239 
  4240 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4241 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4242 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4243 
  4244 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4245 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4246 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4247 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4248 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4249 resort for legacy applications.
  4250 
  4251 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4252 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4253 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4254 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4255 explicit runtime argument.
  4256 
  4257 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4258 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4259 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4260 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4261 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4262 
  4263 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4264 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4265 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4266 theory state.
  4267 
  4268 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4269 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4270 
  4271   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4272   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4273   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4274   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4275   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4276   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4277   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4278   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4279   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4280   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4281 
  4282 
  4283 *** System ***
  4284 
  4285 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4286 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4287 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4288 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4289 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4290 
  4291 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4292 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4293 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4294 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4295 
  4296 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4297 
  4298 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4299 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4300 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4301 prover operations.
  4302 
  4303 
  4304 
  4305 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4306 -------------------------------
  4307 
  4308 *** General ***
  4309 
  4310 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4311 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4312 
  4313 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4314 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4315 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4316 provides a proper context already.
  4317 
  4318 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4319 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4320 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4321 
  4322 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4323 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4324 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4325 swap theory imports.
  4326 
  4327 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4328 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4329 
  4330 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4331 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4332 white space without escapes.
  4333 
  4334 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4335 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4336 "foo_bar".
  4337 
  4338 
  4339 *** Pure ***
  4340 
  4341 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4342 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4343 
  4344 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4345 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4346 
  4347 (1) unused_thms
  4348      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4349 
  4350 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4351      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4352      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4353 
  4354 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4355      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4356      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4357      their ancestors.
  4358 
  4359 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4360 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4361 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4362 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4363 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4364 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4365 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4366 
  4367 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4368 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4369 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4370 
  4371 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4372 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4373 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4374 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4375 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4376 
  4377 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4378 
  4379 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4380 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4381 update of theories within ML code.
  4382 
  4383 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4384 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4385 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4386 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4387 
  4388 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4389 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4390 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4392 
  4393 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4394 
  4395 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4396 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4397 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4398 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4399 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4400 
  4401 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4402 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4403 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4404 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4405 situations.
  4406 
  4407 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4408 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4409 proof text.
  4410 
  4411 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4412 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4413 
  4414 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4415 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4416 predicates.
  4417 
  4418 
  4419 *** Document preparation ***
  4420 
  4421 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4422 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4423 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4424 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4425 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4426 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4427 
  4428 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4429 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4430 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4431 
  4432 
  4433 *** HOL ***
  4434 
  4435 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4436 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4437 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4438 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4439 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4440 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4441 
  4442 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4443 with multithreading.
  4444 
  4445 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4446 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4447 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4448 
  4449 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4450 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4451 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4452 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4455 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4456 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4457 and makes them available separately.  See
  4458 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4459 
  4460 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4461 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4462 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4463 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4464 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4465 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4466 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4467 the declared rules.
  4468 
  4469 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4470 
  4471   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4472 
  4473 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4474 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4475 
  4476 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4477 
  4478   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4479 
  4480   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4481     definitions on => and bool.
  4482 
  4483   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4484     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4485     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4486 
  4487       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4488       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4489       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4490       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4491       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4492       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4493       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4494       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4495 
  4496   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4497     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4498     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4499 
  4500   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4501     The proof pattern
  4502 
  4503       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4504       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4505 
  4506     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4507     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4508 
  4509       have "EX S. P S"
  4510       proof
  4511         show "P S" <...>
  4512       qed
  4513 
  4514   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4515     The proof pattern
  4516 
  4517       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4518       also have "S = T" <...>
  4519       finally have "P T" .
  4520 
  4521     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4522     must be replaced by something like
  4523 
  4524       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4525       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4526       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4527 
  4528   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4529     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4530 
  4531       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4532 
  4533     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4534     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4535     type of the form
  4536 
  4537       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4538 
  4539     rather than
  4540 
  4541       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4542 
  4543 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4544 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4545 
  4546 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4549 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4551 
  4552 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4553 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4554 
  4555 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4556 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4559 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4560 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4563 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4564 
  4565   less_trans
  4566   less_linear
  4567   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4568   le_less_trans
  4569   less_le_trans
  4570   less_not_sym
  4571   less_asym
  4572 
  4573 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4574 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4575 and different variable names.
  4576 
  4577 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4578 
  4579 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4580 finite maps.
  4581 
  4582 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4583 
  4584 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4585 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4586 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4587 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4588 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4589 accordingly.
  4590 
  4591 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4592 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4593 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4594 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4595 
  4596 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4597 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4598 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4599 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4600 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4602 
  4603 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4604 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4605 
  4606 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4607 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4608 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4609 
  4610 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4612 
  4613 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4614 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4615 
  4616 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4617 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4620 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4623 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4627 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4630 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4631 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4632 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4633 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4634 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4635 
  4636 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4637 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4638 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4639 
  4640 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4641 
  4642 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4643 
  4644 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4645 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4646 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4647 
  4648 
  4649 *** ZF ***
  4650 
  4651 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4652 same session:
  4653 
  4654   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4655   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4656   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4657   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4658   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4659   List      -> List_ZF
  4660   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4661 
  4662 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4663 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4664 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4665 
  4666 
  4667 *** ML ***
  4668 
  4669 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4670 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4671 
  4672 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4673 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4674 
  4675 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4676 
  4677 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4678 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4679 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4680 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4681 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4682 
  4683 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4684 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4685 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4686 
  4687 
  4688 *** System ***
  4689 
  4690 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4691 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4692 
  4693 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4694 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4695 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4696 
  4697 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4698 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4699 
  4700 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4701 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4702 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4703 
  4704 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4705 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4706 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4707 
  4708 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4709 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4710 
  4711 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4712 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4713 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4714 script.
  4715 
  4716 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4717 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4718 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4719 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4720 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4721 
  4722 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4723 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4724 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4725 
  4726 
  4727 
  4728 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4729 -----------------------------------
  4730 
  4731 *** General ***
  4732 
  4733 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4734 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4735 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4736 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4737 
  4738 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4739 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4740 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741 
  4742 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4743 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4744 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4745 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746 
  4747 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4748 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4749 quotes.
  4750 
  4751 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4752 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4753 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4754 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4755 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4756 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4757 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4758 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4759 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4760 
  4761 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4762 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4763 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4764 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4765 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4766 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4767 
  4768 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4769 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4770 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4771 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4772 
  4773 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4774 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4775 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4776 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4777 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4778 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4779 
  4780 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4781 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4782 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4783 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4784 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4785 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4786 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4787 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4788 
  4789 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4790 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4791 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4792 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4793 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4794 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4795 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4796 
  4797 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4798 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4799 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4800 
  4801 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4802 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4803 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4804 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4805 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4806 limit is imposed.
  4807 
  4808 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4809 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4810 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4811 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4812 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4813 and scalability.
  4814 
  4815 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4816 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4817 
  4818 
  4819 *** Document preparation ***
  4820 
  4821 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4822 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4823 current context.
  4824 
  4825 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4826 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4827 
  4828 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4829 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4830 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4831 
  4832 
  4833 *** Pure ***
  4834 
  4835 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4836 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4837 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4838 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4839 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4840 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4841 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4842 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4843 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4844 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4845 
  4846 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4847 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4848 sketch:
  4849 
  4850     internal compilation:
  4851         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4852     writing SML code to a file:
  4853         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4854     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4855         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4856     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4857         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4858 
  4859     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4860         method ``eval''
  4861 
  4862 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4863 
  4864 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4865 
  4866     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4867     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4868     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4869     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4870 
  4871 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4872 
  4873     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4874       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4875 
  4876     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4877       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4878 
  4879     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4880       {(target)}+
  4881         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4882 
  4883     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4884       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4885         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4886 
  4887 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4888 
  4889 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4890 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4891 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4892 codegen".
  4893 
  4894 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4895 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4896 annotations).
  4897 
  4898 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4899 syntax.
  4900 
  4901 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4902 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4903 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4904 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4905 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4906 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4907 
  4908 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4909 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4910 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4911 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4912 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4913 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4914 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4915 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4916 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4917 equations, see section "definitions".
  4918 
  4919 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4920 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4921 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4922 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4923 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4924 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4925 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4926 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4927 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4928 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4929 
  4930 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4931 configuration options:
  4932 
  4933   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4934   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4935   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4936   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4937   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4938   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4939   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4940   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4941   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4942 
  4943 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4944 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4945 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4946 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4947 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4948 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4949 order.
  4950 
  4951 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4952 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4953 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4954 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4955 context encountered later on.
  4956 
  4957 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4958 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4959 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4960 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4961 
  4962 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4963 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4964 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4965 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4966 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4967 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4968 
  4969 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4970 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4971 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4972 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4973 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4974 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4975 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4976 more permissive.
  4977 
  4978 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4979 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4980 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4981 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4982 maintainability of proof texts.
  4983 
  4984 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4985 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4986 
  4987   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4988   then guess x and y by clarify
  4989 
  4990 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4991 proof tools being involved here.
  4992 
  4993 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4994 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4995 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4996 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4997 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4998 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4999 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5000 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5001 
  5002 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5003 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5004 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5005 
  5006   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5007   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5008   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5009   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5010 
  5011 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5012 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5013 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5014 
  5015 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5016 both named and unnamed ones.
  5017 
  5018 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5019 
  5020   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5021 
  5022 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5023 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5024 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5025 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5026 
  5027 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5028 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5029 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5030 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5031 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5032 
  5033 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5034 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5035 
  5036 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5037 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5038 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5039 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5040 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5041 originally first one.
  5042 
  5043 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5044 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5045 expected.
  5046 
  5047 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5048 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5049 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5050 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5051 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5052 
  5053   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5054     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5055     obtains x where "P x"
  5056 
  5057   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5058     assumes "A & B"
  5059     obtains A and B
  5060 
  5061   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5062     assumes "A | B"
  5063     obtains
  5064       A
  5065     | B
  5066 
  5067 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5068 explicitly:
  5069 
  5070   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5071     obtains "~ thesis"
  5072 
  5073   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5074     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5075 
  5076 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5077 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5078 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5079 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5080 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5081 case_names).
  5082 
  5083 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5084 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5085 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5086 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5087 
  5088 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5089 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5090 top-level lemma.
  5091 
  5092 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5093 introduction rule (default "that").
  5094 
  5095 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5096 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5097 to occur.
  5098 
  5099 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5100 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5101 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5102 representations independently of name spaces.
  5103 
  5104 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5105 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5106 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5107 
  5108 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5109 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5110 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5111 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5112 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5113 current context.
  5114 
  5115 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5116 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5117 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5118 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5119 
  5120   axiomatization
  5121     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5122     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5123 
  5124   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5125   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5126 
  5127   abbreviation
  5128     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5129     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5130 
  5131 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5132 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5133 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5134 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5135 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5136 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5137 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5138 
  5139 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5140 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5141 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5142 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5143 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5144 
  5145 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5146 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5147 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5148 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5149 
  5150 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5151 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5152 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5153 
  5154   definition "K x _ = x"
  5155 
  5156   inductive conj for A B
  5157   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5158 
  5159 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5160 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5161 abbreviations on output.
  5162 
  5163 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5164 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5165 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5166 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5167 
  5168 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5169 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5170 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5171 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5172 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5173 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5174 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5175 
  5176 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5177 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5178 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5179 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5180 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5181 
  5182 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5183 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5184 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5185 
  5186 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5187 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5188 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5189 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5190 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5191 
  5192   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5193     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5194 
  5195 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5196 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5197 partial_order.
  5198 
  5199 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5200 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5201 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5202 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5203 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5204 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5205 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5206 examples.
  5207 
  5208 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5209 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5210 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5211 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5212 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5213 
  5214 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5215 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5216 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5217 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5218 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5219 
  5220   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5221   (induct set: foo bar)
  5222   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5223   (induct type: foo bar)
  5224 
  5225 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5226 new format.
  5227 
  5228 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5229 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5230 
  5231 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5232 considered a legacy feature.
  5233 
  5234 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5235 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5236 
  5237 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5238 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5239 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5240 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5241   
  5242 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5243 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5244 manipulating the claset.
  5245 
  5246 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5247 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5248 least one premise.
  5249 
  5250 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5251 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5252 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5253 rule steps.
  5254 
  5255 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5256 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5257 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5258 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5259 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5260 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5261 
  5262 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5263 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5264 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5265 
  5266 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5267 the graph browser tool.
  5268 
  5269 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5270 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5271 
  5272 
  5273 *** HOL ***
  5274 
  5275 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5276 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5277 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5278 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5279 multi-threading.
  5280   
  5281 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5282 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5283 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5284 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5285 work with multi-threading.
  5286 
  5287 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5288 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5289 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5290 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5291 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5292 
  5293 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5294 
  5295 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5296 equality.
  5297 
  5298 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5299 the new 'class' package:
  5300 
  5301     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5302     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5303     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5304     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5305     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5306     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5307     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5308     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5309     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5310     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5311     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5312     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5313     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5314     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5315     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5316     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5317     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5318     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5319     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5320     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5321 
  5322 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5323 
  5324 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5325 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5326 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5327 names.
  5328 
  5329 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5330 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5331 
  5332 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5333 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5334 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5335 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5336 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5337 
  5338 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5339 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5340 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5341 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5342 
  5343 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5344 
  5345 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5346 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5347 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5348 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5350 
  5351 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5352 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5353 
  5354 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5355 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5356 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5357 
  5358 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5359 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5360 
  5361 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5362 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5363 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5364 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5365 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5366 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5367 in the current context.
  5368 
  5369 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5370 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5372 
  5373 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5374 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5375 
  5376 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5377 
  5378     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5379     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5380 
  5381     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5382       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5383     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5384     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5385 
  5386     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5387     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5388 
  5389   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5390 
  5391     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5392     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5393     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5394     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5395     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5396     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5397     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5398     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5399     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5400     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5401     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5402     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5403     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5404     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5405     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5406     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5407     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5408     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5409     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5410     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5411     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5412     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5413     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5414     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5415     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5416     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5417     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5418     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5419     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5420     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5421     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5422     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5423     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5424     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5425     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5426 
  5427     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5428     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5429     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5430     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5431     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5432     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5433     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5434     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5435     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5436     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5437     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5438     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5439     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5440     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5441     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5442     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5443     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5444 
  5445     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5446     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5447     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5448     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5449     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5450     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5451     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5452     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5453     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5454     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5455     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5456     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5457     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5458     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5459     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5460     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5461     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5462     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5463     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5464     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5465     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5466     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5467     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5468     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5469     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5470     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5471     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5472     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5473 
  5474     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5475     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5476     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5477     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5478     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5479     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5480 
  5481     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5482     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5483     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5484     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5485 
  5486     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5487     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5488 
  5489     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5490     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5491 
  5492 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5493 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5494 
  5495 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5496 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5497 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5498 "*.size".
  5499 
  5500 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5504 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5505 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5506 
  5507 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5510 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5511 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5512 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5513 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5514 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5515 numerals on all operations.
  5516 
  5517 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5518 
  5519 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5520 
  5521 * Code generator library theories:
  5522   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5523     languages.
  5524   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5525     languages.
  5526   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5527     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5528   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5529   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5530     denominator).
  5531   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5532     representable by rational numbers.
  5533   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5534     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5535     includes Code_Integer.
  5536   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5537     target-language built-in integers.
  5538   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5539     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5540 
  5541 * New package for inductive predicates
  5542 
  5543   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5544 
  5545     inductive
  5546       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5547       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5548     where
  5549       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5550     | ...
  5551 
  5552   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5553 
  5554     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5555 
  5556     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5557     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5558 
  5559     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5560     intros
  5561       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5562       ...
  5563 
  5564   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5565   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5566 
  5567     inductive_set
  5568       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5569       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5570     where
  5571       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5572     | ...
  5573 
  5574   or
  5575 
  5576     inductive_set
  5577       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5578       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5579       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5580     where
  5581       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5582     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5583     | ...
  5584 
  5585   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5586 
  5587   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5588   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5589 
  5590   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5591 
  5592   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5593     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5594     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5595     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5596     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5597 
  5598   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5599     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5600     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5601     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5602     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5603     statements of the form
  5604 
  5605       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5606 
  5607     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5608     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5609 
  5610       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5611 
  5612   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5613 
  5614       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5615         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5616         ==> ... ==> P
  5617 
  5618     for predicates and
  5619 
  5620       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5621         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5622         ==> ... ==> P
  5623 
  5624     for sets rather than
  5625 
  5626       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5627         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5628         ==> ... ==> P
  5629 
  5630     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5631     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5632     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5633 
  5634   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5635     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5636     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5637 
  5638 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5639 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5640 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5641 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5642 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5643 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5644 
  5645 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5646 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5647 
  5648 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5649 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5650 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5651 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5652 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5653 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5654 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5655 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5656 variable.
  5657 
  5658 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5659 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5660 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5661 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5662   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5663   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5664 
  5665 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5666 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5667 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5668 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5669 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5670 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5671 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5672 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5673 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5674 
  5675 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5676 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5677 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5678 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5679 rat, etc.
  5680 
  5681 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5682 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5683 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5684 
  5685 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5686 
  5687 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5688 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5689 
  5690 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5691 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5692 
  5693 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5694 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5695 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5696 
  5697 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5698 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5700 
  5701 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5702 
  5703 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5704 
  5705 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5706 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5707 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5708 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5709 
  5710 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5711 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5712 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5713 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5714 
  5715 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5716 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5717 algebraic operations.
  5718 
  5719 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5724 
  5725 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5726 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5727 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5728 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5729 adapted.
  5730  
  5731 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5732 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5733 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5734 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5735 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5736 
  5737 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5738 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5739 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5740 
  5741 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5742 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5743 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5744 
  5745 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5746 
  5747 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5748 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5749 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5750   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5751       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5752   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5753   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5754   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5755 
  5756 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5757 
  5758 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5759 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5760 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5761 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5762 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5763 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5764 
  5765 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5766 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5767 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5768 
  5769 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5770 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5771 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5773 
  5774 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5775 
  5776 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5777 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5778 
  5779 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5780 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5781 
  5782 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5783 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5784 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5785 
  5786 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5787 True/False.
  5788 
  5789 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5790 
  5791 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5792 
  5793 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5794 ``rule'' method.
  5795 
  5796 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5797 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5798 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5799 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5800 
  5801 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5802 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5803 
  5804 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5805 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5806 
  5807 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5808 Library.
  5809 
  5810 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5811 
  5812 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5813 as greatest fixed-point.
  5814 
  5815 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5816 association lists.
  5817 
  5818 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5819 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5820 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5821 
  5822 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5823 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5824 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5826 behavior.
  5827 
  5828 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5829 
  5830 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5831 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5832 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5833 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5834 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5835 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5836 
  5837 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5838 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5839 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5840 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5841 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5842 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5843 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5844 
  5845 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5846 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5847 
  5848 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5849 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5850 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5851 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5852 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5853 
  5854 
  5855 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5856 
  5857 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5858 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5859 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5860 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5862 
  5863 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5864 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5865 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5866 
  5867 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5868 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5869 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5870 
  5871 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5872 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5873 
  5874 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5875 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5876 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5878 
  5879   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5880   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5881   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5882   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5883   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5884   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5885   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5886   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5887   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5888   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5889   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5890   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5891   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5892   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5893   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5894 
  5895 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5896 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5897 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5898 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5899 
  5900   approx        <-- capprox
  5901   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5902   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5903   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5904   monad         <-- cmonad
  5905   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5906   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5907   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5908   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5909 
  5910 
  5911 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5912 
  5913 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5914 
  5915 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5917 
  5918 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5919 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5920 
  5921 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5922 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5923 of algebraic structures.
  5924 
  5925 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5926 
  5927 
  5928 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5929 
  5930 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5931 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5932 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5933 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5934 
  5935 
  5936 *** ML ***
  5937 
  5938 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5939 (even on SML/NJ).
  5940 
  5941 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5942 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5943 compile-time.  For example:
  5944 
  5945 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5946 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5947 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5948 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5949 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5950 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5951 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5952 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5953 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5954 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5955 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5956 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5957 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5958 ML {* @{context} *}
  5959 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5960 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5961 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5962 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5963 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5964 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5965 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5966 
  5967 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5968 
  5969 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5970 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5971 
  5972 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5973 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5974 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5975 
  5976 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5977 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5978 
  5979 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5980 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5981 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5982 
  5983 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5984 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5985 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5986 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5987 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5988 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5989 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5990 declarations and definitions.
  5991 
  5992 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5993 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5994 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5995 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5996 
  5997 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5998 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5999 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6000 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 
  6002 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6003 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6004 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6005 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6006 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6007 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6008 
  6009 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6010 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6011 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6012 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6013 attributes, methods, etc.
  6014 
  6015 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6016 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6017 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6018 fold_map combinators.
  6019 
  6020 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6021 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6022 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6023 derivation.
  6024 
  6025 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6026 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6027 achieve the old behaviour.
  6028 
  6029 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6030 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6031 statements.
  6032 
  6033 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6034 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6035 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6036 
  6037 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6038 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6039 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6040 
  6041   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6042   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6043   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6044 
  6045 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6046 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6047 
  6048 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6049 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6050 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6051 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6052 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6053 
  6054 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6055 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6056 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6057 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6058 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6059 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6060 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6061 in a locale context).
  6062 
  6063 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6064 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6065 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6066 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6067 
  6068 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6069 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6070 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6071 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6072 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6073 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6074 
  6075 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6076 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6077 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6078 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6079 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6080 
  6081   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6082 
  6083 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6084 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6085 this:
  6086 
  6087   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6088 
  6089 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6090 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6091 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6092 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6093 
  6094 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6095 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6096 
  6097 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6098 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6099 
  6100 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6101 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6102 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6103 batch mode.
  6104 
  6105 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6106 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6107 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6108 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6109 
  6110 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6111 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6112 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6113 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6114 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6115 
  6116 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6117 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6118 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6119 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6120 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6121 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6122 
  6123 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6124 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6125 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6127 
  6128 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6129 "Trueprop" etc.
  6130 
  6131 
  6132 *** System ***
  6133 
  6134 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6135 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6136 Isabelle installations.
  6137 
  6138 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6139 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6140 code.
  6141 
  6142 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6143 
  6144 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6145 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6146 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6147 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6148 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6149 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6150 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6151 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6152 Implementation manual.
  6153 
  6154 
  6155 
  6156 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6157 ----------------------------------
  6158 
  6159 *** General ***
  6160 
  6161 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6162 
  6163   theory <name>
  6164   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6165   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6166   begin
  6167 
  6168 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6169 
  6170   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6171 
  6172 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6173 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6174 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6175 
  6176 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6177 relative and absolute paths.
  6178 
  6179 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6180 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6181 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6182 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6183 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  6184 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  6185 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  6186 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  6187 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  6188 
  6189   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  6190 
  6191 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  6192 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  6193 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  6194 
  6195 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  6196 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6197 
  6198 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  6199 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  6200 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  6201 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  6202 
  6203   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  6204   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  6205 
  6206 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  6207 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  6208 faster.
  6209 
  6210 
  6211 *** Document preparation ***
  6212 
  6213 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  6214 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  6215 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  6216 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  6217 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  6218 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  6219 
  6220 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  6221 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  6222 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  6223 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  6224 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  6225 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  6226 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  6227 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  6228 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  6229 \isadroptag.
  6230 
  6231 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  6232 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  6233 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  6234 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  6235 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  6236 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site